Sample records for fr27ja10p additional quantitative

  1. Tunable, Quantitative Fenton-RAFT Polymerization via Metered Reagent Addition. (United States)

    Nothling, Mitchell D; McKenzie, Thomas G; Reyhani, Amin; Qiao, Greg G


    A continuous supply of radical species is a key requirement for activating chain growth and accessing quantitative monomer conversions in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In Fenton-RAFT, activation is provided by hydroxyl radicals, whose indiscriminate reactivity and short-lived nature poses a challenge to accessing extended polymerization times and quantitative monomer conversions. Here, an alternative Fenton-RAFT procedure is presented, whereby radical generation can be finely controlled via metered dosing of a component of the Fenton redox reaction (H 2 O 2 ) using an external pumping system. By limiting the instantaneous flux of radicals and ensuring sustained radical generation over tunable time periods, metered reagent addition reduces unwanted radical "wasting" reactions and provides access to consistent quantitative monomer conversions with high chain-end fidelity. Fine tuning of radical concentration during polymerization is achieved simply via adjustment of reagent dose rate, offering significant potential for automation. This modular strategy holds promise for extending traditional RAFT initiation toward more tightly regulated radical concentration profiles and affords excellent prospects for the automation of Fenton-RAFT polymerization. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Standard addition strip for quantitative electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry analysis: determination of caffeine in drinks. (United States)

    Tobolkina, Elena; Qiao, Liang; Roussel, Christophe; Girault, Hubert H


    Standard addition strips were prepared for the quantitative determination of caffeine in different beverages by electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESTASI-MS). The gist of this approach is to dry spots of caffeine solutions with different concentrations on a polymer strip, then to deposit a drop of sample mixed with an internal standard, here theobromine on each spot and to measure the mass spectrometry signals of caffeine and theobromine by ESTASI-MS. This strip approach is very convenient and provides quantitative analyses as accurate as the classical standard addition method by MS or liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Addition of Adapted Optics towards obtaining a quantitative detection of diabetic retinopathy (United States)

    Yust, Brian; Obregon, Isidro; Tsin, Andrew; Sardar, Dhiraj


    An adaptive optics system was assembled for correcting the aberrated wavefront of light reflected from the retina. The adaptive optics setup includes a superluminous diode light source, Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and imaging CCD camera. Aberrations found in the reflected wavefront are caused by changes in the index of refraction along the light path as the beam travels through the cornea, lens, and vitreous humour. The Hartmann-Shack sensor allows for detection of aberrations in the wavefront, which may then be corrected with the deformable mirror. It has been shown that there is a change in the polarization of light reflected from neovascularizations in the retina due to certain diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy. The adaptive optics system was assembled towards the goal of obtaining a quantitative measure of onset and progression of this ailment, as one does not currently exist. The study was done to show that the addition of adaptive optics results in a more accurate detection of neovascularization in the retina by measuring the expected changes in polarization of the corrected wavefront of reflected light.

  4. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li


    Full Text Available The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT, yearling weight (YWT, carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb. Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX] may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  5. Matrix effect and correction by standard addition in quantitative liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins. (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Tsukada, Katsuo


    An evaluation of the feasibility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with atmospheric pressure ionization was made for quantitation of four diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-6 and yessotoxin in scallops. When LC-MS was applied to the analysis of scallop extracts, large signal suppressions were observed due to coeluting substances from the column. To compensate for these matrix signal suppressions, the standard addition method was applied. First, the sample was analyzed and then the sample involving the addition of calibration standards is analyzed. Although this method requires two LC-MS runs per analysis, effective correction of quantitative errors was found.

  6. The additive prognostic value of perfusion and functional data assessed by quantitative gated SPECT in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.G.C.J. America (Yves); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); H. Boersma (Eric); M. Stokkel (Marcel); E.E. van der Wall (Ernst)


    textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated SPECT imaging in women using quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Methods: We followed 453 consecutive female patients. Average follow-up was

  7. ExSTA: External Standard Addition Method for Accurate High-Throughput Quantitation in Targeted Proteomics Experiments. (United States)

    Mohammed, Yassene; Pan, Jingxi; Zhang, Suping; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H


    Targeted proteomics using MRM with stable-isotope-labeled internal-standard (SIS) peptides is the current method of choice for protein quantitation in complex biological matrices. Better quantitation can be achieved with the internal standard-addition method, where successive increments of synthesized natural form (NAT) of the endogenous analyte are added to each sample, a response curve is generated, and the endogenous concentration is determined at the x-intercept. Internal NAT-addition, however, requires multiple analyses of each sample, resulting in increased sample consumption and analysis time. To compare the following three methods, an MRM assay for 34 high-to-moderate abundance human plasma proteins is used: classical internal SIS-addition, internal NAT-addition, and external NAT-addition-generated in buffer using NAT and SIS peptides. Using endogenous-free chicken plasma, the accuracy is also evaluated. The internal NAT-addition outperforms the other two in precision and accuracy. However, the curves derived by internal vs. external NAT-addition differ by only ≈3.8% in slope, providing comparable accuracies and precision with good CV values. While the internal NAT-addition method may be "ideal", this new external NAT-addition can be used to determine the concentration of high-to-moderate abundance endogenous plasma proteins, providing a robust and cost-effective alternative for clinical analyses or other high-throughput applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhedin Hodžić


    Full Text Available Main goal of this experimental transformational project is in accordance with subject and with problems of this same as previous ones researches and it contents efforts to confirm transformations of morphological characteristics and morphological abilities of students by method of parallel analysis of results from experimental group’s examples and controlled group’s examples. At the same time aim is to confirm which one of available executive models brings more efficient transformational results in morphological and motor space. Quantitative changes were developing in five general directions. First and most important direction describes complete motor space. At the same time this valuable information directs us to the fact that systematic and organized work leads us to the optimization of managing complex movement in whole. The rest of quantitative changes described with four promax factors are morphological and here we notice that morphological mechanisms work in four directions; reduction of fat tissue, longitudinalism of skeleton, total body mass and body volume. Evidently it came to the optimization of the energy resources and incorporation of the resources into bio-morphological complex.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an additive element in metal oxide nanometer film using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. (United States)

    Xiu, Junshan; Liu, Shiming; Sun, Meiling; Dong, Lili


    The photoelectric performance of metal ion-doped TiO 2 film will be improved with the changing of the compositions and concentrations of additive elements. In this work, the TiO 2 films doped with different Sn concentrations were obtained with the hydrothermal method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Sn element in TiO 2 film was achieved with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with the calibration curves plotted accordingly. The photoelectric characteristics of TiO 2 films doped with different Sn content were observed with UV visible absorption spectra and J-V curves. All results showed that Sn doping could improve the optical absorption to be red-shifted and advance the photoelectric properties of the TiO 2 films. We had obtained that when the concentration of Sn doping in TiO 2 films was 11.89  mmol/L, which was calculated by the LIBS calibration curves, the current density of the film was the largest, which indicated the best photoelectric performance. It indicated that LIBS was a potential and feasible measured method, which was applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the additive element in metal oxide nanometer film.

  10. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormo Gary D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data.

  11. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T. (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk


    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm(2)/sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm(2)/sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96%, 72%, and 85% on standard MRI alone and 97%, 90%, and 94% on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. DWI has added value for differentiating malignant from benign soft tissue tumours. Addition of DWI to standard MRI at 3.0 T improves the diagnostic accuracy. Measurements of both ADC min within solid portion and ADC av are helpful.

  12. Differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours: use of additive qualitative and quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging to standard MR imaging at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Park, Michael Y.; Kim, Sun-Ki; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Chung, Yang-Guk


    To determine the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. 3.0 T MR images including DWI in 63 patients who underwent surgery for soft tissue tumours were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently interpreted MRI for the presence of malignancy in two steps: standard MRI alone, standard MRI and DWI with qualitative and quantitative analysis combined. There were 34 malignant and 29 non-malignant soft tissue tumours. In qualitative analysis, hyperintensity relative to skeletal muscle was more frequent in malignant than benign tumours on DWI (P=0.003). In quantitative analysis, ADCs of malignant tumours were significantly lower than those of non-malignant tumours (P≤0.002): 759±385 vs. 1188±423 μm 2 /sec minimum ADC value, 941±440 vs. 1310±440 μm 2 /sec average ADC value. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both readers were 96 %, 72 %, and 85 % on standard MRI alone and 97 %, 90 %, and 94 % on standard MRI with DWI. The addition of DWI to standard MRI improves the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of malignant from benign soft tissue tumours at 3.0 T. (orig.)

  13. Breath-hold [68Ga]DOTA-TOC PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumors: detection of additional lesions and effects on quantitative parameters. (United States)

    Zirnsak, Mariana; Bärwolf, Robert; Freesmeyer, Martin


    Respiratory motion during PET/CT acquisition generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which influences the lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. The goal of this study was to verify whether breath-hold [68Ga]DOTA-TOC PET/CT (bhPET) allows detection of additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET), and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and isocontoured volume (Vic40) in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Patients with NET (n=39) were included in this study. BhPET and fbPET characteristics of 96 lesions were compared, and correlated with standard contrast-enhanced (ce) CT and MRI for lesion verification. Quantitative parameters SUV (max and mean) and Vic40 were assessed for both methods and evaluated by linear regression and Spearman's correlation. The impact of lesion size, localization and time interval between investigations was also analyzed. bhPET identified one additional metastasis not seen at fbPET but visible at ceMRI. Another additional bhPET focus did not have a morphological correlate. At bhPET, the SUVmax and SUVmean proved significantly higher and the Vic40 significantly lower than at fbPET. Lesion size, localization and time intervals did not impact significantly on SUV or Vic40. Currently, routine use of breath-hold [68Ga]DOTA-TOC PET/CT cannot be recommended as only one additional lesion was identified. Therefore, bhPET has currently no indication in patients with NET. If technical improvements regarding PET/CT scanner sensitivity are available, bhPET should be reevaluated in the future.

  14. A quantitative discussion on the assessment of power supply technologies: DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) as complementary methods for the “Grammar”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakouri, Hamed G.; Nabaee, Mahdis; Aliakbarisani, Sajad


    The growing concern about the negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment, and the limited resources of them have forced more intensive use of other energy sources. In absence of sufficient economically feasible renewable energies, nuclear power may play essential role in this field. Recently, the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power and fossil fuels regarding their efficiencies have been attracted researchers' interest. This paper discusses on the findings from “A Grammar for assessing the performance of power supply systems: comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy” (Diaz-Maurin F, Giampietro M. 2013). Although the “Grammar” is a very valuable approach, it can be accomplished by using helpful quantitative methods. In this discussion, we apply quantitative decision-making approaches to compare the same fossil fuel (coal) power plants with nuclear power plants. Economic variables are also taken into consideration. The DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) are the methods applied. Results confirm the results of the reference paper in most cases and show that the fossil fuel power plants with CCS (carbon capture and storage) are slightly more efficient than nuclear power plants. However, selection of input and output variables is disputable. Assuming job creation as a desired output can change the ranking results. - Highlights: • A numeric decision making approach is proposed to facilitate assessment of technologies introduced as a “Grammar”. • Two different methods are chosen (SAW and DEA) since the results obtained for ranking may differ with different methods. • We propose to use the original fractional objective function of DEA with equal weightings applied for the attributes. • Proper combinations of both input and output attributes including economic variables are discussed. • The attributes for assessment of the technologies differ from different viewpoints. Labor force and costs are simple

  15. Quantitative analysis of kinetics of dropping phase separation according to sodiumborosilicate glass with ZrO2 addition and without it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Eh.V.; Kalinina, A.M.; Filipovich, V.N.


    A method to calculate the distribution function of dropping phase particles according to their sizes is suggested. The method is used for quantitative description of the recondensation stage of liquation phase decomposition in sodiumborosilicate glass with ZrO 2 impurity and without it. Recondensation kinetics is shown to be similar to the kinetics resulting from the Lifshits-Slezov theory for considerably simpler systems. ZrO 2 impurity decreases the toughness, increases the production rate at T=685-700 deg C, decreases the growth rate of phase particles during their recondensation, increases the volume of the liquation phase. According to experimental data an estimated calculation activation parameters of recondensation and tough flow in the matrix phase, pointing to the possibility of considerable difference in the mechanisms of diffusion and tough flow in the matrix phase, is made

  16. A novel baseline-correction method for standard addition based derivative spectra and its application to quantitative analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil samples. (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Xiu-Ying; Zou, Zhe-Xiang; Lin, Li-Rong; Li, Yao-Qun


    In the present work, a baseline-correction method based on peak-to-derivative baseline measurement was proposed for the elimination of complex matrix interference that was mainly caused by unknown components and/or background in the analysis of derivative spectra. This novel method was applicable particularly when the matrix interfering components showed a broad spectral band, which was common in practical analysis. The derivative baseline was established by connecting two crossing points of the spectral curves obtained with a standard addition method (SAM). The applicability and reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated through both theoretical simulation and practical application. Firstly, Gaussian bands were used to simulate 'interfering' and 'analyte' bands to investigate the effect of different parameters of interfering band on the derivative baseline. This simulation analysis verified that the accuracy of the proposed method was remarkably better than other conventional methods such as peak-to-zero, tangent, and peak-to-peak measurements. Then the above proposed baseline-correction method was applied to the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in vegetable oil samples by second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The satisfactory results were obtained by using this new method to analyze a certified reference material (coconut oil, BCR(®)-458) with a relative error of -3.2% from the certified BaP concentration. Potentially, the proposed method can be applied to various types of derivative spectra in different fields such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  17. Characterization of Novel Gene Yr79 and Four Additional Quantitative Trait Loci for All-Stage and High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Spring Wheat PI 182103. (United States)

    Feng, Junyan; Wang, Meinan; See, Deven R; Chao, Shiaoman; Zheng, Youliang; Chen, Xianming


    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Exploring new resistance genes is essential for breeding resistant wheat cultivars. PI 182103, a spring wheat landrace originally from Pakistan, has shown a high level of resistance to stripe rust in fields for many years, but genes for resistance to stripe rust in the variety have not been studied. To map the resistance gene(s) in PI 182103, 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross with Avocet Susceptible (AvS). The RIL population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism markers and tested with races PST-100 and PST-114 at the seedling stage under controlled greenhouse conditions and at the adult-plant stage in fields at Pullman and Mt. Vernon, Washington under natural infection by the stripe rust pathogen in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A total of five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected. QyrPI182103.wgp-2AS and QyrPI182103.wgp-3AL were detected at the seedling stage, QyrPI182103.wgp-4DL was detected only in Mt. Vernon field tests, and QyrPI182103.wgp-5BS was detected in both seedling and field tests. QyrPI182103.wgp-7BL was identified as a high-temperature adult-plant resistance gene and detected in all field tests. Interactions among the QTL were mostly additive, but some negative interactions were detected. The 7BL QTL was mapped in chromosomal bin 7BL 0.40 to 0.45 and identified as a new gene, permanently designated as Yr79. SSR markers Xbarc72 and Xwmc335 flanking the Yr79 locus were highly polymorphic in various wheat genotypes, indicating that the molecular markers are useful for incorporating the new gene for potentially durable stripe rust resistance into new wheat cultivars.

  18. Additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G


    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  19. Food additives (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: // ...

  20. Quantitative research. (United States)

    Watson, Roger


    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  1. Quantitative habitability. (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E


    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  2. Quantitative Finance (United States)

    James, Jessica


    Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.

  3. Quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brase, J.M.; Martz, H.E.; Waltjen, K.E.; Hurd, R.L.; Wieting, M.G.


    Radiographic techniques have been used in nondestructive evaluation primarily to develop qualitative information (i.e., defect detection). This project applies and extends the techniques developed in medical x-ray imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT), to develop quantitative information (both spatial dimensions and material quantities) on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of solids. Accomplishments in FY 86 include (1) improvements in experimental equipment - an improved microfocus system that will give 20-μm resolution and has potential for increased imaging speed, and (2) development of a simple new technique for displaying 3D images so as to clearly show the structure of the object. Image reconstruction and data analysis for a series of synchrotron CT experiments conducted by LLNL's Chemistry Department has begun

  4. Quantitative lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostbeck, A.; Lofferer, O.; Kahn, P.; Partsch, H.; Koehn, H.; Bialonczyk, Ch.; Koenig, B.


    Labelled colloids and macromolecules are removed lymphatically. The uptake of tracer in the regional lymphnodes is a parameter of lymphatic flow. Due to great variations in patient shape - obesity, cachexia - and accompanying variations in counting efficiencies quantitative measurements with reasonable accuracy have not been reported to date. A new approach to regional absorption correction is based on the combination of transmission and emission scans for each patient. The transmission scan is used for calculation of an absorption correction matrix. Accurate superposition of the correction matrix and the emission scan is achieved by computing the centers of gravity of point sources and - in the case of aligning opposite views - by cross correlation of binary images. In phantom studies the recovery was high (98.3%) and the coefficient of variation of repeated measurement below 1%. In patient studies a standardized stress is a prerequisite for reliable and comparable results. Discrimination between normals (14.3 +- 4.2D%) and patients with lymphedema (2.05 +- 2.5D%) was highly significant using praefascial lymphography and sc injection. Clearence curve analysis of the activities at the injection site, however, gave no reliable data for this purpose. In normals, the uptake in lymphnodes after im injection is by one order of magnitude lower then the uptake after sc injection. The discrimination between normals and patients with postthromboic syndrome was significant. Lymphography after ic injection was in the normal range in 2/3 of the patients with lymphedema and is therefore of no diagnostic value. The difference in uptake after ic and sc injection demonstrated for the first time by our quantitative method provides new insights into the pathophysiology of lymphedema and needs further investigation. (Author)

  5. Quantitative Thermochronology (United States)

    Braun, Jean; van der Beek, Peter; Batt, Geoffrey


    Thermochronology, the study of the thermal history of rocks, enables us to quantify the nature and timing of tectonic processes. Quantitative Thermochronology is a robust review of isotopic ages, and presents a range of numerical modeling techniques to allow the physical implications of isotopic age data to be explored. The authors provide analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical solutions to the heat transfer equation in a range of tectonic settings and under varying boundary conditions. They then illustrate their modeling approach built around a large number of case studies. The benefits of different thermochronological techniques are also described. Computer programs on an accompanying website at are introduced through the text and provide a means of solving the heat transport equation in the deforming Earth to predict the ages of rocks and compare them directly to geological and geochronological data. Several short tutorials, with hints and solutions, are also included. Numerous case studies help geologists to interpret age data and relate it to Earth processes Essential background material to aid understanding and using thermochronological data Provides a thorough treatise on numerical modeling of heat transport in the Earth's crust Supported by a website hosting relevant computer programs and colour slides of figures from the book for use in teaching

  6. The quantitative Morse theorem


    Loi, Ta Le; Phien, Phan


    In this paper, we give a proof of the quantitative Morse theorem stated by {Y. Yomdin} in \\cite{Y1}. The proof is based on the quantitative Sard theorem, the quantitative inverse function theorem and the quantitative Morse lemma.

  7. Quantitative clinical radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.M.


    Based on a series of recent papers, a status is given of our current ability to quantify the radiobiology of human tumors and normal tissues. Progress has been made in the methods of analysis. This includes the introduction of 'direct' (maximum likelihood) analysis, incorporation of latent-time in the analyses, and statistical approaches to allow for the many factors of importance in predicting tumor-control probability of normal-tissue complications. Quantitative clinical radiobiology of normal tissues is reviewed with emphasis on fractionation sensitivity, repair kinetics, regeneration, latency, and the steepness of dose-response curves. In addition, combined modality treatment, functional endpoints, and the search for a correlation between the occurrence of different endpoints in the same individual are discussed. For tumors, quantitative analyses of fractionation sensitivity, repair kinetics, reoxygenation, and regeneration are reviewed. Other factors influencing local control are: Tumor volume, histopathologic differentiation and hemoglobin concentration. Also, the steepness of the dose-response curve for tumors is discussed. Radiobiological strategies for improving radiotherapy are discussed with emphasis on non-standard fractionation and individualization of treatment schedules. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard


    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  9. Rigour in quantitative research. (United States)

    Claydon, Leica Sarah


    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  10. Quantitation: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.


    Single photon emission tomography may be used quantitatively if its limitations are recognized and quantitation is made in relation to some reference area on the image. Relative quantitation is discussed in outline in relation to the liver, brain and pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and heart. (U.K.)

  11. Quantitative imaging methods in osteoporosis. (United States)

    Oei, Ling; Koromani, Fjorda; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M Carola; Oei, Edwin H G


    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features. Further, novel quantitative techniques are being developed to appraise additional characteristics of osteoporosis including three-dimensional bone architecture with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Dedicated high-resolution (HR) CT equipment is available to enhance image quality. At the other end of the spectrum, by utilizing post-processing techniques such as the trabecular bone score (TBS) information on three-dimensional architecture can be derived from DXA images. Further developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seem promising to not only capture bone micro-architecture but also characterize processes at the molecular level. This review provides an overview of various quantitative imaging techniques based on different radiological modalities utilized in clinical osteoporosis care and research.

  12. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung


    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  13. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon


    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  14. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.


    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy


    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  16. Quantitative phase imaging of arthropods (United States)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Katz, Aron; Soto-Adames, Felipe; Popescu, Gabriel


    Classification of arthropods is performed by characterization of fine features such as setae and cuticles. An unstained whole arthropod specimen mounted on a slide can be preserved for many decades, but is difficult to study since current methods require sample manipulation or tedious image processing. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique that is an add-on module to a commercial phase contrast microscope. We use SLIM to image a whole organism springtail Ceratophysella denticulata mounted on a slide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that an entire organism has been imaged using QPI. We also demonstrate the ability of SLIM to image fine structures in addition to providing quantitative data that cannot be obtained by traditional bright field microscopy.

  17. [Food additives and healthiness]. (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina


    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  18. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Lloyd


    This reflects manufactured foods in NZ and it is likely that these results could be generalized to countries with similar food patterns and supplies. Quantitative data in manufactured foods is unlikely to be available to guide patient choice so qualitative information of where to find P additives can be helpful.

  19. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor


    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  20. Development and applications of quantitative NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Taichi


    Recently, quantitative NMR spectroscopy has attracted attention as an analytical method which can easily secure traceability to SI unit system, and discussions about its accuracy and inaccuracy are also started. This paper focuses on the literatures on the advancement of quantitative NMR spectroscopy reported between 2009 and 2016, and introduces both NMR measurement conditions and actual analysis cases in quantitative NMR. The quantitative NMR spectroscopy using an internal reference method enables accurate quantitative analysis with a quick and versatile way in general, and it is possible to obtain the precision sufficiently applicable to the evaluation of pure substances and standard solutions. Since the external reference method can easily prevent contamination to samples and the collection of samples, there are many reported cases related to the quantitative analysis of biologically related samples and highly scarce natural products in which NMR spectra are complicated. In the precision of quantitative NMR spectroscopy, the internal reference method is superior. As the quantitative NMR spectroscopy widely spreads, discussions are also progressing on how to utilize this analytical method as the official methods in various countries around the world. In Japan, this method is listed in the Pharmacopoeia and Japanese Standard of Food Additives, and it is also used as the official method for purity evaluation. In the future, this method will be expected to spread as the general-purpose analysis method that can ensure traceability to SI unit system. (A.O.)

  1. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.


    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  2. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing. (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W


    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick


    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  4. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.


    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  5. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland


    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  6. Groups – Additive Notation


    Coghetto Roland


    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  7. Quantitative secondary electron detection (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi


    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  8. [Methods of quantitative proteomics]. (United States)

    Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G


    In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.

  9. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  10. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance (United States)

    Smith, L. A.


    Is it conceivable that models run on 2007 computer hardware could provide robust and credible probabilistic information for decision support and user guidance at the ZIP code level for sub-daily meteorological events in 2060? In 2090? Retrospectively, how informative would output from today’s models have proven in 2003? or the 1930’s? Consultancies in the United Kingdom, including the Met Office, are offering services to “future-proof” their customers from climate change. How is a US or European based user or policy maker to determine the extent to which exciting new Bayesian methods are relevant here? or when a commercial supplier is vastly overselling the insights of today’s climate science? How are policy makers and academic economists to make the closely related decisions facing them? How can we communicate deep uncertainty in the future at small length-scales without undermining the firm foundation established by climate science regarding global trends? Three distinct aspects of the communication of the uses of climate model output targeting users and policy makers, as well as other specialist adaptation scientists, are discussed. First, a brief scientific evaluation of the length and time scales at which climate model output is likely to become uninformative is provided, including a note on the applicability the latest Bayesian methodology to current state-of-the-art general circulation models output. Second, a critical evaluation of the language often employed in communication of climate model output, a language which accurately states that models are “better”, have “improved” and now “include” and “simulate” relevant meteorological processed, without clearly identifying where the current information is thought to be uninformative and misleads, both for the current climate and as a function of the state of the (each) climate simulation. And thirdly, a general approach for evaluating the relevance of quantitative climate model output

  11. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura


    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  12. Extending Quantitative Easing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Fiedler, Salomon; Kooths, Stefan

    The notes in this compilation address the pros and cons associated with the extension of ECB quantitative easing programme of asset purchases. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the February 2017 session of the Monetary Dialogue....

  13. Quantitative Moessbauer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.L.


    The quantitative analysis of Moessbauer data, as in the measurement of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ concentration, has not been possible because of the different mean square velocities (x 2 ) of Moessbauer nuclei at chemically different sites. A method is now described which, based on Moessbauer data at several temperatures, permits the comparison of absorption areas at (x 2 )=0. (Auth.)

  14. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context (United States)

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.


    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  15. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus


    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  16. Additive manufactured serialization (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.


    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  17. Applied quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cathy; Overbeck, Ludger


    This volume provides practical solutions and introduces recent theoretical developments in risk management, pricing of credit derivatives, quantification of volatility and copula modeling. This third edition is devoted to modern risk analysis based on quantitative methods and textual analytics to meet the current challenges in banking and finance. It includes 14 new contributions and presents a comprehensive, state-of-the-art treatment of cutting-edge methods and topics, such as collateralized debt obligations, the high-frequency analysis of market liquidity, and realized volatility. The book is divided into three parts: Part 1 revisits important market risk issues, while Part 2 introduces novel concepts in credit risk and its management along with updated quantitative methods. The third part discusses the dynamics of risk management and includes risk analysis of energy markets and for cryptocurrencies. Digital assets, such as blockchain-based currencies, have become popular b ut are theoretically challenging...

  18. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haushofer, R.


    330 patients were examined by skeletal scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate and sup(99m)methylene diphosphonate in the years between 1977 and 1979. Course control examinations were carried out in 12 patients. The collective of patients presented with primary skeletal tumours, metastases, inflammatory and degenerative skeletal diseases. Bone scintiscanning combined with the ''region of interest'' technique was found to be an objective and reproducible technique for quantitative measurement of skeletal radioactivity concentrations. The validity of nuclear skeletal examinations can thus be enhanced as far as diagnosis, course control, and differential diagnosis are concerned. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning by means of the ''region of interest'' technique has opened up a new era in skeletal diagnosis by nuclear methods. (orig./MG) [de

  19. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.


    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  20. Quantitative FDG in depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, P.; O`Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Dept of Psychiatry and Centre for PET


    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual``s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals.

  1. Quantitative FDG in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, P.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D.


    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual''s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals

  2. Quantitative traits and diversification. (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G


    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  3. Quantitative variation in natural populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.A.


    Quantitative variation is considered in natural populations using Drosophila as the example. A knowledge of such variation enables its rapid exploitation in directional selection experiments as shown for scutellar chaeta number. Where evidence has been obtained, genetic architectures are in qualitative agreement with Mather's concept of balance for traits under stabilizing selection. Additive genetic control is found for acute environmental stresses, but not for less acute stresses as shown by exposure to 60 Co-γ rays. D. simulans probably has a narrower ecological niche than its sibling species D. melanogaster associated with lower genetic heterogeneity. One specific environmental stress to which D. simulans is sensitive in nature is ethyl alcohol as shown by winery data. (U.S.)

  4. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.


    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  5. Sewage sludge additive (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)


    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. Quantitative whole body scintigraphy - a simplified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marienhagen, J.; Maenner, P.; Bock, E.; Schoenberger, J.; Eilles, C.


    In this paper we present investigations on a simplified method of quantitative whole body scintigraphy by using a dual head LFOV-gamma camera and a calibration algorithm without the need of additional attenuation or scatter correction. Validation of this approach to the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in patient studies showed a high accuracy concerning quantification of whole body activity (102.8% and 97.72%, resp.), by contrast organ activities were recovered with an error range up to 12%. The described method can be easily performed using commercially available software packages and is recommendable especially for quantitative whole body scintigraphy in a clinical setting. (orig.) [de

  7. Quantitative phase analysis in industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Monshi


    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the only technique able to identify phase and all the other analytical techniques give information about the elements. Quantitative phase analysis of minerals and industrial products is logically the next step after a qualitative examination and is of great importance in industrial research. Since the application of XRD in industry, early in this century, workers were trying to develop quantitative XRD methods. In this paper some of the important methods are briefly discussed and partly compared. These methods are Internal Standard, Known Additions, Double Dilution, External Standard, Direct Comparison, Diffraction Absorption and Ratio of Slopes

  8. Additive lattice kirigami. (United States)

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D


    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  9. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  10. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.


    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  11. Quantitative cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M.; Dueber, C.; Wolff, P.; Erbel, R.; Hoffmann, T.


    The scope and limitations of quantitative cardiac CT have been evaluated in a series of experimental and clinical studies. The left ventricular muscle mass was estimated by computed tomography in 19 dogs (using volumetric methods, measurements in two axes and planes and reference volume). There was good correlation with anatomical findings. The enddiastolic volume of the left ventricle was estimated in 22 patients with cardiomyopathies; using angiography as a reference, CT led to systematic under-estimation. It is also shown that ECG-triggered magnetic resonance tomography results in improved visualisation and may be expected to improve measurements of cardiac morphology.

  12. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan


    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  13. Quantitative performance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, A.S.


    In the recently published update of NUREG/CR 3883, it was shown that Japanese plants of size and design similar to those in the US have significantly fewer trips in a given year of operation. One way to reduce such imbalance is the efficient use of available plant data. Since plant data are recorded and monitored continuously for management feedback and timely resolution of problems, this data should be actively used to increase the efficiency of operations and, ultimately, for a reduction of plant trips in power plants. A great deal of information is lost, however, if the analytical tools available for the data evaluation are misapplied or not adopted at all. This paper deals with a program developed to use quantitative techniques to monitor personnel performance in an operating power plant. Visual comparisons of ongoing performance with predetermined quantitative performance goals are made. A continuous feedback is provided to management for early detection of adverse trends and timely resolution of problems. Ultimately, costs are reduced through effective resource management and timely decision making

  14. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Vitamin A: A Quantitative Determination. (United States)

    Bohman, Ove; And Others


    Experimental procedures are provided for the quantitative determination of Vitamin A (retinol) in food products by analytical liquid chromatography. Standard addition and calibration curve extraction methods are outlined. (SK)

  15. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.


    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  16. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.


    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  17. Quantitative organ visualization using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.T.; Carey, J.E. Jr.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.


    Quantitative organ visualization (QOV) was performed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Organ size was calculated from serial, contiguous ECT images taken through the organ of interest with image boundaries determined using a maximum directional gradient edge finding technique. Organ activity was calculated using ECT counts bounded by the directional gradient, imaging system efficiency, and imaging time. The technique used to perform QOV was evaluated using phantom studies, in vivo canine liver, spleen, bladder, and kidney studies, and in vivo human bladder studies. It was demonstrated that absolute organ activity and organ size could be determined with this system and total imaging time restricted to less than 45 min to an accuracy of about +/- 10% providing the minimum dimensions of the organ are greater than the FWHM of the imaging system and the total radioactivity within the organ of interest exceeds 15 nCi/cc for dog-sized torsos. In addition, effective half-lives of approximately 1.5 hr or greater could be determined

  18. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), quantitative sexing, Siberian tiger. INTRODUCTION. Animal molecular sexing .... 43:3-12. Ellegren H (1996). First gene on the avian W chromosome (CHD) provides a tag for universal sexing of non-ratite birds. Proc.

  19. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)


    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  20. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



  1. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)


    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  2. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes


    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  3. Quantitative analysis of receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhanli; Wang Rongfu


    Model-based methods for quantitative analysis of receptor imaging, including kinetic, graphical and equilibrium methods, are introduced in detail. Some technical problem facing quantitative analysis of receptor imaging, such as the correction for in vivo metabolism of the tracer and the radioactivity contribution from blood volume within ROI, and the estimation of the nondisplaceable ligand concentration, is also reviewed briefly

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Renogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Keun Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    value are useful for the differentiation of various renal diseases, however, qualitative analysis of the renogram with one or two parameters is not accurate. 3) In bilateral non-functioning kidney groups, a positive correlation between anemia and nitrogen retention was observed, although the quantitative assessment of the degree of non-functioning was impossible.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Keun Chul


    are useful for the differentiation of various renal diseases, however, qualitative analysis of the renogram with one or two parameters is not accurate. 3) In bilateral non-functioning kidney groups, a positive correlation between anemia and nitrogen retention was observed, although the quantitative assessment of the degree of non-functioning was impossible.

  6. Balance between qualitative and quantitative verification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidaira, Kazuo


    The amount of inspection effort for verification of declared nuclear material needs to be optimized in the situation where qualitative and quantitative measures are applied. Game theory was referred to investigate the relation of detection probability and deterrence of diversion. Payoffs used in the theory were quantified for cases of conventional safeguards and integrated safeguards by using AHP, Analytical Hierarchy Process. Then, it became possible to estimate detection probability under integrated safeguards which had equivalent deterrence capability for detection probability under conventional safeguards. In addition the distribution of inspection effort for qualitative and quantitative measures was estimated. Although the AHP has some ambiguities in quantifying qualitative factors, its application to optimization in safeguards is useful to reconsider the detection probabilities under integrated safeguards. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean


    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  8. Spectroscopic Tools for Quantitative Studies of DNA Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preus, Søren

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop quantitative fluorescence-based, spectroscopic tools for probing the 3D structure and dynamics of DNA and RNA. The thesis is founded on six peer-reviewed papers covering mainly the development, characterization and use of fluorescent nucleobase...... analogues. In addition, four software packages is presented for the simulation and quantitative analysis of time-resolved and steady-state UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence experiments....

  9. Mixing quantitative with qualitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Viller, Stephen; Heck, Tamara


    with or are considering, researching, or working with both quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods (in academia or industry), join us in this workshop. In particular, we look at adding quantitative to qualitative methods to build a whole picture of user experience. We see a need to discuss both quantitative...... and qualitative research because there is often a perceived lack of understanding of the rigor involved in each. The workshop will result in a White Paper on the latest developments in this field, within Australia and comparative with international work. We anticipate sharing submissions and workshop outcomes...

  10. Understanding quantitative research: part 1. (United States)

    Hoe, Juanita; Hoare, Zoë

    This article, which is the first in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Critical appraisal of research articles is essential to ensure that nurses remain up to date with evidence-based practice to provide consistent and high-quality nursing care. This article focuses on developing critical appraisal skills and understanding the use and implications of different quantitative approaches to research. Part two of this article will focus on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  11. Quantitative EPR A Practitioners Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Gareth R; Barr, David P; Weber, Ralph T


    This is the first comprehensive yet practical guide for people who perform quantitative EPR measurements. No existing book provides this level of practical guidance to ensure the successful use of EPR. There is a growing need in both industrial and academic research to provide meaningful and accurate quantitative EPR results. This text discusses the various sample, instrument and software related aspects required for EPR quantitation. Specific topics include: choosing a reference standard, resonator considerations (Q, B1, Bm), power saturation characteristics, sample positioning, and finally, putting all the factors together to obtain an accurate spin concentration of a sample.

  12. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard (United States)


    ...-mask and full face piece respirators are normally considered two different types of air purifying... article published in a peer-reviewed industrial-hygiene journal describing the protocol and explaining how... article from an industrial- hygiene journal describing the accuracy and reliability of these proposed...

  13. Quantitative fluorescence angiography for neurosurgical interventions. (United States)

    Weichelt, Claudia; Duscha, Philipp; Steinmeier, Ralf; Meyer, Tobias; Kuß, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Morgenstern, Ute


    Present methods for quantitative measurement of cerebral perfusion during neurosurgical operations require additional technology for measurement, data acquisition, and processing. This study used conventional fluorescence video angiography--as an established method to visualize blood flow in brain vessels--enhanced by a quantifying perfusion software tool. For these purposes, the fluorescence dye indocyanine green is given intravenously, and after activation by a near-infrared light source the fluorescence signal is recorded. Video data are analyzed by software algorithms to allow quantification of the blood flow. Additionally, perfusion is measured intraoperatively by a reference system. Furthermore, comparing reference measurements using a flow phantom were performed to verify the quantitative blood flow results of the software and to validate the software algorithm. Analysis of intraoperative video data provides characteristic biological parameters. These parameters were implemented in the special flow phantom for experimental validation of the developed software algorithms. Furthermore, various factors that influence the determination of perfusion parameters were analyzed by means of mathematical simulation. Comparing patient measurement, phantom experiment, and computer simulation under certain conditions (variable frame rate, vessel diameter, etc.), the results of the software algorithms are within the range of parameter accuracy of the reference methods. Therefore, the software algorithm for calculating cortical perfusion parameters from video data presents a helpful intraoperative tool without complex additional measurement technology.

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis of intact plastids. (United States)

    Shiraya, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki


    Plastids are specialized cell organelles in plant cells that are differentiated into various forms including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts, and fulfill important functions in maintaining the overall cell metabolism and sensing environmental factors such as sunlight. It is therefore important to grasp the mechanisms of differentiation and functional changes of plastids in order to enhance the understanding of vegetality. In this chapter, details of a method for the extraction of intact plastids that makes analysis possible while maintaining the plastid functions are provided; in addition, a quantitative shotgun method for analyzing the composition and changes in the content of proteins in plastids as a result of environmental impacts is described.

  15. Quantitative learning strategies based on word networks (United States)

    Zhao, Yue-Tian-Yi; Jia, Zi-Yang; Tang, Yong; Xiong, Jason Jie; Zhang, Yi-Cheng


    Learning English requires a considerable effort, but the way that vocabulary is introduced in textbooks is not optimized for learning efficiency. With the increasing population of English learners, learning process optimization will have significant impact and improvement towards English learning and teaching. The recent developments of big data analysis and complex network science provide additional opportunities to design and further investigate the strategies in English learning. In this paper, quantitative English learning strategies based on word network and word usage information are proposed. The strategies integrate the words frequency with topological structural information. By analyzing the influence of connected learned words, the learning weights for the unlearned words and dynamically updating of the network are studied and analyzed. The results suggest that quantitative strategies significantly improve learning efficiency while maintaining effectiveness. Especially, the optimized-weight-first strategy and segmented strategies outperform other strategies. The results provide opportunities for researchers and practitioners to reconsider the way of English teaching and designing vocabularies quantitatively by balancing the efficiency and learning costs based on the word network.

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.


    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  17. How Safe Are Color Additives? (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  18. Density measures and additive property


    Kunisada, Ryoichi


    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  19. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L.


    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  20. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard


    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  1. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    ... which is adopted by Article 5 of the Additional Facility Rules to guide the ... B, Barrister at Law, e-mail:; Phone 08033950631 and .... revision and annulment which are internally available under the Washington ...

  3. Food additives: an ethical evaluation. (United States)

    Mepham, Ben


    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  4. Quantitative densitometry of neurotransmitter receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Bleisch, W.V.; Biegon, A.; McEwen, B.S.


    An autoradiographic procedure is described that allows the quantitative measurement of neurotransmitter receptors by optical density readings. Frozen brain sections are labeled in vitro with [ 3 H]ligands under conditions that maximize specific binding to neurotransmitter receptors. The labeled sections are then placed against the 3 H-sensitive LKB Ultrofilm to produce the autoradiograms. These autoradiograms resemble those produced by [ 14 C]deoxyglucose autoradiography and are suitable for quantitative analysis with a densitometer. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat and zebra finch brain and 5-HT receptors in rat brain were visualized by this method. When the proper combination of ligand concentration and exposure time are used, the method provides quantitative information about the amount and affinity of neurotransmitter receptors in brain sections. This was established by comparisons of densitometric readings with parallel measurements made by scintillation counting of sections. (Auth.)

  5. Energy Education: The Quantitative Voice (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard


    A serious study of energy use and its consequences has to be quantitative. It makes little sense to push your favorite renewable energy source if it can't provide enough energy to make a dent in humankind's prodigious energy consumption. Conversely, it makes no sense to dismiss alternatives---solar in particular---that supply Earth with energy at some 10,000 times our human energy consumption rate. But being quantitative---especially with nonscience students or the general public---is a delicate business. This talk draws on the speaker's experience presenting energy issues to diverse audiences through single lectures, entire courses, and a textbook. The emphasis is on developing a quick, ``back-of-the-envelope'' approach to quantitative understanding of energy issues. )

  6. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  7. Food additives and preschool children. (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J


    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  8. Quantitative nature of overexpression experiments (United States)

    Moriya, Hisao


    Overexpression experiments are sometimes considered as qualitative experiments designed to identify novel proteins and study their function. However, in order to draw conclusions regarding protein overexpression through association analyses using large-scale biological data sets, we need to recognize the quantitative nature of overexpression experiments. Here I discuss the quantitative features of two different types of overexpression experiment: absolute and relative. I also introduce the four primary mechanisms involved in growth defects caused by protein overexpression: resource overload, stoichiometric imbalance, promiscuous interactions, and pathway modulation associated with the degree of overexpression. PMID:26543202

  9. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  10. Evaluation of certain food additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aspartame; cassia gum; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (CITREM); modified starches; octanoic acid; starch sodium octenyl succinate; and total colouring matters. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives, including flavouring agents, considered at this meeting.

  11. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas


    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  12. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  13. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise


    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...... is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures...

  14. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper


    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  15. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc


    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  16. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.


    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  17. GPC and quantitative phase imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael; Villangca, Mark Jayson


    shaper followed by the potential of GPC for biomedical and multispectral applications where we experimentally demonstrate the active light shaping of a supercontinuum laser over most of the visible wavelength range. Finally, we discuss how GPC can be advantageously applied for Quantitative Phase Imaging...

  18. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  19. La quantite en islandais modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Pétursson


    Full Text Available La réalisation phonétique de la quantité en syllabe accentuée dans la lecture de deux textes continus. Le problème de la quantité est un des problèmes les plus étudiés dans la phonologie de l'islandais moderne. Du point de vue phonologique il semble qu'on ne peut pas espérer apporter du nouveau, les possibilités théoriques ayant été pratiquement épuisées comme nous 1'avons rappelé dans notre étude récente (Pétursson 1978, pp. 76-78. Le résultat le plus inattendu des recherches des dernières années est sans doute la découverte d'une différenciation quantitative entre le Nord et le Sud de l'Islande (Pétursson 1976a. Il est pourtant encore prématuré de parler de véritables zones quantitatives puisqu'on n' en connaît ni les limites ni l' étendue sur le plan géographique.

  20. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin


    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  1. Quantitative reactive modeling and verification. (United States)

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness , which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.

  2. Aminodisulfides as additives to lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balin, A.I.; Tarasevich, V.B.; Veretenova, T.N.


    A study was carried out and tehcnology developed for producing sulfur-nitrogen containing additives of the type of aminodisulfide by interaction of beta, beta-dichlordialkyl (aryl) disulfides with diethanolamine in a medium of sulfur-diethanolamine. The 2,2'-bis-(diethanol)-dialkyl(aryl) disulfides obtained do not hydrolyze in aqueous soltuions of alkalis, exhibit rather high antiscoring properties and are recommended for tests as active additives of high pressure to SOZH and technological lubricants of the oil and emulsion types.

  3. Reconciling Anti-essentialism and Quantitative Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mathias Fjællegaard


    Quantitative methodology has a contested role in feminist scholarship which remains almost exclusively qualitative. Considering Irigaray’s notion of mimicry, Spivak’s strategic essentialism, and Butler’s contingent foundations, the essentialising implications of quantitative methodology may prove...... the potential to reconcile anti-essentialism and quantitative methodology, and thus, to make peace in the quantitative/qualitative Paradigm Wars....

  4. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.


    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  5. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.


    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the

  6. Additive manufacturing in maxillofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Luciana Laura


    Full Text Available In this paper the benefits of using additive manufacturing technologies in maxillofacial reconstruction are highlighted. Based on a real clinical case, the paper describes the manufacture of an implant prototype replacing the right zygomatic bone and a part of maxilla using additive manufacturing technologies. The face is the most expressive part of the human body that makes us unique. It was shown that the maxillofacial prostheses help to improve the psychological state of patients affected by, because low self esteem feeling appears commonly to this patients with the facial defects. The aim of this paper is to show how using additive manufacturing technologies methods within this research, the producing a surgical model will help surgeon to improve the pre-operative planning. For this we used additive manufacturing technologies such as Stereolitography to achieve the biomodel and FDM-fused deposition modelling to obtain a prototype model because these technologies make it possible to obtain prosthesis according to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation.

  7. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.


    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  8. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan


    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  10. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Methyl Salicylate in Rubbing Alcohol: An Experiment Employing Standard Addition. (United States)

    Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis


    Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in a commercial product, "wintergreen rubbing alcohol." (CS)

  11. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M


    disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...... Danish primary care. METHODS/DESIGN: ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006....... All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009-2011 (n=4,188), of whom 2,082 (50%) attended. The health...

  12. Additive theory of prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, L K


    Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

  13. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.


    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  14. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.


    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  15. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  16. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  17. Trust Trust Me (The Additivity)


    Mano , Ken; Sakurada , Hideki; Tsukada , Yasuyuki


    Part 4: Trust Metrics; International audience; We present a mathematical formulation of a trust metric using a quality and quantity pair. Under a certain assumption, we regard trust as an additive value and define the soundness of a trust computation as not to exceed the total sum. Moreover, we point out the importance of not only soundness of each computed trust but also the stability of the trust computation procedure against changes in trust value assignment. In this setting, we define tru...

  18. A manual on using additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hoon


    This book consists of five chapters, which describe plasticizer ; summary, synthesis of plasticizer, basic notion, analysis and test on plasticizer, stabilizer ; stabilizer for plastic, an antioxidant, phosphorous acid estelle, ultraviolet ray absorbent, performance of stabilizer, influence on another additives, mix case of PVC production and analysis method for stabilizer, ultraviolet ray absorbent ; basic property and ultraviolet ray absorbent maker, anti-static agent ; basics, anti-static agent of a high molecule and analysis of anti-static agent, flame retardant of plastic.

  19. Additive property of separative power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Kanagawa, Akira


    A separative power of a separating element, whose heads and tails separation factors are α and β, is expressed by phi sub(b)(α, β) = [α(β - 1)1n α - (α - 1)1n β]/(αβ - 1) for the unit flow of the desired material and phi sub(a)(α, β) (= phi sub(b)(β, α)) for that of undesired material. The additive properties of the functions phi sub(b) and phi sub(a) were demonstrated by calculations of various types of ideal cascades, but the origin of the property is not obvious. The present study has furnished the mathematical basis of the additivity based on the special functional equation. First, for symmetric processes (α = β), the functional equation which describes the function representing the quality of separation f(α, α) concerning the desired material was obtained and solved to give the functional form of f(α, α). The result was extented to the function f(α, β) representing the quality of asymmetric separation (α not equal β). The derived function f(α, β) was demonstrated to be equal to phi sub(b)(α, β), and it was verified that functions phi sub(b)(α, β) and phi sub(a)(α, β) have the additive property in themselves. (author)

  20. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushravya Raghunath

    Full Text Available Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients.

  1. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.


    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  2. Quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainai, T; Mashimo, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Science and Engineering


    Recent papers on the practical quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are reviewed. Specifically, the determination of moisture in liquid N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as an oxidizing agent for rocket propulsion, the analysis of hydroperoxides, the quantitative analysis using a shift reagent, the analysis of aromatic sulfonates, and the determination of acids and bases are reviewed. Attention is paid to the accuracy. The sweeping velocity and RF level in addition to the other factors must be on the optimal condition to eliminate the errors, particularly when computation is made with a machine. Higher sweeping velocity is preferable in view of S/N ratio, but it may be limited to 30 Hz/s. The relative error in the measurement of area is generally 1%, but when those of dilute concentration and integrated, the error will become smaller by one digit. If impurities are treated carefully, the water content on N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ can be determined with accuracy of about 0.002%. The comparison method between peak heights is as accurate as that between areas, when the uniformity of magnetic field and T/sub 2/ are not questionable. In the case of chemical shift movable due to content, the substance can be determined by the position of the chemical shift. Oil and water contents in rape-seed, peanuts, and sunflower-seed are determined by measuring T/sub 1/ with 90 deg pulses.

  3. Immune chromatography: a quantitative radioimmunological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Demetriades, M.; Bowen, J.M.


    Immune chromatography, a radioimmunological binding assay, employs paper chromatography to separate immune complexes from free antigen and antibodies. During chromatography free antigen and antibodies become distributed throughout the paper, while immune complexes remain near the bottoms of the strips. The chromatographic differences can be made quantitative by using either iodinated antigens or antibodies. Under these conditions nanogram quantities of antigen can be detected or antibodies in sera diluted several 1000-fold. The immune chromatography assay can also be performed as an indirect assay, since the paper strips are cut from nitrocellulose paper. In this case the immune components are absorbed by the paper during chromatography. Antigen is then detected with an iodinated second antibody. The indirect immune chromatography assay is particularly useful for identifying different sera that react with the same antigen. Reaction with the first serum before chromatography reduces the amount of antigen available to the second serum following chromatography. In addition to characterizing the immune chromatography procedure, we discuss the possible applications of chromatography assays for the quantitation of other types of molecular binding interactions. (Auth.)

  4. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.


    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup


    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  7. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.


    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  8. Quantitative inspection by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Assis, J.T. de; Jesus, E.F.O. de


    The computerized Tomography (CT) is a method of nondestructive testing, that furnish quantitative information, that permit the detection and accurate localization of defects, internal dimension measurement, and, measurement and chart of the density distribution. The CT technology is much versatile, not presenting restriction in relation to form, size or composition of the object. A tomographic system, projected and constructed in our laboratory is presented. The applications and limitation of this system, illustrated by tomographyc images, are shown. (V.R.B.)

  9. Quantitative analysis of coupler tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shuxin; Cui Yupeng; Chen Huaibi; Xiao Liling


    The author deduces the equation of coupler frequency deviation Δf and coupling coefficient β instead of only giving the adjusting direction in the process of matching coupler, on the basis of coupling-cavity chain equivalent circuits model. According to this equation, automatic measurement and quantitative display are realized on a measuring system. It contributes to industrialization of traveling-wave accelerators for large container inspection systems

  10. Quantitative Methods for Teaching Review


    Irina Milnikova; Tamara Shioshvili


    A new method of quantitative evaluation of teaching processes is elaborated. On the base of scores data, the method permits to evaluate efficiency of teaching within one group of students and comparative teaching efficiency in two or more groups. As basic characteristics of teaching efficiency heterogeneity, stability and total variability indices both for only one group and for comparing different groups are used. The method is easy to use and permits to rank results of teaching review which...

  11. Introduction to IGRT and additional components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, Ben


    Image-guided radiation therapy is 'Any use of planar imaging, volumetric imaging or volumetric cine imaging, marker localization, marker tracking, patient surface imaging or patient surface tracking to improve the precision of radiation-therapy delivery' , or 'Frequent imaging in the treatment room during a course of radiotherapy to guide the treatment process'. Purpose: To verify if the correct volume in a patient is irradiated by imaging the target and/or healthy tissue prior to or during treatment. Imaging modalities include: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs); (Portal) imaging of implanted markers; Imaging of external markers; Ultrasound; X-ray fluoroscopy; and CT (MR) scanner in treatment room. Final remarks are as follows: The introduction of various IGRT techniques allowed 3D verification of the position of target volumes and organs at risk just before or during treatment. Because the information is in 3D, or sometimes even in 4D, in principle these IGRT approaches provide more information compared to the use of 2D verification methods (e.g. EPIDs). Clinical data are becoming available to assess quantitatively for which treatment techniques IGRT approaches are advantageous compared to the use of conventional verification methods taking the additional resources (time, money, manpower) into account. (P.A.)

  12. Computational complexity a quantitative perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zimand, Marius


    There has been a common perception that computational complexity is a theory of "bad news" because its most typical results assert that various real-world and innocent-looking tasks are infeasible. In fact, "bad news" is a relative term, and, indeed, in some situations (e.g., in cryptography), we want an adversary to not be able to perform a certain task. However, a "bad news" result does not automatically become useful in such a scenario. For this to happen, its hardness features have to be quantitatively evaluated and shown to manifest extensively. The book undertakes a quantitative analysis of some of the major results in complexity that regard either classes of problems or individual concrete problems. The size of some important classes are studied using resource-bounded topological and measure-theoretical tools. In the case of individual problems, the book studies relevant quantitative attributes such as approximation properties or the number of hard inputs at each length. One chapter is dedicated to abs...

  13. In-vivo quantitative measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi


    So far by positron CT, the quantitative analyses of oxygen consumption rate, blood flow distribution, glucose metabolic rate and so on have been carried out. The largest merit of using the positron CT is the observation and verification of mankind have become easy. Recently, accompanying the rapid development of the mapping tracers for central nervous receptors, the observation of many central nervous receptors by the positron CT has become feasible, and must expectation has been placed on the elucidation of brain functions. The conditions required for in vitro processes cannot be realized in strict sense in vivo. The quantitative measurement of in vivo tracer method is carried out by measuring the accumulation and movement of a tracer after its administration. The movement model of the mapping tracer for central nervous receptors is discussed. The quantitative analysis using a steady movement model, the measurement of dopamine receptors by reference method, the measurement of D 2 receptors using 11C-Racloprode by direct method, and the possibility of measuring dynamics bio-reaction are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Brain Injury Lesion Imaging Using Preconditioned Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping without Skull Stripping. (United States)

    Soman, S; Liu, Z; Kim, G; Nemec, U; Holdsworth, S J; Main, K; Lee, B; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S; Selim, M; Furst, A J; Massaband, P; Yesavage, J; Adamson, M M; Spincemallie, P; Moseley, M; Wang, Y


    Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts. Quantitative susceptibility mapping provides universal quantification of tissue magnetic property without these constraints but traditionally requires a mask generated by skull-stripping, which can pose challenges at tissue interphases. We evaluated the preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping MR imaging method, which does not require skull-stripping, for improved depiction of brain parenchyma and pathology. Fifty-six subjects underwent brain MR imaging with a 3D multiecho gradient recalled echo acquisition. Mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping images were created using a commonly used mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping method, and preconditioned quantitative susceptibility images were made using precondition-based total field inversion. All images were reviewed by a neuroradiologist and a radiology resident. Ten subjects (18%), all with traumatic brain injury, demonstrated blood products on 3D gradient recalled echo imaging. All lesions were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping, while 6 were not visible on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Thirty-one subjects (55%) demonstrated brain parenchyma and/or lesions that were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping but not on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Six subjects (11%) demonstrated pons artifacts on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping and mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping

  15. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas


    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  16. Effect of polymer additives on transition in pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, W; Squire, W


    Small amounts of long-chain, water-soluble polymers have a marked effect on turbulent flow resulting in appreciable reduction of turbulent friction. The maximum reduction in pipe flow resistance is obtained at such low concentrations that the density and viscosity are not altered appreciably. The minimum friction curve varies as Re-2/3 and appears to be the same for all effective additives tested. The transition process is affected by these additives. Quantitative results are presented showing a reduction in the intensity of the turbulent flashes and the fraction of the time the flow is turbulent at a given Reynolds number. (13 refs.)

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Porous Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Currently, helium is obtained through separation from natural gas. The current industrial process incurs significant costs and requires large energy resources to successfully achieve separation. Through utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies it is possible to reduce both of these burdens when refining helium gas. The ability to engineer porosity levels within Inconel 718 discs for controlled separation of helium from natural gas was investigated. Arrays of samples fabricated using the electron beam melting process were analyzed for their relative porosity density. Based upon the measurements, full scale discs were fabricated, and subsequently tested to determine their effectiveness in separating helium from liquefied natural gas.

  18. Quantitative Preparation in Doctoral Education Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study of Doctoral Student Perspectives on their Quantitative Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Ferguson


    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore student perceptions of their own doctoral-level education and quantitative proficiency. Background: The challenges of preparing doctoral students in education have been discussed in the literature, but largely from the perspective of university faculty and program administrators. The current study directly explores the student voice on this issue. Methodology: Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design, the present study seeks to better understand doctoral-level education students’ perceptions of their quantitative methods training at a large public university in the southwestern United States. Findings: Results from both phases present the need for more application and consistency in doctoral-level quantitative courses. Additionally, there was a consistent theme of internal motivation in the responses, suggesting students perceive their quantitative training to be valuable beyond their personal interest in the topic. Recommendations for Practitioners: Quantitative methods instructors should emphasize practice in their quantitative courses and consider providing additional support for students through the inclusion of lab sections, tutoring, and/or differentiation. Pre-testing statistical ability at the start of a course is also suggested to better meet student needs. Impact on Society: The ultimate goal of quantitative methods in doctoral education is to produce high-quality educational researchers who are prepared to apply their knowledge to problems and research in education. Results of the present study can inform faculty and administrator decisions in doctoral education to best support this goal. Future Research: Using the student perspectives presented in the present study, future researchers should continue to explore effective instructional strategies and curriculum design within education doctoral programs. The inclusion of student voice can strengthen

  19. Prognostic, quantitative histopathologic variables in lobular carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    BACKGROUND: A retrospective investigation of 53 consecutively treated patients with operable lobular carcinoma of the breast, with a median follow-up of 6.6 years, was performed to examine the prognostic value of quantitative histopathologic parameters. METHODS: The measurements were performed...... in routinely processed histologic sections using a simple, unbiased technique for the estimation of the three-dimensional mean nuclear volume (vv(nuc)). In addition, quantitative estimates were obtained of the mitotic index (MI), the nuclear index (NI), the nuclear volume fraction (Vv(nuc/tis)), and the mean...... management of patients with breast cancer....

  20. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  1. Mechanics of additively manufactured biomaterials. (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A


    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.


    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  3. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan


    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  4. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel


    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  5. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers. (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D


    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Additivity of entropic uncertainty relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schwonnek


    Full Text Available We consider the uncertainty between two pairs of local projective measurements performed on a multipartite system. We show that the optimal bound in any linear uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of the Shannon entropy, is additive. This directly implies, against naive intuition, that the minimal entropic uncertainty can always be realized by fully separable states. Hence, in contradiction to proposals by other authors, no entanglement witness can be constructed solely by comparing the attainable uncertainties of entangled and separable states. However, our result gives rise to a huge simplification for computing global uncertainty bounds as they now can be deduced from local ones. Furthermore, we provide the natural generalization of the Maassen and Uffink inequality for linear uncertainty relations with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  7. Additional Equipment for Soil Biodegradation (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kraus, Michal; Šál, Jiří


    Intensification of industrial production, increasing citizens’ living standards, expanding the consumer assortment mean in the production - consumption cycle a constantly increasing occurrence of waste material, which by its very nature must be considered as a source of useful raw materials in all branches of human activity. In addition to strict legislative requirements, a number of circumstances characterize waste management. It is mainly extensive transport associated with the handling and storage of large volumes of substances with a large assortment of materials (substances of all possible physical and chemical properties) and high demands on reliability and time coordination of follow-up processes. Considerable differences in transport distances, a large number of sources, processors and customers, and not least seasonal fluctuations in waste and strong price pressures cannot be overlooked. This highlights the importance of logistics in waste management. Soils that are contaminated with oil and petroleum products are hazardous industrial waste. Methods of industrial waste disposal are landfilling, biological processes, thermal processes and physical and chemical methods. The paper focuses on the possibilities of degradation of oil pollution, in particular biodegradation by bacteria, which is relatively low-cost among technologies. It is necessary to win the fight with time so that no ground water is contaminated. We have developed two additional devices to help reduce oil accident of smaller ranges. In the case of such an oil accident, it is necessary to carry out the permeability test of contaminated soil in time and, on this basis, to choose the technology appropriate to the accident - either in-sit biodegradation - at the site of the accident, or on-sit - to remove the soil and biodegrade it on the designated deposits. A special injection drill was developed for in-sit biodegradation, tossing and aeration equipment of the extracted soil was developed for

  8. Quantitative Analysis of cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekolla, S.G.; Bengel, F.M.


    The quantitative analysis of myocardial SPECT images is a powerful tool to extract the highly specific radio tracer uptake in these studies. If compared to normal data bases, the uptake values can be calibrated on an individual basis. Doing so increases the reproducibility of the analysis substantially. Based on the development over the last three decades starting from planar scinitigraphy, this paper discusses the methods used today incorporating the changes due to tomographic image acquisitions. Finally, the limitations of these approaches as well as consequences from most recent hardware developments, commercial analysis packages and a wider view of the description of the left ventricle are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.


    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  10. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  11. Operations management research methodologies using quantitative modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, J.W.M.; Fransoo, J.C.


    Gives an overview of quantitative model-based research in operations management, focusing on research methodology. Distinguishes between empirical and axiomatic research, and furthermore between descriptive and normative research. Presents guidelines for doing quantitative model-based research in

  12. Quantitative Sociodynamics Stochastic Methods and Models of Social Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk


    This new edition of Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioral changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics and mathematics, but they have very often proven their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences as well. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (e.g. synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches, a fundamental dynamic model is obtained, which opens new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models a...

  13. Quantitative sociodynamics stochastic methods and models of social interaction processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk


    Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioural changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics but they have very often proved their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces the most important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches a very fundamental dynamic model is obtained which seems to open new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models as special cases, e.g. the log...

  14. Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias


    The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat

  15. Incommensurate crystallography without additional dimensions. (United States)

    Kocian, Philippe


    It is shown that the Euclidean group of translations, when treated as a Lie group, generates translations not only in Euclidean space but on any space, curved or not. Translations are then not necessarily vectors (straight lines); they can be any curve compatible with the parameterization of the considered space. In particular, attention is drawn to the fact that one and only one finite and free module of the Lie algebra of the group of translations can generate both modulated and non-modulated lattices, the modulated character being given only by the parameterization of the space in which the lattice is generated. Moreover, it is shown that the diffraction pattern of a structure is directly linked to the action of that free and finite module. In the Fourier transform of a whole structure, the Fourier transform of the electron density of one unit cell (i.e. the structure factor) appears concretely, whether the structure is modulated or not. Thus, there exists a neat separation: the geometrical aspect on the one hand and the action of the group on the other, without requiring additional dimensions.

  16. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing. (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K


    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  17. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J


    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.


    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  19. Methods for Quantitative Creatinine Determination. (United States)

    Moore, John F; Sharer, J Daniel


    Reliable measurement of creatinine is necessary to assess kidney function, and also to quantitate drug levels and diagnostic compounds in urine samples. The most commonly used methods are based on the Jaffe principal of alkaline creatinine-picric acid complex color formation. However, other compounds commonly found in serum and urine may interfere with Jaffe creatinine measurements. Therefore, many laboratories have made modifications to the basic method to remove or account for these interfering substances. This appendix will summarize the basic Jaffe method, as well as a modified, automated version. Also described is a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that separates creatinine from contaminants prior to direct quantification by UV absorption. Lastly, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is described that uses stable isotope dilution to reliably quantify creatinine in any sample. This last approach has been recommended by experts in the field as a means to standardize all quantitative creatinine methods against an accepted reference. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)


    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz


    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to real-world materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  2. Quantitative information in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, F.


    When developing new imaging or image processing techniques, one constantly has in mind that the new technique should provide a better, or more optimal answer to medical tasks than existing techniques do 'Better' or 'more optimal' imply some kind of standard by which one can measure imaging or image processing performance. The choice of a particular imaging modality to answer a diagnostic task, such as the detection of coronary artery stenosis is also based on an implicit optimalisation of performance criteria. Performance is measured by the ability to provide information about an object (patient) to the person (referring doctor) who ordered a particular task. In medical imaging the task is generally to find quantitative information on bodily function (biochemistry, physiology) and structure (histology, anatomy). In medical imaging, a wide range of techniques is available. Each technique has it's own characteristics. The techniques discussed in this paper are: nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, applied potential tomography, computerized tomography, and compton tomography. This paper provides a framework for the comparison of imaging performance, based on the way the quantitative information flow is altered by the characteristics of the modality

  3. Digital radiography: a quantitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retraint, F.


    'Full-text:' In a radiograph the value of each pixel is related to the material thickness crossed by the x-rays. Using this relationship, an object can be characterized by parameters such as depth, surface and volume. Assuming a locally linear detector response and using a radiograph of reference object, the quantitative thickness map of object can be obtained by applying offset and gain corrections. However, for an acquisition system composed of cooled CCD camera optically coupled to a scintillator screen, the radiographic image formation process generates some bias which prevent from obtaining the quantitative information: non uniformity of the x-ray source, beam hardening, Compton scattering, scintillator screen, optical system response. In a first section, we propose a complete model of the radiographic image formation process taking account of these biases. In a second section, we present an inversion scheme of this model for a single material object, which enables to obtain the thickness map of the object crossed by the x-rays. (author)

  4. Infrared thermography quantitative image processing (United States)

    Skouroliakou, A.; Kalatzis, I.; Kalyvas, N.; Grivas, TB


    Infrared thermography is an imaging technique that has the ability to provide a map of temperature distribution of an object’s surface. It is considered for a wide range of applications in medicine as well as in non-destructive testing procedures. One of its promising medical applications is in orthopaedics and diseases of the musculoskeletal system where temperature distribution of the body’s surface can contribute to the diagnosis and follow up of certain disorders. Although the thermographic image can give a fairly good visual estimation of distribution homogeneity and temperature pattern differences between two symmetric body parts, it is important to extract a quantitative measurement characterising temperature. Certain approaches use temperature of enantiomorphic anatomical points, or parameters extracted from a Region of Interest (ROI). A number of indices have been developed by researchers to that end. In this study a quantitative approach in thermographic image processing is attempted based on extracting different indices for symmetric ROIs on thermograms of the lower back area of scoliotic patients. The indices are based on first order statistical parameters describing temperature distribution. Analysis and comparison of these indices result in evaluating the temperature distribution pattern of the back trunk expected in healthy, regarding spinal problems, subjects.

  5. Magnetoresistive biosensors for quantitative proteomics (United States)

    Zhou, Xiahan; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Hall, Drew A.


    Quantitative proteomics, as a developing method for study of proteins and identification of diseases, reveals more comprehensive and accurate information of an organism than traditional genomics. A variety of platforms, such as mass spectrometry, optical sensors, electrochemical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc., have been developed for detecting proteins quantitatively. The sandwich immunoassay is widely used as a labeled detection method due to its high specificity and flexibility allowing multiple different types of labels. While optical sensors use enzyme and fluorophore labels to detect proteins with high sensitivity, they often suffer from high background signal and challenges in miniaturization. Magnetic biosensors, including nuclear magnetic resonance sensors, oscillator-based sensors, Hall-effect sensors, and magnetoresistive sensors, use the specific binding events between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and target proteins to measure the analyte concentration. Compared with other biosensing techniques, magnetic sensors take advantage of the intrinsic lack of magnetic signatures in biological samples to achieve high sensitivity and high specificity, and are compatible with semiconductor-based fabrication process to have low-cost and small-size for point-of-care (POC) applications. Although still in the development stage, magnetic biosensing is a promising technique for in-home testing and portable disease monitoring.

  6. Quantitative criticism of literary relationships. (United States)

    Dexter, Joseph P; Katz, Theodore; Tripuraneni, Nilesh; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Kannan, Ajay; Brofos, James A; Bonilla Lopez, Jorge A; Schroeder, Lea A; Casarez, Adriana; Rabinovich, Maxim; Haimson Lushkov, Ayelet; Chaudhuri, Pramit


    Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships ("intertextuality") and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus marked by an extraordinary concentration of intertextuality. Our work, which we term "quantitative criticism," focuses on case studies involving two influential Roman authors, the playwright Seneca and the historian Livy. We find that four plays related to but distinct from Seneca's main writings are differentiated from the rest of the corpus by subtle but important stylistic features. We offer literary interpretations of the significance of these anomalies, providing quantitative data in support of hypotheses about the use of unusual formal features and the interplay between sound and meaning. The second part of the paper describes a machine-learning approach to the identification and analysis of citational material that Livy loosely appropriated from earlier sources. We extend our approach to map the stylistic topography of Latin prose, identifying the writings of Caesar and his near-contemporary Livy as an inflection point in the development of Latin prose style. In total, our results reflect the integration of computational and humanistic methods to investigate a diverse range of literary questions.

  7. A Comparative Study on Tobacco Cessation Methods: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari


    Conclusions: Results of this review indicate that the scientific papers in the most recent decade recommend the use of NRT and Champix in combination with educational interventions. Additional research is needed to compare qualitative and quantitative studies for smoking cessation.

  8. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease. (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Pirpamer, Lukas; Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra


    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  10. Quantitative evaluation of dermatological antiseptics. (United States)

    Leitch, C S; Leitch, A E; Tidman, M J


    Topical antiseptics are frequently used in dermatological management, yet evidence for the efficacy of traditional generic formulations is often largely anecdotal. We tested the in vitro bactericidal activity of four commonly used topical antiseptics against Staphylococcus aureus, using a modified version of the European Standard EN 1276, a quantitative suspension test for evaluation of the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. To meet the standard for antiseptic effectiveness of EN 1276, at least a 5 log10 reduction in bacterial count within 5 minutes of exposure is required. While 1% benzalkonium chloride and 6% hydrogen peroxide both achieved a 5 log10 reduction in S. aureus count, neither 2% aqueous eosin nor 1 : 10 000 potassium permanganate showed significant bactericidal activity compared with control at exposure periods of up to 1 h. Aqueous eosin and potassium permanganate may have desirable astringent properties, but these results suggest they lack effective antiseptic activity, at least against S. aureus. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Quantitative genetics of disease traits. (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M


    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Quantitative Activities for Introductory Astronomy (United States)

    Keohane, Jonathan W.; Bartlett, J. L.; Foy, J. P.


    We present a collection of short lecture-tutorial (or homework) activities, designed to be both quantitative and accessible to the introductory astronomy student. Each of these involves interpreting some real data, solving a problem using ratios and proportionalities, and making a conclusion based on the calculation. Selected titles include: "The Mass of Neptune” "The Temperature on Titan” "Rocks in the Early Solar System” "Comets Hitting Planets” "Ages of Meteorites” "How Flat are Saturn's Rings?” "Tides of the Sun and Moon on the Earth” "The Gliese 581 Solar System"; "Buckets in the Rain” "How Hot, Bright and Big is Betelgeuse?” "Bombs and the Sun” "What Forms Stars?” "Lifetimes of Cars and Stars” "The Mass of the Milky” "How Old is the Universe?” "Is The Universe Speeding up or Slowing Down?"

  13. Quantitative patterns in drone wars (United States)

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Johnson, Neil F.


    Attacks by drones (i.e., unmanned combat air vehicles) continue to generate heated political and ethical debates. Here we examine the quantitative nature of drone attacks, focusing on how their intensity and frequency compare with that of other forms of human conflict. Instead of the power-law distribution found recently for insurgent and terrorist attacks, the severity of attacks is more akin to lognormal and exponential distributions, suggesting that the dynamics underlying drone attacks lie beyond these other forms of human conflict. We find that the pattern in the timing of attacks is consistent with one side having almost complete control, an important if expected result. We show that these novel features can be reproduced and understood using a generative mathematical model in which resource allocation to the dominant side is regulated through a feedback loop.

  14. Computer architecture a quantitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, John L


    Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Sixth Edition has been considered essential reading by instructors, students and practitioners of computer design for over 20 years. The sixth edition of this classic textbook is fully revised with the latest developments in processor and system architecture. It now features examples from the RISC-V (RISC Five) instruction set architecture, a modern RISC instruction set developed and designed to be a free and openly adoptable standard. It also includes a new chapter on domain-specific architectures and an updated chapter on warehouse-scale computing that features the first public information on Google's newest WSC. True to its original mission of demystifying computer architecture, this edition continues the longstanding tradition of focusing on areas where the most exciting computing innovation is happening, while always keeping an emphasis on good engineering design.

  15. Quantitative pulsed eddy current analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.A.


    The potential of pulsed eddy current testing for furnishing more information than conventional single-frequency eddy current methods has been known for some time. However, a fundamental problem has been analyzing the pulse shape with sufficient precision to produce accurate quantitative results. Accordingly, the primary goal of this investigation was to: demonstrate ways of digitizing the short pulses encountered in PEC testing, and to develop empirical analysis techniques that would predict some of the parameters (e.g., depth) of simple types of defect. This report describes a digitizing technique using a computer and either a conventional nuclear ADC or a fast transient analyzer; the computer software used to collect and analyze pulses; and some of the results obtained. (U.S.)

  16. Innovations in Quantitative Risk Management

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Matthias; Zagst, Rudi


    Quantitative models are omnipresent –but often controversially discussed– in todays risk management practice. New regulations, innovative financial products, and advances in valuation techniques provide a continuous flow of challenging problems for financial engineers and risk managers alike. Designing a sound stochastic model requires finding a careful balance between parsimonious model assumptions, mathematical viability, and interpretability of the output. Moreover, data requirements and the end-user training are to be considered as well. The KPMG Center of Excellence in Risk Management conference Risk Management Reloaded and this proceedings volume contribute to bridging the gap between academia –providing methodological advances– and practice –having a firm understanding of the economic conditions in which a given model is used. Discussed fields of application range from asset management, credit risk, and energy to risk management issues in insurance. Methodologically, dependence modeling...

  17. Development of the Quantitative Reasoning Items on the National Survey of Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber D. Dumford


    Full Text Available As society’s needs for quantitative skills become more prevalent, college graduates require quantitative skills regardless of their career choices. Therefore, it is important that institutions assess students’ engagement in quantitative activities during college. This study chronicles the process taken by the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE to develop items that measure students’ participation in quantitative reasoning (QR activities. On the whole, findings across the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest good overall properties for the developed QR items. The items show great promise to explore and evaluate the frequency with which college students participate in QR-related activities. Each year, hundreds of institutions across the United States and Canada participate in NSSE, and, with the addition of these new items on the core survey, every participating institution will have information on this topic. Our hope is that these items will spur conversations on campuses about students’ use of quantitative reasoning activities.

  18. Investigating Children's Abilities to Count and Make Quantitative Comparisons (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah


    This study was designed to investigate children's abilities to count and make quantitative comparisons. In addition, this study utilized reasoning questions (i.e., how did you know?). Thirty-four preschoolers, mean age 4.5 years old, participated in the study. According to the results, 89% of the children (n = 30) were able to do rote counting and…

  19. Quantitative analysis of carbon radiation in edge plasmas of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.F.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Goto, M.; Murakami, I.; Wang, E.R.; Huang, X.L.


    It is of interest to compare the carbon radiation loss between LHD and tokamaks. Since the radiation from C"3"+ is much smaller than that from C"5"+, it is also interesting to examine the difference in the detached plasma. In addition, it is important to study quantitatively the radiation from each ionization stage of carbon which is uniquely the dominant impurity in most tokamaks and LHD. (J.P.N.)

  20. Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models

    CERN Document Server

    Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...

  1. Prognostic Value of Quantitative Stress Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance. (United States)

    Sammut, Eva C; Villa, Adriana D M; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Dancy, Luke; Bosio, Filippo; Gibbs, Thomas; Jeyabraba, Swarna; Schwenke, Susanne; Williams, Steven E; Marber, Michael; Alfakih, Khaled; Ismail, Tevfik F; Razavi, Reza; Chiribiri, Amedeo


    This study sought to evaluate the prognostic usefulness of visual and quantitative perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) ischemic burden in an unselected group of patients and to assess the validity of consensus-based ischemic burden thresholds extrapolated from nuclear studies. There are limited data on the prognostic value of assessing myocardial ischemic burden by CMR, and there are none using quantitative perfusion analysis. Patients with suspected coronary artery disease referred for adenosine-stress perfusion CMR were included (n = 395; 70% male; age 58 ± 13 years). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, aborted sudden death, and revascularization after 90 days. Perfusion scans were assessed visually and with quantitative analysis. Cross-validated Cox regression analysis and net reclassification improvement were used to assess the incremental prognostic value of visual or quantitative perfusion analysis over a baseline clinical model, initially as continuous covariates, then using accepted thresholds of ≥2 segments or ≥10% myocardium. After a median 460 days (interquartile range: 190 to 869 days) follow-up, 52 patients reached the primary endpoint. At 2 years, the addition of ischemic burden was found to increase prognostic value over a baseline model of age, sex, and late gadolinium enhancement (baseline model area under the curve [AUC]: 0.75; visual AUC: 0.84; quantitative AUC: 0.85). Dichotomized quantitative ischemic burden performed better than visual assessment (net reclassification improvement 0.043 vs. 0.003 against baseline model). This study was the first to address the prognostic benefit of quantitative analysis of perfusion CMR and to support the use of consensus-based ischemic burden thresholds by perfusion CMR for prognostic evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Quantitative analysis provided incremental prognostic value to visual assessment and

  2. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker (United States)

    Mankoff, David A.


    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  3. Quantitation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.


    Scintigraphic techniques are the only quantitative methods for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux. By comparison, other techniques are not quantitative and are either indirect, inconvenient, or less sensitive. Methods, such as perfusion techniques, which measure flow, require the introduction of a tube assembly into the gastrointestinal tract with the possible introduction of artifacts into the measurements due to the indwelling tubes. Earlier authors using radionuclide markers, introduced a method for measuring gastric emptying which was both tubeless and quantitative in comparison to other techniques. More recently, a number of scintigraphic methods have been introduced for the quantitation of esophageal transit and clearance, the detection and quantitation of gastroesophageal reflux, the measurement of gastric emptying using a mixed solid-liquid meal, and the quantitation of enterogastric reflux. This chapter reviews current techniques for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

  4. Quantitative isotopes miction cystoureterography (QIMCU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szy, D.A.G.; Stroetges, M.W.; Funke-Voelkers, R.


    A simple method for a quantitative evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux was developed. It allows the determination of a) the volume of reflux b) the volume of the bladder at each point of time during the examination. The QIMCU gives an insight into the dynamic of reflux, of reflux volume, and of actual bladder volume. The clinical application in 37 patients with 53 insufficient ureteral orifices (i.e. reflux) showed that the onset of reflux occured in 60% as early as in the first five minutes of the examination but later in the remaining 40%. The maximal reflux was found only in 26% during the first five minutes. The reflux volume exceeded in more than 50% the amount of 3.5 ml. The international grading corresponds with the reflux volume determined by this method. Radionuclide cystoureterography can be used as well in childhood as in adults. Because the radiaction exposure is low, the method can be recommended for the initial examination and for follow up studies. (Author)

  5. A quantitative philology of introspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eDiuk


    Full Text Available The cultural evolution of introspective thought has been recognized to undergo a drastic change during the middle of the first millennium BC. This period, known as the ``Axial Age'', saw the birth of religions and philosophies still alive in modern culture, as well as the transition from orality to literacy - which led to the hypothesis of a link between introspection and literacy. Here we set out to examine the evolution of introspection in the Axial Age, studying the cultural record of the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian literary traditions. Using a statistical measure of semantic similarity, we identify a single ``arrow of time'' in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, and a more complex non-monotonic dynamics in the Greco-Roman tradition reflecting the rise and fall of the respective societies. A comparable analysis of the 20th century cultural record shows a steady increase in the incidence of introspective topics, punctuated by abrupt declines during and preceding the First and Second World Wars. Our results show that (a it is possible to devise a consistent metric to quantify the history of a high-level concept such as introspection, cementing the path for a new quantitative philology and (b to the extent that it is captured in the cultural record, the increased ability of human thought for self-reflection that the Axial Age brought about is still heavily determined by societal contingencies beyond the orality-literacy nexus.

  6. Practical quantitative measures of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Larson, H.V.


    Twenty specific quantitative measures to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) programs are described along with their applicability, practicality, advantages, disadvantages, and potential for misinterpretation or dortion. Although no single index or combination of indices is suitable for all facilities, generally, these five: (1) mean individual dose equivalent (MIDE) to the total body from penetrating radiations; (2) statistical distribution of MIDE to the whole body from penetrating radiations; (3) cumulative penetrating whole body dose equivalent; (4) MIDE evaluated by job classification; and (5) MIDE evaluated by work location-apply to most programs. Evaluation of other programs may require other specific dose equivalent based indices, including extremity exposure data, cumulative dose equivalent to organs or to the general population, and nonpenetrating radiation dose equivalents. Certain nondose equivalent indices, such as the size of the radiation or contamination area, may also be used; an airborne activity index based on air concentration, room volume, and radiotoxicity is developed for application in some ALARA programs

  7. Connecting qualitative observation and quantitative measurement for enhancing quantitative literacy in plant anatomy course (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahmat, A.


    Forming of cognitive schemes of plant anatomy concepts is performed by processing of qualitative and quantitative data obtained from microscopic observations. To enhancing student’s quantitative literacy, strategy of plant anatomy course was modified by adding the task to analyze quantitative data produced by quantitative measurement of plant anatomy guided by material course. Participant in this study was 24 biology students and 35 biology education students. Quantitative Literacy test, complex thinking in plant anatomy test and questioner used to evaluate the course. Quantitative literacy capability data was collected by quantitative literacy test with the rubric from the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Complex thinking in plant anatomy by test according to Marzano and questioner. Quantitative literacy data are categorized according to modified Rhodes and Finley categories. The results showed that quantitative literacy of biology education students is better than biology students.

  8. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.


    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel...... with the foot ultrasound scanner reduced precision errors by half (p quantitative ultrasound measurements is feasible. (E-mail: (C) 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology....

  9. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research


    V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa


    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  10. Precision of different quantitative ultrasound densitometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, N.A.; Harris, N.D.; Griffiths, M.R.


    Full text: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, which measures Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), is predictive of the risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, the utility of QUS for predicting fracture risk or for monitoring treatment efficacy depends on its precision and reliability. Published results and manufacturers data vary significantly due to differences in statistical methodology. We have assessed the precision of the current model of the Lunar Achilles and the McCue Cuba QUS densitometers; the most commonly used QUS machines in Australia. Twenty seven subjects had duplicate QUS measurements performed on the same day on both machines. These data were used to calculate the within pair standard deviation (SD) the co-efficient of variation, CV and the standardised co efficient of variation (sCV) which is corrected for the dynamic range. In addition, the co-efficient of reliability (R) was calculated as an index of reliability which is independent of the population mean value, or the dynamic range of the measurements. R ranges between 0 (for no reliability) to 1(for a perfect reliability). The results indicate that the precision of QUS is dependent on the dynamic range and the instrument. Furthermore, they suggest that while QUS is a useful predictor of fracture risk, at present it has limited clinical value in monitoring short term age-related bone loss of 1-2% per year

  11. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI. (United States)

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo


    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Quantitative biological measurement in Transmission Electron Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantell, Judith M; Verkade, Paul; Arkill, Kenton P


    It has been known for some time that biological sections shrink in the transmission electron microscope from exposure to the electron beam. This phenomenon is especially important in Electron Tomography (ET). The effect on shrinkage of parameters such as embedding medium or sample type is less well understood. In addition anisotropic area shrinkage has largely been ignored. The intention of this study is to explore the shrinkage on a number of samples ranging in thickness from 200 nm to 500 nm. A protocol was developed to determine the shrinkage in area and thickness using the gold fiducials used in electron tomography. In brief: Using low dose philosophy on the section, a focus area was used prior to a separate virgin study area for a series of known exposures on a tilted sample. The shrinkage was determined by measurements on the gold beads from both sides of the section as determined by a confirmatory tomogram. It was found that the shrinkage in area (approximately to 90-95% of the original) and the thickness (approximately 65% of the original at most) agreed with pervious authors, but that a lmost all the shrinkage was in the first minute and that although the direction of the in-plane shrinkage (in x and y) was sometimes uneven the end result was consistent. It was observed, in general, that thinner samples showed more percentage shrinkage than thicker ones. In conclusion, if direct quantitative measurements are required then the protocol described should be used for all areas studied.

  13. Quantitative biological measurement in Transmission Electron Tomography (United States)

    Mantell, Judith M.; Verkade, Paul; Arkill, Kenton P.


    It has been known for some time that biological sections shrink in the transmission electron microscope from exposure to the electron beam. This phenomenon is especially important in Electron Tomography (ET). The effect on shrinkage of parameters such as embedding medium or sample type is less well understood. In addition anisotropic area shrinkage has largely been ignored. The intention of this study is to explore the shrinkage on a number of samples ranging in thickness from 200 nm to 500 nm. A protocol was developed to determine the shrinkage in area and thickness using the gold fiducials used in electron tomography. In brief: Using low dose philosophy on the section, a focus area was used prior to a separate virgin study area for a series of known exposures on a tilted sample. The shrinkage was determined by measurements on the gold beads from both sides of the section as determined by a confirmatory tomogram. It was found that the shrinkage in area (approximately to 90-95% of the original) and the thickness (approximately 65% of the original at most) agreed with pervious authors, but that a lmost all the shrinkage was in the first minute and that although the direction of the in-plane shrinkage (in x and y) was sometimes uneven the end result was consistent. It was observed, in general, that thinner samples showed more percentage shrinkage than thicker ones. In conclusion, if direct quantitative measurements are required then the protocol described should be used for all areas studied.

  14. Quantitative autoradiography - a method of radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.


    In the last years the autoradiography has been developed to a quantitative method of radioactivity measurement. Operating techniques of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated using special standard objects. Influences of irradiation quality, of backscattering in sample and detector materials, and of sensitivity and fading of the detectors are considered. Furthermore, questions of quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are dealt with, and measuring errors are discussed. Finally, some practical uses of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated by means of the estimation of activity distribution in radioactive foil samples. (author)

  15. Genomic value prediction for quantitative traits under the epistatic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shizhong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most quantitative traits are controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL. The contribution of each locus may be negligible but the collective contribution of all loci is usually significant. Genome selection that uses markers of the entire genome to predict the genomic values of individual plants or animals can be more efficient than selection on phenotypic values and pedigree information alone for genetic improvement. When a quantitative trait is contributed by epistatic effects, using all markers (main effects and marker pairs (epistatic effects to predict the genomic values of plants can achieve the maximum efficiency for genetic improvement. Results In this study, we created 126 recombinant inbred lines of soybean and genotyped 80 makers across the genome. We applied the genome selection technique to predict the genomic value of somatic embryo number (a quantitative trait for each line. Cross validation analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted embryo numbers was 0.33 when only main (additive effects were used for prediction. When the interaction (epistatic effects were also included in the model, the squared correlation coefficient reached 0.78. Conclusions This study provided an excellent example for the application of genome selection to plant breeding.

  16. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation. (United States)

    Van der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Schols, Jan; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie


    Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation according to a standard categorization are more practical for regular diagnostics. Our objective in this study was to compare 2 semiquantitative methods with quantitative measurements for reliability and agreement. The faces of 122 male participants were individually registered by using digital videography. Spontaneous and posed smiles were captured. On the records, maxillary lip line heights and tooth display were digitally measured on each tooth and also visually estimated according to 3-grade and 4-grade scales. Two raters were involved. An error analysis was performed. Reliability was established with kappa statistics. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability values were high, with median kappa values from 0.79 to 0.88. Agreement of the 3-grade scale estimation with quantitative measurement showed higher median kappa values (0.76) than the 4-grade scale estimation (0.66). Differentiating high and gummy smile lines (4-grade scale) resulted in greater inaccuracies. The estimation of a high, average, or low smile line for each tooth showed high reliability close to quantitative measurements. Smile line analysis can be performed reliably with a 3-grade scale (visual) semiquantitative estimation. For a more comprehensive diagnosis, additional measuring is proposed, especially in patients with disproportional gingival display. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle


    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  18. Quantitative PET of liver functions. (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord


    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  19. Quantitative PET of liver functions (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord


    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  20. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging phantoms: A review and the need for a system phantom. (United States)

    Keenan, Kathryn E; Ainslie, Maureen; Barker, Alex J; Boss, Michael A; Cecil, Kim M; Charles, Cecil; Chenevert, Thomas L; Clarke, Larry; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Finn, Paul; Gembris, Daniel; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Hill, Derek L G; Jack, Clifford R; Jackson, Edward F; Liu, Guoying; Russek, Stephen E; Sharma, Samir D; Steckner, Michael; Stupic, Karl F; Trzasko, Joshua D; Yuan, Chun; Zheng, Jie


    The MRI community is using quantitative mapping techniques to complement qualitative imaging. For quantitative imaging to reach its full potential, it is necessary to analyze measurements across systems and longitudinally. Clinical use of quantitative imaging can be facilitated through adoption and use of a standard system phantom, a calibration/standard reference object, to assess the performance of an MRI machine. The International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine AdHoc Committee on Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance was established in February 2007 to facilitate the expansion of MRI as a mainstream modality for multi-institutional measurements, including, among other things, multicenter trials. The goal of the Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance committee was to provide a framework to ensure that quantitative measures derived from MR data are comparable over time, between subjects, between sites, and between vendors. This paper, written by members of the Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance committee, reviews standardization attempts and then details the need, requirements, and implementation plan for a standard system phantom for quantitative MRI. In addition, application-specific phantoms and implementation of quantitative MRI are reviewed. Magn Reson Med 79:48-61, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Machinability of Al 6061 Deposited with Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Aldwell, Barry; Kelly, Elaine; Wall, Ronan; Amaldi, Andrea; O'Donnell, Garret E.; Lupoi, Rocco


    Additive manufacturing techniques such as cold spray are translating from research laboratories into more mainstream high-end production systems. Similar to many additive processes, finishing still depends on removal processes. This research presents the results from investigations into aspects of the machinability of aluminum 6061 tubes manufactured with cold spray. Through the analysis of cutting forces and observations on chip formation and surface morphology, the effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and heat treatment was quantified, for both cold-sprayed and bulk aluminum 6061. High-speed video of chip formation shows changes in chip form for varying material and heat treatment, which is supported by the force data and quantitative imaging of the machined surface. The results shown in this paper demonstrate that parameters involved in cold spray directly impact on machinability and therefore have implications for machining parameters and strategy.

  2. Evolutionary Quantitative Genomics of Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Porth

    Full Text Available Forest trees generally show high levels of local adaptation and efforts focusing on understanding adaptation to climate will be crucial for species survival and management. Here, we address fundamental questions regarding the molecular basis of adaptation in undomesticated forest tree populations to past climatic environments by employing an integrative quantitative genetics and landscape genomics approach. Using this comprehensive approach, we studied the molecular basis of climate adaptation in 433 Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood genotypes originating across western North America. Variation in 74 field-assessed traits (growth, ecophysiology, phenology, leaf stomata, wood, and disease resistance was investigated for signatures of selection (comparing QST-FST using clustering of individuals by climate of origin (temperature and precipitation. 29,354 SNPs were investigated employing three different outlier detection methods and marker-inferred relatedness was estimated to obtain the narrow-sense estimate of population differentiation in wild populations. In addition, we compared our results with previously assessed selection of candidate SNPs using the 25 topographical units (drainages across the P. trichocarpa sampling range as population groupings. Narrow-sense QST for 53% of distinct field traits was significantly divergent from expectations of neutrality (indicating adaptive trait variation; 2,855 SNPs showed signals of diversifying selection and of these, 118 SNPs (within 81 genes were associated with adaptive traits (based on significant QST. Many SNPs were putatively pleiotropic for functionally uncorrelated adaptive traits, such as autumn phenology, height, and disease resistance. Evolutionary quantitative genomics in P. trichocarpa provides an enhanced understanding regarding the molecular basis of climate-driven selection in forest trees and we highlight that important loci underlying adaptive trait variation also show

  3. Validating quantitative precipitation forecast for the Flood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to issue an accurate warning for flood, a better or appropriate quantitative forecasting of precipitationis required. In view of this, the present study intends to validate the quantitative precipitationforecast (QPF) issued during southwest monsoon season for six river catchments (basin) under theflood meteorological ...

  4. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research (United States)


    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...

  5. Applications of quantitative remote sensing to hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Troch, P.A.A.


    In order to quantify the rates of the exchanges of energy and matter among hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere, quantitative description of land surface processes by means of measurements at different scales are essential. Quantitative remote sensing plays an important role in this respect. The

  6. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z.


    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.


    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  8. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning (United States)

    Hillyard, Cinnamon


    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  9. Theory and Practice in Quantitative Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Beem, A Leo; de Geus, Eco J C


    With the rapid advances in molecular biology, the near completion of the human genome, the development of appropriate statistical genetic methods and the availability of the necessary computing power, the identification of quantitative trait loci has now become a realistic prospect for quantitative...... geneticists. We briefly describe the theoretical biometrical foundations underlying quantitative genetics. These theoretical underpinnings are translated into mathematical equations that allow the assessment of the contribution of observed (using DNA samples) and unobserved (using known genetic relationships......) genetic variation to population variance in quantitative traits. Several statistical models for quantitative genetic analyses are described, such as models for the classical twin design, multivariate and longitudinal genetic analyses, extended twin analyses, and linkage and association analyses. For each...

  10. Applications of Microfluidics in Quantitative Biology. (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Gao, Meng; Wen, Lingling; He, Caiyun; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Chenli; Fu, Xiongfei; Huang, Shuqiang


    Quantitative biology is dedicated to taking advantage of quantitative reasoning and advanced engineering technologies to make biology more predictable. Microfluidics, as an emerging technique, provides new approaches to precisely control fluidic conditions on small scales and collect data in high-throughput and quantitative manners. In this review, the authors present the relevant applications of microfluidics to quantitative biology based on two major categories (channel-based microfluidics and droplet-based microfluidics), and their typical features. We also envision some other microfluidic techniques that may not be employed in quantitative biology right now, but have great potential in the near future. © 2017 Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.


    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  12. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells. (United States)

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro


    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulinβ and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells.

  13. Stochastic evaluation of tsunami inundation and quantitative estimating tsunami risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Yo; Anawat, Suppasri; Abe, Yoshi; Imamura, Fumihiko


    We performed a stochastic evaluation of tsunami inundation by using results of stochastic tsunami hazard assessment at the Soma port in the Tohoku coastal area. Eleven fault zones along the Japan trench were selected as earthquake faults generating tsunamis. The results show that estimated inundation area of return period about 1200 years had good agreement with that in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In addition, we evaluated quantitatively tsunami risk for four types of building; a reinforced concrete, a steel, a brick and a wood at the Soma port by combining the results of inundation assessment and tsunami fragility assessment. The results of quantitative estimating risk would reflect properly vulnerability of the buildings, that the wood building has high risk and the reinforced concrete building has low risk. (author)

  14. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.


    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  15. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.


    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often present in addition to the results of bivariate and multivariable analyses. Qualitative metasummary, which includes the extraction, grouping, and formatting of findings, and the calculation of frequency and intensity effect sizes, can be used to produce mixed research syntheses and to conduct a posteriori analyses of the relationship between reports and findings. PMID:17243111

  16. Quantitative ptychographic reconstruction by applying a probe constraint (United States)

    Reinhardt, J.; Schroer, C. G.


    The coherent scanning technique X-ray ptychography has become a routine tool for high-resolution imaging and nanoanalysis in various fields of research such as chemistry, biology or materials science. Often the ptychographic reconstruction results are analysed in order to yield absolute quantitative values for the object transmission and illuminating probe function. In this work, we address a common ambiguity encountered in scaling the object transmission and probe intensity via the application of an additional constraint to the reconstruction algorithm. A ptychographic measurement of a model sample containing nanoparticles is used as a test data set against which to benchmark in the reconstruction results depending on the type of constraint used. Achieving quantitative absolute values for the reconstructed object transmission is essential for advanced investigation of samples that are changing over time, e.g., during in-situ experiments or in general when different data sets are compared.

  17. Quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of vascular parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Meiburger, Kristen M


    This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and...

  18. Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Serita, Fumio; Takaya, Mitsutoshi


    As the production of engineered nanomaterials quantitatively expands, the chance that workers involved in the manufacturing process will be exposed to nanoparticles also increases. A risk management system is needed for workplaces in the nanomaterial industry based on the precautionary principle. One of the problems in the risk management system is difficulty of exposure assessment. In this article, examples of exposure assessment in nanomaterial industries are reviewed with a focus on distinguishing engineered nanomaterial particles from background nanoparticles in workplace atmosphere. An approach by JNIOSH (Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) to quantitatively measure exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials is also introduced. In addition to real-time measurements and qualitative analysis by electron microscopy, quantitative chemical analysis is necessary for quantitatively assessing exposure to nanomaterials. Chemical analysis is suitable for quantitative exposure measurement especially at facilities with high levels of background NPs.

  19. A quantitative study of nanoparticle skin penetration with interactive segmentation. (United States)

    Lee, Onseok; Lee, See Hyun; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jaeyoung; Ryu, Hwa Jung; Oh, Chilhwan; Son, Sang Wook


    In the last decade, the application of nanotechnology techniques has expanded within diverse areas such as pharmacology, medicine, and optical science. Despite such wide-ranging possibilities for implementation into practice, the mechanisms behind nanoparticle skin absorption remain unknown. Moreover, the main mode of investigation has been qualitative analysis. Using interactive segmentation, this study suggests a method of objectively and quantitatively analyzing the mechanisms underlying the skin absorption of nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy and applied to the human skin equivalent model. Captured fluorescence images of this model were used to evaluate degrees of skin penetration. These images underwent interactive segmentation and image processing in addition to statistical quantitative analyses of calculated image parameters including the mean, integrated density, skewness, kurtosis, and area fraction. In images from both groups, the distribution area and intensity of fluorescent silica gradually increased in proportion to time. Since statistical significance was achieved after 2 days in the negative charge group and after 4 days in the positive charge group, there is a periodic difference. Furthermore, the quantity of silica per unit area showed a dramatic change after 6 days in the negative charge group. Although this quantitative result is identical to results obtained by qualitative assessment, it is meaningful in that it was proven by statistical analysis with quantitation by using image processing. The present study suggests that the surface charge of SNPs could play an important role in the percutaneous absorption of NPs. These findings can help achieve a better understanding of the percutaneous transport of NPs. In addition, these results provide important guidance for the design of NPs for biomedical applications.

  20. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations. (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J


    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  1. Quantitative tomography simulations and reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Aufderheide, M.B.; Goodman, D.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Logan, C.; Hall, J.; Jackson, J.; Slone, D.


    X-ray, neutron and proton transmission radiography and computed tomography (CT) are important diagnostic tools that are at the heart of LLNL's effort to meet the goals of the DOE's Advanced Radiography Campaign. This campaign seeks to improve radiographic simulation and analysis so that radiography can be a useful quantitative diagnostic tool for stockpile stewardship. Current radiographic accuracy does not allow satisfactory separation of experimental effects from the true features of an object's tomographically reconstructed image. This can lead to difficult and sometimes incorrect interpretation of the results. By improving our ability to simulate the whole radiographic and CT system, it will be possible to examine the contribution of system components to various experimental effects, with the goal of removing or reducing them. In this project, we are merging this simulation capability with a maximum-likelihood (constrained-conjugate-gradient-CCG) reconstruction technique yielding a physics-based, forward-model image-reconstruction code. In addition, we seek to improve the accuracy of computed tomography from transmission radiographs by studying what physics is needed in the forward model. During FY 2000, an improved version of the LLNL ray-tracing code called HADES has been coupled with a recently developed LLNL CT algorithm known as CCG. The problem of image reconstruction is expressed as a large matrix equation relating a model for the object being reconstructed to its projections (radiographs). Using a constrained-conjugate-gradient search algorithm, a maximum likelihood solution is sought. This search continues until the difference between the input measured radiographs or projections and the simulated or calculated projections is satisfactorily small

  2. POEM: Identifying joint additive effects on regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya eBotzman


    Full Text Available Motivation: Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL mapping tackles the problem of identifying variation in DNA sequence that have an effect on the transcriptional regulatory network. Major computational efforts are aimed at characterizing the joint effects of several eQTLs acting in concert to govern the expression of the same genes. Yet, progress towards a comprehensive prediction of such joint effects is limited. For example, existing eQTL methods commonly discover interacting loci affecting the expression levels of a module of co-regulated genes. Such ‘modularization’ approaches, however, are focused on epistatic relations and thus have limited utility for the case of additive (non-epistatic effects.Results: Here we present POEM (Pairwise effect On Expression Modules, a methodology for identifying pairwise eQTL effects on gene modules. POEM is specifically designed to achieve high performance in the case of additive joint effects. We applied POEM to transcription profiles measured in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells across a population of genotyped mice. Our study reveals widespread additive, trans-acting pairwise effects on gene modules, characterizes their organizational principles, and highlights high-order interconnections between modules within the immune signaling network. These analyses elucidate the central role of additive pairwise effect in regulatory circuits, and provide computational tools for future investigations into the interplay between eQTLs.Availability: The software described in this article is available at

  3. A general method for bead-enhanced quantitation by flow cytometry (United States)

    Montes, Martin; Jaensson, Elin A.; Orozco, Aaron F.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Corry, David B.


    Flow cytometry provides accurate relative cellular quantitation (percent abundance) of cells from diverse samples, but technical limitations of most flow cytometers preclude accurate absolute quantitation. Several quantitation standards are now commercially available which, when added to samples, permit absolute quantitation of CD4+ T cells. However, these reagents are limited by their cost, technical complexity, requirement for additional software and/or limited applicability. Moreover, few studies have validated the use of such reagents in complex biological samples, especially for quantitation of non-T cells. Here we show that addition to samples of known quantities of polystyrene fluorescence standardization beads permits accurate quantitation of CD4+ T cells from complex cell samples. This procedure, here termed single bead-enhanced cytofluorimetry (SBEC), was equally capable of enumerating eosinophils as well as subcellular fragments of apoptotic cells, moieties with very different optical and fluorescent characteristics. Relative to other proprietary products, SBEC is simple, inexpensive and requires no special software, suggesting that the method is suitable for the routine quantitation of most cells and other particles by flow cytometry. PMID:17067632

  4. High Resolution of Quantitative Traits Into Multiple Loci via Interval Mapping


    Jansen, Ritsert C.; Stam, Piet


    A very general method is described for multiple linear regression of a quantitative phenotype on genotype [putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and markers] in segregating generations obtained from line crosses. The method exploits two features, (a) the use of additional parental and F1 data, which fixes the joint QTL effects and the environmental error, and (b) the use of markers as cofactors, which reduces the genetic background noise. As a result, a significant increase of QTL detection...

  5. An overview of research designs relevant to nursing: Part 1: quantitative research designs


    Sousa,Valmi D.; Driessnack,Martha; Mendes,Isabel Amélia Costa


    This three part series of articles provides a brief overview of relevant research designs in nursing. The first article in the series presents the most frequently used quantitative research designs. Strategies for non-experimental and experimental research designs used to generate and refine nursing knowledge are described. In addition, the importance of quantitative designs and the role they play in developing evidence-based practice are discussed. Nursing care needs to be determined by the ...

  6. Induced mutations for quantitative traits in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, B.N.


    The characteristics and frequency of micro-mutations induced in quantitative traits by radiation treatment and the extent of heterozygotic effects of different recessive chlorophyll-mutant-genes on quantitative trait has been presented. Mutagenic treatments increased the variance for quantitative traits in all cases although the magnitude of increase varied depending on the treatment and the selection procedure adopted. The overall superiority of the chlorophyll-mutant heterozygotes over the corresponding wild homozygotes, as noted in consecutive two seasons, was not observed when these were grown at a high level of nitrogen fertiliser. (author)

  7. Quantitative determination of uranium by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Harvan, D.; Galanda, D.; Matel, L.; Aranyosiova, M.; Velic, D.


    The paper presents results of quantitative measurements of uranium-238 by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with using alpha spectrometry as well as complementary technique. Samples with specific activity of uranium-238 were prepared by electrodeposition from aqueous solution of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O. We tried to apply SIMS to quantitative analysis and search for correlation between intensity obtained from SIMS and activity of uranium-238 in dependence on the surface's weight and possibility of using SIMS in quantitative analysis of environmental samples. The obtained results and correlations as well as results of two real samples measurements are presented in this paper. (authors)

  8. Quantitative measures of walking and strength provide insight into brain corticospinal tract pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Fritz


    Quantitative measures of strength and walking are associated with brain corticospinal tract pathology. The addition of these quantitative measures to basic clinical information explains more of the variance in corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy and magnetization transfer ratio than the basic clinical information alone. Outcome measurement for multiple sclerosis clinical trials has been notoriously challenging; the use of quantitative measures of strength and walking along with tract-specific imaging methods may improve our ability to monitor disease change over time, with intervention, and provide needed guidelines for developing more effective targeted rehabilitation strategies.

  9. Additive conjoint measurement for multiattribute utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Wakker, P.P.


    This paper shows that multiattribute utility can be simplified by methods from additive conjoint measurement. Given additive conjoint measurability under certainty, axiomatizations can be simplified, and implementation and reliability of elicitation can be improved. This also contributes to the

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert


    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  11. The Philosophical Consideration about Food Additives


    Baoyu Ma


    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of food additives technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of food additives technology. As for the attitude towards the application of food additives, it is influenced by the public's gender, age, educational level, occupation and monthly expenditure for buying non-staple food and other variables, thus, the attitude towards food additives and green food, as well as the attitude towards using artificial...

  12. The dilemma of allergy to food additives. (United States)

    Bahna, Sami L; Burkhardt, Joshua G


    To provide a brief summary on food additives and to outline a practical approach for evaluating subjects suspected of having reactions to food additives. Information was derived from selected reviews and original articles published in peer-reviewed journals, supplemented by the clinical experience of the authors. Priority was given to studies that used blinded, placebo controlled, oral challenges to confirm adverse reactions to food additives. In addition, selected, appropriately evaluated case reports were included. A large number of food additives are widely used in the food industry. Allergic reactions to additives seem to be rare but are very likely underdiagnosed, primarily due to a low index of suspicion. A wide variety of symptoms to food additives have been reported, but a cause-and-effect relationship has not been well documented in the majority of cases. Reactions to food additives should be suspected in patients who report symptoms related to multiple foods or to a certain food when commercially prepared but not when home made. It is also prudent to investigate food additives in subjects considered to have "idiopathic" reactions. Except for a limited number of natural additives, there is a small role for skin tests or in vitro testing. Oral challenge, in stages, with commonly used additives is the definitive procedure for detecting the offending agent. Once the specific additive is identified, management is strict avoidance, which can be difficult.

  13. Enabling Technologies for Medium Additive Manufacturing (MAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Bradley S. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Miller, Jason [Cosine Additive, Inc.; McCalip, Andrew [Cosine Additive, Inc.


    ORNL has worked with Cosine Additive, Inc. on the design of MAAM extrusion components. The objective is to improve the print speed and part quality. A pellet extruder has been procured and integrated into the MAAM printer. Print speed has been greatly enhanced. In addition, ORNL and Cosine Additive have worked on alternative designs for a pellet drying and feed system.

  14. Quantitative determination of additive Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin preparation: Investigation of bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach by mid-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Song, Xiangzhong; Tian, Kuangda; Chen, Yilin; Xiong, Yanmei; Min, Shungeng


    A novel method, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, which enables the determination of Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin within minutes, is proposed. We further evaluate the prediction ability of four wavelength selection methods, including bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach (BOSS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA-PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) respectively. The results showed that BOSS method obtained the lowest root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0245) and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) (0.0271), as well as the highest coefficient of determination of cross-validation (Qcv2) (0.9998) and the coefficient of determination of test set (Q2test) (0.9989), which demonstrated that the mid infrared spectroscopy can be used to detect Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin conveniently. Meanwhile, a suitable wavelength selection method (BOSS) is essential to conducting a component spectral analysis.

  15. Genomic Model with Correlation Between Additive and Dominance Effects. (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma Gladis; Legarra, Andres


    Dominance genetic effects are rarely included in pedigree-based genetic evaluation. With the availability of single nucleotide polymorphism markers and the development of genomic evaluation, estimates of dominance genetic effects have become feasible using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP). Usually, studies involving additive and dominance genetic effects ignore possible relationships between them. It has been often suggested that the magnitude of functional additive and dominance effects at the quantitative trait loci are related, but there is no existing GBLUP-like approach accounting for such correlation. Wellmann and Bennewitz showed two ways of considering directional relationships between additive and dominance effects, which they estimated in a Bayesian framework. However, these relationships cannot be fitted at the level of individuals instead of loci in a mixed model and are not compatible with standard animal or plant breeding software. This comes from a fundamental ambiguity in assigning the reference allele at a given locus. We show that, if there has been selection, assigning the most frequent as the reference allele orients the correlation between functional additive and dominance effects. As a consequence, the most frequent reference allele is expected to have a positive value. We also demonstrate that selection creates negative covariance between genotypic additive and dominance genetic values. For parameter estimation, it is possible to use a combined additive and dominance relationship matrix computed from marker genotypes, and to use standard restricted maximum likelihood (REML) algorithms based on an equivalent model. Through a simulation study, we show that such correlations can easily be estimated by mixed model software and accuracy of prediction for genetic values is slightly improved if such correlations are used in GBLUP. However, a model assuming uncorrelated effects and fitting orthogonal breeding values and dominant

  16. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 13, 2012 ... Of the quantitative traits in wheat, spike length, number of spikes per m2, grain mass per spike, number ... design with four liming variants along with three replications, in which the experimental field .... The sampling was done.

  17. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence in Recessive Stargardt Disease


    Burke, Tomas R.; Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell L.; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Zernant, Jana; Tsang, Stephen H.; Smith, R. Theodore; Allikmets, Rando; Sparrow, Janet R.; Delori, François C.


    Quantitative fundus autofluorescence (qAF) is significantly increased in Stargardt disease, consistent with previous reports of increased RPE lipofuscin. QAF will help to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and may serve as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

  18. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial - Primer (United States)

    This document provides a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) primer that organizes QMRA tutorials. The tutorials describe functionality of a QMRA infrastructure, guide the user through software use and assessment options, provide step-by-step instructions for implementi...

  19. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy. (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke


    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Quantitative Technique for Beginning Microscopists. (United States)

    Sundberg, Marshall D.


    Stereology is the study of three-dimensional objects through the interpretation of two-dimensional images. Stereological techniques used in introductory botany to quantitatively examine changes in leaf anatomy in response to different environments are discussed. (JN)

  1. Understanding Pre-Quantitative Risk in Projects (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.


    Standard approaches to risk management in projects depend on the ability of teams to identify risks and quantify the probabilities and consequences of these risks (e.g., the 5 x 5 risk matrix). However, long before quantification does - or even can - occur, and long after, teams make decisions based on their pre-quantitative understanding of risk. These decisions can have long-lasting impacts on the project. While significant research has looked at the process of how to quantify risk, our understanding of how teams conceive of and manage pre-quantitative risk is lacking. This paper introduces the concept of pre-quantitative risk and discusses the implications of addressing pre-quantitative risk in projects.

  2. Quantitative data extraction from transmission electron micrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, J.A.


    The discussion will cover an overview of quantitative TEM, the digital image analysis process, coherent optical processing, and finally a summary of the author's views on potentially useful advances in TEM image processing

  3. Quantitative Ability as Correlates of Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The introduction of quantitative topics into the secondary school economics curriculum has ... since the quality of education at any level is highly dependent on the quality and dedication of ..... Ibadan: Constellations Books 466-481. Anderson ...

  4. Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emission of radiation from a sample occurs due to thermal vibration of its .... Quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples. 393. Figure 1. ...... tral mixture modeling: A new analysis of rock and soil types at the Viking ...

  5. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination. (United States)

    Leary, James J.


    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  6. Qualitative vs. quantitative atopic dermatitis criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, R M; Thyssen, J P; Maibach, H I


    This review summarizes historical aspects, clinical expression and pathophysiology leading to coining of the terms atopy and atopic dermatitis, current diagnostic criteria and further explore the possibility of developing quantitative diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis (AD) based on the imp...

  7. Strategies for quantitation of phosphoproteomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Thingholm, Tine Engberg


    Recent developments in phosphoproteomic sample-preparation techniques and sensitive mass spectrometry instrumentation have led to large-scale identifications of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites from highly complex samples. This has facilitated the implementation of different quantitation...

  8. Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Timetable Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex


    The article describes how the attractiveness of timetables can be evaluated quantitatively to ensure a consistent evaluation of timetables. Since the different key stakeholders (infrastructure manager, train operating company, customers, and society) have different opinions on what an attractive...

  9. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.


    This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, during the period January 15, 1989 through July 15, 1991. This program is very closely integrated with the radiopharmaceutical program entitled Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science. Together, they constitute the PROGRAM OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND QUANTITATIVE IMAGING RESEARCH within The Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute (FMI). The program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology that underlie the physical and conceptual tools of radiotracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 234 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Accurate quantitative XRD phase analysis of cement clinkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.


    Full text: Knowledge about the absolute phase abundance in cement clinkers is a requirement for both, research and quality control. Traditionally, quantitative analysis of cement clinkers has been carried out by theoretical normative calculation from chemical analysis using the so-called Bogue method or by optical microscopy. Therefore chemical analysis, mostly performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), forms the basis of cement plan control by providing information for proportioning raw materials, adjusting kiln and burning conditions, as well as cement mill feed proportioning. In addition, XRF is of highest importance with respect to the environmentally relevant control of waste recovery raw materials and alternative fuels, as well as filters, plants and sewage. However, the performance of clinkers and cements is governed by the mineralogy and not the elemental composition, and the deficiencies and inherent errors of Bogue as well as microscopic point counting are well known. With XRD and Rietveld analysis a full quantitative analysis of cement clinkers can be performed providing detailed mineralogical information about the product. Until recently several disadvantages prevented the frequent application of the Rietveld method in the cement industry. As the measurement of a full pattern is required, extended measurement times made an integration of this method into existing automation environments difficult. In addition, several drawbacks of existing Rietveld software such as complexity, low performance and severe numerical instability were prohibitive for automated use. The latest developments of on-line instrumentation, as well as dedicated Rietveld software for quantitative phase analysis (TOPAS), now make a decisive breakthrough possible. TOPAS not only allows the analysis of extremely complex phase mixtures in the shortest time possible, but also a fully automated online phase analysis for production control and quality management, free of any human interaction

  11. Quantitative approaches in climate change ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Christopher J.; Schoeman, David S.; Sydeman, William J.


    Contemporary impacts of anthropogenic climate change on ecosystems are increasingly being recognized. Documenting the extent of these impacts requires quantitative tools for analyses of ecological observations to distinguish climate impacts in noisy data and to understand interactions between...... climate variability and other drivers of change. To assist the development of reliable statistical approaches, we review the marine climate change literature and provide suggestions for quantitative approaches in climate change ecology. We compiled 267 peer‐reviewed articles that examined relationships...

  12. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.


    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  13. Quantitative analysis of boron by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayuelken, A.; Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Buchberger, T.


    The quantitative determination of boron in ores is a long process with chemical analysis techniques. As nuclear techniques like X-ray fluorescence and activation analysis are not applicable for boron, only the neutron radiography technique, using the high neutron absorption cross section of this element, can be applied for quantitative determinations. This paper describes preliminary tests and calibration experiments carried out at a 250 kW TRIGA reactor. (orig.) [de

  14. Quantitative autoradiography of semiconductor base material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.


    Autoradiographic methods for the quantitative determination of elements interesting in semiconductor technology and their distribution in silicon are described. Whereas the local concentration and distribution of phosphorus has been determined with the aid of silver halide films the neutron-induced autoradiography has been applied in the case of boron. Silicon disks containing diffused phosphorus or implanted or diffused boron have been used as standard samples. Different possibilities of the quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are considered and compared

  15. Application of harmonic analysis in quantitative heart scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Knopp, R.; Breuel, H.P.


    Quantitative scintigraphy of the heart after equilibrium distribution of a radioactive tracer permits the measurement of time activity curves in the left ventricle during a representative heart cycle with great statistical accuracy. By application of Fourier's analysis, criteria are to be attained in addition for evaluation of the volume curve as a whole. Thus the entire information contained in the volume curve is completely described in a Fourier spectrum. Resynthesis after Fourier transformation seems to be an ideal method of smoothing because of its convergence in the minimum quadratic error for the type of function concerned. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Quantitative determination of α and f parameters for κo NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, Y. S.


    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis as a representative method of nuclear analytical techniques, has advantages of non-destructive, simultaneous multi-element analysis with the characteristics of absolute measurement. Recently, use of κ o quantitative method which is accurate, convenient and user-friendly has been generalized world-widely. In this study, α and f parameters which is indispensable to implement κ o NAA were experimentally measured at NAA No.1-irradiation hole of HANARO research reactor. In addition, it was intended to apply routine analysis by the establishment of reliable and effective procedure of the measurement

  17. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro Toomela


    Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.

  18. Radiological interpretation 2020: Toward quantitative image assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, John M.


    The interpretation of medical images by radiologists is primarily and fundamentally a subjective activity, but there are a number of clinical applications such as tumor imaging where quantitative imaging (QI) metrics (such as tumor growth rate) would be valuable to the patient’s care. It is predicted that the subjective interpretive environment of the past will, over the next decade, evolve toward the increased use of quantitative metrics for evaluating patient health from images. The increasing sophistication and resolution of modern tomographic scanners promote the development of meaningful quantitative end points, determined from images which are in turn produced using well-controlled imaging protocols. For the QI environment to expand, medical physicists, physicians, other researchers and equipment vendors need to work collaboratively to develop the quantitative protocols for imaging, scanner calibrations, and robust analytical software that will lead to the routine inclusion of quantitative parameters in the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of human health. Most importantly, quantitative metrics need to be developed which have genuine impact on patient diagnosis and welfare, and only then will QI techniques become integrated into the clinical environment.

  19. Effects of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti - corrosion properties of paints can be optimised when adequate proportion of the paint constituents are used. Effect of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux Marine Enamel paints on corrosion resistance of mild steel was studied. Quantitative Analysis and Potentiodynamic Polarisation Technique were ...

  20. Quantitative SPECT brain imaging: Effects of attenuation and detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Bowsher, J.E.; Turkington, T.G.; Liang, Z.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.


    Two physical factors that substantially degrade quantitative accuracy in SPECT imaging of the brain are attenuation and detector response. In addition to the physical factors, random noise in the reconstructed image can greatly affect the quantitative measurement. The purpose of this work was to implement two reconstruction methods that compensate for attenuation and detector response, a 3D maximum likelihood-EM method (ML) and a filtered backprojection method (FB) with Metz filter and Chang attenuation compensation, and compare the methods in terms of quantitative accuracy and image noise. The methods were tested on simulated data of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. The simulation incorporated attenuation and distance-dependent detector response. Bias and standard deviation of reconstructed voxel intensities were measured in the gray and white matter regions. The results with ML showed that in both the gray and white matter regions as the number of iterations increased, bias decreased and standard deviation increased. Similar results were observed with FB as the Metz filter power increased. In both regions, ML had smaller standard deviation than FB for a given bias. Reconstruction times for the ML method have been greatly reduced through efficient coding, limited source support, and by computing attenuation factors only along rays perpendicular to the detector

  1. Quantitative ultra-fast MRI of HPMC swelling and dissolution. (United States)

    Chen, Ya Ying; Hughes, L P; Gladden, L F; Mantle, M D


    For the first time quantitative Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) based ultra-fast two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to follow the dissolution of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) in water. Quantitative maps of absolute water concentration, spin-spin relaxation times and water self-diffusion coefficient are obtained at a spatial resolution of 469 microm in less than 3 min each. These maps allow the dynamic development of the medium release rate HPMC/water system to be followed. It is demonstrated that the evolution of the gel layer and, in particular, the gradient in water concentration across it, is significantly different when comparing the quantitative RARE sequence with a standard (nonquantitative) implementation of RARE. The total gel thickness in the axial direction grows faster than that in the radial direction and that the dry core initially expands anisotropically. Additionally, while HPMC absorbs a large amount of water during the dissolution process, the concentration gradient of water within the gel layer is relatively small. For the first time MRI evidence is presented for a transition swollen glassy layer which resides between the outer edge of the dry tablet core and the inner edge of the gel layer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  2. Quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging methods for pharmaceutical research. (United States)

    Mantle, M D


    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in pharmaceutical research is now well established and the current literature covers a multitude of different pharmaceutically relevant research areas. This review focuses on the use of quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging techniques and how they have been exploited to extract information that is of direct relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. The article is divided into two main areas. The first half outlines the theoretical aspects of magnetic resonance and deals with basic magnetic resonance theory, the effects of nuclear spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and molecular diffusion upon image quantitation, and discusses the applications of rapid magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition to the theory, the review aims to provide some practical guidelines for the pharmaceutical researcher with an interest in MRI as to which MRI pulse sequences/protocols should be used and when. The second half of the article reviews the recent advances and developments that have appeared in the literature concerning the use of quantitative micro-imaging methods to pharmaceutically relevant research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results. (United States)

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva


    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  4. Effect of radiation resistance additives for insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Yagyu, Hideki; Seguchi, Tadao.


    For the electric wires and cables used in radiation environment such as nuclear power stations and fuel reprocessing facilities, the properties of excellent radiation resistance are required. For these insulators and sheath materials, ethylene propylene rubber, polyethylene and other polymers have been used, but it cannot be said that they always have good radiation resistance. However, it has been well known that radiation resistance can be improved with small amount of additives, and heat resistance and burning retarding property as well as radiation resistance are given to the insulators of wires and cables for nuclear facilities by mixing various additives. In this research, the measuring method for quantitatively determining the effect of Anti-rad (radiation resistant additive) was examined. Through the measurement of gel fraction, radical formation and decomposed gas generation, the effect of Anti-rad protecting polymers from radiation deterioration was examined from the viewpoint of chemical reaction. The experimental method and the results are reported. The radiation energy for cutting C-H coupling is polymers is dispersed by Anti-rad, and the probability of cutting is lowered. Anti-rad catches and extinguishes radicals that start oxidation reaction. (K.I.)

  5. From inverse problems in mathematical physiology to quantitative differential diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Zenker


    Full Text Available The improved capacity to acquire quantitative data in a clinical setting has generally failed to improve outcomes in acutely ill patients, suggesting a need for advances in computer-supported data interpretation and decision making. In particular, the application of mathematical models of experimentally elucidated physiological mechanisms could augment the interpretation of quantitative, patient-specific information and help to better target therapy. Yet, such models are typically complex and nonlinear, a reality that often precludes the identification of unique parameters and states of the model that best represent available data. Hypothesizing that this non-uniqueness can convey useful information, we implemented a simplified simulation of a common differential diagnostic process (hypotension in an acute care setting, using a combination of a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system, a stochastic measurement model, and Bayesian inference techniques to quantify parameter and state uncertainty. The output of this procedure is a probability density function on the space of model parameters and initial conditions for a particular patient, based on prior population information together with patient-specific clinical observations. We show that multimodal posterior probability density functions arise naturally, even when unimodal and uninformative priors are used. The peaks of these densities correspond to clinically relevant differential diagnoses and can, in the simplified simulation setting, be constrained to a single diagnosis by assimilating additional observations from dynamical interventions (e.g., fluid challenge. We conclude that the ill-posedness of the inverse problem in quantitative physiology is not merely a technical obstacle, but rather reflects clinical reality and, when addressed adequately in the solution process, provides a novel link between mathematically described physiological knowledge and the clinical concept of

  6. From Inverse Problems in Mathematical Physiology to Quantitative Differential Diagnoses (United States)

    Zenker, Sven; Rubin, Jonathan; Clermont, Gilles


    The improved capacity to acquire quantitative data in a clinical setting has generally failed to improve outcomes in acutely ill patients, suggesting a need for advances in computer-supported data interpretation and decision making. In particular, the application of mathematical models of experimentally elucidated physiological mechanisms could augment the interpretation of quantitative, patient-specific information and help to better target therapy. Yet, such models are typically complex and nonlinear, a reality that often precludes the identification of unique parameters and states of the model that best represent available data. Hypothesizing that this non-uniqueness can convey useful information, we implemented a simplified simulation of a common differential diagnostic process (hypotension in an acute care setting), using a combination of a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system, a stochastic measurement model, and Bayesian inference techniques to quantify parameter and state uncertainty. The output of this procedure is a probability density function on the space of model parameters and initial conditions for a particular patient, based on prior population information together with patient-specific clinical observations. We show that multimodal posterior probability density functions arise naturally, even when unimodal and uninformative priors are used. The peaks of these densities correspond to clinically relevant differential diagnoses and can, in the simplified simulation setting, be constrained to a single diagnosis by assimilating additional observations from dynamical interventions (e.g., fluid challenge). We conclude that the ill-posedness of the inverse problem in quantitative physiology is not merely a technical obstacle, but rather reflects clinical reality and, when addressed adequately in the solution process, provides a novel link between mathematically described physiological knowledge and the clinical concept of differential diagnoses

  7. Planar gamma camera imaging and quantitation of Yttrium-90 bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.; DeNardo, G.L.; Yuan, A.


    Yttrium-90 is a promising radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy of cancer because of its energetic beta emissions. Therapeutic management requires quantitative imaging to assess the pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of the 90 Y-labeled antibody. Conventional gamma photon imaging methods cannot be easily applied to imaging of 90 Y-bremsstrahlung because of its continuous energy spectrum. The sensitivity, resolution and source-to-background signal ratio (S/B) of the detector system for 90 Y-bremsstrahlung were investigated for various collimators and energy windows in order to determine optimum conditions for quantitative imaging. After these conditions were determined, the accuracy of quantitation of 90 Y activity in an Alderson abdominal phantom was examined. When the energy-window width was increased, the benefit of increased sensitivity outweighed degradation in resolution and S/B ratio until the manufacturer's energy specifications for the collimator were exceeded. Using the same energy window, the authors improved resolution and S/B for the medium-energy (ME) collimator when compared to the low-energy, all-purpose (LEAP) collimator, and there was little additional improvement using the high-energy (HE) collimator. Camera sensitivity under tissue equivalent conditions was 4.2 times greater for the LEAP and 1.7 times greater for the ME collimators when compared to the HE collimator. Thus, the best, most practical selections were found to be the ME collimator and an energy window of 55-285 keV. When they used these optimal conditions for image acquisition, the estimation of 90 Y activity in organs and tumors was within 15% of the true activities. The results for this study suggest that reasonable accuracy can be achieved in clinical radioimmunotherapy using 90 Y-bremsstrahlung quantitation. 28 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Interactions between Food Additive Silica Nanoparticles and Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ran Go


    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials. There have been a number of studies carried out to investigate possible adverse effects of NPs on the gastrointestinal tract. The interactions between NPs and surrounding food matrices should be also taken into account since the interactions can affect their bioavailability, efficacy, and toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between food additive silica NPs and food matrices, such as saccharides, proteins, lipids, and minerals. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine food component-NP corona using HPLC, fluorescence quenching, GC-MS, and ICP-AES. The results demonstrate that zeta potential and hydrodynamic radius of silica NPs changed in the presence of all food matrices, but their solubility was not affected. However, quantitative analysis on the interactions revealed that a small portion of food matrices interacted with silica NPs and the interactions were highly dependent on the type of food component. Moreover, minor nutrients could also affect the interactions, as evidenced by higher NP interaction with honey rather than with a simple sugar mixture containing an equivalent amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. These findings provide fundamental information to extend our understanding about the interactions between silica NPs and food components and to predict the interaction effect on the safety aspects of food

  9. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N


    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  10. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing


    Leonhardt Stefan; Klare Martin; Scheer Maurice; Fischer Theresa; Cordes Burghard; Eblenkamp Markus


    To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxic...

  11. Harnessing the Potential of Additive Manufacturing (United States)


    31 Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 Harnessing the Potential of Additive Manufacturing Bill Decker Decker is director of Technology...achieve its goal of competition throughout the acquisition life cycle. When we look at additive manufacturing , we have a much different environment. To...Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion. This specification covers additively manufactured titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V

  12. Additives in food and their properties


    TYLOVÁ, Kristýna


    The aim of this work is to deepen the knowledge about additives in foods, the importance of technological additives in foods, their properties and effects on human health. The aim of this work is a study of technical and scientific literature on the topic: "additives in foods and their properties" and review of the literature. Also in the practical part, implementation and evaluation of a questionnaire survey of the experimental group related to the topic: "Validation and comparison of knowle...

  13. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives


    YANG, Xuening; ZHAN, Yong


    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods, preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life, increasing varieties of foods, enhancing convenience of foods, facilitating food processing, and satisfying other demands. However, excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security. Therefore, it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food addi...

  14. Incorporating assumption deviation risk in quantitative risk assessments: A semi-quantitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorsandi, Jahon; Aven, Terje


    Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) of complex engineering systems are based on numerous assumptions and expert judgments, as there is limited information available for supporting the analysis. In addition to sensitivity analyses, the concept of assumption deviation risk has been suggested as a means for explicitly considering the risk related to inaccuracies and deviations in the assumptions, which can significantly impact the results of the QRAs. However, challenges remain for its practical implementation, considering the number of assumptions and magnitude of deviations to be considered. This paper presents an approach for integrating an assumption deviation risk analysis as part of QRAs. The approach begins with identifying the safety objectives for which the QRA aims to support, and then identifies critical assumptions with respect to ensuring the objectives are met. Key issues addressed include the deviations required to violate the safety objectives, the uncertainties related to the occurrence of such events, and the strength of knowledge supporting the assessments. Three levels of assumptions are considered, which include assumptions related to the system's structural and operational characteristics, the effectiveness of the established barriers, as well as the consequence analysis process. The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation. - Highlights: • An approach for assessing the risk of deviations in QRA assumptions is presented. • Critical deviations and uncertainties related to their occurrence are addressed. • The analysis promotes critical thinking about the foundation and results of QRAs. • The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation.

  15. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN


    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  16. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives. (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul


    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  17. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research. (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S


    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  18. Qualities of a psychiatric mentor: a quantitative Singaporean survey. (United States)

    Tor, Phern-Chern; Goh, Lee-Gan; Ang, Yong-Guan; Lim, Leslie; Winslow, Rasaiah-Munidasa; Ng, Beng-Yeong; Wong, Sze-Tai; Ng, Tse-Pin; Kia, Ee-Heok


    Psychiatric mentors are an important part of the new, seamless training program in Singapore. There is a need to assess the qualities of a good psychiatric mentor vis-à-vis those of a good psychiatrist. An anonymous survey was sent out to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in Singapore to assess quantitatively the relative importance of 40 qualities for a good psychiatrist and a good mentor. The response rate was 48.7% (74/152). Factor analysis showed four themes among the qualities assessed (professional, personal values, relationship, academic-executive). A good mentor is defined by professional, relationship, and personal-values qualities. Mentors have significantly higher scores than psychiatrists for two themes (relationship and academic-executive). Being a good mentor, in Asia, means being a good psychiatrist first and foremost but also requires additional relationship and academic-executive skills. Mentors should be formally trained in these additional skills that were not part of the psychiatric curriculum.

  19. ImatraNMR: Novel software for batch integration and analysis of quantitative NMR spectra (United States)

    Mäkelä, A. V.; Heikkilä, O.; Kilpeläinen, I.; Heikkinen, S.


    Quantitative NMR spectroscopy is a useful and important tool for analysis of various mixtures. Recently, in addition of traditional quantitative 1D 1H and 13C NMR methods, a variety of pulse sequences aimed for quantitative or semiquantitative analysis have been developed. To obtain actual usable results from quantitative spectra, they must be processed and analyzed with suitable software. Currently, there are many processing packages available from spectrometer manufacturers and third party developers, and most of them are capable of analyzing and integration of quantitative spectra. However, they are mainly aimed for processing single or few spectra, and are slow and difficult to use when large numbers of spectra and signals are being analyzed, even when using pre-saved integration areas or custom scripting features. In this article, we present a novel software, ImatraNMR, designed for batch analysis of quantitative spectra. In addition to capability of analyzing large number of spectra, it provides results in text and CSV formats, allowing further data-analysis using spreadsheet programs or general analysis programs, such as Matlab. The software is written with Java, and thus it should run in any platform capable of providing Java Runtime Environment version 1.6 or newer, however, currently it has only been tested with Windows and Linux (Ubuntu 10.04). The software is free for non-commercial use, and is provided with source code upon request.

  20. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    .... ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the...

  1. Additive Manufacturing for Low Volume Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, John G. [Schaeffler Group USA, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    ORNL worked with the Schaeffler Group USA to explore additive manufacturing techniques that might be appropriate for prototyping of bearing cages. Multiple additive manufacturing techniques were investigated, including e-beam, binder jet and multiple laser based processes. The binder jet process worked best for the thin, detailed cages printed.

  2. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines. Any...

  3. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 33.10 Additional information. The Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation, or his designee...

  4. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  5. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture


    Barata, Eduardo N.; Velez, Zélia


    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  6. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0031] Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  7. Quantitative analysis method for niobium in lead zirconate titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideo; Hashimoto, Toshio


    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is a strong dielectric ceramic having piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, and is used most as a piezoelectric material. Also it is a main component of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT), which is a typical electrical-optical conversion element. Since these have been developed, the various electronic parts utilizing the piezoelectric characteristics have been put in practical use. The characteristics can be set up by changing the composition of PZT and the kinds and amount of additives. Among the additives, niobium has the action to make metallic ion vacancy in crystals, and by the formation of this vacancy, to ease the movement of domain walls in crystal grains, and to increase resistivity. Accordingly, it is necessary to accurately determine the niobium content for the research and development, quality control and process control. The quantitative analysis methods for niobium used so far have respective demerits, therefore, the authors examined the quantitative analysis of niobium in PZT by using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectro-analysis apparatus which has remarkably developed recently. As the result, the method of dissolving a specimen with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and masking unstable lead with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid 2 sodium and fluoride ions with boric acid was established. The apparatus, reagents, the experiment and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav


    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  9. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.


    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  10. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Rachathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)


    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  11. A writer's guide to education scholarship: Quantitative methodologies for medical education research (part 1). (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Camorlinga, Paola; Chan, Teresa M; Hall, Andrew Koch; Murnaghan, Aleisha; Sherbino, Jonathan


    Quantitative research is one of the many research methods used to help educators advance their understanding of questions in medical education. However, little research has been done on how to succeed in publishing in this area. We conducted a scoping review to identify key recommendations and reporting guidelines for quantitative educational research and scholarship. Medline, ERIC, and Google Scholar were searched for English-language articles published between 2006 and January 2016 using the search terms, "research design," "quantitative," "quantitative methods," and "medical education." A hand search was completed for additional references during the full-text review. Titles/abstracts were reviewed by two authors (BT, PC) and included if they focused on quantitative research in medical education and outlined reporting guidelines, or provided recommendations on conducting quantitative research. One hundred articles were reviewed in parallel with the first 30 used for calibration and the subsequent 70 to calculate Cohen's kappa coefficient. Two reviewers (BT, PC) conducted a full text review and extracted recommendations and reporting guidelines. A simple thematic analysis summarized the extracted recommendations. Sixty-one articles were reviewed in full, and 157 recommendations were extracted. The thematic analysis identified 86 items, 14 categories, and 3 themes. Fourteen quality evaluation tools and reporting guidelines were found. Discussion This paper provides guidance for junior researchers in the form of key quality markers and reporting guidelines. We hope that quantitative researchers in medical education will be informed by the results and that further work will be done to refine the list of recommendations.

  12. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B.; Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon; Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda


    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  13. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. (United States)

    Bae, Won C; Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon; Chang, Eric Y; Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda; Chung, Christine B


    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques.

  14. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets. (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru


    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  15. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes. More details...

  16. The rise of quantitative methods in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cousineau


    Full Text Available Quantitative methods have a long history in some scientific fields. Indeed, no one today would consider a qualitative data set in physics or a qualitative theory in chemistry. Quantitative methods are so central in these fields that they are often labelled “hard sciences”. Here, we examine the question whether psychology is ready to enter the “hard science club” like biology did in the forties. The facts that a over half of the statistical techniques used in psychology are less than 40 years old and that b the number of simulations in empirical papers has followed an exponential growth since the eighties, both suggests that the answer is yes. The purpose of Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology is to provide a concise and easy access to the currents methods.

  17. Benefits of dominance over additive models for the estimation of average effects in the presence of dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenk, Pascal; Calus, Mario P.L.; Wientjes, Yvonne C.J.; Bijma, Piter


    In quantitative genetics, the average effect at a single locus can be estimated by an additive (A) model, or an additive plus dominance (AD) model. In the presence of dominance, the AD-model is expected to be more accurate, because the A-model falsely assumes that residuals are independent and

  18. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)


    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)

  19. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu


    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)

  20. Infusion of Quantitative and Statistical Concepts into Biology Courses Does Not Improve Quantitative Literacy (United States)

    Beck, Christopher W.


    Multiple national reports have pushed for the integration of quantitative concepts into the context of disciplinary science courses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and statistical literacy of biology students and explore learning gains when those skills were taught implicitly in the context of biology. I examined gains in…

  1. Affinity for Quantitative Tools: Undergraduate Marketing Students Moving beyond Quantitative Anxiety (United States)

    Tarasi, Crina O.; Wilson, J. Holton; Puri, Cheenu; Divine, Richard L.


    Marketing students are known as less likely to have an affinity for the quantitative aspects of the marketing discipline. In this article, we study the reasons why this might be true and develop a parsimonious 20-item scale for measuring quantitative affinity in undergraduate marketing students. The scale was administered to a sample of business…

  2. Aspects of quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.


    Parameters which have an influence on the formation of secondary ions by ion bombardment of a solid matrix are discussed. Quantitative SIMS-analysis with the help of calibration standards necessitates a stringent control of these parameters. This is particularly valid for the oxygen partial pressure which for metal analysis has to be maintained constant also under ultra high vacuum. The performance of the theoretical LTE-model (Local Thermal Equilibrium) using internal standards will be compared with the analysis with the help of external standards. The LTE-model does not satisfy the requirements for quantitative analysis. (Auth.)

  3. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne


    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  4. Review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.O.; Chimenti, D.E.


    A comprehensive review of the current state of quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE), this volume brings together papers by researchers working in government, private industry, and university laboratories. Their papers cover a wide range of interests and concerns for researchers involved in theoretical and applied aspects of quantitative NDE. Specific topics examined include reliability probability of detection--ultrasonics and eddy currents weldments closure effects in fatigue cracks technology transfer ultrasonic scattering theory acoustic emission ultrasonic scattering, reliability and penetrating radiation metal matrix composites ultrasonic scattering from near-surface flaws ultrasonic multiple scattering

  5. Strategies for MCMC computation in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Ibanez, Noelia; Sorensen, Daniel


    Given observations of a trait and a pedigree for a group of animals, the basic model in quantitative genetics is a linear mixed model with genetic random effects. The correlation matrix of the genetic random effects is determined by the pedigree and is typically very highdimensional but with a sp......Given observations of a trait and a pedigree for a group of animals, the basic model in quantitative genetics is a linear mixed model with genetic random effects. The correlation matrix of the genetic random effects is determined by the pedigree and is typically very highdimensional...

  6. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)


    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  7. [Effect of biochar addition on soil evaporation. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Niu, Wen Quan; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Li, Yuan; Lyu, Wang; Li, Kang-Yong; Zou, Xiao-Yang; Liang, Bo-Hui


    In order to determine the rational amount of biochar application and its effect on soil hydrological processes in arid area, soil column experiments were conducted in the laboratory using three biochar additions (5%, 10% and 15%) and four different biochar types (devaporation. The results showed that the addition of biochar could change the phreatic water recharge, soil water-holding capacity, capillary water upward movement and soil evaporation obviously. But the effects were different depending on the type of biochar raw material and the size of particle. The phreatic water recharge increased with the increasing amount of biochar addition. The addition of biochar could obviously enlarge the soil water-holding capacity and promote the capillary water upward movement rate. This effect was greater when using the material of bamboo charcoal compared with using wood charcoal, while biochar with small particle size had greater impact than that with big particle size. The biochar could effectively restrain the soil evaporation at a low addition amount (5%). But it definitely promoted the soil evaporation if the addition amount was very high. In arid area, biochar addition in appropriate amount could improve soil water retention capacity.

  8. Hydrogen addition reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in comets (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Watanabe, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Kawakita, H.


    Comets are thought as remnants of early solar nebula. Their chemical compositions are precious clue to chemical and physical evolution of the proto-planetary disk. Some hydrocarbons such as C2H6, C2H2 and CH4 in comets have been observed by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Although the compositions of C2H6 were about 1% relative to the water in normal comets, there are few reports on the detection of C2H6 in ISM. Some formation mechanisms of C2H6 in ISM have been proposed, and there are two leading hypotheses; one is the dimerizations of CH3 and another is the hydrogen addition reactions of C2H2 on cold icy grains. To evaluate these formation mechanisms for cometary C2H6 quantitatively, it is important to search the C2H4 in comets, which is the intermediate product of the hydrogen addition reactions toward C2H6. However, it is very difficult to detect the C2H4 in comets in NIR (3 microns) regions because of observing circumstances. The hydrogen addition reactions of C2H2 at low temperature conditions are not well characterized both theoretically and experimentally. For example, there are no reports on the reaction rate coefficients of those reaction system. To determine the production rates of those hydrogen addition reactions, we performed the laboratory experiments of the hydrogenation of C2H2 and C2H4. We used four types of the initial composition of the ices: pure C2H4, pure C2H2, C2H2 on amorphous solid water (ASW) and C2H4 on ASW at three different temperatures of 10, 20, and 30K. We found 1) reactions are more efficient when there are ASW in the initial compositions of the ice; 2) hydrogenation of C2H4 occur more rapid than that of C2H2.

  9. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang


    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  10. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.


    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)

  11. Simulation evaluation of quantitative myocardial perfusion assessment from cardiac CT (United States)

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.


    Contrast enhancement on cardiac CT provides valuable information about myocardial perfusion and methods have been proposed to assess perfusion with static and dynamic acquisitions. There is a lack of knowledge and consensus on the appropriate approach to ensure 1) sufficient diagnostic accuracy for clinical decisions and 2) low radiation doses for patient safety. This work developed a thorough dynamic CT simulation and several accepted blood flow estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of perfusion assessment across a range of acquisition and estimation scenarios. Cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (Flow = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml/g/min, cardiac output = 3,5,8 L/min). CT acquisitions were simulated with a validated CT simulator incorporating polyenergetic data acquisition and realistic x-ray flux levels for dynamic acquisitions with a range of scenarios including 1, 2, 3 sec sampling for 30 sec with 25, 70, 140 mAs. Images were generated using conventional image reconstruction with additional image-based beam hardening correction to account for iodine content. Time attenuation curves were extracted for multiple regions around the myocardium and used to estimate flow. In total, 2,700 independent realizations of dynamic sequences were generated and multiple MBF estimation methods were applied to each of these. Evaluation of quantitative kinetic modeling yielded blood flow estimates with an root mean square error (RMSE) of ~0.6 ml/g/min averaged across multiple scenarios. Semi-quantitative modeling and qualitative static imaging resulted in significantly more error (RMSE = ~1.2 and ~1.2 ml/min/g respectively). For quantitative methods, dose reduction through reduced temporal sampling or reduced tube current had comparable impact on the MBF estimate fidelity. On average, half dose acquisitions increased the RMSE of estimates by only 18% suggesting that substantial dose reductions can be employed in the context of quantitative myocardial

  12. 78 FR 38953 - Procurement List Additions (United States)


    ... Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After... Punch, Paper, Desktop, 3-Hole, Adjustable, 11 sheet capacity, Metallic Base, Black Grip. Coverage: A...

  13. 78 FR 12295 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After consideration of the material..., 508 Compliant, 12 Digit, Portable, Desktop, Battery Operated NPA: MidWest Enterprises for the Blind...

  14. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S


    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  15. Additively Manufactured Ceramic Rocket Engine Components (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HRL Laboratories, LLC, with Vector Space Systems (VSS) as subcontractor, has a 24-month effort to develop additive manufacturing technology for reinforced ceramic...

  16. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties. (United States)


    ... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... then be effective as to such new contracting party. ...

  17. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter


    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  18. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.


    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  19. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.E.


    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  20. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.E.


    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E)

  1. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products Towel.... 12/BX Cleaner, Brake Parts NSN: 6850-01-167-0678--17 oz. NPA: The Lighthouse for the Blind, St. Louis...

  2. 78 FR 35874 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products... Cleaner NPA: Winston-Salem Industries for the Blind, Inc., Winston-Salem, NC Contracting Activity: Defense...

  3. Characterizing Polymer Powders used in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are a set of slides that give the personal background of the author, information about his LANL organization, and information about his internship project at LANL about additive manufacturing and selective laser sintering (SLS).

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium (Mg) Alloys (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to investigate additive manufacturing techniques for Mg alloys.  It will leverage off research being conducted at University of Florida and...

  5. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition (United States)


    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notice of proposed addition to the...: Enterprise Professional Services, Inc., Austin, TX Contracting Activity: Dept of the Army, W40M USA MEDCOM...

  6. 77 FR 55195 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notice of proposed additions to the... Harmon Avenue, Fort Stewart, GA. NPA: Professional Contract Services, Inc., Austin, TX. Contracting...

  7. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.


    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)

  8. Additive Manufacturing in the Marine Corps (United States)


    TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, improving logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 123 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...One such method is ultrasonic agglomeration. The process produces compact snack items that are nutrient-dense and shelf-stable. Currently Army...possess outdated technology. Additionally, prices for the printers are dropping significantly.202 Therefore, the Marine Corps will not only have outdated

  9. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods


    Lloyd, Lyn; Gillanders, Lyn


    Dietary phosphorous (P) intake is associated with an increased serum phosphate level which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality for people with chronic kidney disease. Dietary restriction of P is an important nutrition intervention as about 50% of daily intake of P is from P–containing food additives. Educating patients on P additives can effectively reduce serum P values over standard care. Avoidance can be achieved by reading the ingredient list to check for o...

  10. Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Alumina


    Gonzalez, Hugo


    Additive manufacturing is seen by many as the holy grail of manufacturing, the ability to produce parts nearly autonomously. Adding material rather than removing it would eliminate the need for expensive resources and machining. The recent expiration of key 3D printing patents has led to many advances in the field and has dramatically lowered the prices of 3D printers, making them accessible to the average individual. The one area where additive manufacturing is still in its infancy is in cer...

  11. Design and additive manufacture for flow chemistry. (United States)

    Capel, Andrew J; Edmondson, Steve; Christie, Steven D R; Goodridge, Ruth D; Bibb, Richard J; Thurstans, Matthew


    We review the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a novel manufacturing technique for the production of milli-scale reactor systems. Five well-developed additive manufacturing techniques: stereolithography (SL), multi-jet modelling (MJM), selective laser melting (SLM), laser sintering (LS) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) were used to manufacture a number of miniaturised reactors which were tested using a range of organic and inorganic reactions.

  12. Material Database for Additive Manufacturing Techniques (United States)


    components in the field. II. BACKGROUND Additive manufacturing is a rapidly maturing process by which digital 3-D design data are used to build up...improves readiness by offering on-demand low-rate production [8, 9]. 3-D printing also enables rapid design iterations and complexity, which improve...abundant in additive manufacturing , allowing design freedom that is only limited by the material strength requirements. A set of eight conductive

  13. [Elastography as an additional tool in breast sonography. Technical principles and clinical applications]. (United States)

    Rjosk-Dendorfer, D; Reichelt, A; Clevert, D-A


    In recent years the use of elastography in addition to sonography has become a routine clinical tool for the characterization of breast masses. Whereas free hand compression elastography results in qualitative imaging of tissue stiffness due to induced compression, shear wave elastography displays quantitative information of tissue displacement. Recent studies have investigated the use of elastography in addition to sonography and improvement of specificity in differentiating benign from malignant breast masses could be shown. Therefore, additional use of elastography could help to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in benign breast lesions especially in category IV lesions of the ultrasound breast imaging reporting data system (US-BI-RADS).

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. (United States)


    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  15. The Development of Korea Additional Protocol System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hye Won; Yeo, Jin Kyun


    The Agreement between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Safeguards Agreement) entered into force on 14 November 1975. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on 21 June 1999 and entered into force on 19 February 2004. ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15th since August 2004. Additional protocol reports were submitted through Protocol Reporter provided by IAEA. Annual declarations were simply uploaded and stored in the Accounting Information Treatment System of KINAC, which did not provide data analysis and management function. There have been demands for improvement to handle ever-increasing information. KAPS (Korea Additional Protocol System) has been developed to assist and administrate the additional protocol related works effectively. The new system enables integrated management including composition of additional protocol report and version control, periodical update of related information, results of IAEA complementary access to each facility

  16. Additive effects in radiation grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.


    Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena

  17. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  18. Quantitative Mapping of Large Area Graphene Conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter


    We present quantitative mapping of large area graphene conductance by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four point probe. We observe a clear correlation between the techniques and identify the observed systematic differences to be directly related to imperfections of the graphene sheet...

  19. The Sampling Issues in Quantitative Research (United States)

    Delice, Ali


    A concern for generalization dominates quantitative research. For generalizability and repeatability, identification of sample size is essential. The present study investigates 90 qualitative master's theses submitted for the Primary and Secondary School Science and Mathematics Education Departments, Mathematic Education Discipline in 10…

  20. Critical Race Quantitative Intersections: A "testimonio" Analysis (United States)

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Nava, Pedro E.; Lara, Argelia; Burciaga, Rebeca; Vélez, Verónica N.; Solorzano, Daniel G.


    The educational pipeline has become a commonly referenced depiction of educational outcomes for racialized groups across the country. While visually impactful, an overreliance on decontextualized quantitative data often leads to majoritarian interpretations. Without sociohistorical contexts, these interpretations run the risk of perpetuating…

  1. SCRY: Enabling quantitative reasoning in SPARQL queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Stringer, Bas; Loizou, Antonis; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap


    The inability to include quantitative reasoning in SPARQL queries slows down the application of Semantic Web technology in the life sciences. SCRY, our SPARQL compatible service layer, improves this by executing services at query time and making their outputs query-accessible, generating RDF data on

  2. Quantitative sample preparation of some heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffey, A.H.


    A discussion is given of some techniques that have been useful in quantitatively preparing and analyzing samples used in the half-life determinations of some plutonium and uranium isotopes. Application of these methods to the preparation of uranium and plutonium samples used in neutron experiments is discussed

  3. Strategies for MCMC computation in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Ibánez, N.; Sorensen, Daniel


    Given observations of a trait and a pedigree for a group of animals, the basic model in quantitative genetics is a linear mixed model with genetic random effects. The correlation matrix of the genetic random effects is determined by the pedigree and is typically very highdimensional but with a sp...

  4. Proteomic approaches for quantitative cancer cell signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voellmy, Franziska

    studies in an effort to contribute to the study of signaling dynamics in cancer systems. This thesis is divided into two parts. Part I begins with a brief introduction in the use of omics in systems cancer research with a focus on mass spectrometry as a means to quantitatively measure protein...

  5. Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) wood were carried out. Forty five wood specimens were prepared from the three ecological zones of north eastern Nigeria, viz: sahel savanna, sudan savanna and guinea savanna for the research. The results indicated that the wood ...

  6. Quantitative multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I.; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K.


    The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.

  7. Quantitative angiography after directional coronary atherectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); B.H. Strauss (Bradley); R-J. van Suylen (Robert-Jan); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); H. Suryapranata (Harry); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess by quantitative analysis the immediate angiographic results of directional coronary atherectomy. To compare the effects of successful atherectomy with those of successful balloon dilatation in a series of patients with matched lesions. DESIGN--Case series.

  8. Deforestation since independence: A quantitative assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deforestation since independence: A quantitative assessment of four decades of land-cover change in Malawi. ... pressure and demographic factors are important predictors of deforestation rate within our study area. Keywords: afforestation, Africa, deforestation, drivers, land-use change, reforestation, rural, urban ...

  9. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction of iodine-123 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.


    Many clinical and research studies in nuclear medicine require quantitation of iodine-123 ( 123 I) distribution for the determination of kinetics or localization. The objective of this study was to implement several reconstruction methods designed for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123 I and to evaluate their performance in terms of quantitative accuracy, image artifacts, and noise. The methods consisted of four attenuation and scatter compensation schemes incorporated into both the filtered backprojection/Chang (FBP) and maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction algorithms. The methods were evaluated on data acquired of a phantom containing a hot sphere of 123 I activity in a lower level background 123 I distribution and nonuniform density media. For both reconstruction algorithms, nonuniform attenuation compensation combined with either scatter subtraction or Metz filtering produced images that were quantitatively accurate to within 15% of the true value. The ML-EM algorithm demonstrated quantitative accuracy comparable to FBP and smaller relative noise magnitude for all compensation schemes

  10. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research (United States)

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.


    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  11. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research (United States)


    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  12. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A


    Full Text Available . This paper describes the development of an automated analysis process and software that can run a multitude of separation scenarios. A key enabler for this software is the development of a quantitative grading algorithm that scores the outcome of each release...

  13. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina


    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  14. Quantitative system validation in model driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Hilger; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Raskin, Jean-Francois


    The European STREP project Quasimodo1 develops theory, techniques and tool components for handling quantitative constraints in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems, covering in particular real-time, hybrid and stochastic aspects. This tutorial highlights the advances made, focus...

  15. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de


    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  16. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided...

  17. Quantitative multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers (United States)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K


    The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.

  18. A quantitative lubricant test for deep drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan L.


    A tribological test for deep drawing has been developed by which the performance of lubricants may be evaluated quantitatively measuring the maximum backstroke force on the punch owing to friction between tool and workpiece surface. The forming force is found not to give useful information...

  19. Reactor applications of quantitative diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feguson, I.F.


    Current work in quantitative diffraction analysis was presented under the main headings of: thermal systems, fast reactor systems, SGHWR applications and irradiation damage. Preliminary results are included on a comparison of various new instrumental methods of boron analysis as well as preliminary new results on Zircaloy corrosion, and materials transfer in liquid sodium. (author)

  20. Quantitative muscle ultrasonography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Rooij, F.G. van; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Janssen, H.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.


    In this study, we examined whether quantitative muscle ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes in early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Bilateral transverse scans were made of five muscles or muscle groups (sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii/brachialis, forearm flexor group,

  1. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.


    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and A G DE WET. Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of Port Elizabeth. Accepted: May 1978. ABSTRACT. Two methods for the quantitative extraction of meiofauna from natural sandy sediments were investigated and compared: Cobb's decanting and sieving technique and the Oostenbrink elutriator. Both.

  3. Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Dexamethasone in the Presence of Parabens in ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Results: All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of raw materials and dosage form.

  4. Automated approach to quantitative error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, E.H.


    A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given neutron transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost is described. This code also generates user-oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces. 5 figures, 1 table


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  6. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter


    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  7. Quantitative blood flow analysis with digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.


    The general principles of digital techniques in quantitating absolute blood flow during arteriography are described. Results are presented for a phantom constructed to correlate digitally calculated absolute flow with direct flow measurements. The clinical use of digital techniques in cerebrovascular angiography is briefly described. (U.K.)

  8. Uncertainties in elemental quantitative analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V.


    The effects of the degree of non-uniformity of the particle beam, matrix composition and matrix thickness in a quantitative elemental analysis by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed and a criterion to evaluate the resulting degree of uncertainty in the mass determination by this method is established. (Auth.)

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Extensions of Event Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.


    An important application of formal methods is the specification, design, and analysis of functional aspects of (distributed) systems. Recently the study of quantitative aspects of such systems based on formal methods has come into focus. Several extensions of formal methods where the occurrence of

  10. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322847796


    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior

  11. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette


    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  12. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle


    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  13. Engaging Business Students in Quantitative Skills Development (United States)

    Cronin, Anthony; Carroll, Paula


    In this paper the complex problems of developing quantitative and analytical skills in undergraduate first year, first semester business students are addressed. An action research project, detailing how first year business students perceive the relevance of data analysis and inferential statistics in light of the economic downturn and the…

  14. Leaderless Covert Networks : A Quantitative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.


    Abstract: Lindelauf et al. (2009a) introduced a quantitative approach to investigate optimal structures of covert networks. This approach used an objective function which is based on the secrecy versus information trade-off these organizations face. Sageman (2008) hypothesized that covert networks

  15. Quantitative MRI of kidneys in renal disease. (United States)

    Kline, Timothy L; Edwards, Marie E; Garg, Ishan; Irazabal, Maria V; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Harris, Peter C; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Erickson, Bradley J


    To evaluate the reproducibility and utility of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for the assessment of kidneys in young adults with normal renal function (eGFR ranged from 90 to 130 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and patients with early renal disease (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). This prospective case-control study was performed on ten normal young adults (18-30 years old) and ten age- and sex-matched patients with early renal parenchymal disease (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). All subjects underwent a comprehensive kidney MRI protocol, including qualitative imaging: T1w, T2w, FIESTA, and quantitative imaging: 2D cine phase contrast of the renal arteries, and parenchymal diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The normal controls were imaged on two separate occasions ≥24 h apart (range 24-210 h) to assess reproducibility of the measurements. Quantitative MR imaging sequences were found to be reproducible. The mean ± SD absolute percent difference between quantitative parameters measured ≥24 h apart were: MTI-derived ratio = 4.5 ± 3.6%, DWI-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) = 6.5 ± 3.4%, BOLD-derived R2* = 7.4 ± 5.9%, and MRE-derived tissue stiffness = 7.6 ± 3.3%. Compared with controls, the ADPKD patient's non-cystic renal parenchyma (NCRP) had statistically significant differences with regard to quantitative parenchymal measures: lower MTI percent ratios (16.3 ± 4.4 vs. 23.8 ± 1.2, p quantitative measurements was obtained in all cases. Significantly different quantitative MR parenchymal measurement parameters between ADPKD patients and normal controls were obtained by MT, DWI, BOLD, and MRE indicating the potential for detecting and following renal disease at an earlier stage than the conventional qualitative imaging techniques.

  16. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael


    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  17. Quantitative Reasoning in Environmental Science: A Learning Progression (United States)

    Mayes, Robert Lee; Forrester, Jennifer Harris; Christus, Jennifer Schuttlefield; Peterson, Franziska Isabel; Bonilla, Rachel; Yestness, Nissa


    The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR) learning progression was created with three progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. An iterative research design was used as it…

  18. Study of zirconium-addition binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakova, B.; Kuchar, L.


    The curves are given of the solid and the liquid of binary zirconium-addition systems. Most additions reduce the melting temperature of zirconium. The only known additions to increase the melting temperature are nitrogen, oxygen and hafnium. Also given are the transformation curves of the systems and the elements are given which reduce or raise the temperature of α-β transformation. From the Mendeleev table into which are plotted the curves of the solid and the liquid of binary systems it is possible to predict the properties of unknown binary systems. For the calculations of the curves of the solid and the liquid, 1860 degC was taken as the temperature of zirconium melting. For the calculations of transformation curves, 865 degC was taken as the temperature of α-β transformation. The equations are given of the curves of the solid and the liquid and of the transformation curves of some Zr-addition systems. Also given are the calculated equilibrium distribution coefficients and the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the transformation of additions in Zr and their limit values for temperatures approximating the melting point or the temperature of the transformation of pure Zr, and the values pertaining to eutectic and peritectic or eutectoid and peritectoid temperatures. (J.B.)

  19. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.


    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  20. Terminal addition in a cellular world. (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B


    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Varona


    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys (United States)

    Yannetta, Christopher J.

    Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.

  3. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R


    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included

  4. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  5. Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santure, Anna W.; Poissant, Jocelyn; Cauwer, De Isabelle; Oers, Van Kees; Robinson, Matthew R.; Quinn, John L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Visser, M.E.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Slate, Jon


    Currently, there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar

  6. Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santure, Anna W; Poissant, Jocelyn; De Cauwer, Isabelle; van Oers, Kees; Robinson, Matthew R; Quinn, John L; Groenen, Martien A M; Visser, Marcel E; Sheldon, Ben C; Slate, Jon


    Currently, there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic

  7. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys... (United States)


    ... Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Under OMB Review AGENCY.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk... families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In addition, the surveys...

  8. Quantitative phase analysis of uranium carbide from x-ray diffraction data using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Krishnan, K.


    Quantitative phase analysis of a uranium carbide sample was carried out from the x-ray diffraction data by Rietveld profile fitting method. The method does not require the addition of any reference material. The percentage of UC, UC 2 and UO 2 phases in the sample were determined. (author)

  9. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Revermann, T.; Karst, U.


    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is

  10. Teaching Children How to Include the Inversion Principle in Their Reasoning about Quantitative Relations (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Bell, Daniel; Barros, Rossana


    The basis of this intervention study is a distinction between numerical calculus and relational calculus. The former refers to numerical calculations and the latter to the analysis of the quantitative relations in mathematical problems. The inverse relation between addition and subtraction is relevant to both kinds of calculus, but so far research…

  11. Quantitative genetic tools for insecticide resistance risk assessment: estimating the heritability of resistance (United States)

    Michael J. Firko; Jane Leslie Hayes


    Quantitative genetic studies of resistance can provide estimates of genetic parameters not available with other types of genetic analyses. Three methods are discussed for estimating the amount of additive genetic variation in resistance to individual insecticides and subsequent estimation of heritability (h2) of resistance. Sibling analysis and...

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities (United States)

    Trexler, Grant Lewis


    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  13. A biology-based approach for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in ecotoxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.


    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for ecotoxicity can be used to fill data gaps and limit toxicity testing on animals. QSAR development may additionally reveal mechanistic information based on observed patterns in the data. However, the use of descriptive summary statistics for

  14. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Merel M. C.; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Hoesli, Irene M.; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R.; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M.; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y.; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Baaren, Gert-Jan


    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the

  15. Quantitative Research Methods in Chaos and Complexity: From Probability to Post Hoc Regression Analyses (United States)

    Gilstrap, Donald L.


    In addition to qualitative methods presented in chaos and complexity theories in educational research, this article addresses quantitative methods that may show potential for future research studies. Although much in the social and behavioral sciences literature has focused on computer simulations, this article explores current chaos and…

  16. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk


    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of

  17. Absolute quantitation of proteins by Acid hydrolysis combined with amino Acid detection by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga A; Körner, Roman; Kozmin, Yuri P


    Amino acid analysis is among the most accurate methods for absolute quantification of proteins and peptides. Here, we combine acid hydrolysis with the addition of isotopically labeled standard amino acids and analysis by mass spectrometry for accurate and sensitive protein quantitation...

  18. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.


    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  19. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhardt Stefan


    Full Text Available To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity according to DIN EN ISO 10993 for long time applications. The results showed that uncured residual monomers are the determining factor on the biocompatible properties of the photopolymeric system. Strategies to reduce these residual monomers in the cured photopolymer are presented.

  20. Non-additive measures theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narukawa, Yasuo; Sugeno, Michio; 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012)


    This book provides a comprehensive and timely report in the area of non-additive measures and integrals. It is based on a panel session on fuzzy measures, fuzzy integrals and aggregation operators held during the 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012) in Girona, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. The book complements the MDAI 2012 proceedings book, published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) in 2012. The individual chapters, written by key researchers in the field, cover fundamental concepts and important definitions (e.g. the Sugeno integral, definition of entropy for non-additive measures) as well some important applications (e.g. to economics and game theory) of non-additive measures and integrals. The book addresses students, researchers and practitioners working at the forefront of their field.  

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Shape Memory Alloys (United States)

    Van Humbeeck, Jan


    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing production process, also called 3D printing, in which functional, complex parts are produced by selectively melting patterns in consecutive layers of powder with a laser beam. The pattern the laser beam is following is controlled by software that calculates the pattern by slicing a 3D CAD model of the part to be constructed. Apart from SLM, also other additive manufacturing techniques such as EBM (Electron Beam Melting), FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling), WAAM (Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing), LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping such as Laser Cladding) and binder jetting allow to construct complete parts layer upon layer. But since more experience of AM of shape memory alloys is collected by SLM, this paper will overview the potentials, limits and problems of producing NiTi parts by SLM.

  2. Effects from additives on deacetylation of chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana Filho, Sergio P.; Signini, Roberta


    Deacetylation reactions of commercial chitin were carried out in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 115 deg C for 6 hours. The effect from additives (sodium borohydride or anthraquinone) and of bubbling inert gas (nitrogen or argon) on the characteristics of deacetylated samples were evaluated. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity were determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and capillary viscometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate changes in crystallinity and infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor structural changes due to deacetylation. The bubbling of inert gas during the deacetylation reaction resulted in more crystalline samples of chitosan. Deacetylation carried out without any additive produced slightly more deacetylated chitosan but they were severely depolymerized. The depolymerization process was much less important when sodium borohydride was added to the reaction medium but the addition of anthraquinone and the bubbling of nitrogen, or argon, did not have any effect, this suggests that oxygen is not required for depolymerization. (author)

  3. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) (United States)

    Vickers, John


    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  4. Evaluation of Advanced Polymers for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kutchko, Cindy [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fenn, David [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Olson, Kurt [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition, and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and inherently low-cost.

  5. Transfer of Training in Simple Addition. (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D


    In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e.g., practice B + 3, test B + 2 or B + 1). Here we constructed analogous simple addition problems (practice 4 + 3, test 4 + 2 or 4 + 1). In each of three experiments (total n = 108) participants received six practice blocks followed by two test blocks of new problems to examine generalization effects. Practice of addition identity-rule problems (i.e., 0 + N = N) showed complete transfer of RT gains made during practice to unpracticed items at test. In contrast, the addition ties (2 + 2, 3 + 3, etc.) presented large RT costs for unpracticed problems at test, but sped up substantially in the second test block. This pattern is consistent with item-specific strengthening of associative memory. The critical items were small non-tie additions (sum ≤ 10) for which the test problems would be implicitly practiced if counting was employed during practice. In all three experiments (and collectively) there was no evidence of generalization for these items in the first test block, but there was robust speed up when the items were repeated in the second test block. Thus, there was no evidence of the generalization of practice that would be expected if counting procedures mediated our participants' performance on small non-tie addition problems.

  6. Quantitative Developments in Turkish Higher Education since 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı GÜNAY


    Full Text Available In this study, quantitative developments in Turkish higher education during the Republic period from 1933, when the first university was established, to date are tried to be demonstrated. In parallel with this purpose, first, establishment dates of universities, number of universities by years as well as number of universities established during the periods of each presidents of Turkish Council of Higher Education are listed. Also, spread to all provinces as of 2008, the distribution of the number of universities with regard to provinces is given. On the other hand, development of Turkish higher education by years is examined by using several quantitative indicators about higher education. Thus, number of students in higher education, total number of academic staffs as well as those with PhD, improvement in the number of students per academic staff and higher education gross enrollment rates by years are shown. Furthermore, especially for big provinces in Turkey (Ankara, İstanbul and İzmir number of universities, number of students in higher education and higher education gross enrollment rates are provided. Distribution of higher education students according to higher education institutions, higher education programs and education types in 2011 is presented as well as distribution of academic staffs according to higher education institutions and information about their academic positions. In addition, quantitative data about higher education bachelor and associate degrees (numbers of programs types, programs, quotas and placed students in 2010 is given. Finally, the position of Turkish higher education in the world with respect to the number of academic publications and the change in the number of academic publications per staff by years are analyzed.

  7. Quantitative effects of cyanogenesis on an adapted herbivore. (United States)

    Ballhorn, D J; Heil, M; Pietrowski, A; Lieberei, R


    Plant cyanogenesis means the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in response to cell damage and is considered as an effective defense against generalist herbivores. In contrast, specialists are generally believed not to be affected negatively by this trait. However, quantitative data on long-term effects of cyanogenesis on specialists are rare. In this study, we used lima bean accessions (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus L.) with high quantitative variability of cyanogenic features comprising cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic precursors) and cyanogenic capacities (HCNc; release of gaseous HCN per unit time). In feeding trials, we analyzed performance of herbivorous Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) on selected lines characterized by high (HC-plants) and low HCNp (LC-plants). Larval and adult stages of this herbivore feed on a narrow range of legumes and prefer cyanogenic lima bean as host plant. Nevertheless, we found that performance of beetles (larval weight gain per time and body mass of adult beetles) was significantly affected by lima bean HCNp: Body weight decreased and developmental period of larvae and pupae increased on HC-plants during the first generation of beetles and then remained constant for four consecutive generations. In addition, we found continuously decreasing numbers of eggs and larval hatching as inter-generational effects on HC-plants. In contrast to HC-plants, constantly high performance was observed among four generations on LC-plants. Our results demonstrate that Mexican bean beetle, although preferentially feeding on lima bean, is quantitatively affected by the HCNp of its host plant. Effects can only be detected when considering more than one generation. Thus, cyanide-containing precursors can have negative effects even on herbivores adapted to feed on cyanogenic plants.

  8. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method (United States)

    Chu, Mengqi


    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  9. Advancing the Fork detector for quantitative spent nuclear fuel verification (United States)

    Vaccaro, S.; Gauld, I. C.; Hu, J.; De Baere, P.; Peterson, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Smejkal, A.; Tomanin, A.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Wiarda, D.


    The Fork detector is widely used by the safeguards inspectorate of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify spent nuclear fuel. Fork measurements are routinely performed for safeguards prior to dry storage cask loading. Additionally, spent fuel verification will be required at the facilities where encapsulation is performed for acceptance in the final repositories planned in Sweden and Finland. The use of the Fork detector as a quantitative instrument has not been prevalent due to the complexity of correlating the measured neutron and gamma ray signals with fuel inventories and operator declarations. A spent fuel data analysis module based on the ORIGEN burnup code was recently implemented to provide automated real-time analysis of Fork detector data. This module allows quantitative predictions of expected neutron count rates and gamma units as measured by the Fork detectors using safeguards declarations and available reactor operating data. This paper describes field testing of the Fork data analysis module using data acquired from 339 assemblies measured during routine dry cask loading inspection campaigns in Europe. Assemblies include both uranium oxide and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. More recent measurements of 50 spent fuel assemblies at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel are also analyzed. An evaluation of uncertainties in the Fork measurement data is performed to quantify the ability of the data analysis module to verify operator declarations and to develop quantitative go/no-go criteria for safeguards verification measurements during cask loading or encapsulation operations. The goal of this approach is to provide safeguards inspectors with reliable real-time data analysis tools to rapidly identify discrepancies in operator declarations and to detect potential partial defects in spent fuel assemblies with improved reliability and minimal false positive alarms

  10. Studies of alumina additions in zirconia - magnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.


    Ionic conductivity measurements have been carried out in the 500 0 C - 1000 0 C temperature range in Mg - PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia) with 0.5 to 10 mol % alumina additions. All specimens were prepared by pressing followed by pre - and sintering at 1000 0 C/2h and1450 0 C/4h, respectively. Thermal histerysis of the ionic conductivity have been detected, probably due to phase changes in the Mg-PSZ samples. The results show that alumina additions up to 2.1% enhances densification with no major variations in electrical resistivity values. (Author) [pt

  11. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt


    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  12. Photogrammetry for Repositioning in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janus Nørtoft; Lyngby, Rasmus Ahrenkiel; Aanæs, Henrik


    In this preliminary work, we present our current status on how to use single camera photogrammetry to determine the orientation of an additively manufactured partly finished object that has been repositioned in the printing chamber, from a single image taken with a calibrated camera, and comparing...... this to the CAD model of the object. We describe how this knowledge can be used to update the machine code of the printer such that printing of the object can be resumed in the new location. This opens possibilities for embedding and assembling foreign parts into the additive manufacturing pipeline, adding...

  13. The structure of additive conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmut Reen


    All additive conserved quantities are listed for a system with short range central force interaction between the particles: a special case shows up in Boltzmann H-theorem and his derivation of the Maxwell velocity distribution. It is concluded that in classical mechanics of mass points there are no other additive conservation laws besides of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass motion. A generator is considered of a symmetry transformation defined as integral over a conserved local current density where the latter, in general, needs not be covariant under translations

  14. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel... (United States)


    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal... Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse comment, we are withdrawing the...

  15. Bringing quality and meaning to quantitative data - Bringing quantitative evidence to qualitative observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpatschof, Benny


    Based on the author's methodological theory defining the distinctive properties of quantitative and qualitative method the article demonstrates the possibilities and advantages of combining the two types of investigation in the same research project. The project being an effect study...

  16. [Quantitative classification in catering trade and countermeasures of supervision and management in Hunan Province]. (United States)

    Liu, Xiulan; Chen, Lizhang; He, Xiang


    To analyze the status quo of quantitative classification in Hunan Province catering industry, and to discuss the countermeasures in-depth. According to relevant laws and regulations, and after referring to Daily supervision and quantitative scoring sheet and consulting experts, a checklist of key supervision indicators was made. The implementation of quantitative classification in 10 cities in Hunan Province was studied, and the status quo was analyzed. All the 390 catering units implemented quantitative classified management. The larger the catering enterprise, the higher level of quantitative classification. In addition to cafeterias, the smaller the catering units, the higher point of deduction, and snack bars and beverage stores were the highest. For those quantified and classified as C and D, the point of deduction was higher in the procurement and storage of raw materials, operation processing and other aspects. The quantitative classification of Hunan Province has relatively wide coverage. There are hidden risks in food security in small catering units, snack bars, and beverage stores. The food hygienic condition of Hunan Province needs to be improved.

  17. Fluorescence-based Western blotting for quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical samples. (United States)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Diestinger, Michael; Pirchegger, Petra; Skeledzic, Senada; Oehler, Rudolf


    Since most high throughput techniques used in biomarker discovery are very time and cost intensive, highly specific and quantitative analytical alternative application methods are needed for the routine analysis. Conventional Western blotting allows detection of specific proteins to the level of single isotypes while its quantitative accuracy is rather limited. We report a novel and improved quantitative Western blotting method. The use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies strongly extends the dynamic range of the quantitation and improves the correlation with the protein amount (r=0.997). By an additional fluorescent staining of all proteins immediately after their transfer to the blot membrane, it is possible to visualise simultaneously the antibody binding and the total protein profile. This allows for an accurate correction for protein load. Applying this normalisation it could be demonstrated that fluorescence-based Western blotting is able to reproduce a quantitative analysis of two specific proteins in blood platelet samples from 44 subjects with different diseases as initially conducted by 2D-DIGE. These results show that the proposed fluorescence-based Western blotting is an adequate application technique for biomarker quantitation and suggest possibilities of employment that go far beyond.

  18. Assessing College Students’ Quantitative and Scientific Reasoning: The James Madison University Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hathcoat


    Full Text Available Quantitative and scientific reasoning is a critical student learning outcome in higher education. Data are presented for large samples of undergraduate students who were assessed as entering freshmen and then again after completing 45-70 credit hours. Results are presented around four key issues that are central to educational assessment. First, entering freshmen with transfer credits for quantitative and scientific reasoning courses that fulfill general education requirements, on average, score similar to entering freshmen without such credit. About 97% of entering freshmen who had transfer credits received their credits through dual enrollment programs. As a sophomore-junior, students who had completed their general education requirements performed similar to students who had started, but not yet finished these requirements. Second, small to moderate correlations were observed between grade-point averages in relevant general education coursework and quantitative and scientific reasoning. Third, students’ quantitative and scientific reasoning, on average, increases from freshmen to sophomore/junior years. Finally, the proportion of students who meet faculty-set standards substantially increases from pre-test to post-test. Taken together, results suggest that changes in quantitative and scientific reasoning are a function of relevant courses. Additional research is needed to examine the role of lower-level versus higher-level courses in student performance. Results also indicate a need to investigate how differences in the quality of dual enrollment courses facilitate quantitative and scientific reasoning.

  19. 42 CFR 86.20 - Additional conditions. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 86.20 Section 86.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.2...

  20. 17 CFR 37.7 - Additional requirements. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 37.7 Section 37.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES... of section 5c(c) of the Act and § 40.2 of this chapter, derivatives transaction execution facilities...

  1. Additional reactor protection system of RBMK-1500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Analysis of anticipated transients without scram of RBMK-1500 reactor showed that additional reactor protection system is required. Data of accident analysis in the case of loose of external electric power and loose of vacuum in condensers of turbines are provided

  2. Neue Werkstoffe über additive Fertigung


    Günther, Johannes; Niendorf, Thomas


    Über die additive Fertigung, oftmals bezeichnet als 3D-Druck, lassen sich Bauteile nahezu beliebiger geometrischer Komplexität herstellen. Gleichzeitig lassen die Prozessrandbedingungen die direkte Einstellung der Mikrostruktur in den verwendeten metallischen Werkstoffen zu. Hieraus ergeben sich weitreichende Möglichkeiten bezüglich der Eigenschaftsoptimierung aktueller Hochleistungswerkstoffe.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos


    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461099

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  5. Probabilistic fuzzy systems as additive fuzzy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Verbeek, N.; Kaymak, U.; Costa Sousa, da J.M.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.


    Probabilistic fuzzy systems combine a linguistic description of the system behaviour with statistical properties of data. It was originally derived based on Zadeh’s concept of probability of a fuzzy event. Two possible and equivalent additive reasoning schemes were proposed, that lead to the

  6. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.


    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of

  7. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors (United States)

    ... In addition to maintaining the quality of the food, they help control contamination that can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening ... still be considered safe. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing ... limit the amount of food ingredients used in foods to the amount necessary ...

  8. Polymeric additive performance in closed whitewater systems (United States)

    T. H. Wegner


    “With more stringent requirements on discharge water quality and with escalating water treatment costs, water recycling within the paper mill is of growing importance. A serious problem resulting from more white-water recycling is reduced drainage and fiber or fines retention because of diminished polymeric additive performance. To provide better insight for overcoming...

  9. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... ARMY, W6QL ECC MIAMI DIV, MIAMI, FL. Service Type/Location: Industrial Laundry Service, Bureau of... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement List that will be provided by... concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the services and impact of the additions on...

  10. 78 FR 48656 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO. Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, US Coast... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who...

  11. 77 FR 27736 - Procurement List Additions (United States)


    ... Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. Service Type/Location: Laundry, Refurbishment, and Warehouse Services... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  12. 77 FR 29596 - Procurement List Proposed Additions (United States)


    .../Location: Laundry Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), (offsite: 1809 W 2nd Avenue... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... identified in this notice will be required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit...

  13. 75 FR 14576 - Procurement List Additions (United States)


    ... Inspection Service, Minneapolis, MN. M.R. Laundry Products NSN: MR 1103--Heavy Duty Laundry Bag. NSN: MR 1104... procurement list. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  14. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo


    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  15. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  16. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  17. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight (United States)

    Prater, Tracie


    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  18. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik


    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  19. 78 FR 53734 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ...: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  20. 78 FR 77105 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition (United States)


    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  1. 78 FR 50040 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  2. 78 FR 19248 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition (United States)


    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  3. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.


    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  4. 19 CFR 191.103 - Additional requirements. (United States)


    ... which the alcohol was withdrawn; (iv) Date of withdrawal; (v) Serial number of the tax-paid stamp or... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 191.103 Section 191.103 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration. (United States)

    Ophardt, Charles E.


    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  6. Additivity properties of a Gaussian channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth


    The Amosov-Holevo-Werner conjecture implies the additivity of the minimum Renyi entropies at the output of a channel. The conjecture is proven true for all Renyi entropies of integer order greater than two in a class of Gaussian bosonic channel where the input signal is randomly displaced or where it is coupled linearly to an external environment

  7. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity? (United States)

    ... 3 fatty acids found in certain types of fish, flaxseed and other foods. With David C. Agerter, M.D Food colours and hyperactivity. NHS Choices. Accessed Sept. 18, 2017. ...

  8. Additivity of quark masses in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.


    It is shown that, in spite of the confinement of quarks in (color-singlet) hadrons, effective quark masses of all types (dynamically generated, constituent and current masses), naturally form hadron masses in an additivity fashion. For the purposes of brevity, the discussion is limited primarily to the nonstrange flavor sector

  9. 76 FR 57719 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0583--Refills, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0584--Starter Kit, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0585...

  10. 78 FR 12296 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... services are proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed... and Trailer Wash, 55 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0649--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 5 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0650--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 55 GL...

  11. Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one ... anatomical models for surgery planning, and design and construction ... production of implants, particularly to replace bony structures, is ... Manufactured organs are, however, an elusive goal.

  12. Application of Natural Mineral Additives in Construction (United States)

    Linek, Malgorzata; Nita, Piotr; Wolka, Paweł; Zebrowski, Wojciech


    The article concerns the idea of using selected mineral additives in the pavement quality concrete composition. The basis of the research paper was the modification of cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. The application of the additives: metakaolonite and natural zeolite was suggested. Analyses included the assessment of basic physical properties of modifiers. Screening analysis, assessment of micro structure and chemical microanalysis were conducted in case of these materials. The influence of the applied additives on the change of concrete mix parameters was also presented. The impact of zeolite and metakaolinite on the mix density, oxygen content and consistency class was analysed. The influence of modifiers on physical and mechanical changes of the hardened cement concrete was discussed (concrete density, compressive strength and bending strength during fracturing) in diversified research periods. The impact of the applied additives on the changes of internal structure of cement concrete was discussed. Observation of concrete micro structure was conducted using the scanning electron microscope. According to the obtained lab test results, parameters of the applied modifiers and their influence on changes of internal structure of cement concrete are reflected in the increase of mechanical properties of pavement quality concrete. The increase of compressive and bending strength in case of all analysed research periods was proved.

  13. 76 FR 43988 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... this work, based on applicable experience. Finally, the purpose of the JWOD Act and the responsibility... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity. (United States)


    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for loan security, a borrower applying for an initial loan shall increase its net worth as a percentage of assets to...

  15. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sinter- ing and .... mental distribution of the components is shown in figure 7. It shows ... Chiang Y M, Birniand D and Kingery W 1996 Physical ceram-.

  16. 77 FR 34026 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ... provide interested persons an opportunity to submit comments on the proposed actions. Additions If the..., Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Office of Chief Counsel... Institute, Inc., San Antonio, TX. Contracting Activity: Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration...

  17. (ajst) additive main effects and multiplicative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 2, 2013 ... genotypes assessed by biplot analysis showed that the most stable ... biplot is a useful tool for the analysis of multi-environment trial (MET) data. ... multiplicative components, extracting first the additive ... The AMMI analysis of variance of cassava harvest index of the 8 .... wheat mega-environments in Iran.

  18. Stability issues in reconstitution by weapon addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    Reconstitution of strategic forces by the unilateral uploading of additional weapons from initially symmetric modest force levels reduces first strike stability. These changes are quantified and traced to changes in first and second strike costs in a model of missile exchanges in which both strikes are optimized analytically.

  19. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions (United States)


    ...-service area; clean and sanitize food service equipment, utensil cleaning, and dishwashing; clean pots... additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement... in this notice will be required to procure the services listed below from nonprofit agencies...

  20. 77 FR 60969 - Procurement List; Additions (United States)


    ... Are Blind or Severely Disabled published a notice for additions to the Procurement List with the... Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed..., Phoenix, AZ. Service Type/Location: Custodial and Grounds Maintenance Services, Austin Courthouse, 501...

  1. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 5.33 Section 5.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  2. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (United States)


    ... Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) has... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0103] Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption...

  3. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patete, J.m.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.


    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patete, J.M.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.


    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Conners

    Full Text Available Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC, whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1 Participatory mapping; 2 Quantitative interviews; 3 Sex work venue field observation; 4 Time-location-activity diaries; 5 In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions.

  6. "Why am i a volunteer?": building a quantitative scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cavalcante

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the validity of a quantitative instrument to identify what attracts someone to volunteer work, as well as what makes them stay and what makes them quit such an activity. The theoretical framework lists aspects related to volunteer work, which is followed by a discussion on models of analysis of volunteer motivation. As to the objectives, this research is descriptive, since it presents the analysis of the validity of a quantitative instrument that seeks to understand and describe the reasons for volunteering at the Pastoral da Criança, a Brazilian NGO. This instrument is based on theoretical ideas by Souza, Medeiros and Fernandes (2006. Reliability - Cronbach's Alpha - reached values between 0.7 and 0.8. Regarding Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy a good index was also obtained: 0.74. Despite the good results of reliability and sampling adequacy of factor analysis, none of the variables resulted in the expected combination, namely: indicators versus profile. It is necessary to improve the semantic meaning of certain factors, or even increase the number of indicators so as to generate additional correlations among them.

  7. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment? (United States)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, I W D; Olesen, A E; Drewes, A M


    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  8. Quantitative analysis of tellurium in simple substance sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Yoshiko


    The MIBK extraction-bismuthiol-2 absorptiometric method for the quantitative analysis of tellurium was studied. The method and its limitation were compared with the atomic absorption method. The period of time required to boil the solution in order to decompose excess hydrogen peroxide and to reduce tellurium from 6 valance to 4 valance was examined. As a result of experiment, the decomposition was fast in the alkaline solution. It takes 30 minutes with alkaline solution and 40 minutes with acid solution to indicate constant absorption. A method of analyzing the sample containing tellurium less than 5 ppm was studied. The experiment revealed that the sample containing a very small amount of tellurium can be analyzed when concentration by extraction is carried out for the sample solutions which are divided into one gram each because it is difficult to treat several grams of the sample at one time. This method also is suitable for the quantitative analysis of selenium. This method showed good addition effect and reproducibility within the relative error of 5%. The comparison between the calibration curve of the standard solution of tellurium 4 subjected to the reaction with bismuthiol-2 and the calibration curve obtained from the extraction of tellurium 4 with MIBK indicated that the extraction is perfect. The result by bismuthiol-2 method and that by atom absorption method coincided quite well on the same sample. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Method for the quantitation of steroids in umbilical cord plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, A.E.; Sparke, H.


    A method for simultaneous quantitation of nine steroids in cord plasma is described which consisted of Amberlite XAD-2 column chromatography at constant temperature of 45 degC, enzyme hydrolysis with β-glucoronidase/aryl sulfatase, addition of five radioactive internal standards, ethyl acetate extraction, thin-layer chromatography and quantitation by gas-liquid chromatography after trimethylsilyl ether derivative formation. Reliability criteria were established and the following steroid concentrations found: progesterone, 132.1+-102.5 μg/100 ml; pregnenolone, 57.3+-45.7 μg/100 ml; dehydroepiandrosterone, 46.5+-29.4 μg/100 ml; pregnanediol, 67.5+-46.6 μg/100 ml; 16-ketoandrostenediol, 19.8+-13.7 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, 126.3+-86.9 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxypregnenolone, 78.2+-56.5 μg/100 ml; androstenetriol, 22.2+-17.5 μg/100 ml and oestriol, 127.7+-116.9 μg/100 ml. (author)

  10. Correlative SEM SERS for quantitative analysis of dimer nanoparticles. (United States)

    Timmermans, F J; Lenferink, A T M; van Wolferen, H A G M; Otto, C


    A Raman microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate plasmonic structures by correlative SEM-SERS analysis. The integrated Raman-SEM microscope combines high-resolution electron microscopy information with SERS signal enhancement from selected nanostructures with adsorbed Raman reporter molecules. Correlative analysis is performed for dimers of two gold nanospheres. Dimers were selected on the basis of SEM images from multi aggregate samples. The effect of the orientation of the dimer with respect to the polarization state of the laser light and the effect of the particle gap size on the Raman signal intensity is observed. Additionally, calculations are performed to simulate the electric near field enhancement. These simulations are based on the morphologies observed by electron microscopy. In this way the experiments are compared with the enhancement factor calculated with near field simulations and are subsequently used to quantify the SERS enhancement factor. Large differences between experimentally observed and calculated enhancement factors are regularly detected, a phenomenon caused by nanoscale differences between the real and 'simplified' simulated structures. Quantitative SERS experiments reveal the structure induced enhancement factor, ranging from ∼200 to ∼20 000, averaged over the full nanostructure surface. The results demonstrate correlative Raman-SEM microscopy for the quantitative analysis of plasmonic particles and structures, thus enabling a new analytical method in the field of SERS and plasmonics.

  11. Divisional role of quantitative HER2 testing in breast cancer. (United States)

    Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fu, Peifen; Yamamoto, Satoko; Fujiwara, Saori; Honda, Yumi; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Iwase, Hirotaka


    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified in human breast cancers in which therapy targeted to HER2 significantly improves patient outcome. We re-visited the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues as alternative methods and investigated their particular clinical relevance. DNA and RNA were isolated from FFPE specimens and HER2 status was assessed by qPCR in 249 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer. Concordance with results forg immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH), clinical characteristics and survival was assessed. HER2 gene copy number had a stronger correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and excellent concordance with IHC/ISH results (Sensitivity: 96.7 %; concordance: 99.2 %). HER2 gene expression showed inadequate sensitivity, rendering it unsuitable to determine HER2 status (Sensitivity: 46.7 %; concordance: 92.1 %), but lower HER2 gene expression, leading to the classification of many cases as "false negative", contributed to a prediction of better prognosis within the HER2-amplified subpopulation. Quantitative HER2 assessments are suggested to have evolved their accuracy in this decade, which can be a potential alternative for HER2 diagnosis in line with the in situ method, while HER2 gene expression levels could provide additional information regarding prognosis or therapeutic strategy within a HER2-amplified subpopulation.

  12. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor. (United States)

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong


    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Additional Samples: Where They Should Be Located

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilger, G. G.; Costa, J. F. C. L.; Koppe, J. C.


    Information for mine planning requires to be close spaced, if compared to the grid used for exploration and resource assessment. The additional samples collected during quasimining usually are located in the same pattern of the original diamond drillholes net but closer spaced. This procedure is not the best in mathematical sense for selecting a location. The impact of an additional information to reduce the uncertainty about the parameter been modeled is not the same everywhere within the deposit. Some locations are more sensitive in reducing the local and global uncertainty than others. This study introduces a methodology to select additional sample locations based on stochastic simulation. The procedure takes into account data variability and their spatial location. Multiple equally probable models representing a geological attribute are generated via geostatistical simulation. These models share basically the same histogram and the same variogram obtained from the original data set. At each block belonging to the model a value is obtained from the n simulations and their combination allows one to access local variability. Variability is measured using an uncertainty index proposed. This index was used to map zones of high variability. A value extracted from a given simulation is added to the original data set from a zone identified as erratic in the previous maps. The process of adding samples and simulation is repeated and the benefit of the additional sample is evaluated. The benefit in terms of uncertainty reduction is measure locally and globally. The procedure showed to be robust and theoretically sound, mapping zones where the additional information is most beneficial. A case study in a coal mine using coal seam thickness illustrates the method

  14. Portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Liu, Fei; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu


    To realize portable device with high contrast imaging capability, we designed a quantitative phase microscope using transport of intensity equation method based on a smartphone. The whole system employs an objective and an eyepiece as imaging system and a cost-effective LED as illumination source. A 3-D printed cradle is used to align these components. Images of different focal planes are captured by manual focusing, followed by calculation of sample phase via a self-developed Android application. To validate its accuracy, we first tested the device by measuring a random phase plate with known phases, and then red blood cell smear, Pap smear, broad bean epidermis sections and monocot root were also measured to show its performance. Owing to its advantages as accuracy, high-contrast, cost-effective and portability, the portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be future adopted in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  15. Using Local Data To Advance Quantitative Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sweet


    Full Text Available In this article we consider the application of local data as a means of advancing quantitative literacy. We illustrate the use of three different sources of local data: institutional data, Census data, and the National College Health Assessment survey. Our learning modules are applied in courses in sociology and communication, but the strategy of using local data can be integrated beyond these disciplinary boundaries. We demonstrate how these data can be used to stimulate student interests in class discussion, advance analytic skills, as well as develop capacities in written and verbal communication. We conclude by considering concerns that may influence the types of local data used and the challenges of integrating these data in a course in which quantitative analysis is not typically part of the curriculum.

  16. Quality control in quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.A.; Joergensen, J.


    Computed tomography (CT) has for several years been an indispensable tool in diagnostic radiology, but it is only recently that extraction of quantitative information from CT images has been of practical clinical value. Only careful control of the scan parameters, and especially the scan geometry, allows useful information to be obtained; and it can be demonstrated by simple phantom measurements how sensitive a CT system can be to variations in size, shape and position of the phantom in the gantry aperture. Significant differences exist between systems that are not manifested in normal control of image quality and general performance tests. Therefore an actual system has to be analysed for its suitability for quantitative use of the images before critical clinical applications are justified. (author)

  17. Credit Institutions Management Evaluation using Quantitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac


    Full Text Available Credit institutions supervising mission by state authorities is mostly assimilated with systemic risk prevention. In present, the mission is orientated on analyzing the risk profile of the credit institutions, the mechanism and existing systems as management tools providing to bank rules the proper instruments to avoid and control specific bank risks. Rating systems are sophisticated measurement instruments which are capable to assure the above objectives, such as success in banking risk management. The management quality is one of the most important elements from the set of variables used in the quoting process in credit operations. Evaluation of this quality is – generally speaking – fundamented on quantitative appreciations which can induce subjectivism and heterogeneity in quotation. The problem can be solved by using, complementary, quantitative technics such us DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis.

  18. Quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Nariaki; Hoer, G.; Johost, S.; Maul, F.-D.; Standke, R.


    The method of quantitative analysis of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy using computer assisted technique was described. Calculated indices are washout factor, vitality index and redistribution factor. Washout factor is the ratio of counts at certain period of time after exercise and immediately after exercise. This value is neccessary for the evaluation of redistribution to the ischemic areas in serial imagings to correct the Tl-201 washout from the myocardium under the assumption that the washout is constant in the whole myocardium. Vitality index is the ratio between the Tl-201 uptake in the region of interest and that of the maximum. Redistribution factor is the ratio of the redistribution in the region of interest in serial imagings after exercise to that of immediately after exercise. Four examples of exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigrams and the quantitative analyses before and after the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were presented. (author)

  19. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela


    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height–height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO_xN_y, InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. (paper)

  20. Quantitative phosphoproteomics to characterize signaling networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy


    for analyzing protein phosphorylation at a system-wide scale and has become the intuitive strategy for comprehensive characterization of signaling networks. Contemporary phosphoproteomics use highly optimized procedures for sample preparation, mass spectrometry and data analysis algorithms to identify......Reversible protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of most, if not all, major cellular processes via dynamic signal transduction pathways. During the last decade quantitative phosphoproteomics have evolved from a highly specialized area to a powerful and versatile platform...... and quantify thousands of phosphorylations, thus providing extensive overviews of the cellular signaling networks. As a result of these developments quantitative phosphoproteomics have been applied to study processes as diverse as immunology, stem cell biology and DNA damage. Here we review the developments...