WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr19ja10p national ambient

  1. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  2. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  4. 76 FR 58509 - Release of Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead AGENCY... available for public review the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead: Risk and... and/or welfare effects in this review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead...

  5. Baseline ambient sound levels in Dry Tortugas National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Park Service (NPS), with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) are developing Air Tour Management Plans ...

  6. Baseline ambient sound levels in Point Reyes National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), with the cooperation of the National Park : Service (NPS) and assistance of the U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe : National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is developing Air Tour...

  7. Baseline ambient sound levels in Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Park Service (NPS), with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Transportation, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) are developing Air Tour Management Plans ...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2 NAAQS...

  9. Environment and Obesity in the National Children's Study Ambiente e obesidade no National Children's Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Trasande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the approach taken by the National Children's Study (NCS to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Although it is clear that obesity in an individual results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, control of the obesity epidemic will require understanding of factors in the modern built environment and chemical exposures that may have the capacity to disrupt the link between energy intake and expenditure. Through its embrace of the life-course approach to epidemiology, the NCS will be able to study the origins of obesity from preconception through late adolescence, including factors ranging from genetic inheritance to individual behaviors to the social, built, and natural environment and chemical exposures. It will have sufficient statistical power to examine interactions among these multiple influences, including geneenvironment and geneobesity interactions. A major secondary benefit will derive from the banking of specimens for future analysis.Descrevemos a abordagem do National Children's Study (NCS para entender o papel dos fatores ambientais no desenvolvimento da obesidade. Revisamos a literatura a respeito de duas hipóteses principais no NCS que se relacionam a origens ambientais da obesidade e descrevem estratégias que serão utilizadas para testar cada hipótese. Apesar de estar claro que a obesidade em um indivíduo é resultado de um desequilíbrio entre consumo e gasto de energia, o controle da epidemia de obesidade requer o entendimento de fatores no ambiente moderno e exposições químicas que podem ter a capacidade de interromper a ligação entre o consumo e gasto de energia. Através da aceitação da abordagem do curso de vida a epidemiologia, o NCS será capaz de estudar

  10. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  11. Why cross-national differences in role overload? Don't overlook ambient temperature!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    The finding that, across nations, power distance (expected and accepted unequal interpersonal influence) Is positively related to role overload (Peterson et al., 1995) might he an artifact of the relation between role overload and ambient temperature or other third factors. We related data on power

  12. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Eberhart, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications

  13. 76 FR 22665 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... criteria. The revised air quality criteria reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the... National Ambient Air Quality Standards, contains staff analyses of the scientific bases for alternative... Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY...

  14. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  17. Impact of National Ambient Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Designations on Particulate Pollution and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Corwin M; Choirat, Christine; Dominici, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    Despite dramatic air quality improvement in the United States over the past decades, recent years have brought renewed scrutiny and uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of specific regulatory programs for continuing to improve air quality and public health outcomes. We employ causal inference methods and a spatial hierarchical regression model to characterize the extent to which a designation of "nonattainment" with the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2005 causally affected ambient PM2.5 and health outcomes among over 10 million Medicare beneficiaries in the Eastern United States in 2009-2012. We found that, on average across all retained study locations, reductions in ambient PM2.5 and Medicare health outcomes could not be conclusively attributed to the nonattainment designations against the backdrop of other regional strategies that impacted the entire Eastern United States. A more targeted principal stratification analysis indicates substantial health impacts of the nonattainment designations among the subset of areas where the designations are estimated to have actually reduced ambient PM2.5 beyond levels achieved by regional measures, with noteworthy reductions in all-cause mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and respiratory tract infections. These findings provide targeted evidence of the effectiveness of local control measures after nonattainment designations for the 1997 PM2.5 air quality standard.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section 50.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...

  20. Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.

  1. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  2. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  3. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... 2. Linking ANC to Deposition 3. Linking Deposition to Ambient Air Indicators 4. Aquatic... ANC Levels 2. ANC Levels Related to Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems 3. Consideration of Episodic Acidity 4. Consideration of Ecosystem Response Time 5. Prior Examples of Target ANC Levels 6. Consideration...

  4. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  5. Development of improved ambient computation methods in support of the National Parks Air Tour Management Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Approximately 85 National Park units with commercial air tours will need Air Tour : Management Plans (ATMPs). The objective of an ATMP is to prevent or mitigate : significant adverse impacts to National Park resources. Noise impacts must be : charact...

  6. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, John

    2007-06-01

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the ambient standards programs established by the landmark 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies, including the recursive or circular system driven by ambient standards. Although this evolving system has resulted in tremendous improvements in air quality, it has been far from perfect in terms of timeliness and effectiveness. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. The most significant of these is the need to make more efficient progress toward air quality goals, while adjusting the system to address the growing intersections between air quality management and climate change.

  7. National automatic network of environmental radiological monitoring (RENAMORA); Red Nacional automatica de monitoreo radiologico ambiental (RENAMORA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Sanchez H, L. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlgonzalez@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    Inside the programs of Environmental Radiological Surveillance that it carries out the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS), it develops an National Automatic Network of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA), where it is carried out a registration of speed of environmental dose in continuous and simultaneous forms with the same moment of the measurement. This net allows to account with the meticulous and opportune information that will help to characterize, in dynamics form, the radiological conditions of diverse geographical zones of the country, including the sites that by normative require bigger surveillance, like its are the Laguna Verde Nuclear power station (CNLV), the Nuclear Center of Mexico (ININ) and the Radioactive waste storage center (CADER). This net is in its first development stage; three points inside the state of Veracruz, in the surroundings of the CNLV, already its are operating; the obtained data of rapidity of environmental dose are being stored in a database inside a primary data center located in the facilities of the CNSNS in Mexico city and its will be analyzed according to the project advances. At the moment, its are installing the first ten teams corresponding to the first phase of the RENAMORA (three stages); its are carried out operation tests, transmission, reception and administration of data. The obtained data will be interpreted, analyzed and inter compared to evaluate the risk levels to that it would be hold the population and to determine thresholds that allow to integrate the alarm systems that its had considered for emergency situations. (Author)

  8. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  9. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Zhong Shiyuan; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J.; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

    2010-01-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  10. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K., E-mail: hpreisler@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 800 Buchanan St, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Zhong Shiyuan, E-mail: zhongs@msu.ed [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 116 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1117 (United States); Esperanza, Annie, E-mail: annie_esperanza@nps.go [Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, 47050 Generals Highway Three Rivers, CA 93271 (United States); Brown, Timothy J., E-mail: tim.brown@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89521-10095 (United States); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej, E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Tarnay, Leland, E-mail: Leland_Tarnay@nps.go [Yosemite National Park, El Portal, CA 95318 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  11. Cognitive impacts of ambient air pollution in the National Social Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Lindsay A; Manjourides, Justin; Pun, Vivian C; Salhi, Carmel; Suh, Helen

    2017-07-01

    Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005. Cognitive function was assessed using the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM) for 3377 participants. Exposures to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) were estimated for each participant using GIS-based spatio-temporal models, and exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were obtained from the nearest EPA monitors. In adjusted linear regression models, IQR increases in 1 to 7year PM 2.5 exposures were associated with a 0.22 (95% CI: -0.44, -0.01) to a 0.25 (95% CI: -0.43, -0.06) point decrease in CCFM scores, equivalent to aging 1.6years, while exposures to NO 2 were equivalent to aging 1.9years. The impacts of PM 2.5 on cognition were modified by stroke, anxiety, and stress, and were mediated by depression. The impacts of NO 2 were mediated by stress and effect modification by impaired activities of daily living for NO 2 was found. Exposures to long-term PM 2.5 and NO 2 were associated with decreased cognitive function in our cohort of older Americans, and individuals who experienced a stroke or elevated anxiety were more susceptible to the effects of PM 2.5 on cognition. Additionally, mediation results suggest that PM 2.5 may impact cognition through pathways related to mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  13. Automatic national network of radiation environmental monitoring in Mexico; Red nacional automatica de monitoreo radiologico ambiental en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Jaime; Delgado, Jose L.; Lopez, Manuel; Zertuche, Jorge V., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jldelgado@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: mlopez@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jorge.zertuche@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), D.F. (Mexico). Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    The Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica (DVR) of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) de Mexico, performs several function for environmental radiation monitoring. One of these functions is the permanent monitoring of the environmental gamma radiation. For this, it implemented the Red Nacional Automatica de Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental (RENAMORA) - the National Automated Network for Environmental Radiation Monitoring,which currently comprises 60 detector probes for gamma radiation which with a programmable system that includes information technologies, data transmission and software can send the information in real time to a primary center of data located in the facilities of CNSNS. - When the data are received, the system performs the verification and extraction of the information organized in Tables and charts, and generates a report of environmental gamma radiation dose rate average for each of the probes and for each period of time determined bu CNSNS. The RENAMORA covers the main cities and allows to establish the bases of almost the entire country, as well as to warn about abnormal situations caused by incidents or natural events generated by human activities inside or outside the country which involves radioactive materials; paying special attention to main radiological sites, such as the surroundings of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plants, research centers and the radioactive waste disposal sites.

  14. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  15. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U), plutonium ( 238 Pu, 239/249 Pu), and americium ( 241 Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements

  16. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., respectively, and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and ambient air.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Ariel Rios Building, 1200...

  17. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM 2.5 , maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m -3 . Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m -3 . The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m -3 ) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM 2.5 (35 μg m -3 ). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM 2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire

  18. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  19. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  20. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  1. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  2. National subprogram 'Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental y de los Alimentos en la Republica de Cuba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to inform and raise awareness about the Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental y de los Alimentos in the Republica de Cuba. The radiological environmental monitoring is defined as the assessment of current or potential exposure of the population to radiation and radioactive materials released into the environment. It determines when is required the radiological environmental monitoring, what is a radiological environmental monitoring program, which are the points to consider during the design of this kind of program and what are their objectives. In addition, the program on the Republica de Cuba is focused, referring to the components of a radiological environmental monitoring program; equipment for the detection of radiations; the procedures for collecting environmental samples and laboratory analysis capabilities. It also noted the techniques of radiological environmental monitoring and is described extensively the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Ambiental of the Republica de Cuba. Likewise, it is included the table on radiological monitoring of food and water. Other radiological monitoring programs in Cuba are commented as the radiological control of industrial scrap [es

  3. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  4. Comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coral tissues and the ambient sediments from Kenting National Park, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Cheng, Jing-O.

    2014-01-01

    Surface sediments and corals (Acropora sp. and Montipora sp.) from the coastline of Kenting were analyzed in 2009 and 2010 for content levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in corasls (143–1715 ng g −1 dw) were significantly higher than in the ambient sediments (2–59 ng g −1 dw) indicating the bioaccumulation of PAHs in corals. The spatial and seasonal variation in PAH levels suggested that land-loaded contaminants may be the main source of PAHs in the Kenting coral reefs. Based on molecular indices, PAHs were substantially of petroleum origin. The major PAH components were phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorine, but PAH congeners in corals and sediments still have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the bio/accumulation mechanisms. Further study is essential to assess and understand the impacts of these chemicals on coral reefs. Highlights: • PAH concentrations in Kenting coral reefs ranked minor in the worldwide comparison. • Isomeric ratios of PAHs suggested an important contribution of petrogenic sources. • PAHs have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the bio/accumulation mechanisms. • Higher levels of PAHs were found in coral tissues than in sediments (bioaccumulation). • Coral body burdens of PAHs were significantly correlated to adjacent sediments only at the areas with higher levels of PAHs. -- PAH levels in coral tissues were higher than in adjacent sediments (bioaccumulation)

  5. Periodismo ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los periodistas toman el tema del medio ambiente cada vez más en serio. El uso de temas relacionados con el medio ambiente, debe estar ligado al análisis socio-económico y a las posibilidades de comunicación y educación de diferentes regiones del mundo. A continuación se presenta un resumen de la situación ambiental, las acciones de prensa y comunicación que se llevan a cabo en América Central (Panamá, El Salvador, Costa Rica y en Sudamérica Brasil,Colombia, Chile, México, y Perú. Se concluye en la necesidad de formar hábitos ecológicos. Los comunicadores deben presentar soluciones a los problemas, fomentar campañas comunes, compartir información y velar por el ambiente ambiente para que las generaciones futuras no tengan que perecer.

  6. Ambient Utopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bosse, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    his chapter presents an analysis of the ambitions that lie behind the concept of Ambient Intelligence as it is presented by the advocates and researchers working in the field. In particular it looks at the ideas regarding the forms of natural and intuitive forms of interaction that are envisaged –

  7. Technological and operational structure of the National Automatic Network for Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA); Estructura tecnologica y operativa de la Red Nacional Automatica de Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental RENAMORA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez G, E.; Lopez G, M.; Aguirre G, J.; Fabian O, R.; Hernandez A, Y., E-mail: elias.martinez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in Mexico is a decentralized body, under the Secretaria de Energia whose main mission is to ensure that activities involving nuclear and radioactive materials as well as ionizing radiation sources are carried out with maximum security, considering the current technological developments. In order to monitor the levels of environmental radiation to which the population is exposed, the CNSNS has established a series of radiological monitoring programs that allow characterize the environmental radiation levels in each zone or region in the country; to identify the occurrence of natural or artificial radiological events, such as nuclear tests and accidents in radioactive or nuclear facilities. The National Automatic Network for Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA) project was initiated with the support of the IAEA through MEX9/049 project and its purpose is to have a network of instruments that automatically and in real time, transmit information of the gamma radiological environmental status of the national territory and changes occurring in it. This network provides data such as the speed of ambient dose equivalent, temperature and humidity in different regions of the country. The network is composed of 92 stations that are distributed throughout the national territory. The structure of the stations has evolved since its inception, now allowing detection tasks, data transmission and managing them remotely from the main server, which is located in the CNSNS, which is performed a statistical dose for each monitoring station. Each monitoring station is formed in its current structure by a probe detection of gamma radiation, a communication module and associated electronics, a mini Web server DataGATE, a cellular modem and an interface converter. (Author)

  8. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  9. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  10. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  11. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  12. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer

    1999-01-01

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B

  13. Gender Disparity in Lung Function Abnormalities among a Population Exposed to Particulate Matter Concentration in Ambient Air in the National Capital Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Since the women in this study were non-smokers, the PM in ambient air can be considered to be the major reason for the decline in lung function. The sources of PM pollutants in the study locations are large scale infrastructural development activities such as building and road construction activities. Narrowed lung airways can alter the airway caliber or resistance and flow rates proportional to the airway radius, especially in smaller airways. The present study suggests the need for policy makers and stake holders to take the necessary steps to identify PM sources and reduce the emissions of PM concentrations in ambient air.

  14. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  15. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  16. The future is 'ambient'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  17. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  18. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Weber, W.; Rabaey, J.M.; Aarts, E.

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the concept of ambient intelligence and discuss its relation with the domain of intelligent algorithms. By means of four examples of ambient intelligent systems, we argue that new computing methods and quantification measures are needed to bridge the gap between the class of

  19. Persuasion in Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Aarts, E.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of persuasive technologies has lately attracted a lot of attention, only recently the notion of ambient persuasive technologies was introduced. Ambient persuasive technologies can be integrated into every aspect of life, and as such have greater persuasive power than the

  20. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  1. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES: This... FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air quality...

  2. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  3. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the new paradigm for user-centered computing known as ambient intelligence and its relation with methods and techniques from the field of computational intelligence, including problem solving, machine learning, and expert systems.

  4. Cleaning air pollutants for newborns in China: a national risk assessment on low birth weight caused by ambient fine particles during 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    With the ending of one-child policy since 2015, the number of newborns are expected to increase in China, where people are surviving from pool air quality. Air pollutants, especially PM2.5 have been confirmed as a top risk factor to cause birth defects including low birth weight (LBW). Motivated by the increasing demands of the newborns for cleaner air in China, we conducted the first national risk assessment study on LBW cases caused by PM2.5. We combined county-level PM2.5 concentrations in 2013-2015 and demographic data (including population counts, birth rates and etc.), province-level baseline incidences of LBW and multiple reference safety concentrations (0 μg/m3, WHO air quality guidelines and interim targets) to estimate the number of PM2.5-associated LBW in 31 provinces. The uncertainty was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on our results, in 2013 among 334,781 (95% CI: 313,024-344,568) cases of LBW, 122,684 (95% CI: 53,153-173,846, account for 37% of the total LBW) were attributed to PM2.5, when assuming the reference safety concentration as 0 μg/m3; while 53,917 (95% CI: 22,851-82,195, account for 16% of the total LBW) cases of LBW could have been protected, if the air quality met WHO WHO interim target-3, 35 μg/m3. Among 31 provinces, PM2.5-associated LBW were mostly distributed in Hebei (12.99%, 95% CI: 12.42%-17.30%), Henan (9.75%, 95% CI: 9.11%-13.50%) and Guangdong (8.60%, 95% CI: 6.98%-9.42%). During 2013 to 2015, air quality in China was reported to be improved by implement of emission-reduction policies. Similarly, we found significantly decreasing trends of infants weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in most heavily polluted areas, which protected 12,201 (95% CI: 4,749-20,503) and 24,637 (95% CI: 9,619-39,821) PM2.5-associated LBW in 2014 and 2015, account for 3.64% (95% CI: 1.46%-6.21%) and 7.36% (95% CI: 2.93%-12.07%) of that in 2013, respectively. The uncertainty of this study was mainly contributed by that in epidemiology

  5. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  6. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  7. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... tons per year of lead is necessary to provide sufficient information about airborne lead levels near... Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead and...

  8. Data based ambient lighting control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    In controlling an ambient lighting element, a category of data being rendered by a host is identified, ambient lighting data associated with the identified category is retrieved, and the retrieved ambient lighting data is rendered in correspondence with the rendered data. The retrieved ambient

  9. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  10. Statistical study of the activity developed in the Unit of Environmental Dosimetry and Personnel of the Radioprotection Service of the National Center of Environmental Health; Estudio estadístico de la actividad desarrollada en la Unidad de Dosimetría Ambiental y Personal del Servicio de Radioprotección del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Gimeno, G.; Moracho, J.; Sánchez, L.; Ballesteros, G.; Medina, P.; Castro, J.

    2016-07-01

    The service of radiation protection of the National Center for Environmental Health, which belongs to the Institute of Health Carlos III, began its activities in the 80’s. This study shows the dosimetry data of professionals working in the fields of health, research and/ or education, and the industry in radioactive installations controlled by the unit between 1992 and 2013. This work presents the different kinds of dosimeter and the evolution of the number of controlled people in the diverse activity fields during these 22 years, the trend of the average annual doses and the highest received doses, as well as the effect of the administrative doses. Finally a summary of the conclusions from these data is presented. [Spanish] El Servicio de Radioprotección (SRP) del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental, perteneciente al Instituto de Salud Carlos III, inició sus actividades en la década de los 80. Este estudio contiene los datos dosimétricos de los profesionales, que desarrollaron su actividad en instalaciones radiactivas controladas dosimétricamente por la unidad desde el año 1992 hasta 2013, dentro de los campos sanitario, de investigación y/o docencia, e industrial. En él se presenta los tipos de dosímetros utilizados y la evolución durante estos 22 años del número de personas controladas en las distintas ramas de actividad, la tendencia de las dosis individuales medias anuales y las dosis más altas recibidas, así como la incidencia de las dosis administrativas. Finalmente se hace un resumen de las conclusiones obtenidas a partir de estos datos.

  11. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  12. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  13. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  14. Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia de los factores ambientales determinantes de los estados de salud, realizar comparaciones internacionales, elaborar políticas de acción, así como facilitar la comunicación con la ciudadanía. La OMS desarrolló una metodología para el desarrollo de estos indicadores dentro del marco conceptual de información ambiental DPSEEA (Fuerzas impulsoras, Presión, Estado, Exposición, Efecto, Acción y seleccionó un total de 55 indicadores (que incluyen 168 variables sobre 10 áreas de la salud ambiental. Durante la fase de viabilidad se predijo que podrían obtenerse el 89% de los indicadores. Sin embargo la recolección de los datos supuso muchas dificultades debido a la incompatibilidad de algunas variables en los sistemas de información españoles con las variables definidas por la OMS. A nivel de gestión del proyecto, la mayor dificultad radica en la disparidad de responsabilidades en materia de medio ambiente y salud entre las instituciones españolas. Además de la aportación técnica a la salud ambiental en España, un valor añadido de este proyecto ha sido el establecimiento de líneas de colaboración estrechas con los responsables de los diferentes Ministerios implicados.

  15. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  16. Medio ambiente urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Chaves Mimbrero, Blanca

    2007-01-01

    El estudio  y análisis  de las interacciones  entre  ambiente  y desarrollo y  su inserción  en los procesos  de  planificación del crecimiento  social y económico  de  los  países  de América Latina, reviste especial interés para proponer alternativas de acción que  conduzcan  al  logro  de  una mejor  calidad de  vida.  El impacto  que las conferencias sobre  el  Medio Ambiente Humano Estocolmo (1972),  Cocoyoc  (1974) o de documentos como "Nuestro Futuro Común" o "Nuestra Propia Agenda" ha...

  17. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20 sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de desenvolvimento. A humanidade tem que regredir”. Este artigo apresenta a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da sustentabilidade, e interliga temas como: o ambientalismo, aglutinador de distintos pensamentos sobre as relações entre a sociedade e a natureza; o movimento ambiental, a fundamentar a disseminação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a gestão ambiental, abordada como prática orientada pelo conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  18. Diversidad de musgos en ambientes degradados sujetos a restauración en el Parque Nacional Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina Moss diversity in degraded environments under restoring in the Lago Puelo National Park (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E ROVERE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La restauración ecológica es una disciplina que intenta recuperar atributos perdidos en un ecosistema (diversidad de especies, estructura y función. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad de musgos y sus formas de vida en tres ambientes con diferentes niveles de degradación y los sustratos en los que estos se desarrollan. El área de estudio corresponde a un sector que se está restaurando dentro de la Reserva Nacional Lago Puelo. En ella se encuentran tres ambientes distintos: (1 área remanente de bosque maduro de Nothofagus dombeyi, (2 bosque secundario de Austrocedrus chilensis, y (3 matorral dominado por especies exóticas. Se recorrió cada uno de los ambientes, registrando los sustratos con musgos, formas de vida y géneros. Los resultados evidencian una reducción de los sustratos disponibles y de las especies presentes conforme avanza el grado de alteración, desde el área de bosque maduro de N. dombeyi (9 sustratos: 17 géneros: 7 formas de vida, al sector de bosque secundario de A. chilensis (6 sustratos: 8 géneros: 5 formas de vida, siendo menor en el matorral dominado por especies exóticas (1 sustrato: 4 géneros: 3 formas de vida. Los musgos desempeñan funciones importantes en los ecosistemas, son fundamentales en el balance hídrico, pioneros en suelos inestables controlando la erosión y colonizando sitios alterados, sirven como hábitat y alimento para invertebrados, y también constituyen sitios propicios para la germinación de plantas vasculares. Si bien algunas especies leñosas ven afectada su germinación por la presencia de musgos, estos facilitan la germinación de otras especies arbóreas de los bosques templados. Los resultados podrían ser utilizados en restauración, ya sea recreando los sustratos ausentes o realizando traslado de sustratos con musgos, a fin de favorecer la recuperación de áreas boscosas degradadas considerando la biodiversidad original.Ecological restoration is a discipline

  19. Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Frejo Moya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosférico entre las diversas fases medioambientales hace que sean considerados actualmente como compuestos peligrosos para el ser humano.

  20. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  1. Reforma constitucional y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Bustamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina está atravesada por una ola de reformas constitucionales. Sus causas, las expectativas que ellas despiertan, los riesgos que se han asociado al proceso de lucha política en su entorno, son temas de un análisis fundamentalmente político; pero hay algunos aspectos en los cuales ese debate tiene una directa repercusión sobre el tema ambiental. En el caso del Ecuador, esto se refleja en el hecho de que una de las innovaciones que se proponen, se refieren a una nueva forma de abordar los temas ambientales, básicamente se establecen Derechos de la Naturaleza.

  2. Construcción de bases conceptuales de la gestión ambiental en clave del pensamiento ambiental estético complejo. Estudio de caso de las organizaciones ambientales de la Universidad Nacional Sede Manizales = Conceptual construction of environmental management in terms of complex environmental aesthetic thought. Case study of environmental organizations at the National University at Manizales

    OpenAIRE

    Villota Martínez, Doris Adriana

    2012-01-01

    La investigación se forja desde nuevas perspectivas para abordar el tema de la gestión ambiental, una que tiene como base las urdimbres del orden que se muestran a través del discurso decolonial de Arturo Escobar, sobre el desarrollo aplicado al discurso de las cumbres ambientales internacionales y de las políticas nacionales. El otro pilar se configura con las tramas de la vida evidenciadas por medio del pensamiento estético complejo, que retoma las nociones de las teorías de la compleji...

  3. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...

  4. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proporcionan varias definiciones y se da la oficial de salud ambiental adoptada por la OMS en Sofía, Bulgaria (1993. A continuación se transcriben las áreas básicas que a la salud ambiental le han asignado diversas organizaciones o reuniones, como la OPS, la OMS, el Programa 21 y otros. A partir de aquí se construye un repertorio bastante completo de áreas y subáreas y se encuentra que todos los listados son, en realidad, una reunión asistemática de tres tipos de constituyentes: determinantes (factores o hechos de la realidad física, procesos (conjuntos de intervenciones y funciones (conjuntos de acciones de gestión, los cuales pueden enfocarse matricialmente y llevan a individualizar actividades de los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proponen unas reglas de operación que permiten, en una especie de álgebra, construir expresiones para especificar con precisión las actividades y sus agregados. De este modo se logra disponer de un lenguaje simbólico común que puede ayudar a la intercomunicación, enseñanza e investigación en el ámbito de la salud ambiental.

  5. Time-series analysis for ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Cao, R.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-02-01

    In this paper a dynamic system is presented which has been implemented to predict, every 5 min, the ambient concentrations of SO[sub 2] in the neighbourhood of a power station run by ENDESA, the National Electricity Company of Spain, in As Pontes. This prediction task is very important in order to prevent a high ground-level of concentration of SO[sub 2]. For forecasting a mixed model is used which has a parametric component and a nonparametric one. Confidence intervals are also constructed for future observations using bootstrap and classical techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) for lead (Pb) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES...

  7. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  8. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  9. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  10. Saúde ambiental e saúde do trabalhador na atenção primária à saúde, no SUS: oportunidades e desafios Environmental and workers' health, within the framework of primary health care in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Costa Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto busca contribuir para a discussão dos entrecruzamentos entre os campos da saúde ambiental e da saúde do trabalhador, referenciada no cenário brasileiro das relações produção/trabalho, ambiente e saúde e nas mudanças na organização do SUS, com destaque para o papel da atenção primária à saúde (APS, e se destina a contribuir para as discussões no processo de preparação da 1ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde Ambiental (1ª CNSA, prevista para ser realizada em dezembro de 2009. São descritos, de modo sintético, aspectos históricos e conceituais desses campos, algumas das características compartilhadas e as ações esperadas do sistema de saúde, com destaque para o papel da APS e a importância do diálogo com o movimento social. Finalizando, são identificados pontos para uma agenda de trabalho comum.This paper has the purpose of contributing to the discussion of the crossing areas between Environmental Health and Workers´ Health, in the Brazilian context of Labor, Production, Environment and Health. This paper emerges in the context of the current organizational changes of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS, with a major focus on Primary Health Care, having in mind, also, the preparation of the 1st National Environmental Health Conference (1ª CNSA to be held in December of 2009. So, historical and conceptual aspects of those fields are described in a summarized manner, as well as some shared features and expected actions of the Health System, with emphasis to the role of Primary Health Care and to the importance of the dialogue with the social movement. Finally, some topics for a common agenda were identified by the authors.

  11. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  12. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  13. TERCEIRO SETOR E MEIO AMBIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    MELO, MARINA FÉLIX DE

    2012-01-01

    Objetivamos discutir, brevemente, como têm se dado as discussões sobre o Terceiro Setor brasileiro e, particularmente, sobre as ONGs que atuam em defesa do meio ambiente, levantando questionamentos acerca das limitações enfrentadas pelo Terceiro Setor neste contexto

  14. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  15. The persuasiveness of ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a novel concept for embedded computing that builds on the large-scale integration of electronic devices into peoples’ surroundings and the ubiquitous availability of digital information to the users of such environments. The concept however is not only concerned with

  16. Ambient intelligence : visualising the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence systems are aimed at making user-system interaction and content consumption a truly positive experience. The endless search for nifty information visualisation mechanism to squeeze yet one more piece of information onto a visual display is surpassed by the challenge to embed

  17. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured Porous Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).

  18. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich body of literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), and there is strong support for an important role of ultrafine (nanosized) particles. At present, relatively few human health or epidemiology ...

  19. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  20. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system. The ...... are flexible and scale up to general tree structures admitting powerful restructuring operations....

  1. Ambient intelligence, ethics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Kort, H.S.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Soede, M.

    2007-01-01

    Networked and ubiquitous information and communication technologies (ICTs) and ambient intelligence are increasingly used in the home environment to facilitate independent living for older adults. These systems collect and disperse a high volume of personal data, which is used for assistance and

  2. Construindo cidadania ambiental na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Schwanke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2013v10n16p14 O forte componente transversal da Educação Ambiental possibilita sua inserção em vários espaços e níveis de escolaridade. No ensino fundamental, constitui-se em uma importante ferramenta para criar espaços que permitam a abordagem de temáticas socioambientais atuais, de forma crítica e participativa. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar o Projeto Construindo Cidadania Ambiental, executado por bolsistas do Grupo PET - Conexões Gestão Ambiental em unidades escolares, explicitando sua filosofia de implantação e resultados obtidos até o momento. Verifica-se que sua natureza interdisciplinar e integrada permite uma efetiva interação com o corpo docente e discente da escola, bem como permite a prática de uma educação ambiental crítica e transformadora.

  3. IC design challenges for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented experiences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as contextual awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  4. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  5. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  6. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  7. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  8. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  9. Haciendas Locales y Medio Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    1997-01-01

    Junto a los medios puramente administrativos orientados a la protección del medio ambiente, cada día adquieren mayor protagonismo los que pueden adoptarse desde el ámbito del derecho financiero, del ingreso y gasto públicos. El trabajo se ha estructurado en cuatro apartados: aguas, residuos sólidos, polución atmosférica y contaminación acústica.

  10. Hanford 200 East Area ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations, February 1968 through February 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1981-09-01

    Ambient concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) were measured in the vicinity of the 200 East Area of Hanford from late February 1968 through February 1969. This report contains an analysis of the complete set to document the ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations during time periods when the Purex Plant was emitting NO/sub x/. It is not intended to represent either current ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations or concentrations during Purex Plant operation in the future. However, it does provide a reference for use in comparison of ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations during future periods of Purex emissions with those occurring in past periods. It is also of interest to compare the annual average concentrations estimated from the measurements with the national primary ambient air quality standard for NO 2 , which is 50 parts per billion (ppb) annual arithmetic mean

  11. Maquinas virtuais em ambientes seguros

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Bispo de Castro

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Desde o início da computação a idéia de máquinas virtuais vem sendo aplicada para estender o multiprocessamento, multi-programação e multi-acesso, tornando os sistemas multi-ambiente. O contínuo aumento no poder de processamento dos computadores fez com que máquinas muito rápidas estivessem ao alcance de qualquer usuário, surgindo PCs com processamento, espaço em disco e memória suficiente para comportar mais de um sistema compartilhando o mesmo hardware. Basicamente, o objetivo das m...

  12. educación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ojeda Barceló

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TICs pueden constituir una herramienta de primer orden para la Educación Ambiental para la Sostenibilidad (EApS, pero todavía existe cierta reticencia por parte de educadores ambientales a hacer un uso de ellas de forma habitual. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión del estado de la cuestión tanto a nivel nacional como internacional e intentar hacer una propuesta didáctica de trabajo colaborativo a través de Internet para estudiantes de secundaria.

  13. Pediatria ambiental: um tema emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Valenzuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os artigos mais relevantes sobre a pediatria ambiental, seus efeitos potenciais para a saúde e, especialmente, seus avanços na prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos de 1990 a 2010, além de capítulos de livros relacionados à pediatria ambiental. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há uma variedade significativa de fatores que tornam as crianças altamente vulneráveis à exposição a riscos ambientais, associados principalmente ao consumo comparativamente maior de água, comida e ar por parte da criança, em relação ao seu peso corporal. De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, mais de 3 milhões de crianças menores de 5 anos morrem devido a doenças relacionadas ao meio ambiente. Aproximadamente 30-40% das doenças pediátricas estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais. As crianças estão constantemente expostas a vários riscos ambientais para a saúde, dentre os quais se destacam: água contaminada, falta de condições adequadas de saneamento, poluição do ar, vetores de doenças, perigos químicos, injúrias e acidentes. CONCLUSÕES: Atualmente, os pediatras são desafiados a tratar das necessidades de saúde ligadas à pediatria ambiental. A história pediátrica deve ser mais abrangente, acrescentando-se questões pontuais que ajudem a identificar potenciais riscos ambientais. A conscientização e o entendimento sobre os efeitos nocivos das várias condições ambientais e o conhecimento sobre as medidas de prevenção relacionadas resultarão em intervenções oportunas e adequadas que melhorarão a saúde e o desenvolvimento das nossas crianças.

  14. Continuous determination of gaseous ammonia in the ambient atmosphere using fluorescence derivatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Rana; Tanner, Roger L.

    A method for continuous determination of ambient ammonia levels employing o-phthalaldehyde fluorescence derivatization is described. A simplified Venturi scrubber and gas-liquid separator have been employed for reproducible measurements of ⩾ 0.1 ppb ambient ammonia with less than 2 min time resolution. The scrubbing efficiency of the ammonia gas collection system was determined to be 29 ± 1 %. During 4 d in August 1979 ambient ammonia levels at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site averaged about 1.5 ± 1.1 ppb during afternoon daylight hours.

  15. Impact of coal combustion from thermal power plant: estimates on ambient SO2 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Using a Gaussian dispersion model, ambient Ground Levels Concentrations (GLC) of SO 2 due to Nashik Thermal Power Plant have been computed. Annual GLC in 16 cardinal sectors and concentration levels in 6 atmospheric stability classes have been estimated as a function of down wind distance. The values are compared with national ambient air quality standard and risk involved due to the release of SO 2 from power plant has been assessed. (author). 8 refs., 2 appendixes

  16. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  17. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  18. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  19. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... advance. Commenters should notify Ms. Crabtree if they will need specific audiovisual (AV) equipment... data that assess effects of early life exposure to O 3 . Table of Contents The following topics are... working toward amending existing rules to establish new nationwide VOC content limits for household and...

  1. Teale National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  2. Ambient dose measurement in some CT departments in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, S. A. H.

    2012-09-01

    Computerized Tomography (CT) is now one of the most important radiological examinations world wide.The frequency of CT examinations is increasing rapidly from 2% of all radiological examinations in some countries a decade age to 10-15% now. During the imaging procedure, staff may expose to a significant dose. Therefore, ambient dose measurement is important in the shortage of regular personal monitoring in sudan. This study intended to evaluate the ambient dose at some CT departments (Medical Military hospital, Alamal National Hospital, Elnelin Diagnostic Center and Modern Medical Centre). These departments were equipped with daul, 16 and 64 multi detector CT machines. A survey meter (Radios) was used to measure ambient doses in three locations: Doors, Control Rooms and Adjacent Rooms. The ambient dose equivalent (scatter dose) was measured at various distances from the isocenter of the CT unit at various angles to establish isodose cartography. The mean and range of radiation at control room is 10.00-0.20 and mean (7.05μSv/hr,) reception 1.0-0 (0.40) and doors 4.00-100.00 (73.5) for height 1 meter above the ground. For height 2 meters at control room 0-10.00 (6,75), reception 0-90.00 (30) at door 9.00-90.00 (49.50). This study confirms that low levels of radiation dose are received by staff during CT imaging and these levels are within safe limits as prescribed by the national and international regulations. (Author)

  3. THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF TRAINING SYSTEMS QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT. CURRICULAR TRANSFORMATION AN EXPERIENCE IN UNDER THE UNIVERSITY NEW VENEZUELAN / EL PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÓN EN SISTEMAS DE CALIDAD Y AMBIENTE. UNA EXPERIENCIA DE TRANSFORMACIÓN CURRICULAR EN EL MARCO DE LA NUEVA UNIVERSIDAD VENEZOLANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Rosario Moreno Pino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Venezuelan university before the Bolivarian Revolution was characterized by institutional behavior that essentially promoted the exclusion for income level, university management linked to capitalist bourgeois interests, outdated laws remained in force and decontextualized, in its generality, the practice of university graduates was reproductive foreign models characteristic of the capitalist system. This reality has been changing radically progressive and after the enactment of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in 1999, the creation of the Bolivarian University, the Sucre Mission, Mission Alma Mater, the decree of Education Law, among other initiatives of the Bolivarian government. In this reality, originates the National Training Program in Quality Systems and Environment (PNFSCA as a college project, designed for a social, political, economic and cultural different: XXI century socialism. This paper aims to present the experience of reconstruction curriculum of this PNFSCA, through the joint efforts of Venezuelan and Cuban specialists in the areas of quality, environment and curriculum. As main results are, first, the determination of PNFSCA links with the Simón Bolívar National Project 2007-2013, curricular reconstruction of their goals, objectives, structure, curriculum, professional profiles and development of several programs Synoptics. Finally done, as a proposal, design and presentation of a master in the same program, aimed at teachers who administer it.RESUMENLa universidad venezolana antes de la Revolución Bolivariana se caracterizó por un comportamiento institucional que esencialmente promovía la exclusión para el ingreso al nivel, una gestión universitaria ligada a intereses de la burguesía capitalista, mantuvo en vigencia leyes obsoletas y descontextualizadas; en su generalidad, la práctica de los egresados universitarios era reproductora de modelos foráneos característicos del sistema

  4. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient di...

  5. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  6. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  7. Embedded systems design issues in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.; Basten, A.A.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented ex.periences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as context awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  8. Freedom and privacy in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes ethical aspects of the new paradigm of Ambient Intelligence, which is a combination of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’s). After an introduction to the approach, two key ethical dimensions will be analyzed: freedom and privacy. It is argued that Ambient

  9. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  10. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  11. Disputas pela legitimação de lógicas de uso e apropriação do meio natural: conservação ambiental, representações e conflitos no entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas – GO Disputes for the legitimisation of logics of use and ownership of the natural environment: environmental conservation, representations and conflicts in the surroundings of Emas National Park - GO Disputas por la legitimación de lógicas de uso y apropiación del medio natural: conservación ambiental, representaciones y conflictos en el entorno del Parque Nacional de las Emas – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cândido Fleury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguêsEste artigo visa discutir reconfigurações nas dinâmicas sociais a partir da incorporação de demandas provenientes da “questão ambiental”, tomando por base empírica o conflito no entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas, unidade de conservação ambiental localizada na divisa entre os estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul. Após observação direta, pesquisa documental, técnicas de associações livres de palavras e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 51 agentes na área de estudo, constata-se que a vivência coletiva da unidade de conservação possibilita uma atualização dos conflitos anteriormente existentes, podendo-se concluir que, nos embates pela apropriação do ambiente, estão em disputa sentidos culturais, pautados não apenas pelos interesses objetivos, mas também pelos significados que os distintos grupos sociais projetam para a construção comum do mundo ao seu redor.EnglishThis article aims to discuss reconfigurations in social dynamics starting from the incorporation of demands from "environmental issues", taking, on an empirical base, the conflict in the surroundings of EMAS National Park, environmental conservation unit located on the border of the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. After direct observation, desk research, techniques of free associations of words and semi structured interviews with 51 agents in the area of study, it is noted that the collective experience of the conservation unit enables an update of previously existing conflicts. One can therefore conclude that in collisions by ownership of the environment, cultural senses are in dispute, guided not only by objective interests, but also by the meanings that different social groups design for the collective construction of the world around them.EspañolEste artículo visa discutir reconfiguraciones en las dinámicas sociales a partir de la incorporación de demandas provenientes de la “cuestión ambiental

  12. Contabilidade ambiental o passaporte para a competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Pereira Kraemer

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os problemas ambientais provocaram grandes danos irreversíveis, que incidiram e incidem agora em todos os países subdesenvolvidos e desenvolvidos, nasce, então, como necessidade imperiosa, introduzir nos nossos sistemas econômicos a Contabilidade Ambiental, pois as organizações, até alguns anos atrás, preocupavam-se apenas com a eficiência dos sistemas produtivos. Chegamos a "era da revolução ambiental", e o ambiente não somente aparece como um conjunto de problemas relativos ao controle da contaminação, mas representa um custo no crescimento econômico. Neste sentido, o contador precisa de uma formação que se estenda além dos limites das técnicas e dos procedimentos. É necessário acrescentar o registro contábil do meio ambiente, dada a velocidade de sua afetação e a influência do mundo atual na utilização e disposição dos recursos naturais. Deve ser considerado como um dos princípios contábeis, onde é um desafio para a contabilidade. Precisa ser considerada como uma ciência contábil integrada, pois com a ciência ecológica e outras ciências são responsáveis pela natureza onde devem ser aplicados critérios de proteção ambiental, demonstrando que os recursos naturais constituem nosso principal capital. Partindo dessa premissa é que este trabalho está enfocando os seguintes tópicos: Responsabilidade Social da Empresa; A Empresa e o Meio Ambiente; Gestão Ambiental; Sistema de Gestão Ambiental; Ações para Preservar o Meio Ambiente - O Protocolo Verde, A Contabilidade, Custos Ambientais, Ativo Ambiental, Passivo Ambiental, Patrimônio Ambiental, Contabilidade Ambiental e Contabilidade Ambiental - o Passaporte para a Competitividade.

  13. Temporal-Spatial Ambient Concentrator Estimator (T-SpACE): Hierarchical Bayesian Model Software Used to Estimate Ambient Concentrations of NAAQS Air Pollutants in Support of Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To fulfill its mission to protect human health and the environment, EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on six selected air pollutants known as criteria pollutants: ozone (O3); carbon monoxide (CO); lead (Pb); nitrogen dioxide (NO2); sulfur dioxide ...

  14. Ambient fine particulate matter in China: Its negative impacts and possible countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zihan; Chen, Tingjia; Chen, Jiang; Qi, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced rapid economic development accompanied by increasing concentrations of ambient PM 2.5 , particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter. PM 2.5 is now believed to be a carcinogen, causing higher lung cancer risks and generating losses to the economy and society. This meta-analysis evaluates the losses generated by ambient PM 2.5 in Suzhou from 2014 to 2016 and predicts losses at different concentrations. Estimations of total losses in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Dalian, and Xiamen are also presented, with a total national loss in 2015. The authors then demonstrate that lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations would be a realistic way for China to reduce the evaluated social losses in the short term. Possible legal measures are listed for lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. The present findings quantify the economic effects of ambient PM 2.5 due to the increased incidence rate and mortality rate of lung cancer. Lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations would be the most realistic way for China to reduce tghe evaluated social losses in the short term. Possible legal measures for lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations to reduce the total losses are identified.

  15. CONFLITOS INTERPESSOAIS NO AMBIENTE ORGANIZACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Paganini de Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa e confirma a existência de impactos ocasionados pelos conflitos em um ambiente organizacional, através de pesquisa de campo realizada a partir de um estudo de caso e a comparação com a literatura adotada. A empresa escolhida foi abordada a partir de questionários, que foram respondidos pelos colaboradores e também pelo gestor. Percebeu-se que esses impactos são complexos de mensurar, principalmente os financeiros, que normalmente ficam ocultos por muito tempo. Entretanto, não se pode negar sua existência, pois estes tendem à piorar quando não são considerados.  Foi observado com a pesquisa que a conduta adotada para intermediar os conflitos está diretamente ligada ao sucesso de impedir impactos negativos aos indivíduos e à organização como um todo. Essas condutas, quando bem aplicadas podem contribuir reverter o impacto de um conflito, fazendo com que ele seja um fator motivador de mudanças e um estímulo para que os indivíduos demonstrem seus potenciais.

  16. GENES, POBLACIONES, AMBIENTES Y NACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noem\\u00ED Acreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura genética de 32 poblaciones de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay en función de las frecuencias génicas de ocho sistemas de grupos eritocitarios. Los sistemas incluidos son: ABO, MN, Ss, DI, P, Cc, Dd y Ee. En el caso de Bolivia, Paraguay y el Chaco Argentino, los datos fueron obtenidos de la bibliografía. La relación entre las poblaciones y diferentes criterios de agrupación (Ambiente, País, Grupo Lingüístico y Altitud fueron evaluadas por medio de Análisis Discriminante. Se consideró el porcentaje de casos correctamente clasificados como medida de la relación entre el conjunto de variables analizadas y el criterio de agrupación. Se encontró que tanto las categorías geoestructurales como lingüísticas establecidas tienen mayor relación con la estructura genética de las poblaciones incluidas en el análisis que las fronteras nacionales, por lo que se concluye que el aislamiento reproductivo entre poblaciones, necesario para la diferenciación, se produce por diferencias culturales o del territorio de ocupación antes que por las fronteras políticas establecidas.

  17. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  18. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  19. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  20. El dispositivo Problemática ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Di Pasquo; Tomas Busan; Gabriela Klier

    2018-01-01

    Se presenta y problematiza un dispositivo dirigido al tema de la problemática ambiental, del cual destaca su alcance global, su carácter de urgente y su capacidad para afectar a la viabilidad de la especie humana. A la vez, indicamos que esta caracterización de la crisis ambiental se encuentra asociada a una red institucional de corte internacional dirigida a la gestión de este tema. También, se señalan algunos intentos por utilizar a la problemática ambiental como coartada para el establecim...

  1. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  2. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; Appel, Lawrence J; McGready, John; Cutting, Garry R

    2018-01-01

    Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression. The NHANES III (1988-94) cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female) and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female), with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014). The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States. In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  3. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health.To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1 in the general population.Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression.The NHANES III (1988-94 cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female, with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively.After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014. The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States.In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  4. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  5. Games and Entertainment in Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors,

  6. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  7. Unidades de Pediatría Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    PARÍS M, ENRIQUE; MOLINA M, HELIA; RÍOS B, JUAN CARLOS

    2007-01-01

    Se considera que una Unidad de Pediatría Ambiental es una estructura con roles claramente definidos, situada preferentemente en un centro de salud, especializada en afecciones pediátricas, relacionadas al ambiente. Estos centros pueden proporcionar asesoramiento, información y tratamiento, promover la investigación, entrenar a profesionales, educar al público e informar a las autoridades responsables. Su personal, especialmente entrenado en problemas ambientales, incluye: pediatras, toxicólog...

  8. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  9. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  10. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...

  11. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  12. Agreements for energy and environment; Patto per l'energia e l'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In this paper are reported in ambit of italian national conference of energy and environment, an agreement undersigned by deputy of political and social forces. [Italian] In questo documento e' illustrato il patto per l'energia e l'ambiente cui hanno aderito forze sociali e politiche del paese.

  13. 78 FR 52192 - Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from effects of ammonia in freshwater... ammonia to freshwater aquatic life. On December 30, 2009, EPA published draft national recommended water... freshwater are intended to protect aquatic life and do not address human health toxicity data. The water...

  14. 76 FR 67437 - Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0787; FRL-9483-8] Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water... National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses (1985), (EPA/R-85... authorized Tribes in adopting water quality standards for protecting aquatic life and human health. These...

  15. Emissions from residential energy use dominate exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibear, L.; Butt, E. W.; Knote, C. J.; Arnold, S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of disease burden in India. Information on the source contributions to the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure is critical to support the national and sub-national control of air pollution. Previous studies analysing the contributions of different emission sectors to disease burden in India have been limited by coarse model resolutions and a lack of extensive PM2.5 observations before 2016. We use a regional numerical weather prediction model online-coupled with chemistry, evaluated against extensive surface observations, to make the first high resolution study of the contributions of seven emission sectors to the disease burden associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. We find that residential energy use is the dominant contributing emission sector. Removing air pollution emissions from residential energy use would reduce population-weighted annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 52%, reducing the number of premature mortalities caused by exposure to ambient PM2.5 by 26%, equivalent to 268,000 (95% uncertainty interval (95UI): 167,000-360,000) lives every year. The smaller fractional reduction in mortality burden is due to the non-linear exposure-response relationship at the high PM2.5 concentrations observed across India and consequently large reductions in emissions are required to reduce the health burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Keywords: ambient air quality, India, residential energy use, health impact, particulate matter, WRF-Chem

  16. La protección internacional del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint del Tema 14 de la asignatura "Derecho Internacional Público". Curso 2017-18. Tema 14. La protección internacional del medio ambiente: 1.- El Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente: caracteres específicos. 2.- Principios fundamentales del Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente. 3.- Medio ambiente y Desarrollo: el Desarrollo Sostenible.

  17. The Aesthetics of the Ambient Video Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Bizzocchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" [9]. This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.

  18. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  19. Evaluación ambiental del PRMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una revisión constructiva de las actuales disposiciones sobre la evaluación ambiental de los planes reguladores, intentada con el propósito de contribuir a mejorar los procedimientos en práctica. En este sentido, aboga porque al plan regulador no se le exijan contribuciones ambientales que excedan a sus verdaderas competencias, para lo cual introduce el concepto de "efectos territoriales"; justifica que su evaluación ambiental deba ser realizda mediante una "declaración", y ahonda en la forma de elaborar y presentar esta declaración, acogiendo lo que a este respecto estipula el Art. 15° del Reglamento de la ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente.

  20. Ambient Field Analysis at Groningen Gas Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Z.; Nakata, N.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze continuous ambient-field data at Groningen gas field (Netherlands) through cross-correlation processing. The Groningen array is composed of 75 shallow boreholes with 6 km spacing, which contain a 3C surface accelerometer and four 5-Hz 3C borehole geophones spaced at 50 m depth intervals. We successfully retrieve coherent waves from ambient seismic field on the 9 components between stations. Results show high SNR signal in the frequency range of 0.125-1 Hz, and the ZZ, ZR, RZ, RR and TT components show much stronger wave energy than other components as expected. This poster discuss the different type of waves retrieved, the utility of the combination of borehole and surface observations, future development as well as the importance to compute the 9 components of the Green's tensor to better understand the wave field propriety with ambient noise.

  1. Ocean Ambient Noise Measurement and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, William M

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ocean ambient noise mechanisms and measurements, and also describes general noise characteristics and computational methods.  It concisely summarizes the vast ambient noise literature using theory combined with key representative results.  The air-sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of non-dimensional variables requisite for future experiments.  Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented.  The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated.  Finally, this book provides a series of appendices giving in-depth mathematical treatments.  With its complete and careful discussions of both theory and experimental results, this book will be of the greatest interest to graduate students and active researchers working in fields related to ambient noise in the ocean.

  2. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    (TLBW, restriction (IUGR), and suggest that some subgroups of pregnant women who are smoking, of low or high body-mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status (SES) or asthma are more vulnerable towards...... on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite...... direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women...

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Morbidity in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Lawrence, Wayne R; Liu, Yimin; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The rapid economic growth in China is coupled with a severe ambient air pollution, which poses a huge threat to human health and the sustainable development of social economy. The rapid urbanization and industrialization over the last three decades have placed China as one of countries with the greatest disease burden in world. Notably, the prevalence rate of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CND), including respiratory diseases, CVD, and stroke, in 2010 reaches 16.9%. The continuous growth of the incidence of CND urgent needs for effective regulatory action for health protection. This study aims to evaluate the impact of rapid urbanization on status of ambient air pollution and associated adverse health effects on the incidence and the burden of CND and risk assessment. Our findings would be greatly significant in the prediction of the risk of ambient air pollution on CND and for evidence-based policy making and risk management in China.

  4. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  5. Comercio Internacional y Medio Ambiente en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rincón, Mario Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX A portada: Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Ambientales, Opción Economía Ecológica y Gestión Ambiental A portada: Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA) Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Desde la perspectiva de la Economía Ecológica, el Comercio Internacional no es un juego de suma positiva donde todos los participantes resultan ganadores por el intercambio comercial, sino que es un juego de suma cero, donde hay beneficiados y perjudic...

  6. Territorios vulnerables e injusticia ambiental en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Lacabana; Clara Bressano

    2016-01-01

    Justicia ambiental es un concepto fructífero en tanto modificó la perspectiva clásica de análisis sobre el problema de la degradación ambiental al establecer como principal interrogante no tanto las "causas" que producen tal degradación sino que interroga el proceso político, económico y social que consolida la desigual distribución social de las cargas nocivas de la contaminación. El conurbano sur de Buenos Aires y dentro de este el Municipio de Quilmes condensan distintas situaciones se vul...

  7. Human-Centric Interfaces for Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar

    2009-01-01

    To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s

  8. No queremos medio ambiente, lo queremos completo

    OpenAIRE

    Hederich G., Federico

    2018-01-01

    Sí bien es evidente la relación Hombre Medio Ambiente, no todos tenemos clara la manera como interactuamos interrumpiendo el desarrollo armónico de esta relación.El primer punto que vamos a tratar pretende esclarecer el significado de dos palabras básicas cuando se trata el tema del medio ambiente, en primera instancia, el término «basura» que se define como inmundicia, estiércol, y luego analizaremos «desperdicio» que significa derroche, residuo.Sí analizamos profundamente estas dos palabras...

  9. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  10. Nationalism in Stateless Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Robert Chr.

    "Nationalism in Stateless Nations" explores national identities and nationalist movements since 1967, using the examples of Scotland and Newfoundland. Adding to the debate about globalisation and the future of the nation-state, the book argues that ethnically rooted nationalism in modern liberal ...... - intellectuals, political parties and the media - the book combines historical, sociological, political and media studies analyses in an interdisciplinary investigation, providing a comprehensive account of the waxing and waning of nationalism....

  11. CUIDADO AMBIENTAL E RESPONSABILIDADE: POSSÍVEL DIÁLOGO ENTRE PSICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL E LOGOTERAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Arnaldo Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O cuidado ambiental vem sendo marcado pela tônica da conservação e da promoção da sustentabilidade. A premente necessidade de um dado compromisso e educação ambiental e de condutas pró-ambientais vem sendo defendida em vários contextos: na mídia, nas políticas públicas, por meio de campanhas sazonais. Todavia, pouco se descreve acerca do sentido presente nos modos de cuidado configurados a partir da inter-relação pessoa-ambiente. Nesta perspectiva, este estudo objetivou promover um possível diálogo a partir das contribuições da Psicologia Ambiental e da Logoterapia visando aproximar a noção de cuidado ambiental, delineada pela Psicologia Ambiental, à ideia de responsabilidade, como defendida pela Logoterapia, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. As articulações propositadas corroboraram, portanto, para acenar que a relação pessoa-ambiente pode ser arraigada em qualidade se a responsabilidade é reconhecida em sua propriedade de potencial humano, o que pode favorecer na emergência do sentido das atitudes e condutas pró-ambientais e explicitar o caráter de tarefa única e irrepetível inerente à vida.

  12. A compensação ambiental prevista pelo Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação (SNUC: a ADI nº 3.378 e o decreto nº 6.848/09 The environmental compensation concerning the National System of Conservation Units ("SNUC": the unconstitutionality action ADI n. 3,378 and the decree n. 6,848/09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Domingues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho traça a trajetória da compensação ambiental instituída pela Lei do Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação (SNUC, da sua criação, passando pelo julgamento do Supremo Tribunal Federal na ADI nº 3.378/DF (que a julgou parcialmente inconstitucional, com redução de texto, até a última regulamentação da matéria pelo Poder Executivo (Decreto nº 6.848, de 2009, pretensamente em consonância com a decisão da Corte. Da análise deste Decreto, depreende-se que foram previstos critérios para o cálculo da compensação ambiental os quais, na verdade, retomam a noção de percentual e vínculo ao custo do empreendimento impactante, em afronta à decisão proferida pelo STF, configurando violação à Separação de Poderes. Por outro lado, a nova redação do art. 31 do regulamento anterior, introduzida pelo Decreto citado, prevê a competência do IBAMA, órgão federal de licenciamento ambiental, para a fixação do valor da compensação, daí se deduzindo que apenas aos empreendimentos sujeitos a licenciamento pelo IBAMA, no exercício de competência federal exclusiva, poderá ser aplicada a compensação ambiental. Em síntese, este ensaio analisa as inovações trazidas pelo Decreto nº 6.848/09, assim como sustenta a natureza tributária da compensação SNUC, ainda não debatida pelo STF, mas que não deve ser olvidada.The work features the environmental compensation established by the Law on the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC, since its creation, the Supreme Court ruling of the Unconstitutionality Direct Action-ADI nº 3.378/df (that declared its partial unconstitutionality with text reduction, and the last regulation on the matter by the Administration as per Decree nº 6.848/09, intended to be in harmony with the Supreme Court decision. From the analysis of the Decree, we can infer that some standards set for the environmental compensation calculation, in fact retake the notion of a percentage

  13. Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)

  14. Nonsymbolic Gestural Interaction for Ambient Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    the addressee with subtle clues about personality or cultural background. Gestures are an extremly rich source of communication-specific and contextual information for interactions in ambient intelligence environments. This chapter reviews the semantic layers of gestural interaction, focusing on the layer...

  15. EXPERIENCIA INTEGRADORA PARA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Coronel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se relacionó la práctica experimental de laboratorio co n el análisis de problemas ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar una propuesta que vinculó el trabajo experimental con la situación del ambiente local para promover el cuidado de la naturaleza y su uso con sostenibilidad . Esta estrategia brindó un enfoque integrador aportando a los alumnos de profesorado una alternativa de aprendizaje con exper iencias sencillas para el estudio cualitativo de l ambiente local y motivar a l análisis de problemas asociad o s. Las experiencias permitieron caracterizar las muestras de suelo, agua y aire del lugar de residencia de los alumnos. La información experimental obtenida potenció la discusión de la situación ambiental actual. E l enfoque de enseñanza basado en problemas socio - científicos posibilit ó la visión interdisciplinar del tema , redimensionando valores y acciones para el cuidado ambiental y el desarrollo sustentable.

  16. Dynamical cognitive services for ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Lee, C.-S.; Wang, M.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence systems are more than a simple integration among computer technologies, indeed, their design can strongly depend upon psychology and social sciences aspects describing, analyzing and forecasting the human being status during the system's decision making. Consequently, if from a

  17. Visualizing ambient user experiences: any how

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, M.; Robben, S.; Veenstra, M.; Kröse, B.; Olivier, P.; Wright, P.

    2012-01-01

    As interactive systems become increasingly complex and entwined with the environment, technology is becoming more and more invisible. This means that much of the technology that people come across every day goes unnoticed and that the (potential) workings of ambient systems are not always clearly

  18. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  19. Ambient environment analysis by means of perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitterman, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.; Bhatt, M.; Schultz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of an ambient environment by means of perception is described. The surveillance of an object by human, who watches a scene via a monitor that shows camera sensed information, is investigated. Although the camera sensing process is a deterministic process, human perception of a scene via

  20. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception

  1. Visualizing ambient user experiences : any how

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Robben, Saskia; Kröse, Ben; Veenstra, Mettina

    2012-01-01

    As interactive systems become increasingly complex and entwined with the environment, technology is becoming more and more invisible. This means that much of the technology that people come across every day goes unnoticed and that the (potential) workings of ambient systems are not always clearly

  2. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  3. Territorios vulnerables e injusticia ambiental en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lacabana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Justicia ambiental es un concepto fructífero en tanto modificó la perspectiva clásica de análisis sobre el problema de la degradación ambiental al establecer como principal interrogante no tanto las "causas" que producen tal degradación sino que interroga el proceso político, económico y social que consolida la desigual distribución social de las cargas nocivas de la contaminación. El conurbano sur de Buenos Aires y dentro de este el Municipio de Quilmes condensan distintas situaciones se vulnerabilidad social ambiental donde los conflictos son acallados, ocultos o simplemente quedan latentes frente a la emergencia de mantener o crear nuevas fuentes de empleo. La cuestión ambiental no se constituyó durante años en un problema con relevancia pública si bien existieron tímidas políticas públicas que tendieron a regular los efectos de polución industrial y sus efectos sobre la calidad de vida de las personas.

  4. Setting priorities for ambient air quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Alberta has ambient air quality objectives in place for several pollutants, toxic substances and other air quality parameters. A process is in place to determine if additional air quality objectives are required or if existing objectives should be changed. In order to identify the highest priority substances that may require an ambient air quality objective to protect ecosystems and public health, a rigorous, transparent and cost effective priority setting methodology is required. This study reviewed, analyzed and assessed successful priority setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. It proposed an approach for setting ambient air quality objective priorities that integrates the concerns of stakeholders with Alberta Environment requirements. A literature and expert review were used to examine existing priority-setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. An analysis process was developed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques and their ability to take into account the complete pathway between chemical emissions and damage to human health or the environment. The key strengths and weaknesses of each technique were identified. Based on the analysis, the most promising technique was the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Several considerations for using TRACI to help set priorities for ambient air quality objectives were also presented. 26 refs, 8 tabs., 4 appendices

  5. Training Engineers for the Ambient Intelligence Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; De Russis, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the new breed of distributed intelligent systems, such as the Internet of Things, which require a diversity of languages and protocols, can only be tamed with design and programming best practices. Interest is also growing for including the human factor, as advocated by the "ambient intelligence" (AmI)…

  6. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  7. Preparation of heterogeneous networks for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, van der P.D.V.; Basten, A.A.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence assumes the existence of ubiquitous networked computing. Networking is supported in the home by a so-called home network. Currently, the home network emerges from the purchase of a second PC in the home. Extending the home network confronts the prospective buyer with a multitude

  8. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  11. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  12. Dynamic services for open ambient intelligence systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) [1] provides a wide-ranging vision on how the Information Society will evolve, since the goal is to conceive platforms for seamless delivery of services and applications making them effectively invisible to the user. This is possible by gathering best practices from

  13. Redox Toxicology of Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air pollution is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Millions of Americans live in areas in which levels of tropospheric ozone exceed air quality standards, while exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) alone results in 3.2 million excess deaths annually wor...

  14. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada

  15. Automated Processing Workflow for Ambient Seismic Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A. J.; Shragge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Structural imaging using body-wave energy present in ambient seismic data remains a challenging task, largely because these wave modes are commonly much weaker than surface wave energy. In a number of situations body-wave energy has been extracted successfully; however, (nearly) all successful body-wave extraction and imaging approaches have focused on cross-correlation processing. While this is useful for interferometric purposes, it can also lead to the inclusion of unwanted noise events that dominate the resulting stack, leaving body-wave energy overpowered by the coherent noise. Conversely, wave-equation imaging can be applied directly on non-correlated ambient data that has been preprocessed to mitigate unwanted energy (i.e., surface waves, burst-like and electromechanical noise) to enhance body-wave arrivals. Following this approach, though, requires a significant preprocessing effort on often Terabytes of ambient seismic data, which is expensive and requires automation to be a feasible approach. In this work we outline an automated processing workflow designed to optimize body wave energy from an ambient seismic data set acquired on a large-N array at a mine site near Lalor Lake, Manitoba, Canada. We show that processing ambient seismic data in the recording domain, rather than the cross-correlation domain, allows us to mitigate energy that is inappropriate for body-wave imaging. We first develop a method for window selection that automatically identifies and removes data contaminated by coherent high-energy bursts. We then apply time- and frequency-domain debursting techniques to mitigate the effects of remaining strong amplitude and/or monochromatic energy without severely degrading the overall waveforms. After each processing step we implement a QC check to investigate improvements in the convergence rates - and the emergence of reflection events - in the cross-correlation plus stack waveforms over hour-long windows. Overall, the QC analyses suggest that

  16. Sistemas de gestión ambiental normalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Fronti de García, Luisa; Pahlen, Ricardo José María; D’Onofrio, Paula Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    La contabilidad ambiental presupone la existencia de un sistema de gestión ambiental. Dentro del sistema integral de la organización, el sistema de gestión ambiental permite la obtención de información oportuna y segura. Podríamos definir el sistema de gestión ambiental de un ente como el conjunto de medidas destinadas a prevenir el impacto negativo de las actividades del ente sobre el medio ambiente. El sistema de gestión ambiental (SGA) es aquella parte del sistema de gestión total que incl...

  17. New Council of State degree on ambient air quality is in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnasto, O.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of the Environment is currently preparing a new Council of State decree on ambient air quality to implement EC directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for SO 2 , NO 2 , particulate matter and lead in the ambient air, the EC directive 2000/69/EC relating to benzene and carbon monoxide in the ambient air, and regulations in EC directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. The national legislation will come into force in July 2001. Current studies based on measurements and calculations show that the SO 2 concentrations in ambient air are generally low and clearly below the limit values. The same holds good for lead. However, the new limit values for NO 2 are exceeded in the largest towns, and the 2010 limit values for particulate matter presented in the guidelines are generally exceeded in small towns, too. The 2005 limit values for particulate matter are not so strict, and it is estimated that they will be exceeded especially in years when spring dust problems are serious. The limit values for CO may at times be exceeded in areas with heavy traffic. The limit values intended to protect the vegetation and the ecosystems are not exceeded in background areas to the implementation. As for benzene, it is assumed that the concentrations will generally be below the limit value in other parts of the world as well

  18. Significance and influence of the ambient temperature as a rate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , undoubtedly is dependent even on the level of the ambient temperature. Therefore, the ambient temperature seems to be an important factor of the corrosion rate and the durability of the reinforced concrete structures in aggressive ...

  19. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  20. Saúde Ambiental: uma Análise dos Resultados das Conferências Nacionais de Meio Ambiente, Saúde e Saúde Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Maury de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A representação nas políticas públicas do conceito de saúde ambiental, como expressão do equilíbrio da rede de conexões entre a sociedade humana e a natureza é discutida neste trabalho, no intuito de demonstrar o status quo da saúde ambiental nas políticas públicas no país. Primeiro foi traçado o histórico da “ambientalização na saúde”, do conceito de saúde ambiental e da institucionalização das políticas ambientais e de saúde ambiental no âmbito dos Ministérios do Meio Ambiente e da Saúde. As interações entre as políticas de Saúde e de Meio Ambiente para a efetivação de uma Política Nacional de Saúde Ambiental e as intersecções dos resultados das Conferências Nacionais de Saúde, Meio Ambiente e Saúde Ambiental foram analisadas; concluindo- se com os avanços conseguidos pelos dois setores, os desafios para a articulação intersetorial e a participação social para a construção de políticas públicas de saúde ambiental.

  1. MODIFICANDO O AMBIENTE ESCOLAR ATRAVÉS DO PROJETO MEIO AMBIENTE: CULTIVANDO E CONHECENDO AS PLANTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caroline Lopes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho intitulado “MODIFICANDO O AMBIENTE ESCOLAR ATRAVÉS DO PROJETO MEIO AMBIENTE: CULTIVANDO E CONHECENDO AS PLANTAS” tem como desígnio apresentar o desenvolvimento do projeto “meio ambiente: cultivando e conhecendo as plantas”, no qual teve como proposta sensibilizar os alunos sobre a importância e preservação do meio ambiente através da prática e modificação do ambiente escolar, onde procurou-se utilizar materiais reciclados, tais como, garrafas pet, pneus velhos, carreteis de fios de eletricidade, e também mudas de arvore, plantas e hortaliças. Desta forma buscou se utilizar da criatividade dos envolvidos no processo para a transformação do ambiente escolar seco e vazio, para uma ambiente alegre, e acolhedor. O projeto foi elaborado pelas professoras da Extensão Betel, e aplicado em parceria com acadêmicos do sexto semestre do curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia da Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso (UNEMAT, campus de Sinop. Tendo como proposta a interdisciplinaridade, o projeto foi divido em três eixos orientados pelas professoras Edneuza Alves Trugillo, Sinóvia Rauber e Mariza Kreinner, abrangendo assim alunos e professoras de duas turmas de 2º Ano do Ensino Fundamental, e acadêmicos e professores da Universidade, os eixos foram arborização, jardinagem e horta, onde teve a duração de aproximadamente dois meses. A finalização das práticas obteve resultados satisfatórios e objetivos alcançados, tanto pela sensibilização dos alunos sobre a preservação e importância do meio-ambiente, quanto pela prática de intervenção pelos acadêmicos envolvidos no processo, que em coletividade conseguiram modificar o ambiente escolar através do objetivo do projeto, meio-ambiente, proporcionando assim um enriquecimento na formação acadêmica enquanto práticas pedagógicas.

  2. Nation/non-nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnichsen, André; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2008-01-01

    Is nationality the only way of organizing political community? Given the ubiquity of the national principle, one might think so. But, in practice, the national principle is constantly challenged by what can be termed non-national identities. This article looks at manners in which such deviating...... identities can be conceptualized, how contemporary European states have attempted to deal with them when they arise and to what extent non-national modes of organizing political community can point towards a challenge to the national principle itself. In its capacity as an introduction to the special issue......, this article seeks to frame the subsequent articles within the overarching theme of the tension between national and non-national communities in contemporary Europe....

  3. Densification of silica glass at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lianqing; An Qi; Fu Rongshan; Ni Sidao; Luo, S.-N.

    2006-01-01

    We show that densification of silica glass at ambient pressure as observed in irradiation experiments can be attributed to defect generation and subsequent structure relaxation. In our molecular dynamics simulations, defects are created by randomly removing atoms, by displacing atoms from their nominal positions in an otherwise intact glass, and by assigning certain atom excess kinetic energy (simulated ion implantation). The former forms vacancies; displacing atoms and ion implantation produce both vacancies and 'interstitials'. Appreciable densification is induced by these defects after equilibration of the defective glasses. The structural and vibrational properties of the densified glasses are characterized, displaying resembling features regardless of the means of densification. These results indicate that relaxation of high free-energy defects into metastable amorphous structures enriched in atomic coordination serves as a common mechanism for densification of silica glass at ambient pressure

  4. Next generation intelligent environments ambient adaptive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nothdurft, Florian; Heinroth, Tobias; Minker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book covers key topics in the field of intelligent ambient adaptive systems. It focuses on the results worked out within the framework of the ATRACO (Adaptive and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies) project. The theoretical background, the developed prototypes, and the evaluated results form a fertile ground useful for the broad intelligent environments scientific community as well as for industrial interest groups. The new edition provides: Chapter authors comment on their work on ATRACO with final remarks as viewed in retrospective Each chapter has been updated with follow-up work emerging from ATRACO An extensive introduction to state-of-the-art statistical dialog management for intelligent environments Approaches are introduced on how Trust is reflected during the dialog with the system.

  5. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, H.R.; Memon, A.A.; Behan, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  6. ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Minaki

    2012-01-01

    mostrando que, a pesar de ser una pequeña ciudad, sus características de la ocupación son suficientes para generar una disminución en la calidad ambiental. En este trabajo, también fue posible proponer ideas para mejorar la calidad de estos espacios, desde el punto de vista de la Planificación del Paisaje.

  7. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue

  8. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  9. 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Pereira, António; González, Gabriel; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), held in Salamanca, Spain on June 3th-5th at the University of Salamanca. After a careful review, 27 papers from 10 different countries were selected to be presented in ISAmI 2015 at the conference and published in the proceedings.  ISAmI has been running annually and aiming to bring together researchers from various disciplines that constitute the scientific field of Ambient Intelligence to present and discuss the latest results, new ideas, projects and lessons learned, namely in terms of software and applications, and aims to bring together researchers from various disciplines that are interested in all aspects of this area. Ambient Intelligence is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human comput...

  10. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  11. LA DIMENSION AMBIENTAL Y LA EDUCACION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Humberto Arias Pabón

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El evidente deterioro ambiental al cual se enfrenta nuestra civilización, constituye una seria amenaza para la supervivencia de la especie humana por cuanto afecta sustancialmente la disponibilidad de recursos para mante ner el ritmo de producción de bienes y el avance tecnológico, característicos de la sociedad actual. Tal situación es causada no solamente por un equivocado modelo de desarrollo que considera incompatibles los conceptos de progreso material y conservación, sino por la ignorancia generalizada sobre la dinámica de los diversos procesos ecológicos que de forma natural buscan mantener el equilibrio ambiental del entorno. Ante este fenómeno la Fundación UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL plantea una estrategia educativa como parte de la solución al problema con el ofrecimiento del programa de Ingeniería en Recursos Hídricos, a través del cual busca integrar la Dimensión Ambiental con la formación universitaria de las juventudes colombianas.

  12. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikie, Iain D., E-mail: iain@kptechnology.ltd.uk; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metals. • Rastered photon energy scan overcomes inelastic scattering. • Relationship between photoemission threshold and contact potential difference. - Abstract: We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30–50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1–3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu{sub 2}O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  13. Ambiente e justiça: sobre a utilidade do conceito de racismo ambiental no contexto brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lays Helena Paes e

    2013-01-01

    A ideia de crise ambiental suscita discussões a respeito de distintas concepções de natureza e de ambiente e das disputas simbólicas e materiais neste meio. Uma concepção que toma sociedade e ambiente como pares inseparáveis levou à emergência, nos Estados Unidos, de movimentos que introduziram conceitos como justiça ambiental e racismo ambiental. No Brasil, surgiram movimentos e estudos focados nas mesmas bandeiras de luta e nos mesmos conceitos. Considerando as especificidades do racismo no...

  14. La Educación Ambiental una herramienta clave de la Gestión Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María josé Esteves Ivanissevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entendemos que el objeto de la educación ambiental no es el ambiente como tal, sino nuestra relación con él; la multiplicidad y diversidad de objetivos y la necesidad de anclar la intervención en cada contexto específico, hace de ésta una tarea inmensa y compleja. La provincia del Chubut registra desde el año 1999 un historial importante. Éste trabajo, toma lo realizado en la temática de eliminación de bolsas de polietileno en los espacios públicos, de forma interinstitucional y en ámbitos educativo formal y no formal. Con la hipótesis de que la educación ambiental constituye un instrumento de política ambiental preventivo atendiendo los problemas que afecten o pudieran afectar al ambiente; nos planteamos como objetivos: construir una ciudadanía ambientalmente responsable; Impulsar la formación y capacitación de docentes y actores sociales con una mirada ambiental; Contribuir a la conservación ambiental disponiendo de las nuevas tecnologías. La metodología se sustenta en una concepción que hace eje en el aumento de la participación de la sociedad. Desde el ámbito formal se trabajó durante el 2007-2011 con capacitaciones presenciales y a distancia, para docentes de nivel inicial y primario (434 capacitados, en forma conjunta con el Ministerio de Educación. El equipo de trabajo consta de cuatro profesionales del Ministerio de Ambiente y la colaboración de especialistas según el lugar y la temática. En el ámbito no formal se realizaron charlas y talleres con la comunidad (5826 capacitados; comunicación extrainstitucional por medios masivos de comunicación; campañas ambientales, trabajando en forma conjunta con organismos municipales, provinciales, no gubernamentales y privados. Se cubrieron 28 localidades en todo el territorio provincial. Se abarcó un gran número de docentes, quedando el trabajo con directores y supervisores, para pensar en la inclusión de las temáticas como los residuos sólidos urbanos, en el

  15. La economía ambiental y la política ambiental.

    OpenAIRE

    Caraballo, Leonardo Javier

    2007-01-01

    Presentación. Ramos Jiménez, Alfredo Los círculos bolivarianos. El mito de la unidad del pueblo. Arenas, Nelly y Gómez Calcaño, Luis Lo massmediático y las sociedades contemporáneas. Un acercamiento a la relación medios-democracia. Briceño Romero, Ysabel La economía ambiental y la política ambiental. Caraballo, Leonardo Javier Veinte años de democracia en la Argentina. ¿Qué democracia? Kers, Mercedes y Leiras, Santiago C. La ciencia de la política. Bolívar ...

  16. Auditoria Operacional Ambiental: Instrumento para Efetivação do Direito Fundamental ao Meio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azor El Achkar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de ressaltar a importância e competência dos tribunais de contas brasileiros em realizar auditorias publicas com enfoque na questão ambiental. Trata dos primórdios da lida com o tema, ressalta o destaque conferido pela Constituição Federal de 1988, evidencia a responsabilidade do Poder Publico com o assunto e observa que as cortes de contas tem missão constitucional de avaliar as acoes empreendidas para preservação e conservação do meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado.

  17. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  19. Pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental: tendencias en la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Tovar-Gálvez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda el problema del currículo de educación ambiental en la educación superior, para lo que se centra en los conceptos pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental. La metodología consiste en realizar un estado del arte para identificar las tendencias existentes sobre pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental, para desde allí diseñar una encuesta que es dirigida a profesores y estudiantes de programas con formación en lo ambiental, de algunas universidades en Bogotá, con el objetivo de identificar sus opiniones como expertos en lo ambiental. Los resultados muestran un especial énfasis en las tendencias sobre la complejidad, pero así mismo plantean la posibilidad de múltiples modelos según los contextos y necesidades.

  20. Arrefecimento evaporativo de ambientes e elementos construtivos

    OpenAIRE

    Vidigal, Filipa Vitória Santana

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Perfil de Construção A presente dissertação foi preparada no âmbito do Convénio existente entre o Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC) e a Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCT-UNL), tendo sido realizada no LNEC. A presente dissertação discute a capacidade dos materiais de construção porosos para promoverem o arrefecimento evaporativo de ambientes. A evaporação pode ser ...

  1. MESIANISMO EN EL PENSAMIENTO AMBIENTAL LATINOAMERICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Buitrago Dairo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se procura mostrar las formas de autoritarismo simbólico con las cuales las ideologías mesiánicas presentes en el pensamiento ambiental latinoamericano mantienen su cohesión ideológica, evidenciando las configuraciones simbólicas y las acciones que muestran la manera como estas simbologías se observan. Para ello, se argumentará la distinción y la coevolución entre el sentido antropocéntrico y el sentido diferenciado no­antropocéntrico.

  2. Sêneca e o ambiente hebraico de Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Silva de Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Enquanto ocupante de um cargo importante no Império Romano do I século, Sêneca certamente conheceu vários dos ensinamentos e práticas da comunidade hebraica de Roma, conforme observamos em alguns trechos de sua obra e de autores posteriores. Se por um lado seu pensamento parece se aproximar da doutrina e prática hebraicas, embora por razões diversas, por outro lado se afasta. Todavia ele soube, como nenhum outro escritor latino, manifestar o devido respeito e reserva ao ambiente hebraico da Urbs.

  3. Las cuentas nacionales y el medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Torres Pérez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales (SCN vigente, medido a través del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB soslaya todos los activos ambientales, así como su deterioro y depreciación de los recursos naturales por lo que refleja tasas que sobreestiman el crecimiento económico En el presente documento se discute sobre el SCN, sus limitaciones para cuantificar el deterioro del capital natural e impacto ambiental. Se presentan las experiencias desarrolladas en otros países y se promueve la posibilidad de desarrollar un sistema de cuentas nacionales en México que incluya los recursos naturales.

  4. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Sônia de Fátima; Vieira Júnior, Hélio

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Ann...

  5. Cognitive assisted living ambient system: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijiao Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The demographic change towards an aging population is creating a significant impact and introducing drastic challenges to our society. We therefore need to find ways to assist older people to stay independently and prevent social isolation of these population. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT provide various solutions to help older adults to improve their quality of life, stay healthier, and live independently for a time. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL is a field to investigate innovative technologies to provide assistance as well as healthcare and rehabilitation to impaired seniors. The paper provides a review of research background and technologies of AAL.

  6. Ambientes de aprendizaje en el siglo xxi

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, PhD Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    El papel de la educación en la sociedad ha cambiado debido al surgimiento de paradigmas y nuevas mediaciones que exigen las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Los ambientes de aprendizaje, entendidos como los espacios en los cuales se desarrollan los procesos de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, también están evolucionando de forma rápida y efectiva. Las nuevas generaciones son afectadas cada vez desde más temprana edad, por la inclusión de las diferentes tecnologías en su vida cotidi...

  7. 7th Ambient Assisted Living Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Klausing, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this book, leading authors in the field discuss developments of Ambient Assisted Living. The contributions have been chosen and invited at the 7th AAL congress, Berlin. It presents new technological developments which support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs. As the technological innovation raises also social issues, the book addresses micro and macro economical aspects of assistive systems and puts an additional emphasis on the ethical and legal discussion. The presentation is supported by real world examples and applications.

  8. Memory Tests with Ambient Odours "Make Scents"

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Marie

    2015-01-01

    An ambient odour of anise was used in a context-dependent memory study with three different memory tasks targeting both declarative and non-declarative memory functions. Declarative memory was assessed by means of two episodic memory tests; recall of a prose text and a complex figure. Priming was used to assess the non-declarative memory with word fragment completion. Memory was tested immediately and after 48 hours. The results showed a significant main effect of context (odour or not) for a...

  9. Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-03-01

    In vivo animal experiments demonstrate neurotoxicity of exposures to particulate matter (PM) and ozone, but only one small epidemiological study had linked ambient air pollution with central nervous system (CNS) functions in children. To examine the neurobehavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM and ozone in adults. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-2 (NES2) data (including a simple reaction time test [SRTT] measuring motor response speed to a visual stimulus; a symbol-digit substitution test [SDST] for coding ability; and a serial-digit learning test [SDLT] for attention and short-term memory) from 1764 adult participants (aged 37.5+/-10.9 years) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1988-1991. Based on ambient PM(10) (PM with aerodynamic diameter SDLT, but not in SRTT. Each 10-ppb increase in annual ozone was associated with increased SDST and SDLT scores by 0.16 (95%CI: 0.01, 0.23) and 0.56 (95%CI: 0.07, 1.05), equivalent to 3.5 and 5.3 years of aging-related decline in cognitive performance. Our study provides the first epidemiological data supporting the adverse neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollutants in adults.

  10. Ambient versus traditional environment in pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patricia S; Green, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine the effect of exposure to an ambient environment in a pediatric emergency department. We hypothesized that passive distraction from ambient lighting in an emergency department would lead to reduction in patient pain and anxiety and increased caregiver satisfaction with services. Passive distraction has been associated with lower anxiety and pain in patients and affects perception of wait time. A pediatric ED was designed that optimized passive distraction techniques using colorful ambient lighting. Participants were nonrandomly assigned to either an ambient ED environment or a traditional ED environment. Entry and exit questionnaires assessed caregiver expectations and experiences. Pain ratings were obtained with age-appropriate scales, and wait times were recorded. A total of 70 participants were assessed across conditions, that is, 40 in the ambient ED group and 30 in the traditional ED group. Caregivers in the traditional ED group expected a longer wait, had higher anxiety pretreatment, and felt more scared than those in the ambient ED group. Caregivers in the ambient ED group felt more included in the care of their child and rated quality of care higher than caregivers in the traditional ED group. Pain ratings and administrations of pain medication were lower in the ambient ED group. Mean scores for the ambient ED group were in the expected direction on several items measuring satisfaction with ED experiences. Results were suggestive of less stress in caregivers, less pain in patients, and higher satisfaction levels in the ambient ED group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  12. Pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental como fundamentos del currículo para la formación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Tovar-Gálvez

    2013-01-01

    Se trata el problema de la fundamentación del currículo para la formación ambiental en la educación superior, frente a lo cual es necesario construir los conceptos de pedagogía ambiental y de didáctica ambiental. El marco teórico permite definir las categorías "lo pedagógico" y "lo didáctico", a partir de lo cual se analiza la literatura y con ello definir pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental. El estado del arte permite establecer que existen dos sustentos teóricos: a) uno que se cimenta...

  13. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  14. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  15. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc. and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled. Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi, which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63 and carers (31 in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  16. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  18. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  19. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  20. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  1. The influence of ambient light on the driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.

  2. Ambient workplace heterosexism: Implications for sexual minority and heterosexual employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Costa, Paula L

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism, emotional reactions (i.e., fear and anger), and outcomes for sexual minority and heterosexual employees. Five hundred thirty-six restaurant employees (68% female, 77% White) completed an online survey assessing the variables of interest. Results showed that greater experiences of ambient workplace heterosexism were associated with heightened fear and anger and, in turn, with heightened psychological distress (for fear) and greater physical health complaints, turnover intentions, and lowered job satisfaction (for anger). Fear also mediated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and psychological distress. In addition, sexual orientation moderated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and fear such that sexual minority employees reported more fear than heterosexuals with greater ambient heterosexism. These effects occurred after controlling for personal experiences of interpersonal discrimination. Our findings suggest that ambient workplace heterosexism can be harmful to all employees, not only sexual minorities or targeted individuals. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  4. socio-ec(h)o: Ambient Intelligence and Gameplay

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkary, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The socio-ec(h)o project aims to research a generalized ambient intelligent software platform and design models for responsive environments based on the concept of ambient intelligent "ecologies" and group gameplay. The benefits of the research include a software-architecture, ambient intelligence inference engine, and interaction design models for gameplay and responsive environments. The paper will discuss the results of our prototypes for games in responsive environments. These prototypes ...

  5. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  6. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  7. Ambient pressure sensitivity of microbubbles investigated through a parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on microbubbles clearly indicate a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behavior of two microbubbles corresponding to two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20...... found, although the reduction is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  8. Simulation of microbubble response to ambient pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    The theory on microbubbles clearly indicates a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behaviour of two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20 cycles driving pulse, a reduction...... is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  9. Crisis ambiental, desastre natural y la "sociedad desierto"

    OpenAIRE

    Reynol Díaz Coutiño

    2010-01-01

    La crisis ambiental y los "desastres naturales" se muestran como un conjunto que está definido por la sensibilidad de los factores de correlación. La crisis ambiental se entiende como los cambios "inesperados" delos procesos de aquellos factores que forman el ambiente local. La transición silenciosa de tales cambios altera, cuando va más allá de ciertos límites, el frágil balance del medio ambiente, hasta que emerge el desastre. En este sentido, el desastre nos es natural, pero sí los fenómen...

  10. Ambient temperature, humidity and hand, foot, and mouth disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Bai, Lijun; Zhang, Yanwu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Xie, Mingyu; Zhao, Desheng; Su, Hong

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between ambient temperature, humidity and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been highlighted in East and Southeast Asia, which showed multiple different results. Therefore, our goal is to conduct a meta-analysis to further clarify this relationship and to quantify the size of these effects as well as the susceptible populations. PubMed, Web of science, and Cochrane library were searched up to November 22, 2017 for articles analyzing the relationships between ambient temperature, humidity and incidence of HFMD. We assessed sources of heterogeneity by study design (temperature measure and exposed time resolution), population vulnerability (national income level and regional climate) and evaluated pooled effect estimates for the subgroups identified in the heterogeneity analysis. We identified 11 studies with 19 estimates of the relationship between ambient temperature, humidity and incidence of HFMD. It was found that per 1°C increase in the temperature and per 1% increase in the relative humidity were both significantly associated with increased incidence of HFMD (temperature: IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; relative humidity: IRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). Subgroup analysis showed that people living in subtropical and middle income areas had a higher risk of incidence of HFMD. Ambient temperature and humidity may increase the incidence of HFMD in Asia-Pacific regions. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between ambient temperature, humidity and incidence of HFMD in various settings with distinct climate, socioeconomic, and demographic features. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. COMPLEJIDAD AMBIENTAL: PROPUESTAS ÉTICAS EMERGENTES DEL PENSAMIENTO AMBIENTAL LATINOAMERICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera de Echeverri Ana Patricia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se recogen las propuestas ético ambientales más importantes de la Escuela de Pensamiento Ambiental Latinoamericano, que ha ido construyéndose desde hace 30 años. Se destacan autores de primera línea en el campo de la construcción de Pensamiento Ambiental filosófico, como el Filósofo y Pensador Colombiano, de trascendencia latinoamericana, Augusto Ángel Maya, quien plantea la posibilidad de construir una Filosofía Ambiental Ético estética, dado que la Filosofía Moderna ha sido Metafísica, aún en sus corrientes empiristas, positivistas y neopositivistas. Se destaca la obra de Enrique Leff, mexicano, que propone los conceptos de Complejidad y Saber Ambiental, como puntos de partida de una ética en la educación, la ciencia y la tecnología, dentro de unas relaciones sistémicas y holísticas. Igualmente la propuesta ético estética compleja de Julio Carrizoza, colombiano, se hace presente en este ensayo, como una propuesta política fundamental ante problemas colombianos como son la violencia y la exclusión. Las propuestas de Filósofos colombianos de gran importancia en el campo de la Filosofía Política y Moral, que han desembocado en la propuesta de una Ética Ambiental, Pública y Comunicativa, como es el caso de Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez y de otros pensadores tanto de Colombia como de otros países latinoamericanos, se presentan en este espacio, con el fin de recoger de manera crítica nuestras ideas acerca de la posibilidad de una ética ambiental, es decir una ética descentrada, sin sujeto y sin objeto, una ética sistémica, donde los valores se construyen en las relaciones y donde la intricada trama de la vida, que ha venido construyéndose desde hace más de 2.500 millones de años, y de la cual somos meros hilos, pasa de ser objeto a ser valor primero en su más genuino sentido.

  12. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R [IT Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Meio Ambiente e Estado Constitucional Cooperativo

    OpenAIRE

    Campello, Lívia Gaigher

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo partiu da percepção de que há, na atualidade, uma perspectiva integrativa, fundamentada no princípio do desenvolvimento sustentável, que requer como seu pressuposto a realização de valores éticos e solidários. Assim, esta noção tem refletido nos parâmetros da busca pelo crescimento econômico, que deve ocorrer em consonância com a preservação dos direitos das presentes e futuras gerações. Nesse sentido, buscou-se desvendar os fundamentos e finalidades do Direito Ambiental no âmbito...

  15. EL GIRO AMBIENTAL DE LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Victoria Alvarado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se pretenden problematizar aquí las ciencias sociales desde el efecto que la metáfora del sur ha generado en nuestra comprensión de lo social y desde el reconocimiento de las reflexiones que buscan articularse con la condición am - biental de la cultura. En un primer momento se retoma el dibujo América invertida de Joaquín Torres para insistir en el despliegue metafórico del sur, y en una segunda parte se repasa la noción de contrato natural para resignificar las prácticas discursivas de las ciencias sociales. Se concluye con la urgencia del giro ambiental como un nuevo escenario para este campo de investigación.

  16. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  17. Can Ambient Scent Enhance the Nightlife Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Talke, Katrin S S; Oudshoorn, Dirk-Jan

    2011-06-01

    Ever since smoking was prohibited in restaurants, bars, and clubs, undesirable smells that were previously masked by cigarette smoke became noticeable. This opens up opportunities to improve the dance club environment by introducing pleasant ambient scents that mask the unwanted odors and to allow competing clubs to differentiate themselves. A field study was conducted at three dance clubs using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with pre- and post-measurements of no-scent control conditions. The three scents tested were orange, seawater, and peppermint. These scents were shown to enhance dancing activity and to improve the evaluation of the evening, the evaluation of the music, and the mood of the visitors over no added scent. However, no significant differences were found between the three scents.

  18. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO 2 levels since 1990; and higher SO 2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  19. Ambient and Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruser, Christoph; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Wartzek, Tobias; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring vital signs through unobtrusive means is a goal which has attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. This review provides a systematic and comprehensive review over the current state of the field of ambient and unobtrusive cardiorespiratory monitoring. To this end, nine different sensing modalities which have been in the focus of current research activities are covered: capacitive electrocardiography, seismo- and ballistocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography (PPG) and PPG imaging, thermography, methods relying on laser or radar for distance-based measurements, video motion analysis, as well as methods using high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Current trends in these subfields are reviewed. Moreover, we systematically analyze similarities and differences between these methods with respect to the physiological and physical effects they sense as well as the resulting implications. Finally, future research trends for the field as a whole are identified.

  20. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aquino-Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study.

  1. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  2. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  3. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  4. UNCED : La Cumbre Ambiental de Brasil /92

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    El mundo está a las puertas de celebrar una de las más importantes cumbres políticas, en la cual podrían tomarse decisiones de suma trascendencia que repercutirán en forma directa en la dinámica futura de la vida en el planeta. UNCED-92 (Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo que se realizará en Río de Janeiro), es la convocatoria a las más altas esferas de decisión política de los países miembros para concertar acuerdos que definirán, en buena parte, el perfil d...

  5. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  6. Ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje utilizando realidad aumentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nancy Martínez García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Realidad aumentada o Augmented reality es una nueva tecnología que al combinarla con espacios físicos permite ampliar el espectro de la información relacionada con dichos espacios; esto se hace a través de la superposición de imágenes, información o material audiovisual específico aplicado a cualquier área de conocimiento. Los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje basados en realidad aumentada prometen innovación debido a que transforman los escenarios de aprendizaje real mediante el uso de nuevas tecnologías aplicadas al ámbito educativo, complementando de esta manera la percepción e interacción con el mundo real; logrando el acceso a nuevos contenidos prescindiendo de recursos físicos. En cuanto al uso de la realidad aumentada aplicada al área de enfermería, existe un sinnúmero de herramientas para complementar una clase magistral y enriquecer el proceso de aprendizaje. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los desarrollos realizados utilizando realidad aumentada proviene de contextos diferentes al nuestro, por lo que resulta importante fomentar el uso de este tipo de herramientas para que suscite el interés de los desarrolladores locales de tecnologías aplicadas al ámbito educativo y más específicamente el de salud. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue fundamentar teóricamente acerca de los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje utilizando aplicaciones basadas en realidad aumentada.

  7. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  8. Ambient noise tomography of Lo'ihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClement, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Teel, A.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lo'ihi seamount, the youngest volcano in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, lies approximately 30 km south of Hawai'i Island with its summit still approximately 1 km below sea level. Lo'ihi offers a unique opportunity to study the early formation of a hotspot volcano and can provide insight into the deep internal structure of the other volcanoes that make up the Hawaiian Islands. This study uses Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) to create a 3D tomographic image of Lo'ihi's S-wave velocity structure from ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data. ANT has been used in many subaerial studies but has seen very few applications to OBS data. This study uses continuous data recorded in 2010 to 2011 from 12 short-period OBS instruments deployed on and around Lo'ihi. With the farthest distance between stations being just over 30 km, the stations provide a fairly dense coverage mainly for the northern half of the volcano. Following the approach of Masterlark et al. [2010], we computed vertical-vertical and vertical-radial cross-correlations using 97 days of continuous data from the 12 stations to produce the ambient noise Green's functions. From these, dispersion curves were produced over a frequency range from .04 Hz to 0.65 Hz . After a quality control analysis, checkerboard tests were used to determine a suitable cell size for the 2D group velocity inversions. The final step is the inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves to create a 3D Vs model. The 3D Vs image produced through this method does not provide clear evidence of a shallow magma chamber; however, when compared to a previous P-wave velocity (Vp) model [Caplan-Auerbach, 2001], a high Vp/Vs ratio is evident especially at depths from 1 km to 5 km, indicating the presence of highly fractured rock.

  9. DESIGUALDADE AMBIENTAL, ECONOMIA E POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Acselrad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Otexto discute as razões pelas quais a adoção efetiva de mudançasnas práticas e padrões técnico-espaciais do capitalismo destinadasa ajustar o ritmo da acumulação intensiva e as fronteiras daacumulação extensiva aos requisitos da reprodução utilitária deecossistemas não ocorreu até aqui – para além do que a própriadinâmica mercantil o tenha admitido. Sustenta que, por vigorar defato uma divisão socio-espacial da degradação ambiental, os danosambientais da acumulação são, de forma sistemática, destinadosaos grupos sociais e étnicos dominados – seja pela expropriaçãodas bases territoriais de formas sócio-produtivas não hegemônicas,seja pela deterioração das bases reprodutivas de grupos sociais quenão se integram ao circuito do capital a não ser como consumidoresforçados dos produtos invendáveis da atividade capitalista – achamada poluição. A tecnologia social acionada para a imposiçãodesigual de riscos é, no plano intra-nacional ou internacional, nocapitalismo liberalizado, a chantagem locacional dos investimentos –ou seja, a ameaça de deslocalização dos empreendimentos com acolocação dos trabalhadores em situação de competição, não sóno que diz respeito ao nível de seus salários, mas também aosdireitos e condições normativas destinadas a assegurar proteçãosocial e ambiental.

  10. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Brozell, Todd T; Rea, Charles; Boraston, Geoff; Hayden, John

    2009-11-01

    The California Construction and Industrial Minerals Association and the National Stone, Sand, & Gravel Association have sponsored tests at three sand and gravel plants in California to compile crystalline silica emission factors for particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter of 4 microm or less (PM4) and ambient concentration data. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) for ambient crystalline silica adopted in 2005 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. The REL applies to PM4 respirable PM. Air Control Techniques, P.C. sampled for PM4 crystalline silica using a conventional sampler for PM of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5), which met the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendix L. The sample flow rate was adjusted to modify the 50% cut size to 4 microm instead of 2.5 microm. The filter was also changed to allow for crystalline silica analyses using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7500. The particle size-capture efficiency curve for the modified Appendix L instrument closely matched the performance curve of NIOSH Method 0600 for PM4 crystalline silica and provided a minimum detection limit well below the levels attainable with NIOSH Method 0600. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.000006 to 0.000110 lb/t for screening operations, tertiary crushers, and conveyor transfer points. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 (below detectable limit) to 2.8 microg/m3. All values measured above 2 microg/m3 were at locations upwind of the facilities being tested. The ambient PM4 crystalline silica concentrations measured during this study were below the California REL of 3 microg/m3

  11. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  12. Health effects associated with exposure to ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan; Krewski, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current state of science, identifying policy-relevant gaps and uncertainties in the scientific evidence, and proposing a path forward for research and policy to improve air quality and public health. The objective of this paper is to review the current state of science addressing the impacts of air pollution on human health. The paper is one of four background papers prepared for the 2003 NERAM/AirNet Conference on Strategies for Clean Air and Health, the third meeting in the international Colloquium Series. The review is based on the framework and findings of the U.S. National Research Committee (NRC) on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter and addresses key questions underlying air quality risk management policy decisions.

  13. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  14. Derecho ambiental municipal: las intendencias frente a la problemática del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo presentado en las III Jornadas de Derecho Municipal celebradas del 9 al 11 de setiembre de 1998.en el Palacio Munieipal, con el auspicio de la IMM y la Éditorial Nueva Juridica.Contenido: Panorama de las competencias municipales a través de la ley 2.820 de 1903. Ley Orgánica Municipal 9515 de 1935 y capítulos de la Constitución de 1966 (arts.7,72 y 332. La Reforma Constitucional de 8 de diciembre de 1996 aprobada por la Asamblea General el 14 de enero de 1997, constitucionaliza el Derecho Ambiental y el Congreso Nacional de Intendentes. Naturaleza Jurídica, del Plenario Municipal Nacional. Antecedentes, vía de hecho, distintas materias, unidad y organicidad. El advenimiento del Derecho Ambiental en la legislación contemporánea y su incorporación en el ámbito municipal. El siglo XXI, el Derecho Ambiental, el rol de los Municipios y su trascendencia para el ciudadano

  15. Exploring distributed user interfaces in ambient intelligent environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadlani Mahtani, P.M.; Peregrin Emparanza, J.; Markopoulos, P.; Gallud, J.A.; Tesoriero, R.; Penichet, V.M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs) in the field of Ambient Intelligence (AmI). We first introduce the emerging area of AmI, followed by describing three case studies where user interfaces or ambient displays are distributed and blending in the user’s environments.

  16. Designing interactive ambient multimedia applications : requirements and implementation challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Nack, F.-M.; Hardman, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence opens new possibilities for interactive multimedia, leading towards applications where the selection, generation and playback of multimedia content can be directed and influenced by multiple users in an ambient sensor network. In this paper, we derive the basic requirements for

  17. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  18. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This concept addresses the fact that space exploration is costly, primarily due to our current need to bring everything with us from the Earth's surface. Truly...

  19. Wintertime Ambient Ammonia Concentrations in Northern Utah's Urban Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, I. A.; Martin, R. S.; Silva, P.; Baasandorj, M.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the population centers in northern Utah are currently classified as non-attainment or serious non-attainment, Wasatch Front, for PM2.5 and previous studies have shown ammonium nitrate to often be the largest contributor to the particulate mass. Furthermore, measurements have shown several of the Wasatch Front cities and Cache Valley (UT/ID) consistently recorded some of the highest ambient ammonia (NH3) concentrations in the continental United States. As a part of the multi-organization 2017 Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study real-time NH3 concentrations were monitored in the Cache Valley at the Logan, UT site, collocated at an EPA sampling trailer near the Utah State University (USU) campus. A Picarro model G2508 was to used collect 5-sec averaged concentrations of NH3, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) from January 16th to February 14th, 2017. Parts of three inversion events, wherein the PM2.5 concentrations approached or exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, were captured during the sampling period, including a 10-day event from January 25th to February 4th. Concentrations of all three of the observed species showed significant accumulation during the events, with NH3 concentrations ranging from below the detection limit (70 ppb. Preliminary analysis suggested the temporal NH3 changes tracked the increase in PM2.5 throughout the inversion events; however, a one-day period of NH3 depletion during the main inversion event was observed while PM2.5 continued to increase. Additionally, a network of passive NH3 samplers (Ogawa Model 3300) were arrayed at 25 sites throughout the Cache Valley and at 11 sites located along the Wasatch Front. These networks sampled for three 7-day periods, during the same study time frame. Ion chromatographic (IC) analyses of the sample pads are not yet finalized; however, preliminary results show concentrations in the tens of ppb and seemingly spatially correlate with previous studies showing elevated

  20. Dioxins and environment Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the generic term of dioxin is named the groups of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF, typical representans of the persistent organic compounds (POPs. They are obtained as not desired secondary products from several industrial process in which chlorine is used in some of its phases. The dioxins have centrated in the last decade an important part if the medical investigations in environmental health do to its notable toxicity, since they are one of the more powerful toxic chemical substances created by mankind, characterized for affecting the nervous and inmunitary system, being implicated into appearance of difference types of cancer and causing the appearance of several endocrine disorders, because of what they have been nowadays classified as endocrine disruptors. On degradation, bioaccumulation and on a large scale atmospheric transport capacity between the several environmental phases, make them to be considerate nowadays as dangerous compounds for human beings.Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosf

  1. 7 CFR 1466.4 - National priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., will be used in EQIP implementation: (1) Reductions of nonpoint source pollution, such as nutrients... quality impairment violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; (4) Reduction in soil erosion and... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT...

  2. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  3. Ambient noise levels in the Taiwan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W.; Liu, C.; Chen, R.; Huang, B.; Wu, F. T.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the island-wide background seismic noise in Taiwan, we estimate the power spectral density (PSD) at broadband stations of both the BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) and the TAIGER experiment (Apr. 2006~Apr. 2008) for periods ranging from ~0.2 to 100 seconds. A new approach to calculate the probability density functions of noise power (PDFs, MaNamara and Buland, 2004) is used in this study. The results indicate that the cultural noise at higher frequencies is significant at populated area, which shows diurnal and weekly variation as what we expected. The noise power for microseisms centered at a period of ~5 seconds around the western costal plain show ~20dB higher than what observed at eastern Taiwan. This observation supports the inference that the coastal regions having narrow shelf with irregular coastlines are know to be especially efficient at radiating the predominat microseisms. Results from the linear array across central Taiwan demonstrate that the average noise power is quietest at the eastern Central Range. We have mapped the PDF mode for stations at various periods to see the spatial distribution of ambient noise levels, which could be used as the basic information for future station siting. Temporal variation of noise PSD is also present to provide a quantitative description of the seismic data quality collected by both BATS and TAIGER experiment. Some operational problems like base tilt, sensitivity change can be identified easily as well.

  4. 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Nihan, Céline; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  5. 8th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Julián, Vicente; Villarrubia, Gabriel; Marreiros, Goreti; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, in which computers are used as proactive tools to assist people with their day-to-day activities, making their lives more comfortable. Another main goal of AmI originates from the human/computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means of user-friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly, as can be witnessed by the emerging natural-language-based and gesture-based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing, and their embeddedness in our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and take place without people actually noticing it. The only things people should notice in connection with AmI are more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a n...

  6. Banco del Sur y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Crespilho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente colaboración pone en la mesa del debate los objetivos de un banco de desarrollo, en la tradición económica-desarrollista, donde la satisfacción del desarrollo de los recursos naturales intentan mejorar no las condiciones de la población sino lograr las ventajas comparativas y el valor agregado que da la inserción al mercado mundial, frente a lo que debería ser un banco de desarrollo que invierta esa ecuación. La explotación de los recursos de una parte importante de la Amazonia está ligada a fomentar toda una serie de obras de infraestructura que harían un gran daño no sólo ecológico a la región sino a generaciones futuras. El autor discute la difícil problemática entre un banco de desarrollo que busca el equilibrio con el medio ambiente y un banco de desarrollo ligado a los intereses tanto del Estado como de las oligarquías exportadoras.

  7. ESPACIOS RENATURALIZADOS COMO AMBIENTES DE APRENDIZAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rosas

    2015-12-01

    Los espacios renaturalizados, se consolidan como ambientes de aprendizaje para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía y la convivencia, a partir del desarrollo de metodologías participativas y haciendo uso de tecnologías apropiadas. Para ello se diseñaron e implementaron una serie de sesiones, con el fin de contribuir a la transformación del entorno y de permitir la conectividad ecológica presente en el ecosistema estratégico ubicado allí mismo, además de consolidar experiencias en el desarrollo de capacidades ciudadanas esenciales. Para la institución educativa se construyó, un jardín agroecológico y se sembraron árboles con fines productivos y ornamentales, permitiendo de esa manera la generación de identidad con respecto a los espacios renaturalizados, la estructura ecológica, además de reconocer las relaciones socio-ecológicas que alrededor de estos espacios se desarrollan. Entorno a la intervención, se construyeron conocimientos propios del currículo, además se identificaron las problemáticas ambientales propias de la zona, permitiendo de esa manera la armonización de la relación naturaleza-cultura y la adaptación ecosistémica al cambio climático, que requiere la ciudad de Bogotá.

  8. EVALUACION DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL EN OBRAS VIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Martínez D.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es escrito, con el propósito de proporcionar elementos técnicos que contribuyan para orientar a los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinario, en valorar objetivamente los impactos ambientales provocados por la construcción de obras civiles y que suscitan el interés del dominio público y profesionales en la materia. Para ello hemos contado con la experiencia acumulada en instituciones gubernamentales y de índole privado y con nuestra experiencia profesional, en la construcción de obras civiles. El contenido del mismo, toma en cuenta varios criterios de especialistas en la materia y recursos disponibles; con ética y rigurosidad técnica. El objetivo de la evaluación de impactos ambientales, es predecir sobre la marcha y a futuro, estados alternativos de recursos y ambiente; convencidos que el cuido de la naturaleza puede convocar la voluntad de todas las partes y lograr trabajar armoniosamente, por la construcción de un futuro con desarrollo sostenible para nuestra nación y generaciones posteriores; satisfaciendo las necesidades del presente, sin poner en riesgo los recursos del futuro.

  9. 7th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Juan; Novais, Paulo; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Yoe, Hyun; Ramírez, Andres; Villarrubia, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inherent...

  10. Ambient krypton-85 air sampling at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevathan, M.S.; Price, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1982, the Environmental Evaluations Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated a network of continuous 85 Kr air samplers located on and around the Hanford Site. This effort was in response to the resumption of operations at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located onsite where 85 Kr was to be released during fuel dissolution. Preoperational data were collected using noble gas samplers designed by the Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas (EPA-LV). The samplers functioned erratically resulting in excessive maintenance costs and prompted a search for a new sampling system. State-of-the-art 85 Dr sampling methods were reviewed and found to be too costly, too complex and inappropriate for field application, so a simple bag collection system was designed and field tested. The system is composed of a reinforced, heavy plastic bag, connected to a variable flow pump and housed in a weatherproof enclosure. At the end of the four week sampling period the air in the bag is transferred by a compressor into a pressure tank for easy transport to the laboratory for analysis. After several months of operation, the air sampling system has proven its reliability and sensitivity to ambient levels of 85 Kr

  11. Ambient krypton-85 air sampling at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevathan, M.S.; Price, K.R.

    1984-10-01

    In the fall of 1982, the Environmental Evaluations Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated a network of continuous krypton-85 air samplers located on and around the Hanford Site. This effort was in response to the resumption of operations at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located onsite where krypton-85 was to be released during fuel dissolution. Preoperational data were collected using noble gas samplers designed by the Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas (EPA-LV). The samplers functioned erratically resulting in excessive maintenance costs and prompted a search for a new sampling system. State of the art krypton-85 sampling methods were reviewed and found to be too costly, too complex and inappropriate for field application, so a simple bag collection system was designed and field tested. The system is composed of a reinforced, heavy plastic bag, connected to a variable flow pump and housed in a weatherproof enclosure. At the end of the four week sampling period the air in the bag is transferred by a compressor into a pressure tank for easy transport to the laboratory for analysis. After several months of operation, the air sampling system has proven its reliability and sensitivity to ambient levels of krypton-85. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  12. 4th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenborg, Kasper; Rodríguez, Juan; Tapia, Dante; Novais, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  13. 3rd International symposium on ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, Dante I; Novais, Paulo; ISAmI 2012; Ambient Intelligence : Software and Applications

    2012-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  14. POLÍTICA PÚBLICA AMBIENTAL Y AMBIENTE EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA, 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Quiceno Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La política pública ambiental en el Valle del Cauca, a partir de 1991, va en contravía de la conservación ambiental al enfatizar en el crecimiento económico, la generación de plusvalía y la ampliación de la tasa de ganancia. Para la realización de esta investigación se adoptó como herramienta metodológica la revisión bibliográfica. Se halló que la política pública ambiental en el Valle se ha orientado a subsidiar monetaria, ecológica, ambiental y socialmente al sector cañicultor. Se concluye que dicha política ha contribuido al desequilibrio ecológico y al deterioro ambiental.

  15. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M.J. (National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Division of Environmental Health)

    1994-12-01

    Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Toolo and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mgm[sup -3], and with electric stoves, 0.9 mgm[sup -3]. In Tooloo, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mgm[sup -3], respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Radon-222 related influence on ambient gamma dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melintescu, A; Chambers, S D; Crawford, J; Williams, A G; Zorila, B; Galeriu, D

    2018-04-03

    Ambient gamma dose, radon, and rainfall have been monitored in southern Bucharest, Romania, from 2010 to 2016. The seasonal cycle of background ambient gamma dose peaked between July and October (100-105 nSv h -1 ), with minimum values in February (75-80 nSv h -1 ), the time of maximum snow cover. Based on 10 m a.g.l. radon concentrations, the ambient gamma dose increased by around 1 nSv h -1 for every 5 Bq m -3 increase in radon. Radon variability attributable to diurnal changes in atmospheric mixing contributed less than 15 nSv h -1 to the overall variability in ambient gamma dose, a factor of 4 more than synoptic timescale changes in air mass fetch. By contrast, precipitation-related enhancements of the ambient gamma dose were 15-80 nSv h -1 . To facilitate routine analysis, and account in part for occasional equipment failure, an automated method for identifying precipitation spikes in the ambient gamma dose was developed. Lastly, a simple model for predicting rainfall-related enhancement of the ambient gamma dose is tested against rainfall observations from events of contrasting duration and intensity. Results are also compared with those from previously published models of simple and complex formulation. Generally, the model performed very well. When simulations underestimated observations the absolute difference was typically less than the natural variability in ambient gamma dose arising from atmospheric mixing influences. Consequently, combined use of the automated event detection method and the simple model of this study could enable the ambient gamma dose "attention limit" (which indicates a potential radiological emergency) to be reduced from 200 to 400% above background to 25-50%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical simulation of ambient flow and thermal distributions in a spent fuel storage cask array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michener, T.; Trent, D.S.; Guttmann, J.; Bajwa, C.

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) analyzed the thermal performance of the Utah Private Fuel Storage (PFS) using the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics software. A three-dimensional section of the PFS with a total of 20 casks was modeled to estimate the ambient flow and temperature distributions surrounding the casks. The purpose of this analysis was to compute the cask inlet vent air temperature to be used for boundary conditions in a detailed analysis of an individual Holtec Hi-Storm 100 cask using the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) thermal hydraulic computer software. (author)

  18. Mapas de ruido: mecanismo de control del ruido ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez García, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Los primeros mecanismos de control del ruido ambiental fueron los mapas acústicos. La Directiva Europea 2002149/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo de Evatuacián y Gestión del Ruido Ambiental, exige, a los estados miembros,  se midan los niveles de ruido, en su entorno local, con  el fin de contar con indicadores de ruido comunes. elaborar mapas de ruido y planes de acción destinados a reducir los efectos nocivos de ruido ambiental.  Las directrices para la elaboración de l...

  19. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  20. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  1. El atal como ambiente de aprendizaje inclusivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada González Falcón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas la creciente llegada de población inmigrantes en España ha generado la determinación de nuevas políticas educativas de escolarización para el alumnado de origen extranjero. En la comunidad andaluza, se destaca la creación del “Aula Temporal de Aceleración Lingüística” para la promoción de la enseñanza de la lengua vehicular y la integración socioeducativa del alumnado de origen extranjero. El trabajo que aquí se presenta forma parte de proyecto nacional I+D+I (Ref. CSO2013-43266-R sobre las trayectorias de estos dispositivos. Este artículo se formula bajo un doble objetivo: por un lado, analizar las variables didácticas que se desarrollan en las ATAL de dos centros públicos de educación secundaria de la provincia onubense; y por otro, valorar las semejanzas y disonancias entre dichas aulas a través de un estudio etnográfico, explicitando de igual modo los condicionantes en cuanto a tres ejes de análisis: física-funcional, temporal y relacional. Los resultados se dirigen hacia el reconocimiento del aula como espacio de apoyo emocional y de atención personal desde la configuración de ambientes de aprendizaje. Este hecho evidencia la reflexión hacia modelos educativos que conformen un marco de actuación intercultural como generadores de la inclusión para el alumnado extranjero en los centros educativos.

  2. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a Research and Development program sponsored by NASA/OAST on the development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications. Some of the projected applications are planetary spacecraft, planetary rovers, and astronaut equipment. The main objective is to develop secondary lithium cells with greater than 100 Wh/kg specific energy while delivering 1000 cycles at 50 percent Depth of Discharge (DOD). To realize these ambitious goals, the work was initially focused on several important basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes, and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of realizable specific energy and cycle life. Some of the major advancements made so far in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. Methods were developed for the fabrication of large size high performance TiS2 cathodes. Among the various electrolytes examined, 1.5M LiAsF6/EC + 2-MeTHF mixed solvent electrolyte was found to be more stable towards lithium. Experimental cells activated with this electrolyte exhibited more than 300 cycles at 100 percent Depth of Discharge. Work is in progress in other areas such as selection of lithium alloys as candidate anode materials, optimization of cell design, and development of 5 Ah cells. The advances made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the development of secondary lithium cells are summarized.

  3. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  4. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  5. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Fátima Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Anne Barrére, Antonio Chizotti e Maria Minayo. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e entrevistas com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas a professores e pais e observação em sala dos alunos. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir com a escola na sensibilização de futuros consumidores, e como trabalhar com conceitos de valores do ‘ser’ e não do ‘ter’. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a realidade na qual foi pesquisado, o reflexo do consumismo e contundentes e que o consumismo não é o único fator a influenciar nas relações e formação subjetiva dos alunos.Palavras-chave: educação; ensino fundamental; anos iniciais; consumismo; sociointeracionismo.

  6. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  7. Assessment of ambient noise levels in the urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R

    2012-12-01

    Street of Alexandria have numerous unplanned, mixed, and noisy activities that may interfere with public health and comfort. The aim of this study was to assess A-weighted ambient noise levels in urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt, from September 2010 to January 2011, with the objective of recommending corrective actions to minimize high noise levels. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, in which A-weighted ambient noise levels were measured on the basis of 24-h periods, using Ono sokki la-5120--precision integrating sound level meter, from September 2010 to January 2011. The measurements were taken on three streets, which were selected using stratified random sampling. Seven measurement sites, along the three streets under study, were selected by site visits according to predetermined criteria. A-weighted ambient noise levels (LAeq) were the highest [70.7 (24.2) dB] on high-traffic-density and high-human-activity streets followed by streets with moderate and low traffic density and human activity [67.5 (31.3) and 62.8 (38.2) dB], respectively. It varied significantly depending on means of transportation (road traffic, train, and/or tram) and human activities (parking lots, shops, and/or street merchants). The A-weighted ambient noise levels on urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt, exceeded the Egyptian National Standards during the three periods of the day (daytime, evening, and night), except in some relatively quiet locations during the night. Consequently, remedial actions to reduce noise levels were recommended.

  8. La agrobiodiversidad como elemento de la seguridad alimentaria y ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Rosa Fernández, Lucía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the importance and situation of the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture is reviewed, taking into consideration not only the aspects specifically related to the conservation activity but also their role as components of biodiversity and providers of ecosystem services. Special attention is drawn to ex situ collections as providers of germplasm for direct use and for plant breeding, two elements that make an essential contribution to a greater resilience of agriculture to environmental changes. In particular, the state of conservation at national and global levels of genetic resources of Fabaceae species cultivated for human food and animal feed, is examined.En el artículo se revisa la importancia y la situación de la conservación de recursos fitogenéticos para la alimentación y la agricultura, tanto en los aspectos asociados específicamente a esta actividad como en aquellos otros derivados de su faceta como componente de la biodiversidad y proveedor de servicios ecosistémicos. Se incide en la función de las colecciones ex situ como fuente de materiales tanto para su utilización directa como en programas de mejora genética, ambos elementos imprescindibles para una agricultura resiliente frente al cambio ambiental. De forma específica, se describe el estado de la conservación de germoplasma de las especies de la familia de Fabaceae tanto para utilización en alimentación humana como en alimentación animal, en el ámbito nacional e internacional.

  9. Educación ambiental en la crisis y crisis de la educación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Huertos, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Producción Científica Es preciso repensar la Educación Ambiental una vez asumido que los ciudadanos despues de tres décadas de mensajes y actividades educativas, si bien han cambiado su percepción de los problemas ambientales, apenas ha variado su actitud y su compromiso personal en favor del medio ambiente. La educación ambiental ha de perder el carácter anecdótico y pasar de actividades aisladas, repetitivas y desconectadas del resto de los aprendizajes a una intervención basada en la si...

  10. Educação ambiental na escola: a perspectiva estudantil sobre o meio ambiente e a propaganda ambiental na internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reis de Pinho Tavares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa mostrar as idéias dos estudantes sobre um tema - a propaganda - refletindo como ela se insere na questão ambiental. Também abordamos como os alunos percebem questões como as relações, empresa, meio ambiente e sociedade. Foi realizado em uma oficina de Educação Ambiental, em uma escola particular de Lagoa Santa - MG, durante os meses de junho e julho de 2004. Analisaram-se sites de diversas empresas e ONG's (Organizações Não Governamentais. Em sua maioria os estudantes conseguiram posicionar-se criticamente em relação às entidades investigadas.

  11. Sampling and analyte enrichment strategies for ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Ma, Wen; Li, Hongmei; Ai, Wanpeng; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-01-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry provides great convenience for fast screening, and has showed promising potential in analytical chemistry. However, its relatively low sensitivity seriously restricts its practical utility in trace compound analysis. In this review, we summarize the sampling and analyte enrichment strategies coupled with nine modes of representative ambient mass spectrometry (desorption electrospray ionization, paper vhspray ionization, wooden-tip spray ionization, probe electrospray ionization, coated blade spray ionization, direct analysis in real time, desorption corona beam ionization, dielectric barrier discharge ionization, and atmospheric-pressure solids analysis probe) that have dramatically increased the detection sensitivity. We believe that these advances will promote routine use of ambient mass spectrometry. Graphical abstract Scheme of sampling stretagies for ambient mass spectrometry.

  12. MEDIO AMBIENTE, TUTELAS DE URGENCIA Y PROCESO COLECTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Marin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A problemática ambiental vem assumindo grande importância na sociedade atual. A utilização demasiada dos recursos serve como base para grandes discussões. Ao mesmo tempo em que se reconhece ao cidadão o direito de usufruir do ambiente que o cerca, impõe deveres, no sentido de garantir-se a utilização racional dos recursos ambientais. Apesar da existência de uma vasta legislação ambiental, o tema exige maiores mecanismos de controle, visando a proteção e garantia dos recursos naturais. Assim, faz-se necessária uma nova interpretação dos princípios processuais que vigoram no ordenamento, no sentido de melhorar a tutela do bem ambiental.

  13. Superconductor shields test chamber from ambient magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1965-01-01

    Shielding a test chamber for magnetic components enables it to maintain a constant, low magnetic field. The chamber is shielded from ambient magnetic fields by a lead foil cylinder maintained in a superconducting state by liquid helium.

  14. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  15. Technology review: prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolaranmi, Samuel Olaiya; Ramis Ferrer, Borja; Martinez Lastra, Jose Luis

    2018-05-08

    The monitoring of ambient conditions in indoor spaces is very essential owing to the amount of time spent indoors. Specifically, the monitoring of air quality is significant because contaminated air affects the health, comfort and productivity of occupants. This research work presents a technology review of prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. It involves the research on sensors (for CO 2 , air quality and ambient conditions), IoT platforms, and novel and commercial prototyping platforms. The ultimate objective of this review is to enable the easy identification, selection and utilisation of the technologies best suited for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. Following the review, it is recommended to use metal oxide sensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors for IAQ monitoring (including NDIR sensors for CO 2 monitoring), Raspberry Pi for data processing, ZigBee and Wi-Fi for data communication, and ThingSpeak IoT platform for data storage, analysis and visualisation.

  16. Volumetric ambient occlusion for real-time rendering and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmay-Kalos, L; Umenhoffer, T; Toth, B; Szecsi, L; Sbert, M

    2010-01-01

    This new algorithm, based on GPUs, can compute ambient occlusion to inexpensively approximate global-illumination effects in real-time systems and games. The first step in deriving this algorithm is to examine how ambient occlusion relates to the physically founded rendering equation. The correspondence stems from a fuzzy membership function that defines what constitutes nearby occlusions. The next step is to develop a method to calculate ambient occlusion in real time without precomputation. The algorithm is based on a novel interpretation of ambient occlusion that measures the relative volume of the visible part of the surface's tangent sphere. The new formula's integrand has low variation and thus can be estimated accurately with a few samples.

  17. A proposal of ubiquitous fuzzy computing for ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Communication and Intelligent User Interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information technology

  18. Ubiquitous fuzzy computing in open ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous communication and intelligent user interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information

  19. Ambient intelligence & personalization : people's perspectives on information privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde - Perik, van de E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current developments towards Ambient Intelligence and related technological visions of the future are founded on continuous collection of information about individuals and their activities. This collection of information, its potentially persistent storage, dissemination and use raise privacy

  20. Arte-educação ambiental, um constructo transdisciplinar

    OpenAIRE

    Rache, Rita Patta

    2017-01-01

    A partir da práxis educativa de arte-­educadoras que desenvolvem ações articuladas entre arte-­ educação e educação ambiental, particularmente aquelas que contribuíram para a elaboração da metodologia de educação ambiental da ONG Núcleo de Educação e Monitoramento Ambiental (NEMA), de Rio Grande/RS, e da Escola da Natureza, de Brasília/DF, constatamos a emergência da expressão Arte-­Educação Ambiental (AEA). Nosso objetivo foi investigar o fenômeno, seu conteúdo, referenciais teóricos, as met...

  1. Responsabilidad ambiental: factor creador de valor agregado en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Senior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad ambiental como oportunidad para crear valor en las organizaciones, en el entendido de que la misma permite cimentar las bases del desarrollo sustentable. Se considera igualmente la responsabilidad ambiental como elemento capaz de disminuir costos por riesgos y aumentar el "market share" a través de la innovación. Para lograr este objetivo se empleó la contrastación de teorías las cuales explican cómo la responsabilidad ambiental puede generar valor agregado en las organizaciones a partir de consideraciones tales como, ética ambiental, legitimidad y desarrollo sustentable. Se concluye que las empresas a través de sus esfuerzos socioambientales pueden obtener beneficios a la vez que mejoran su capital reputacional.

  2. Effects of elevated ambient temperature on embryo implantation in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... ambient temperature leads to a delayed implantation and reduced number of implantation sites in. Sprague ... rates decrease after exposure to stress. One of the ..... implantation initiation time, support the previous findings.

  3. Amplification and Attenuation across USArray using Ambient Noise Wavefront Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bowden, Daniel C.; Tsai, Victor C.; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2017-01-01

    As seismic travel-time tomography continues to be refined using data from the vast USArray dataset, it is advantageous to also exploit the amplitude information carried by seismic waves. We use ambient noise cross correlation to make observations

  4. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  5. Reparabilidade do dano ambiental no sistema da responsabilização civil: 25 anos da lei 6938/1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Pilati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da evolução daresponsabilização civil ambiental noordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Procurasistematizar os aspectos relacionados à reparaçãodo meio ambiente, a partir de uma visãopanorâmica. Nesse passo, trata, inicialmente, dohistórico da responsabilização civil ambiental noBrasil, com enfoque para a Lei da Política Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente e para as funções daresponsabilidade civil. Em seguida, analisa o danoambiental, sua conceituação e classificação.Examina, a seguir, as formas de reparação do dano,destacando a prevalência da restauração in natura,assim como alguns julgados concernentes ao tema.Por fim, aborda – em função da sua atualidade –a questão do dano moral extrapatrimonialcoletivo, aduzindo julgados que já contemplarama sua reparabilidade.The present article deals with the evolutionof the ambient civil responsabilização in the Brazilianlegal system. Search systemize the aspects relatedto the repairing of the environment, from apanoramic vision. In this step, it treats, initially, ofthe description of the ambient civil responsabilizaçãoin Brazil, with approach for the Law of the NationalPolitics of the Environment and for the functions ofthe civil liability. After that, it analyzes the ambientdamage, its conceptualization and classification. Itexamines, to follow, the forms of repairing of thedamage, detaching the prevalence of the restorationin natura, as well as some concernentes judgeshipsto the subject. Finally, it approaches – in function ofits present time – the question of the collectiveextrapatrimonial pain and suffering, alleging judgedthat already they had contemplated its repairability.

  6. A systemic domain model for ambient pervasive persuasive games

    OpenAIRE

    Eglin, Roger; Eyles, Mark; Dansey, Neil

    2008-01-01

    By the development of the system domain model it is hoped that a greater conceptual and theoretical clarity may be brought to understanding the complex and multifaceted nature of pervasive and ambient computer games. This paper presents a conceptual model, the system domain model, to illustrate domain areas that exist in a console, pervasive or ambient game. It is implicit that the regions that the systemic domain model describes are contextually dependent. By developing this model it is poss...

  7. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Gagarina; Indre Pikturniene

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla) and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambi...

  8. Biorregionalismo, ética e justiça ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz Negrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, retomo a argumentação de Gary Snyder, um libertário biorregionalista, e do socialista John Clark, verificando os limites e possibilidades de suas propostas na formulação de uma ética ambiental, à luz dos critérios estabelecidos por Kenneth Goodpaster (vida e por Tom Regan (valor inerente, para fundamentar uma ética genuinamente ambiental.

  9. Enhancing Safety of Artificially Ventilated Patients Using Ambient Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Christian; Gerka, Alexander; Lüpkes, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer; Hein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for enhancing the safety of artificially ventilated patients using ambient process analysis. We propose to use an analysis system consisting of low-cost ambient sensors such as power sensor, RGB-D sensor, passage detector, and matrix infrared temperature sensor to reduce risks for artificially ventilated patients in both home and clinical environments. We describe the system concept and our implementation and show how the system can contribute to patient safety.

  10. Impacto ambiental de una mina de mercurio abandonada

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Cuartas, María

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este Trabajo Fin de Máster es la evaluación del impacto ambiental de una explotación minera de mercurio en estado de abandono y de posible contaminación del medio ambiente. Una vez que se comprueba el elevado impacto debido al estado de abandono y a la alta contaminación, se ha elaborado una sencilla propuesta de restauración, barajado y comprando tres posibles alternativas.

  11. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  12. The risk of melanoma associated with ambient summer ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Bushnik, Tracey; Fioletov, Vitali; Peters, Cheryl E; King, Will D; Tjepkema, Michael

    2017-05-17

    Depletion of the ozone layer has meant that ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has increased in recent decades. At the same time, the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma, has risen. The relatively few large-scale studies that linked ambient UVR to melanoma found a trend toward rising incidence closer to the equator, where UVR estimates are highest. Similar research has not been conducted in Canada, where ambient UVR is generally lower than in countries further south. Modelled UVR data for the months of June through August during the 1980-to-1990 period were spatially linked in Geographic Information Systems to 2.4 million white members of the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort and tracked for melanoma diagnosis over an 18-year period (1992 to 2009). Standard Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate melanoma risk associated with increases of ambient summer UVR, assigned by residence at baseline. Models were adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic (SES) characteristics. Separate analyses by body site of melanoma were conducted. Effect modification of the association between ambient UVR and melanoma by sex, age, outdoor occupation and selected SES characteristics was evaluated. Differences of one standard deviation (446 J/m², or 7% of the mean) in average ambient summer UVR were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for melanoma of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.25) when adjusting for sex, age and SES characteristics. The HR for melanoma in relative UVR (per 1 standard deviation) was larger for men (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.30) than for women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.22). Ambient summer UVR is associated with a greater risk of melanoma among the white population, even in a country where most people live within a narrow latitudinal belt. A stronger association between melanoma and ambient UVR was evident among men and among people of lower SES.

  13. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  14. Big Data, Smart Homes and Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Vimarlund, V.; Wass, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss how current research in the area of smart homes and ambient assisted living will be influenced by the use of big data. Methods: A scoping review of literature published in scientific journals and conference proceedings was performed, focusing on smart homes, ambient assisted living and big data over the years 2011-2014. Results: The health and social care market has lagged behind other markets when it comes to the introduction of innovative IT solutions and the market f...

  15. Medio ambiente en Europa: retos para un desarrollo sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Santa María Beneyto, María Jesús

    2000-01-01

    Ofrece una completa visión sobre el grave deterioro ambiental que sufre nuestro planeta, reconociendo la necesidad política medioambiental eficaz que permita conseguir una mejor protección de los ecosistemas y una base para el desarrollo sostenible, mostrando una especial atención a la situación del medio ambiente en la Unión Europea.

  16. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality...

  17. On the Reference State for Exergy when Ambient Temperature Fluctuates

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Pons

    2009-01-01

    Exergy (availability) is the amount of mechanical work that could be produced by reversible processes. This notion is revisited in the case when ambient temperature fluctuates. Simple examples are first considered, and then a theoretical approach is developed. It results that the most reliable way for combining entropy and total energy into an exergy function is a linear combination where entropy is multiplied by a constant temperature. It results that ambient air has non-zero exergy, but tha...

  18. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  19. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, A.; Colman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO 2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO 2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  20. Medio ambiente y educación ambiental: representaciones sociales de los profesores en formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Calixto Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las líneas actuales de investigación educativa que aporta elementos valiosos para comprender los procesos de formación de los sujetos es la que corresponde a las representaciones sociales. En este artículo se describen los aspectos centrales de la investigación Representaciones del medio ambiente de los estudiantes de la licenciatura en educación primaria. Con las representaciones los estudiantes discriminan espacio-temporalmente los elementos del medio ambiente, estableciendo correspondencias con las prácticas sociales. Entre los resultados de la investigación referida se encuentra la existencia de una relación entre las representaciones del medio ambiente y las corrientes de la educación ambiental.

  1. Medio ambiente y educación ambiental: representaciones sociales de los profesores en formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Calixto Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las líneas actuales de investigación educativa que aporta elementos valiosos para comprender los procesos de formación de los sujetos es la que corresponde a las representaciones sociales. En este artículo se describen los aspectos centrales de la investigación Representaciones del medio ambiente de los estudiantes de la licenciatura en educación primaria. Con las representaciones los estudiantes discriminan espaciotemporalmente los elementos del medio ambiente, estableciendo correspondencias con las prácticas sociales. Entre los resultados de la investigación referida se encuentra la existencia de una relación entre las representaciones del medio ambiente y las corrientes de la educación ambiental.

  2. Los problemas de la Educación Ambiental: ¿es posible una Educación Ambiental integradora?

    OpenAIRE

    García, J. Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan diferentes problemas y carencias de la Educación Ambiental. Para el tratamiento de estos problemas se plantea una perspectiva integradora que supere los reduccionismos actualmente existentes

  3. Saúde e meio ambiente nas cidades: os desafios da saúde ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de alguns poucos anos, nosso planeta contará com mais habitantes em áreas urbanas do que em áreas rurais. A urbanização desenfreada, sem mecanismos regulatórios e de controle, típica dos países periféricos, trouxe consigo enormes repercussões na saúde da população. Problemas como a insuficiência dos serviços básicos de saneamento, coleta e destinação adequada do lixo e condições precárias de moradia, tradicionalmente relacionados com a pobreza e o subdesenvolvimento, somam-se agora à poluição química e física do ar, da água e da terra, problemas ambientais antes considerados "modernos". Novamente, é sobre as populações mais carentes que recai a maior parte dos efeitos negativos da urbanização, gerando uma situação de extrema desigualdade e iniqüidade ambiental e em saúde. Para reverter esse quadro é preciso que haja uma reincorporação das questões do meio ambiente nas políticas de saúde, e a integração dos objetivos da saúde ambiental numa ampla estratégia de desenvolvimento sustentável. Uma abordagem mais integrada, com mecanismos intersetoriais que possibilitem um diálogo amplo entre as partes, trará enormes benefícios na conquista de melhores condições de vida nas cidades. A saúde ambiental hoje tem o desafio de promover uma melhor qualidade de vida e saúde nas cidades e a oportunidade de enfrentar o absurdo quadro de exclusão social, sob a perspectiva da eqüidade.In a matter of few years there will be more urban than rural dwellers worldwide. The rapid urbanisation lacking adequate control and regulatory mechanisms typical of developing countries, brought along huge effects to the health of the population Environmental problems traditionally related to poverty and underdevelopment such as insufficient provision of sanitation services, waste collection and disposal, and precarious housing conditions, are now added to environmental problems considered of "modern life" such as the

  4. Brote del virus ISA: crisis ambiental y capacidad de la institucionalidad ambiental para manejar el conflicto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bustos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La industria salmonera chilena vivió recientemente una crisis de magnitud a partir de la aparición del virus ISA. El artículo examina esta situación, concentrándose en el papel que desempeña la ciencia en las soluciones políticas propuestas, como caso para discutir la capacidad de los mecanismos de gobernanza ambiental neoliberal para solucionar crisis ambientales y económicas. La pregunta que guía el trabajo es: ¿cuál fue el rol de la ciencia en la política ambiental para la industria? El argumento promovido es que la crisis representa un momento de reestructuración de la relación sociedad-naturaleza, en el cual se redefinieron mecanismos de propiedad, control y acceso a recursos naturales, pero en el que, pese al discurso neoliberal de confianza en los expertos y la ciencia como elementos de toma de decisiones, la información científica tuvo escasa relevancia.The Chilean salmon industry recently experienced a crisis due to an outbreak of the ISA virus. The article examines the crisis focusing on the role of science in the policy solutions proposed, to discuss the real capacity of neoliberal environmental governance mechanisms to solve environmental and economic crisis. The question guiding this research is, which was the role of science in environmental policy createdfor the salmon industry? The argument is that the crisis represents a reestructuring of the relationship between society and nature through the redefinition of property rights, control and access to natural resources, but in which, in spite of a neoliberal discourse of trust in experts and science as elements of decision making, scientific information had little relevance.

  5. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  6. Ambient Temperature and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Chi; Eliot, Melissa N; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Some prior studies have linked ambient temperature with risk of cerebrovascular events. If causal, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this putative association remain unknown. Temperature-related changes in cerebral vascular function may play a role, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated. We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and cerebral vascular function among 432 participants ≥65 years old from the MOBILIZE Boston Study with data on cerebrovascular blood flow, cerebrovascular resistance, and cerebrovascular reactivity in the middle cerebral artery. We used linear regression models to assess the association of mean ambient temperature in the previous 1 to 28 days with cerebrovascular hemodynamics adjusting for potential confounding factors. A 10°C increase in the 21-day moving average of ambient temperature was associated with a 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%, 17.3%) lower blood flow velocity, a 9.0% (95% CI, 0.7%, 18.0%) higher cerebrovascular resistance, and a 15.3% (95%CI, 2.7%, 26.4%) lower cerebral vasoreactivity. Further adjustment for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) did not materially alter the results. However, we found statistically significant interactions between ambient temperature and PM2.5 such that the association between temperature and blood flow velocity was attenuated at higher levels of PM2.5. In this elderly population, we found that ambient temperature was negatively associated with cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular vasoreactivity and positively associated with cerebrovascular resistance. Changes in vascular function may partly underlie the observed associations between ambient temperature and risk of cerebrovascular events.

  7. A survey to establish ambient and personal dose equivalent standards in the X- and γ-ray field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) develops and supplies standards of ionizing radiations as national primary references. Fundamental matters to establish ambient and personal dose equivalent standards of X- and γ-radiation are reviewed in this report. First, units of radiation dose in measurements of X- and γ-radiation are surveyed. Next, the present status of the preparation of X-radiation standard is explained, and finally the relationship between the physical dose and the radiation-protection dose is described. (J.P.N.)

  8. Mass extinction efficiency and extinction hygroscopicity of ambient PM2.5 in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Ma, Xin; He, Yujie; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yungang; Sheng, Li; Hu, Jiangkai; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-07-01

    The ambient PM 2.5 pollution problem in China has drawn substantial international attentions. The mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and hygroscopicity factor (f(RH)) of PM 2.5 can be readily applied to study the impacts on atmospheric visibility and climate. The few previous investigations in China only reported results from pilot studies and are lack of spatial representativeness. In this study, hourly average ambient PM 2.5 mass concentration, relative humidity, and atmospheric visibility data from China national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks were retrieved and analyzed. It includes 24 major Chinese cities from nine city-clusters with the period of October 2013 to September 2014. Annual average extinction coefficient in urban China was 759.3±258.3Mm -1 , mainly caused by dry PM 2.5 (305.8.2±131.0Mm -1 ) and its hygroscopicity (414.6±188.1Mm -1 ). High extinction coefficient values were resulted from both high ambient PM 2.5 concentration (68.5±21.7µg/m 3 ) and high relative humidity (69.7±8.6%). The PM 2.5 mass extinction efficiency varied from 2.87 to 6.64m 2 /g with an average of 4.40±0.84m 2 /g. The average extinction hygroscopic factor f(RH=80%) was 2.63±0.45. The levels of PM 2.5 mass extinction efficiency and hygroscopic factor in China were in comparable range with those found in developed countries in spite of the significant diversities among all 24 cities. Our findings help to establish quantitative relationship between ambient extinction coefficient (visual range) and PM 2.5 & relative humidity. It will reduce the uncertainty of extinction coefficient estimation of ambient PM 2.5 in urban China which is essential for the research of haze pollution and climate radiative forcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HCAHPS - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  10. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  11. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.; Royce, B.A. [eds.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory.

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Royce, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory's operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory

  13. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.

  14. APONTAMENTOS PARA CONSTRUÇÃO DA RACIONALIDADE AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Jorge Felício

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os apontamentos para construção da racionalidade ambiental propostos nesse texto foram reunidos das contribuições presentes nas análises da fenomenologia, da epistemologia e da ontologia do ser social em Marx. Essa iniciativa almeja ampliar e aprofundar a compreensão da problemática ambiental cujas mudanças globais provocam desafios principalmente para comunidade científica. Trata-se de problematizar o desenvolvimento da racionalidade econômica, a partir das degradações dos recursos naturais engendradas pelo atual avanço do modelo de desenvolvimento socioeconômico. Modelo que se baseia na majoração da produtividade, se apóia na expansão tecnológica e se sustenta da exploração como se os recursos naturais fossem ainda considerados abundantes e ilimitados. A transição dessa racionalidade econômica para a racionalidade ambiental é um empreendimento buscado pelas possibilidades de conhecimento advindo das análises da fenomenologia. Entre essas possibilidades, a interdisciplinaridade indicada como necessária pela epistemologia ambiental, pode se tornar uma interessante estratégia de pesquisa, desde que, tenha como ponto de partida, as demandas externas onde se encontram os elementos da atual questão ambiental e de seus desdobramentos.

  15. Subjektivitas Dalam Iklan Ambient Media Miracle Aesthetic Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegig Murwonugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subjektivitas di dalam iklan adalah kuasa yang dimiliki iklan untuk mengkonstruksi trend, kebenaran, hingga ideologi yang terjadi melalui alam bawah sadar. Iklan berfungsi menyampaikan pesan, yang direpresentasi-visualkan melalui metafora-metafora yang menjembatani antara gambaran imajinasi dan realitas. Ambient media merupakan media beriklan yang memanfaatkan lingkungan di mana iklan ditempatkan. Miracle Aesthetic Clinic (Miracle merepresentasi-visualkan iklan ambient media-nya dengan cara menghilangkan tampilan wajah kedua boneka perempuan. Wajah model iklan merupakan komoditi pencitraan yang pada umumnya memiliki nilai jual, namun dalam kedua iklan ini justeru ditenggelamkan ke dalam alas meja dan dinding tembok. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian Analisa Wacana Kritis untuk menganalisa subjektivitas di dalam pemaknaan ambient media. Subjektivitas iklan Miracle menyudutkan perempuan tidak dapat hadir, tersisih, menjadi sosok yang mengerikan di dalam tataran sosialnya ketika wajah berjerawat.  Iklan ambient media Miracle ini berhasil mengkonstruksi wacana trend baru kecantikan wajah yang tidak terbatas pada tolok ukur karakteristik kecantikan pada umumnya. Kata kunci: ambient media, subjektivitas, kuasa, kecantikan ideal perempuan.

  16. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 ( P 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 ( P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 ( P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  17. PERCEPCIÓN AMBIENTAL EN ESTUDIANTES DE SECUNDARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Zamorano González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó un grupo de 254 estudiantes de una secundaria pública de Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México, adaptando el cuestionario utilizado por el Grup de Recerca Educació i Ciutadani (GREIC de la Universitat de les Illes Balears. El estudio se basa en un conjunto de 39 preguntas distribuidas en cuatro secciones: Afirmaciones relacionadas con el medio ambiente, para indagar su postura; Preocupación por el medio ambiente, para identificar el lugar que genera mayor interés; Problemas ambientales, sirvió para identificar el conocimiento de la problemática que afecta a su región y la cuarta sección Acciones para hacer un mundo mejor, para identificar la disposición de los estudiantes para mejorar el ambiente. La validación del cuestionario adaptado refiere un coeficiente del Alfa de Cronbach de 0.862 y los datos en estudio representan de forma generalizada la percepción ambiental que tienen los estudiantes y manifiestan la importancia de la educación ambiental.

  18. La cultura ambiental. Una mirada desde la comunidad Venceremos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msc. Bertha Nudis Ferrer-Hechavarría

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye una aproximación al estudio de la cultura ambiental como elemento necesario en el camino al desarrollo comunitario. Parte de un breve análisis conceptual de la cultura para luego llegar a la cultura ambiental de acuerdo con las consideraciones de la autora. Momento singular resulta el que destaca la necesidad de que las comunidades enfrenten los problemas ambientales en el camino al desarrollo y sean depositarias de una cultura ambiental que lo posibilite. En este empeño tiene gran importancia la implementación de proyectos comunitarios, pues las comunidades constituyen grupos sociales claves en la solución de los problemas ambientales a nivel global y local. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, ha sido diseñado y ya se implementa un proyecto de educación ambiental para el desarrollo local sostenible en una comunidad que lleva como nombre Venceremos; tiene, entre sus distintas líneas de desarrollo, a la cultura ambiental.

  19. Culinary nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  20. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  1. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    KAUST Repository

    Gualtieri, Lucia; Camargo, Suzana J.; Pascale, Salvatore; Pons, Flavio M.E.; Ekströ m, Gö ran

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  2. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-01-01

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements

  3. Superheated emulsions in neutron spectrometry by varying ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mala; Sawamura, Teruko

    2005-01-01

    The principle of present work lies on the dependence of the threshold neutron energy on the dimensionless quantity ''degree of metastability (ss)'' of superheated liquids. The response of the superheated emulsions consists of the drops of superheated liquid (C 2 Cl 2 F 4 , b.p. 3.77 deg. C) has been measured at different 'ss' by varying ambient pressure at different temperatures, in the presence of neutrons generated in Pb by a (γ,n) reaction from 45 MeV electron LINAC of Hokkaido University. To unfold the neutron energy spectrum, a relationship has been developed between the 'ss' of superheated liquids and the threshold neutron energy. The spectrum at the detector position has been calculated by the MCNP code and a comparison has been made with the experimental spectrum. The utilisation of 'ss' is more flexible as this relation can be applied to both positive and negative ambient pressures as well as at different ambient temperatures

  4. El compromiso ambiental universitario: un desafio curricular para trascender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile Pedraza-Jiménez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla una revisión documental sobre la relación y discusión del concepto interdisciplinariedad y su aplicación en el campo ambiental. Pretende informar y complementar el conocimiento existente sobre el supuesto teórico de la interdiciplinariedad que demanda la inclusión de la dimensión ambiental en el contexto universitario indicando sus controversias, límites y posibles vías para abordarla como propuesta curricular. Finalmente, se realiza una discusión sobre el trascender de la interdisciplinariedad al diálogo de saberes como una propuesta política desde el contexto de América Latina, para contribuir a proyectar los fines misionales y el compromiso ambiental universitario.

  5. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-09-12

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality, there is increasing evidence that indoor air pollution also poses a serious threat to human health, especially in low-income countries that still use biomass fuels as an energy resource. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ambient air pollution in financially deprived populations.

  6. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  7. The persistent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise

    KAUST Repository

    Gualtieri, Lucia

    2017-12-28

    The spectrum of ambient seismic noise shows strong signals associated with tropical cyclones, yet a detailed understanding of these signals and the relationship between them and the storms is currently lacking. Through the analysis of more than a decade of seismic data recorded at several stations located in and adjacent to the northwest Pacific Ocean, here we show that there is a persistent and frequency-dependent signature of tropical cyclones in ambient seismic noise that depends on characteristics of the storm and on the detailed location of the station relative to the storm. An adaptive statistical model shows that the spectral amplitude of ambient seismic noise, and notably of the short-period secondary microseisms, has a strong relationship with tropical cyclone intensity and can be employed to extract information on the tropical cyclones.

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DO TREINAMENTO AMBIENTAL NA CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL DE PROFISSIONAIS DA ÁREA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Accioly Baccaro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, muchas organizaciones trabajan para minimizar y contribuir para resolver los problemasambientales. En esa dirección, el área de recursos humanos emerge como facilitadora de la implantación deprácticas y políticas ambientales en las empresas, principalmente por la utilización de los programas deentrenamiento. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar la influencia del entrenamiento ambiental enla conciencia ambiental de los profesionales de recursos humanos. Con un abordaje cuantitativodescriptivo, se aplicó un cuestionario, ya validado, a 73 profesionales de recursos humanos de la región deLondrina-PR. El análisis de datos involucró la estadística descriptiva y el teste sin parámetros χ 2 dePearson. Los resultados señalaron la relación entre el entrenamiento ambiental y la conciencia ambientalde los profesionales de recursos humanos investigados: de hecho, los que recibieron algún tipo deentrenamiento ambiental presentaron un nivel de conciencia ambiental mayor que los que no recibieronningún entrenamiento en esa área.

  9. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per…

  10. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eToet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime, while being exposed to either room air (control group, or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features, and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention towards the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder. Contrary to our expectations the results show that the presence of an ambient odor did not affect the participants’ visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user’s attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE.

  11. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants' visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user's attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE).

  12. Investigation of Transmission Warming Technologies at Various Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehlik, Forrest; Iliev, Simeon; Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff

    2017-03-28

    This work details two approaches for evaluating transmission warming technology: experimental dynamometer testing and development of a simplified transmission efficiency model to quantify effects under varied real world ambient and driving conditions. Two vehicles were used for this investigation: a 2013 Ford Taurus and a 2011 Ford Fusion. The Taurus included a production transmission warming system and was tested over hot and cold ambient temperatures with the transmission warming system enabled and disabled. A robot driver was used to minimize driver variability and increase repeatability. Additionally the Fusion was tested cold and with the transmission pre-heated prior to completing the test cycles. These data were used to develop a simplified thermally responsive transmission model to estimate effects of transmission warming in real world conditions. For the Taurus, the fuel consumption variability within one standard deviation was shown to be under 0.5% for eight repeat Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycles (UDDS). These results were valid with the transmission warming system active or passive. Using the transmission warming system under 22 degrees C ambient temperature, fuel consumption reduction was shown to be 1.4%. For the Fusion, pre-warming the transmission reduced fuel consumption 2.5% for an urban drive cycle at -7 degrees C ambient temperature, with 1.5% of the 2.5% gain associated with the transmission, while consumption for the US06 test was shown to be reduced by 7% with 5.5% of the 7% gain associated with the transmission. It was found that engine warming due to conduction between the pre-heated transmission and the engine resulted in the remainder of the benefit. For +22 degrees C ambient tests, the pre-heated transmission was shown to reduce fuel consumption approximately 1% on an urban cycle, while no benefit was seen for the US06 cycle. The simplified modeling results showed gains in efficiency ranging from 0-1.5% depending on the ambient

  13. Ambient temperature affects postnatal litter size reduction in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A; Monclús, Raquel; Rödel, Heiko G; Valencak, Teresa G

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth. For that, we exposed lactating females to three different ambient temperatures and investigated associations with losses of offspring between birth and weaning. Overall, around one third of pups per litter disappeared, obviously consumed by the mother. Such litter size reductions were greatest at 30 °C, in particular during the intermediate postnatal period around peak lactation. Furthermore, litter size reductions were generally higher in larger litters. Maternal gross energy intake was highest at 5 °C suggesting that mothers were not limited by milk production and might have been able to raise a higher number of pups until weaning. This was further supported by the fact that the daily increases in litter mass as well as in the individual pup body masses, a proxy of mother's lactational performance, were lower at higher ambient temperatures. We suggest that ambient temperatures around the thermoneutral zone and beyond are preventing golden hamster females from producing milk at sufficient rates. Around two thirds of the pups per litter disappeared at high temperature conditions, and their early growth rates were significantly lower than at lower ambient temperatures. It is possible that these losses are due to an intrinsic physiological limitation (imposed by heat dissipation) compromising maternal energy intake and

  14. Ambient Seismic Imaging of Hydraulically Active Fractures at km Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, P. E.; Sicking, C.

    2017-12-01

    Streaming Depth Images of ambient seismic signals using numerous, densely-distributed, receivers have revealed their connection to hydraulically active fractures at 0.5 to 5 km depths. Key for this type of imaging is very high-fold stacking over both multiple receives and periods of a few hours. Also important is suppression of waveforms from fixed, repeating sources such as pumps, generators, and traffic. A typical surface-based ambient SDI survey would use a 3D seismic receiver grid. It would have 1,000 to 4,000 uniformly distributed receivers at a density of 50/km2over the target. If acquired by borehole receivers buried 100 m deep, the density can be dropped by an order of magnitude. We show examples of the acquisition and signal processing scenarios used to produce the ambient images. (Sicking et al., SEG Interpretation, Nov 2017.) While the fracture-fluid source connection of SDI has been verified by drilling and various types of hydraulic tests, the precise nature of the signal's origin is not clear. At the current level of observation, the signals do not have identifiable phases, but can be focused using P wave velocities. Suggested sources are resonances of pressures fluctuations in the fractures, or small, continuous, slips on fractures surfaces. In either case, it appears that the driving mechanism is tectonic strain in an inherently unstable crust. Solid earth tides may enhance these strains. We illustrate the value of the ambient SDI method in its industrial application by showing case histories from energy industry and carbon-capture-sequestration projects. These include ambient images taken before, during, and after hydraulic treatments in un-conventional reservoirs. The results show not only locations of active fractures, but also their time responses to stimulation and production. Time-lapse ambient imaging can forecast and track events such as well interferences and production changes that can result from nearby treatments.

  15. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  16. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL: A crise ambiental como uma crise da razão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Silva De Gregori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a crise do meio ambiente sob uma abordagem epistemológica, ou seja, a partir do conhecimento produzido em relação à natureza. Verifica-se que o pensamento ocidental, manifestado pelos paradigmas da Ciência Moderna, está ligado à organização dos sistemas econômicos que reconheceram historicamente a natureza apenas como recurso e potencial de produção de capital, vindo a encontrar, por esta via, o limite entrópico da biosfera e, por conseguinte, do crescimento. Abordou-se o processo de construção do conhecimento, questionando-se a possibilidade de concepção de outras perspectivas, fundadas na inseparabilidade entre sujeito-objeto, ação-pensamento e homem-natureza. É percebida a necessidade do ser humano de se re-significar no mundo, conhecendo a complexidade da natureza e pensando além da crise ecológica.

  17. Los sinuosos caminos del racismo: el racismo ambiental en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mir, Javier

    2012-01-01

    El artículo hace referencia a la evolución de las doctrinas racistas y su impacto en las ciencias sociales. Se analiza la capacidad de las doctrinas y políticas racistas de adaptarse a los nuevos contextos. En este sentido, se entiende que el racismo ambiental es una continuación y transformación del racismo que no puede ser desvinculado del contexto histórico, social y político. El autor analiza los orígenes del racismo ambiental en Estados Unidos. Finalmente el artículo reflexiona sobre un ...

  18. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  19. Characterization of CdZnTe ambient temperature detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.

    1994-09-01

    A great deal of interest has been generated in the use of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors for ambient temperature detection of radionuclides. The addition of zinc to CdTe provides several benefits that enhance the materials operational characteristics at ambient temperature. Recent movement in the industry is to produce larger volume detectors using CdZnTe without much known about the effects of larger geometry on performance. The purpose of this study is to get an idea of the relationship of detector performance to both area and thickness variations

  20. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  1. Medio ambiente y desarrollo: su implicancia nacional e internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lestard, Pablo

    1992-01-01

    Cuando el Presidente de la Comisión Mundial sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo, el Sr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Primer Ministro de Noruega, presentó el reporte "Nuestro Futuro Común" a la Asamblea General de la ONU en 1987, fue el momento en que se dio a conocer, ante el foro mundial, la idea del "desarrollo sostenible". Según Lloyd Timberlake, editor principal en el Instituto Internacional para el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo (Londres), el reporte "extremista" únicamente en cu...

  2. La contaminación ambiental en el derecho alimentario

    OpenAIRE

    Mondéjar Pedreño, Remedios

    2016-01-01

    El contenido de esta Tesis Doctoral es un análisis de la interrelación entre el Derecho Alimentario europeo y el Derecho ambiental, y en particular del Derecho del medio ambiente, en la legislación alimentaria europea. Para ello nuestro estudio se centra en el Reglamento (CE) 178/2002, del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 28 de enero de 2002, que es el pilar fundamental del Derecho Alimentario de la Unión Europea. En su extenso título, esta disposición informa sobre el triple contenido de...

  3. Desastre ecológico y ambiental en Huancavelica

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Herrera, Honorio

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo trata de confirmar, una vez más, que la actividad minera en el Perú afecta los sistemas ecológicos y el medio ambiente. Esto es posible debido al poder de las empresas y a la debilidad y complicidad del Estado. En este sentido, uno de los objetivos de esta investigación es contribuir al conocimiento de un problema nacional, que es la contaminación ambiental a partir de un caso concreto: el derrame de relaves en la mina Caudalosa Chica. Los temas centrales desarrollados abarcan l...

  4. EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL E A SUSTENTABILIDADE DO CERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Arnaldo Cardoso; FACULDADE ARAGUAIA

    2013-01-01

    O presente artigo traz uma reflexão sobre a Educação Ambiental e sua contribuição para asustentabilidade do bioma cerrado, discutindo seu conceito, sua evolução, seus objetivos, etemas de estudo. Buscando compreender como se da o surgimento de uma consciênciaambiental e se ela pode ser estabelecida a partir de uma disciplina específica de meioambiente ou por qualquer forma de ensino que possa ser inserida. E de que forma a EducaçãoAmbiental contribui par a redução das agressões constantes sof...

  5. Impactos del turismo en el medio ambiente de huanchaco

    OpenAIRE

    Zavaleta Alfaro, María Sixtina

    2007-01-01

    Se analiza los impactos negativos del turismo sobre el medio ambiente de la Bahía de Huanchaco, previamente se evalúa el flujo de visitantes, la oferta turística en cuanto a recursos naturales, culturales y planta o infraestructura (hoteles, restaurantes, otros). Se incide en al generación de residuos sólidos domésticos, calidad del agua, transporte, deterioro de ecosistema de humedales (calidad ambiental) y se analiza la opinión o percepción del turista a través de una encuesta. Los resulta...

  6. El estado actual de los ambientes del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Bellés, Joan F.; Camarasa Belmonte, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Los ambientes del agua –recursos singulares por sus funciones en la naturaleza y por sus prestaciones y connotaciones para los grupos humanos- son un valioso patrimonio. En concreto, los lagos, los ríos y las masas marinas y subterráneas constituyen bienes territoriales que aportan diversidad ecológica, estructuran paisajes y, a menudo, son utilizados por los humanos para el desarrollo de sus actividades (Martín Montalvo, 1996). A lo largo del tiempo, los ambientes del agua no son estables e...

  7. The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jochen; Stahl, Christoph; Röfer, Thomas; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Alexandersson, Jan

    The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living (CCAAL) is a cross-project and cross-department virtual organization within the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence coordinating and conducting research and development in the area of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Our demonstrators range from multimodal speech dialog systems to fully instrumented environments allowing the development of intelligent assistant systems, for instance an autonomous wheelchair, or the recognition and processing of everyday activities in a smart home. These innovative technologies are then tested, evaluated and demonstrated in DFKI's living labs.

  8. Formation of actinide hexafluorides at ambient temperatures with krypton difluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A second low-temperature agent, krypton difluoride, for generating volatile plutonium hexafluoride is reported (dioxygen difluoride is the only other reported agent). Plutonium hexafluoride is formed at ambient or lower temperature by the treatment of various solid substrates with krypton difluoride. Volatilization of uranium and neptunium from solid substrates using gaseous krypton difluoride is also reported for the first time. The formation of actinide hexafluorides has been confirmed for the reaction of krypton difluoride in anhydrous HF with UO 2 and with uranium and neptunium fluorides at ambient temperatures. Treatment of americium dioxide with krypton difluoride did not yield americium hexafluoride under the conditions studied. 15 references, 2 figures

  9. Entre el desarrollo y el ambiente: incertidumbres de los agrocombustibles

    OpenAIRE

    León Sicard, Tomás Enrique

    2008-01-01

    El artículo plantea una discusión sobre la manera en que la dimensión ambiental puede ser concebida en relación con el actual concepto de desarrollo, a partir de una visión que entiende lo ambiental como relaciones complejas entre los ecosistemas y las culturas humanas y a partir de este punto, examina el modelo agrario dominante en Colombia versus los modelos de agricultura alternativa y la aparición de los biocombustibles, como una consecuencia ineludible del modelo domi...

  10. Ambient Response Analysis Modal Analysis for Large Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an outline is given of the basic ideas in ambient respons analysis, i.e. when modal analyses is performed on systems based on output only. Some of the most known techniques are briefly introduced, and the basic problems discussed. The introduced techniques are the frequency domain...... based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stochastic subspace method for estimation of state space systems and the prediction error method for estimation of Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector models. The techniques are illustrated on an example of ambient response measurments...

  11. Revista educomunicativa que promueva la conservación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Galarza, Pamela Lucía

    2008-01-01

    En estos últimos años, hemos podido observar que la contaminación de los ríos, aire y suelo es cada vez mayor, pues el ser humano ha ido destruyendo la naturaleza; así tenemos: el botar desperdicios en las calles, quebradas, etc., con lo que ha demostrado su falta de cuidado y educación ambiental; provocando de esta manera efectos nocivos para el medio ambiente como los incendios forestales, la tala indiscriminada de árboles, entre otros. Y es que con la acción de cada individuo, se está prod...

  12. Atlas de Riesgo Ambiental Aplicado en Marinas del Espacio SUDOE

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Castro, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se analizan 418 marinas del sudoeste europeo utilizando una metodología de evaluación de riesgo ambiental diseñada en el IH Cantabria por Gómez et al. (2016). La zona de estudio es la zona costera del área elegible SUDOE y la región de la Macaronesia, comprendiendo las naciones de Francia (sudoeste), España, Portugal y Reino Unido (Gibraltar). Se obtiene el valor del riesgo ambiental a partir de la estimación de las consecuencias (factores de navegación, dragado y entorno), vulnerabi...

  13. Impact of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution on health behaviors: a longitudinal study of university students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Yu, H

    2018-03-19

    Poor air quality has become a national public health concern in China. This study examines the impact of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution on health behaviors among college students in Beijing, China. Prospective cohort study. Health surveys were repeatedly administered among 12,000 newly admitted students at Tsinghua University during 2012-2015 over their freshman year. Linear individual fixed-effect regressions were performed to estimate the impacts of ambient PM 2.5 concentration on health behaviors among survey participants, adjusting for various time-variant individual characteristics and environmental measures. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was found to be negatively associated with time spent on walking, vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior in the last week, but positively associated with time spent on nighttime/daytime sleep among survey participants. An increase in the ambient PM 2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (36.5 μg/m³) was associated with a reduction in weekly total minutes of walking by 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.3-9.4), a reduction in weekly total minutes of vigorous physical activity by 10.1 (95% CI = 8.5-11.7), a reduction in daily average hours of sedentary behavior by 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.10) but an increase in daily average hours of nighttime/daytime sleep by 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04-1.11). Ambient PM 2.5 air pollution was inversely associated with physical activity level but positively associated with sleep duration among college students. Future studies are warranted to replicate study findings in other Chinese cities and universities, and policy interventions are urgently called to reduce air pollution level in China's urban areas. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The redefined environment; El medio ambiente redefinido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermelin, Michel

    1992-07-01

    Although it seems an audacity to try to redefine the environment, the current interpretation of the concept of natural environment in Colombia makes necessary that task, with the purpose of arriving at the same time to a focus but realist and useful for those who should keep it in mind in the planning and in the taking of decisions. The definition of effective environment for most of the Colombians and diffused by entities like the Inderena it corresponds to a partial vision of the national reality. It is necessary to show to the country that that version is no-alone incomplete but dangerous, just as they have checked it the catastrophes of the last years that caused many kill and lost, fortunately the tendency of the last years on the part of some planners has been the one of conferring to the threats and the mineral resources the importance that it deserve. God willing that tendency be returns the denominator common of the whole studies dedicated to the ordination of the territory, so much urban as rural. This work recaptures and wide concepts that were presented previously by the author in several conferences and publications. The work understands a revision of the evolution of the environment concept in the first place in Colombia. They are made some observations next about the necessity of keeping in mind the geosciences in the use of the natural environment and are it finishes with the way to integrate those in the process of physical planning that it receives the name of environmental planning universally.

  15. Ambient air emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and female breast cancer incidence in US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, William Parker; Wei, Yudan

    2018-05-05

    To examine ambient air pollutants, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a factor in the geographic variation of breast cancer incidence seen in the US, we conducted an ecological study involving counties throughout the US to examine breast cancer incidence in relation to PAH emissions in ambient air. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute were collected and analyzed using SEER*Stat 8.3.2. PAH emissions data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency. Linear regression analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software for Windows to analyze the association between PAH emissions and breast cancer incidence, adjusting for potential confounders. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer were found being significantly higher in more industrialized metropolitan SEER regions over the years of 1973-2013 as compared to less industrialized regions. After adjusting for sex, race, education, socioeconomic status, obesity, and smoking prevalence, PAH emission density was found to be significantly associated with female breast cancer incidence, with the adjusted β of 0.424 (95% CI 0.278, 0.570; p < 0.0001) for emissions from all sources and of 0.552 (95% CI 0.278, 0.826; p < 0.0001) for emissions from traffic source. This study suggests that PAH exposure from ambient air could play a role in the increased breast cancer risk among women living in urban areas of the US. Further research could provide insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  16. Study of temporal variation in ambient air quality during Diwali festival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D P; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T K; Dixit, C K; Singh, Khem; Saud, T; Singh, Nahar; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2010-10-01

    The variation in air quality was assessed from the ambient concentrations of various air pollutants [total suspended particle (TSP), particulate matter festival, post-Diwali, and foggy day (October, November, and December), Delhi (India), from 2002 to 2007. The extensive use of fireworks was found to be related to short-term variation in air quality. During the festival, TSP is almost of the same order as compared to the concentration at an industrial site in Delhi in all the years. However, the concentrations of PM(10), SO(2), and NO(2) increased two to six times during the Diwali period when compared to the data reported for an industrial site. Similar trend was observed when the concentrations of pollutants were compared with values obtained for a typical foggy day each year in December. The levels of these pollutants observed during Diwali were found to be higher due to adverse meteorological conditions, i.e., decrease in 24 h average mixing height, temperature, and wind speed. The trend analysis shows that TSP, PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) concentration increased just before Diwali and reached to a maximum concentration on the day of the festival. The values gradually decreased after the festival. On Diwali day, 24-h values for TSP and PM(10) in all the years from 2002 to 2007 and for NO(2) in 2004 and 2007 were found to be higher than prescribed limits of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and exceptionally high (3.6 times) for PM(10) in 2007. These results indicate that fireworks during the Diwali festival affected the ambient air quality adversely due to emission and accumulation of TSP, PM(10), SO(2), and NO(2).

  17. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    and Copewood-Davis were higher than ambient background concentrations in New Jersey and than national average concentrations, indicating that both neighborhoods are in fact hot spots for these pollutants. Higher concentrations were observed on weekdays than on weekend days for several compounds, including toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known collectively as TEX) as well as PAHs and PM2.5. These observations showed the impact on ambient air pollution of higher traffic volumes and more active industrial and commercial operations in the study areas on weekdays. Seasonal variations differed by species. Concentrations of TEX, for example, were found to be higher in winter than in summer in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from automobiles and reduced photochemical reactivity in winter. In contrast, concentrations of MTBE were found to be significantly higher in summer than in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher evaporation rates from gasoline in summer. Similarly, concentrations of heavier PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, were found to be higher in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from mobile sources, the use of home heating, and the reduced photochemical reactivity of benzo[a]pyrene in winter. In contrast, concentrations of lighter PAHs were found to be higher in summer in both locations, possibly because of volatilization of these compounds from various surfaces in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of formaldehyde were observed in summer than in winter, possibly because of significant contributions from photochemical reactions to formaldehyde air pollution in summer. Personal concentrations of toluene (25.4 +/- 13.5 microg/m3) and acrolein (1.78 +/- 3.7 microg/m3) in Waterfront South were found to be higher than those in the Copewood-Davis neighborhood (13.1 +/- 15.3 microg/m3 for toluene and 1.27 +/- 2.36 microg/m3 for acrolein). However, personal concentrations for most of the other

  18. VIOLÊNCIA E MEIO AMBIENTE: PODE A EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL CONTRIBUIR PARA A PAZ E A SUSTENTABILIDADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira da Costa Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente a relação social e humana com o meio ambiente sempre implicou em algum tipo de destruição e degradação. Com a constituição da sociedade industrial capitalista e seu desdobramento em sociedade de consumo de massa, esse avanço sobre os recursos naturais tem se dado de forma tão radical que ameaça a continuidade da vida e da biosfera como a conhecemos nos últimos milênios. O texto reflete sobre a relação entre a violência social e o meio ambiente a partir de um feixe de teorias e conceitos provenientes do cruzamento da questão ambiental, da teoria crítica, da teoria da complexidade, da teoria da sociedade de risco e de contribuições de filosofias tradicionais como o Budismo. Os conceitos considerados são os de sustentabilidade, de interdependência, de cidadania ambiental e de justiça socioambiental. Nesse sentido, procura investigar as raízes sociais e psicossociais da violência que condicionam as relações e instituições sócio-culturais, entre as quais figuram a própria ciência, como saber social hegemônico, e a educação; observar suas implicações sobre a vida social e ambiental; e verificar a possível contribuição da educação, em geral, e da educação ambiental como foco curricular, em particular, para transformar ou reorientar essas forças e práticas associadas à violência para fins mais pacíficos e construtivos.

  19. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  20. EMRP JRP MetNH3: Towards a Consistent Metrological Infrastructure for Ammonia Measurements in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Gieseking, Bjoern; Hieta, Tuomas; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Pogány, Andrea; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. In addition to its acidifying effect on natural waters and soils and to the additional nitrogen input to ecosystems, ammonia is an important precursor for secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on "National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)" regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation regarding certified reference material (CRM), applicable analytical methods, measurement uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. As shown in a key comparison in 2007, there are even discrepancies between reference materials provided by European National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) at amount fraction levels up to three orders of magnitude higher than ambient air levels. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air), a three-year project that started in June 2014 in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), aims to reduce the gap between requirements set by the European emission regulations and state-of-the-art of analytical methods and reference materials. The overarching objective of the JRP is to achieve metrological traceability for ammonia measurements in ambient air from primary certified reference material CRM and instrumental standards to the field level. This requires the successful completion of the three main goals, which have been assigned to three technical work packages: To develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods Realisation and characterisation of traceable preparative calibration standards (in pressurised cylinders as well as mobile generators) of ammonia amount fractions similar to those in ambient air based on existing methods for other reactive analytes. The

  1. Ambiente y salud: Reflexiones sobre la interacción entre el Derecho Ambiental y el Derecho de la Salud

    OpenAIRE

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista sanitario se entiende por Ambiente “el conjunto de condiciones físicas, químicas biológicas, psicológicas, sociales, culturales y económicas en las que vive una población y sus interacciones”.Asu vez, la Salud Pública ha identificado al ambiente como un determinante de la salud, concibiéndolo como el de mayor significación del proceso salud/enfermedad.Por ende, puede llegar a constituirse en un entorno peligroso o saludable.La salud admite entonces cuatro influencias d...

  2. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  3. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants

  4. Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air using combined laser ionization and ambient metastable ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.N.; Xie, Z.Q.; Gao, Y.; Hu, W.; Guo, L.B.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of solid samples in open air was carried out using combined laser ionization and metastable ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-MI-TOFMS) in ambient environment for qualitative and semiquantitative (relative analyte information, not absolute information) analysis. Ambient metastable ionization using a direct analysis in realtime (DART) ion source was combined with laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) to study the effects of combining metastable and laser ionization. A series of metallic samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 494, 495, 498, 499, and 500) and a pure carbon target were characterized using LI-TOFMS in open air. LI-MI-TOFMS was found to be superior to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Laser pulse energies between 10 and 200 mJ at the second harmonic (532 nm) of an Nd:YAG laser were applied in the experiment to obtain a high degree of ionization in plasmas. Higher laser pulse energy improves signal intensities of trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ca, Al, and Ag). Data were analyzed by numerically calculating relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) and limit of detections (LODs) from mass spectrometry (MS) and LIBS spectra. Different parameters, such as boiling point, ionization potential, RSC, LOD, and atomic weight, were shown to analyze the ionization and MS detection processes in open air.

  5. Electric scooters : Batteries in the battle against ambient air pollution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job FM; An, Pham Le; Kirenga, Bruce J; Chavannes, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is a major global health threat, responsible for an estimated loss of 103 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2015,1,2 and a main contributor to numerous health problems, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.3,4 Within the traffic domain of air pollution, cars,

  6. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J.; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people’s capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users’ goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths. PMID:24431472

  7. Fundamental study of a one-step ambient temperature ferrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... involves the controlled oxidation of ferrous-containing AMD water at ambient ... solutions under controlled pH and oxidation conditions (pH 10.5, air flow rate ... The kinetics of the reaction under the investigated conditions were found to be ...

  8. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  9. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  10. Effects of ambient lighting displays on peripheral activity awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, K.; Owusu, E.B.; Marcenaro, L.; Feijs, L.; Regazzoni, C.; Hu, J.

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of ubiquitous sensing and the Internet of Things (IoT) have inspired the development of “smart” everyday objects, which offer tremendous opportunities for maintaining the quality of life in ambient assisted living (AAL) environments. Inspired by the future possibilities of connected

  11. Common Ambient Assisted Living Home Platform for Seamless Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Stenner, Rene; Memon, Mukhtiar

    The CareStore project is investigating the feasibility of creating an open and flexible infrastructure for facilitating seamless deployment of assisted living devices and applications on heterogeneous platforms. The Common Ambient Assisted Living Home Platform (CAALHP) is intended to be the main ...

  12. An integrated smart system for ambient-assisted living

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foko, Thato E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambient-assisted living (AAL) is an initiative to extend the time the elderly can live in their home environment by increasing their autonomy and assisting them carry out their daily activities. AAL systems exploit information and communication...

  13. Distributing emotional services in ambient intelligence through cognitive agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Vitiello, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a pervasive computing paradigm whose main aim is to design smart environments composed of invisible, connected, intelligent and interactive systems, which are naturally sensitive and responsive to the presence of people, providing advanced services for improving the

  14. Evidence of Non-extensivity in Earth's Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, Ioannis; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-12-01

    The study of ambient seismic noise is one of the important scientific and practical research challenges, due to its use in a number of geophysical applications. In this work, we describe Earth's ambient noise fluctuations in terms of non-extensive statistical physics. We found that Earth's ambient noise increments follow the q-Gaussian distribution. This indicates that Earth's ambient noise's fluctuations are not random and present long-term memory effects that could be described in terms of Tsallis entropy. Our results suggest that q values depend on the time length used and that the non-extensive parameter, q, converges to value q → 1 for short-time windows and a saturation value of q ≈ 1.33 for longer ones. The results are discussed from the point of view of superstatistics introduced by Beck [Contin Mech Thermodyn 16(3):293-304, 2004] and connects the q values with the system's degrees of freedom. Our work indicates that the converged (maximum) value is q = 1.33 and is related to 5 degrees of freedom.

  15. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical ...

  16. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  17. Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

  18. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  19. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2013-12-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people's capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users' goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths.

  20. Using FML and fuzzy technology in adaptive ambient intelligent environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2005-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI, shortly) gathers best re-sults from three key technologies, Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiq-uitous Communication, and Intelligent User Friendly Inter-faces. The functional and spatial distribution of tasks is a natu-ral thrust to employ multi-agent paradigm to design and

  1. El gasto público ambiental en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Barrantes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   En la actualidad, la sociedad se ha visto amenazada por los altos niveles de degradación ambiental experimentados en los últimos tiempos, y por el creciente agotamiento de los recursos naturales que han limitado la seguridad alimentaria en algunas regiones del país -y en algunos países del mundo- (FMI, 1996. La contaminación ambiental ha sobrepasado niveles críticos y se está revirtiendo en contra del mismo ser humano en términos de salud, disponibilidad de recursos y del disfrute que podía experimentar de la naturaleza (Brown, 1991.   El replanteamiento del estilo de desarrollo requiere la implementación de acciones alternativas que conduzcan a un mejoramiento de la calidad ambiental, a una recuperación de la base de recursos naturales y, en general, a niveles de calidad de la sociedad manifiesto en mejoras de la salud, educación, seguridad, etc. Para tal efecto, se pueden desarrollar un conjunto de indicadores que permitan evaluar el comportamiento y la evolución de los recursos naturales y la calidad ambiental; por ejemplo, indicadores para monitorear la calidad del aire y del agua.

  2. Amazonía y el medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Mesa, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Editorial: Amazonía: responsabilidad de todos -- Ecología y economía -- El patrimonio cultural amazónico -- La universidad y el liderazgo investigativo -- cooperación internacional -- Realizaciones y perspectivas -- Por una política de investigación ambiental

  3. effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    To clarify the long-term effects of ambient levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) on ... (Rubisco), thus contributing to the reduction in net photosynthetic rate at the .... USA). During the measurements, atmospheric. CO2 concentrations, air ...... productivity and implications for climate change. Annual Review of Plant Biology 63:.

  4. Applying Formal Verification Techniques to Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghazi, Kawtar; Visitación Hurtado, María; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Noguera, Manuel

    This paper presents a verification approach based on timed traces semantics and MEDISTAM-RT [1] to check the fulfillment of non-functional requirements, such as timeliness and safety, and assure the correct functioning of the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) systems. We validate this approach by its application to an Emergency Assistance System for monitoring people suffering from cardiac alteration with syncope.

  5. Amelie: A recombinant computing framework for ambient awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metaxas, G.; Markopoulos, P.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Tschlegi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Amelie, a service oriented framework that supports the implementation of awareness systems. Amelie adopts the tenets of Recombinant computing to address an important non-functional requirement for Ambient Intelligence software, namely the heterogeneous combination of services and

  6. MODERN APPROACES IN THE CONTEXT OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldeanu Dana Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI, as a new vision and concept of the tomorrow, gathers a few features regarding both the integration of technology in the environment and the capacity technology has to recognize the user and its context, the system capacity to i

  7. Smart Tales: An Awareness Game for Ambient Assisted Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sernani, Paolo; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Dragoni, Aldo Franco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    2015-01-01

    Despite the progress in ambient assisted living (AAL), the general audience is still mostly unaware of this term as well as of its purpose, enabling technologies, and potential. As a consequence, there are often misconceptions about AAL and smart homes, and the acceptance of AAL technologies is

  8. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  9. Three Mile Island ambient-air-temperature sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the ambient-air-temperature sensors in Three Mile Island-Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor containment building are analyzed. The data were for the period of the hydrogen burn that was part of the TMI-2 accident. From the temperature data, limits are placed on the duration of the hydrogen burn

  10. Multimedia techniques for device and ambient intelligence: A continuing endeavor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2011-01-01

    The edited volume "Multimedia techniques for device and ambient intelligence" consists of two parts: i) an introduction to a variety of basic low level image processing techniques, leaving aside other modalities, and ii) work on high level, knowledge based processing, including interesting chapters

  11. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  12. An Ambient Awareness Tool for Supporting Supervised Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, H. S.; Dillenbourg, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ambient awareness tool, named "Lantern", designed for supporting the learning process in recitation sections, (i.e., when students work in small teams on the exercise sets with the help of tutors). Each team is provided with an interactive lamp that displays their work status: the exercise they are working on, if they have…

  13. Damping Estimation Using Free Decays and Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Brincker, Rune; Cunha, Álvaro

    2007-01-01

    The accurate identification of modal damping ratios of Civil Engineering structures is a subject of major importance, as the amplitude of structural vibrations in resonance is inversely proportional to these coefficients. Their experimental identification can be performed either from ambient vibr...

  14. Human Aspects in Ambient Intelligence : Contemporary Challenges and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Cook, D.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Sadri, F.

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments is the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. This field, and the associated workshop series, addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences. The aim

  15. Security and dependability for Ambient Intelligence: Informative but busy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The edited volume “Security and Dependability for Ambient Intelligence‿ is a comprehensive compilation of the research outcomes of the 3 year-long 7.8 million Euro European Framework Programme 6 project SERENITY (FP6-IST-2006-27587). At a time when Stuxnet and large scale data breaches at

  16. On Modal Parameter Estimates from Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agneni, A.; Brincker, Rune; Coppotelli, B.

    2004-01-01

    Modal parameter estimates from ambient vibration testing are turning into the preferred technique when one is interested in systems under actual loadings and operational conditions. Moreover, with this approach, expensive devices to excite the structure are not needed, since it can be adequately...

  17. An Ambient Agent To Support Depression Relapse Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.; Boldi, P.; Vizzari, G.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges for the patients with a history of unipolar depression is to stay healthy throughout their lifetime. In principle, with more prior onset cases, it escalates the risk of the patients to fall into a relapse. In this paper, an ambient agent based model to support patients from

  18. Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and radical scavenging system in leaves of African cowpea varieties. ... The O3-induced significant reduction in catalase activity was observed in Blackeye at vegetative and reproductive growth stages; and in Asontem at reproductive growth stage. On the other ...

  19. Realidad de los sistemas de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Constanza Escobar Cárdenas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis sobre la posibilidad de integrar los diferentes sistemas de gestión y la importancia que tiene los sistemas de gestión ambiental para el mejoramiento de las organizaciones. Luego de analizar comparativamente los modelos existentes, la autora presenta algunas recomendaciones de implementación.

  20. Activity recognition based on inertial sensors for ambient assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, K.; Owusu, E.; Bastani, V.; Marcenaro, L.; Hu, J.; Regazzoni, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) aims to create innovative technical solutions and services to support independent living among older adults, improve their quality of life and reduce the costs associated with health and social care. AAL systems provide health monitoring through sensor based

  1. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  2. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm; Le Viet Duc, L Duc; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and

  3. Storage beyond Three Hours at Ambient Temperature Alters the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage on stability of human breast milk was investigated in 30 lactating mothers. Samples stored for 3, 6 and 24 hours at ambient temperature of 302K (29°) were analysed for protein, lactose, pH, and microbial content. There were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in protein, lactose and pH upon storage for 6 ...

  4. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns for Social Learning. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference

  5. Characterization of selenium in ambient aerosols and primary emission sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Arlette; Longo, Amelia F; Ingall, Ellery D; Diaz, Julia M; King, Laura E; Lai, Barry; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G; Oakes, Michelle

    2014-08-19

    Atmospheric selenium (Se) in aerosols was investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the oxidation state and elemental associations of Se in common primary emission sources and ambient aerosols collected from the greater Atlanta area. In the majority of ambient aerosol and primary emission source samples, the spectroscopic patterns as well as the absence of elemental correlations suggest Se is in an elemental, organic, or oxide form. XRF microscopy revealed numerous Se-rich particles, or hotspots, accounting on average for ∼16% of the total Se in ambient aerosols. Hotspots contained primarily Se(0)/Se(-II). However, larger, bulk spectroscopic characterizations revealed Se(IV) as the dominant oxidation state in ambient aerosol, followed by Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(VI). Se(IV) was the only observed oxidation state in gasoline, diesel, and coal fly ash, while biomass burning contained a combination of Se(0)/Se(-II) and Se(IV). Although the majority of Se in aerosols was in the most toxic form, the Se concentration is well below the California Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit (∼20000 ng/m(3)).

  6. ambient volatile organic compounds pollution and ozone formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUMAYEDE

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Volatile organic compound (VOC) species react at different rate and exhibit differences in reactivity with respect to ozone formation in polluted urban atmosphere. To assess this, the variations pattern, reactivity relative to OH radical and ozone creation potential of ambient VOCs were investigated in field.

  7. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  8. Incorporating human aspects in ambient intelligence and smart environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Klein, M.C.A.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we propose to outline the scientific area that addresses Ambient Intelligence applications in which not only sensor data, but also knowledge from the human-directed sciences such as biomedical science, neuroscience, and psychological and social sciences is incorporated. This

  9. Autonomous composition of fuzzy granules in ambient intelligence scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Vasilakos, A.V.; Pedrycz, W.; Bargiela, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive and human-centric computing is beginning to be fact: with cell phones, laptops and handhelds, human beings can work pretty much anywhere. Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a novel human-centric computer discipline based on three emergent technologies: Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous

  10. Mapas de ruido: mecanismo de control del ruido ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Chávez García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros mecanismos de control del ruido ambiental fueron los mapas acústicos. La Directiva Europea 2002149/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo de Evatuacián y Gestión del Ruido Ambiental, exige, a los estados miembros,  se midan los niveles de ruido, en su entorno local, con  el fin de contar con indicadores de ruido comunes. elaborar mapas de ruido y planes de acción destinados a reducir los efectos nocivos de ruido ambiental.  Las directrices para la elaboración de los  mapas  acústicos son en base a la normativa  Española sobre ruido. Los requerimientos  en base a la normativa, garantizan los resultados, lo cual permitirá elaborar los planes de acción. El estudio busca comunicar la necesidad de utilizar herramientas como  los  mapas  acústicos y ejercer un control de los  impactos por ruido ambiental.

  11. Indoor Localization for Optimized Ambient Assisted Living Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitev, Miroslav; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Poulkov, Vladimir

    Indoor localization is very critical for the provision of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) services, such as e-Health, smart home, etc. The success of deploying a real-time localization system depends on selecting the right performance characteristics. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a technology, which...

  12. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  13. A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD waters: magnetite formation in the presence and absence of calcium ions under steady state operation. ... promising for AMD treatment. Keywords: Ferrite process, Magnetite seed, Calcium interference, Acid mine drainage (WaterSA: 2003 29(2): 117-124) ...

  14. The Acceptance of Domestic Ambient Intelligence Appliances by Prospective Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Allouch, Soumaya; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Peters, O.; Tokuda, Hideyuki; Beigl, Michael; Friday, Adrian; Bernheim Brush, A.J.; Tobe, Yoshito

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a growing interdisciplinary area where the focus is shifted towards users instead of merely emphasizing the technological opportunities of AmI. Different methods are employed to understand the adoption of AmI appliances by users. However, these are often small-scale

  15. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ..., vegetation, man-made materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility and climate, damage to and..., section 3.4.2). Entry of gases into a leaf is dependent upon physical and chemical processes of gas phase..., 2008, section 3.4.2). The appearance of foliar injury can vary significantly across species and growth...

  16. 77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Applicable to the Proposed Revised Primary Annual PM 2.5 NAAQS c. Surrogacy Approach for the Proposed New... D, 4.7.1(b)]. \\12\\ Population-oriented monitoring (or sites) means residential areas, commercial...

  17. 77 FR 30280 - Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...[supreg]. It is an insecticide, a molluscide, and is used to thin fruit in orchards. It is registered in... in water, with detections in approximately 50% of urban streams (U.S.G.S. 2006). EPA has previously...

  18. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... identified by ST segment depression, is asymptomatic (i.e., silent). Patients who experience angina typically...). \\15\\ Statistical analyses of the data from Sheps et al., (1987) by Bissette et al (1986) indicate a... measures of myocardial ischemia (ST-segment depression) \\18\\ were assessed, as well as the subjective...

  19. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...), hypertension (high blood pressure), and peripheral vascular diseases. Heart disease, in turn, comprises several... further concludes that no secondary standard should be set for CO at this time. EPA is also making changes.... Consideration of a Secondary Standard A. Introduction B. Rationale for Proposed Decision C. Comments on...

  20. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... industries. It also means providing as much assistance and flexibility as possible to the states as they work... associated with oil and gas development, internal combustion engines, incinerators, boilers and cement kilns... of much of the discussion of this rule. When a topic is discussed that is not covered by subpart 2...

  1. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... and emergency department visits, and development of chronic respiratory disease), and to retain the 24..., and development of chronic respiratory disease. The EPA also is eliminating spatial averaging... micrograms per cubic meter ([mu]g/m\\3\\) so as to provide increased protection against health effects...

  2. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...% discount rate) for alternative PM 2.5 standard levels of 11/35 [mu]g/m\\3\\ (annual and 24- hour standards...\\ Net benefits \\b\\ Alternate PM2.5 standards (annual/ 24-hour, in [mu]g/m\\3\\) 3% Discount 7% Discount rate rate 3% Discount rate 7% Discount rate 3% Discount rate \\c\\ 7% Discount rate 13/35 $2.9 $2.9 $88...

  3. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... trigger level of 0.6 ppm (600 ppb) SO 2 , one expected exceedance; and (3) augmenting implementation of... that short-term SO 2 bursts were ``localized, infrequent, and site-specific'' as a rational basis for... these receptors triggers central nervous system reflexes that result in [[Page 35526...

  4. National extra heavy crude oil upgrade; Melhoramento de petroleos extra pesados nacionais no ambiente de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Lilian Camen; Zilio, Evaldo L.; Guimarae, Regina C.; Tosta, Luiz C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Barros, Ricardo S. de [Fundacao Universitaria Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leite, Luiz Fernando T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios-ES

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian petroleums are becoming increasingly heavy, reaching values of up to 7 deg API, which classifies them as extra heavy. They are also very viscous, sometimes presenting values as 10184 mm{sup 2}/s to 50 deg C. These two factors affect production operations like lifting, flow assurance and primary processing, with implications on transporting and refining. Trading these kinds of oils is also difficult; once there are not many refineries in the world able to process them. Due to these facts and also to the lower yield on premium products, the international market value is lower than the reference oil, for example, oil 'Brent'. Studies indicate that in some heavy oils fields the process of well lifting and also the flow in pipelines is almost impracticable in a first analysis, mainly offshore field, impacting both technically and economically the development of the production of a new field. Therefore it becomes necessary implement efforts to develop alternatives to increase oil's API density and at the same time reduce the viscosity of extra heavy oil inside the well, i.e. through a process of upgrading assuring its flow and consequently their production, primary processing and refining, increasing, the value of marketing. (author)

  5. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... red blood cells. Children are particularly vulnerable to Pb exposure, in part because they are more... of Pb. Urban children are also of particular risk if the mother is exposed to lead. The harmful...

  6. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Headquarters Library, Room Number 3334 in the EPA West Building, located at 1301 Constitution Ave. NW... homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm . For additional instructions on submitting comments, go... Library, Room Number 3334 in the EPA West Building, located at 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC...

  7. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    .... Mortality b. Cardiovascular Effects 3. Health Effects With Long-Term Exposure to NO 2 a. Respiratory... disease, children, and the elderly. The epidemiologic evidence for respiratory health effects was limited...-pollutants. Both cardiovascular and respiratory mortality have been associated with increased NO 2...

  8. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  9. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  10. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Suh, Helen H; Pinto, Jayant M

    2016-11-01

    Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution-related olfactory impacts on the general population using measured

  11. Propuestas para el Plan Nacional de Salud y Medio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez Iriarte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con las estrategias internacionales en materia de salud y medio ambiente, los Ministerios de Sanidad y de Medio Ambiente pusieron en marcha en 2007 los mecanismos necesarios para la elaboración del Plan Nacional de Salud y Medio Ambiente. El primer paso ha sido la firma de un acuerdo de encomienda de gestión con el Instituto de Salud Carlos III para que éste diseñara las bases sobre las que sustentar el plan. El comité científico creado al efecto ha redactado un informe de bases para lo que ha contado con el concurso de un nutrido grupo de expertos. Las propuestas que se recogen en el informe constituyen el contenido del presente trabajo. Las propuestas hacen referencia a los ítems considerados prioritarios en la Estrategia Europea de Medio Ambiente y Salud, es decir, cáncer, alteraciones endocrinas, trastornos del desarrollo neurológico y enfermedades respiratorias, y se organizan en torno a los principales factores de riesgo ambiental para la salud: agua, compuestos químicos tóxicos persistentes, campos electromagnéticos, radicaciones ionizantes, ruido y cambio climático y temperaturas extremas. Para dar consistencia al plan se señalan algunas medidas imprescindibles que aseguren su viabilidad administrativa, política, técnica y financiera. Para darle coherencia, se arbitran unas líneas prioritarias comunes y unas estrategias metodológicas compatibles. Para darle forma, se señalan los programas nacionales que deberán implementarse y que deberán basarse en esa consistencia y coherencia. Más que entrar a concretar lo que se debe hacer —materia propia del futuro plan—, el informe señala cómo se debe hacer para lograr resultados exitosos.

  12. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Al-Aidaroos

    Full Text Available High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation. The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM 18.4±5.8% h(-1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM 12±5.6 h(-1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  13. MODELING THE AMBIENT CONDITION EFFECTS OF AN AIR-COOLED NATURAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius D.; Bucknor, Matthew; Kraus, Adam R.; Lv, Qiuping

    2017-07-02

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive safety concept under consideration for the overall safety strategy of advanced reactors such as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). One such variant, air-cooled RCCS, uses natural convection to drive the flow of air from outside the reactor building to remove decay heat during normal operation and accident scenarios. The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”) is a half-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The facility was constructed to carry out highly instrumented experiments to study the performance of the RCCS concept for reactor decay heat removal that relies on natural convection cooling. Parallel modeling and simulation efforts were performed to support the design, operation, and analysis of the natural convection system. Throughout the testing program, strong influences of ambient conditions were observed in the experimental data when baseline tests were repeated under the same test procedures. Thus, significant analysis efforts were devoted to gaining a better understanding of these influences and the subsequent response of the NSTF to ambient conditions. It was determined that air humidity had negligible impacts on NSTF system performance and therefore did not warrant consideration in the models. However, temperature differences between the building exterior and interior air, along with the outside wind speed, were shown to be dominant factors. Combining the stack and wind effects together, an empirical model was developed based on theoretical considerations and using experimental data to correlate zero-power system flow rates with ambient meteorological conditions. Some coefficients in the model were obtained based on best fitting the experimental data. The predictive capability of the empirical model was demonstrated by applying it to the new set of experimental data. The

  14. Time-varying cycle average and daily variation in ambient air pollution and fecundability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    Does ambient air pollution affect fecundability? While cycle-average air pollution exposure was not associated with fecundability, we observed some associations for acute exposure around ovulation and implantation with fecundability. Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and decrements in semen quality. The LIFE study (2005-2009), a prospective time-to-pregnancy study, enrolled 501 couples who were followed for up to one year of attempting pregnancy. Average air pollutant exposure was assessed for the menstrual cycle before and during the proliferative phase of each observed cycle (n = 500 couples; n = 2360 cycles) and daily acute exposure was assessed for sensitive windows of each observed cycle (n = 440 couples; n = 1897 cycles). Discrete-time survival analysis modeled the association between fecundability and an interquartile range increase in each pollutant, adjusting for co-pollutants, site, age, race/ethnicity, parity, body mass index, smoking, income and education. Cycle-average air pollutant exposure was not associated with fecundability. In acute models, fecundability was diminished with exposure to ozone the day before ovulation and nitrogen oxides 8 days post ovulation (fecundability odds ratio [FOR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72, 0.96 and FOR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99, respectively). However, particulate matter ≤10 microns 6 days post ovulation was associated with greater fecundability (FOR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.54). Although our study was unlikely to be biased due to confounding, misclassification of air pollution exposure and the moderate study size may have limited our ability to detect an association between ambient air pollution and fecundability. While no associations were observed for cycle-average ambient air pollution exposure, consistent with past research in the United States, exposure during critical windows of hormonal variability was associated with prospectively measured couple

  15. Aspectos políticos de la educación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Castillo, Róger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La dominación interna y externa a que está sometida nuestra realidad requiere de alternativas educacionales comprometidas, que rompan con los lazos de dependencia y gesten una conciencia de necesidades colectivas y nacionales. Por eso, la educación debe estar orientada hacia una praxis política y crítica que promueva la transformación en general.La educación ambiental analiza las estructuras socio-económicas y políticas, en la medida en que afecten a la sociedad y a los ecosistemas, no se trata de una práctica neutra, sino representa un compromiso o alternativa a la problemática socio-ambiental.Ante los nuevos paradigmas educativos y la crisis del sistema de desarrollo convencional, la educación ambiental politizada constituye una alternativa dirigida a lograr una acción educativa, transformadora del individuo en sujeto de su propio destino, comprometido con su sociedad, con la conciencia de los problemas actuales y con la búsqueda de soluciones para un desarrollo social y ambiental sustentable.Abstract: The inner/outer domination our reality is submitted to, requires from committed educational alternatives, that break the dependence ties and generate one of collective and national necessities. Therefore, education must be oriented towards a critical political praxis, that promotes the transformation in general.The environmental education analyses the social, economical and political structure, to the extent they affect society and ecosystems since education is not neutral. It represents a compromise or alternative to the social-environmental problem.Against the new educational paradigms and the conventional development system crisis, the politicized environmental education constitutes an alternative directed to accomplish an educational action, that transforms the individual into a subject of his own destiny, committed with his society and aware of the current problems, that looks for necessary solutions to a social and

  16. Issues in assessing the economic benefits of ambient ozone control: some examples from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the economic benefits arising from alternative secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards can provide one measure of regulatory efficiency. If benefits assessments are to be used in assessing regulatory impacts of federal standards as recently ordered by President Ronald Reagan, the economic concept of benefits, the limitations of benefits analysis, and the validity of those estimates needs to be clarified. Some methodological and applied issues which can effect the validity of environmental economic assessments as they pertain to agriculture are reviewed. Recent studies from the assessment literature on agriculture are critiqued with respect to how well they address such issues. An attempt is made to identify potential sources of variability in estimates found within that literature. Finally, implications for performance of future assessments are discussed.

  17. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades Environmental health: concepts and activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proporcionan varias definiciones y se da la oficial de salud ambiental adoptada por la OMS en Sofía, Bulgaria (1993. A continuación se transcriben las áreas básicas que a la salud ambiental le han asignado diversas organizaciones o reuniones, como la OPS, la OMS, el Programa 21 y otros. A partir de aquí se construye un repertorio bastante completo de áreas y subáreas y se encuentra que todos los listados son, en realidad, una reunión asistemática de tres tipos de constituyentes: determinantes (factores o hechos de la realidad física, procesos (conjuntos de intervenciones y funciones (conjuntos de acciones de gestión, los cuales pueden enfocarse matricialmente y llevan a individualizar actividades de los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proponen unas reglas de operación que permiten, en una especie de álgebra, construir expresiones para especificar con precisión las actividades y sus agregados. De este modo se logra disponer de un lenguaje simbólico común que puede ayudar a la intercomunicación, enseñanza e investigación en el ámbito de la salud ambiental.The objective of this study is to provide information and a conceptual framework that will facilitate the work of persons in charge of systematizing institutions devoted to environmental health. The notion of "environment" is examined and a definition is proposed, while a look is also taken at the place held by environmental health within the context of environmental problems

  18. A cartografia social em ambientes escolares - por uma educação ambiental crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Azevedo Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A educação ambiental garante espaço nas escolas brasileiras como uma importante proposta para o enfrentamento dos problemas ambientais, porém, costuma ter uma concepção conservadora e, assim, ser desconexa das realidades locais. Para tanto, o artigo visa analisar a educação ambiental ensinada nos ambientes escolares no município de Diamantina/MG, a fim de atualizá-la temporo-espacialmente. As prioridades ambientais do entorno de nove escolas do ensino fundamental foram registradas via mapeamento participativo, juntamente à análise dos livros didáticos adotados por estes locais de modo a identificar e caracterizar suas abordagens ambientais. De modo geral, os produtos cartográficos representaram questões associadas a resíduos sólidos, efluentes e poluições hídrica, sonora e atmosférica, sem trazer elementos que apontem para as relações de poder e os consequentes embates por hegemonia que estrutura a sociedade moderna. E os materiais didáticos apresentam temas ambientais em sua composição, mas a maioria de forma simplificada e descontextualizada, o que contribui para os resultados alcançados nas atividades de mapeamento participativo. Como construção criativa e coletiva, a educação ambiental crítica urge-se diante da crise ambiental e, portanto, a atualização temporal e espacial das temáticas ambientais se torna, desde já, uma tarefa necessária.

  19. Association between ambient air pollution and pregnancy rate in women who underwent IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, S A; Jun, Y B; Lee, W S; Yoon, T K; Kim, S Y

    2018-04-05

    : 0.87, 0.99) and CO (0.94, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.00) during period 1 were associated with decreased probability of intrauterine pregnancy. PM10 (0.92, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99), NO2 (0.93, 95% CI = 0.86, 1.00) and CO (0.93, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.00) levels during period 3 were also inversely associated with intrauterine pregnancy. Both PM10 (1.17, 95% CI: 1.04 1.33) and NO2 (1.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) during period 3 showed positive associations with biochemical pregnancy loss. The district-specific ambient air pollution treated as an individual exposure may not represent the actual level of each woman's exposure to air pollution. Smoking, working status, parity or gravidity of women, and semen analysis data were not included in the analysis. This study provided evidence of an association between increased ambient concentrations of PM10, NO2 and CO and reduced probabilities for achieving intrauterine pregnancy using multiple IVF cycle data. Specifically, our results indicated that lower intrauterine pregnancy rates in IVF cycles may be linked to ambient air pollution during COS and the post-transfer period. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013 R1A6A3A04059017, 2016 R1D1A1B03933410 and 2018 R1A2B6004608) and the National Cancer Center of Korea (NCC-1810220-01). The authors report no conflicts of interest. N/A.

  20. Responsible nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    In National Responsibility and Global Justice, David Miller defends the view that a member of a nation can be collectively responsible for an outcome despite the fact that: (i) she did not control it; (ii) she actively opposed those of her nation's policies that produced the outcome; and (iii......) actively opposing the relevant policy was costly for her. I argue that Miller's arguments in favor of this strong externalist view about responsibility and control are insufficient. Specifically, I show that Miller's two models of synchronic collective responsibility*the like-minded group model...

  1. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  2. A hybrid downscaling procedure for estimating the vertical distribution of ambient temperature in local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikopoulou, I.; Philippopoulos, K.; Deligiorgi, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere is defined by a combination of dynamic and radiation transfer processes and plays an important role in describing the meteorological conditions at local scales. The scope of this work is to develop and quantify the predictive ability of a hybrid dynamic-statistical downscaling procedure to estimate the vertical profile of ambient temperature at finer spatial scales. The study focuses on the warm period of the year (June - August) and the method is applied to an urban coastal site (Hellinikon), located in eastern Mediterranean. The two-step methodology initially involves the dynamic downscaling of coarse resolution climate data via the RegCM4.0 regional climate model and subsequently the statistical downscaling of the modeled outputs by developing and training site-specific artificial neural networks (ANN). The 2.5ox2.5o gridded NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset is used as initial and boundary conditions for the dynamic downscaling element of the methodology, which enhances the regional representivity of the dataset to 20km and provides modeled fields in 18 vertical levels. The regional climate modeling results are compared versus the upper-air Hellinikon radiosonde observations and the mean absolute error (MAE) is calculated between the four grid point values nearest to the station and the ambient temperature at the standard and significant pressure levels. The statistical downscaling element of the methodology consists of an ensemble of ANN models, one for each pressure level, which are trained separately and employ the regional scale RegCM4.0 output. The ANN models are theoretically capable of estimating any measurable input-output function to any desired degree of accuracy. In this study they are used as non-linear function approximators for identifying the relationship between a number of predictor variables and the ambient temperature at the various vertical levels. An insight of the statistically derived input

  3. Numerical Analysis of Exergy for Air-Conditioning Influenced by Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents numerical analysis of exergy for air-conditioning influenced by ambient temperature. The model of numerical simulation uses an integrated air conditioning system exposed in varied ambient temperature to observe change of the four main devices, the compressor, the condenser, the capillary, and the evaporator in correspondence to ambient temperature. The analysis devices of the four devices’s exergy influenced by the varied ambient temperature and found that the capillary has unusual increasing exergy loss vs. increasing ambient temperature in comparison to the other devices. The result shows that reducing exergy loss of the capillary influenced by the ambient temperature is the key for improving working efficiency of an air-conditioning system when influence of the ambient temperature is considered. The higher ambient temperature causes the larger pressure drop of capillary and more exergy loss.

  4. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  5. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  6. Ambient Intelligence and Wearable Computing: Sensors on the Body, in the Home, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Song, WenZhan

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has a history of focusing on technologies that are integrated into a person’s environment. However, ambient intelligence can be found on a person’s body as well. In this thematic issue we examine the role of wearable computing in the field of ambient intelligence. In this article we provide an overview of the field of wearable computing and discuss its relationship to the fields of smart environments and ambient intelligence. In addition, we introduce the papers presented...

  7. Evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE; un instrumento preventivo de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Gómez Orea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE es un instrumento para integrar primero el medio ambiente en el proceso de formulación de políticas, planes y programas (PPP y verificar después la realidad de ello. La integración consiste en incorporar sensibilidad, criterio, conocimiento y compromiso ambiental al proceso de elaboración del PPP, desde el principio, con el fin de que la decisión pública al respecto sea la más acertada posible. La verificación comporta dos facetas: la comprobación de que efectivamente se ha hecho un esfuerzo de integración ambiental en la elaboración del PPP y la evaluación del resultado conseguido, evaluación que se realiza a través de la identificación, valoración, prevención y seguimiento de los impactos que se producirían en caso de que llegue a ejecutarse.La integración ambiental comienza en el momento mismo en que surge la idea de elaborar el PPP, y su evaluación también; luego se concreta en un documento técnico (Informe de Sostenibilidad Ambiental: ISA que es parte integrante de la documentación del PPP y que se va desarrollando al mismo tiempo que el borrador del PPP; después sigue el proceso de integración incorporando las determinaciones establecidas en la Memoria Ambiental, que incluirá los resultados de la participación pública, a la elaboración del PPP definitivo.La EAE está regulada a nivel de la UE por la Directiva 2001/42/CE sobre evaluación de los efectos de determinados planes y programas en el medio ambiente; en el ámbito español por la Ley 9/2006 y en las comunidades autónomas por la legislación propia.En el procedimiento administrativo a través del que se aplica existe una fase técnicamente crucial: la elaboración al mismo tiempo del borrador del PPP y del ISA, de tal manera que este se podría interpretar como la incorporación de la dimensión ambiental al proceso de elaboración del borrador del PPP, la verificación de ello y la identificación, valoraci

  8. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  9. Fosfatos de cálcio no ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Arlindo João Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    A redução dos actuais níveis de poluição ambiental por elementos químicos vestigiais tais como arsénio e chumbo constitui um dos grandes desafios que a sociedade moderna tem que assumir e mobilizar recursos diversos para debelar este problema. A presença destes elementos químicos no ambiente em concentrações anormais é preocupante devido à sua possível biodisponibilidade. A sua imobilização vem sendo efectuada com recurso a diversas técnicas tais como precipitação, permuta iónica e adsorçã...

  10. Variable capacity utilization, ambient temperature shocks and generation asset valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chung-Li; Dmitriev, Alexandre [Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Zhu, Wei [Optim Energy, 225 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX 75062 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This paper discusses generation asset valuation in a framework where capital utilization decisions are endogenous. We use real options approach for valuation of natural gas fueled turbines. Capital utilization choices that we explore include turning on/off the unit, operating the unit at increased firing temperatures (overfiring), and conducting preventive maintenance. Overfiring provides capacity enhancement which comes at the expense of reduced maintenance interval and increased costs of part replacement. We consider the costs and benefits of overfiring in attempt to maximize the asset value by optimally exercising the overfire option. In addition to stochastic processes governing prices, we incorporate an exogenous productivity shock: ambient temperature. We consider how variation in ambient temperature affects the asset value through its effect on gas turbine's productivity. (author)

  11. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  12. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  13. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting...... on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta...

  14. 5th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Marletta, Vincenzo; Monteriù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL), highlighting the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies to enhance well-being and promote active ageing. The coverage is wide ranging, with sections on assistive devices, elderly people monitoring, home rehabilitation, ICT solutions for AAL, living with chronic conditions, robotic assistance for the elderly, sensing technologies for AAL, and smart housing. The book comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the Fifth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, which was held in Catania, Italy, in September 2014 and brought together end users, technology teams, and policy makers to develop a consensus on how to improve provision for elderly and impaired people. Readers will find that the expert contributions offer clear insights into the ways in which the most recent exciting advances may be expected to assist in addressing the needs of the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

  15. Desarrollo y medio ambiente. Algunas miradas desde las ciencias sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se presentan algunas de las teorías que atañen a la relación entre medio ambiente y desarrollo y se plantean interrogantes sobre la forma en que la temática ha sido desarrollada por parte de los científicos sociales. Su objetivo es doble: a de mostrar la polisemia del concepto desarrollo en las teorías económicas y la necesidad de que éstas incorporen indicadores más allá del de la renta (tales como el género, la postmodernidad, el postcolonialismo y los sujetos sociales; b destacar el importante trabajo, principalmente político, de varias de las teorías en cuestiones de medio ambiente y desarrollo.

  16. Gestão ambiental estratégica

    OpenAIRE

    Zacchi, Giancarlo Philippi

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração. Investigação e caracterização da legislação ambiental, observando as possibilidades de utilização turística em unidades de conservação, caracterizando os aspectos técnicos de um sistema de gestão estratégico, identificando plano de manejo e propondo um roteiro de gestão sustentável, para implantação de um eficiente sistema de gestão ambiental para unidades de...

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopy under ambient pressure and temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Ogletree, D.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore D.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  18. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes.

  19. Instantaneous chemical profiles of banknotes by ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Livia S; Haddad, Renato; Sarabia Neto, Ramon C; Cosso, Ricardo G; Maia, Denison R J; Maldaner, Adriano O; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Sanvido, Gustavo B; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G; Ifa, Demian R; Dill, Allison; Cooks, R Graham; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-10-01

    Using two desorption/ionization techniques (DESI and EASI) and Brazilian real, US$ dollar, and euro bills as proof-of-principle techniques and samples, direct analysis by ambient mass spectrometry is shown to function as an instantaneous, reproducible, and non-destructive method for chemical analysis of banknotes. Characteristic chemical profiles were observed for the authentic bills and for the counterfeit bills made using different printing processes (inkjet, laserjet, phaser and off-set printers). Detection of real-world counterfeit bills and identification of the counterfeiting method has also been demonstrated. Chemically selective 2D imaging of banknotes has also been used to confirm counterfeiting. The nature of some key diagnostic ions has also been investigated via high accuracy FTMS measurements. The general applicability of ambient MS analysis for anti-counterfeiting strategies particularly via the use of "invisible ink" markers is discussed.

  20. Exporeciclaje 2015. Estrategia de educación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación ambiental se facilita por el uso de actividades vivenciales (González, 2012. Esta investigación del tipo sistematización de experiencias (Martinic, 1984 tiene como finalidad la reflexión de los aprendizajes derivados de la actividad “exporeciclaje 2015”. El propósito de esta fue favorecer la formación de una consciencia ecológica en la escuela y disminuir la contaminación usando el reciclaje. Se instalaron 8 stands donde se dictaron charlas sobre la problemática en cuestión. La interacción indica que los estudiantes reconocieron la importancia del aprovechamiento de residuos con la finalidad de darle un mayor tiempo de vida útil, contribuyendo con el uso racional del ambiente.