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Sample records for four-level kondo model

  1. A S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, N.B.; Nunez-Regueiro, M.D.; Iglesias, J.R.; Coqblin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The underscreened Kondo lattice model presented here includes both an intra-site Kondo exchange interaction J K between the conduction band and localized 5f electrons described by S=1 spins, and an inter-site exchange f-f interaction J H . We write both localized and itinerant spins in a Fermionic representation, and then use a mean-field approximation. We obtain a coexistence of Kondo effect and magnetism which can account for the behavior of some Uranium compounds

  2. Thermodynamics of the topological Kondo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Buccheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, we investigate the topological Kondo model, which describes a set of one-dimensional external wires, pertinently coupled to a central region hosting a set of Majorana bound states. After a short review of the Bethe ansatz solution, we study the system at finite temperature and derive its free energy for arbitrary (even and odd number of external wires. We then analyse the ground state energy as a function of the number of external wires and of their couplings to the Majorana bound states. Then, we compute, both for small and large temperatures, the entropy of the Majorana degrees of freedom localized within the central region and connected to the external wires. Our exact computation of the impurity entropy provides evidence of the importance of fermion parity symmetry in the realization of the topological Kondo model. Finally, we also obtain the low-temperature behaviour of the specific heat of the Majorana bound states, which provides a signature of the non-Fermi-liquid nature of the strongly coupled fixed point.

  3. Thermodynamics of the topological Kondo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccheri, Francesco, E-mail: buccheri@iip.ufrn.br [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Babujian, Hrachya [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Brothers 2, Yerevan, 375036 (Armenia); Korepin, Vladimir E. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Sodano, Pasquale [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departemento de Fisíca Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Trombettoni, Andrea [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, we investigate the topological Kondo model, which describes a set of one-dimensional external wires, pertinently coupled to a central region hosting a set of Majorana bound states. After a short review of the Bethe ansatz solution, we study the system at finite temperature and derive its free energy for arbitrary (even and odd) number of external wires. We then analyse the ground state energy as a function of the number of external wires and of their couplings to the Majorana bound states. Then, we compute, both for small and large temperatures, the entropy of the Majorana degrees of freedom localized within the central region and connected to the external wires. Our exact computation of the impurity entropy provides evidence of the importance of fermion parity symmetry in the realization of the topological Kondo model. Finally, we also obtain the low-temperature behaviour of the specific heat of the Majorana bound states, which provides a signature of the non-Fermi-liquid nature of the strongly coupled fixed point.

  4. Quantum quenches in a holographic Kondo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Flory, Mario; Newrzella, Max-Niklas; Strydom, Migael; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study non-equilibrium dynamics and quantum quenches in a recent gauge/gravity duality model for a strongly coupled system interacting with a magnetic impurity with SU( N ) spin. At large N , it is convenient to write the impurity spin as a bilinear in Abrikosov fermions. The model describes an RG flow triggered by the marginally relevant Kondo operator. There is a phase transition at a critical temperature, below which an operator condenses which involves both an electron and an Abrikosov fermion field. This corresponds to a holographic superconductor in AdS2 and models the impurity screening. We quench the Kondo coupling either by a Gaussian pulse or by a hyperbolic tangent, the latter taking the system from the condensed to the uncondensed phase or vice-versa. We study the time dependence of the condensate induced by this quench. The timescale for equilibration is generically given by the leading quasinormal mode of the dual gravity model. This mode also governs the formation of the screening cloud, which is obtained as the decrease of impurity degrees of freedom with time. In the condensed phase, the leading quasinormal mode is imaginary and the relaxation of the condensate is over-damped. For quenches whose final state is close to the critical point of the large N phase transition, we study the critical slowing down and obtain the combination of critical exponents zν = 1. When the final state is exactly at the phase transition, we find that the exponential ringing of the quasinormal modes is replaced by a power-law behaviour of the form ˜ t - a sin( b log t). This indicates the emergence of a discrete scale invariance.

  5. Quantum quenches in a holographic Kondo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805, Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Flory, Mario [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805, Munich (Germany); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Newrzella, Max-Niklas; Strydom, Migael [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805, Munich (Germany); Wu, Jackson M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama,Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We study non-equilibrium dynamics and quantum quenches in a recent gauge/ gravity duality model for a strongly coupled system interacting with a magnetic impurity with SU(N) spin. At large N, it is convenient to write the impurity spin as a bilinear in Abrikosov fermions. The model describes an RG flow triggered by the marginally relevant Kondo operator. There is a phase transition at a critical temperature, below which an operator condenses which involves both an electron and an Abrikosov fermion field. This corresponds to a holographic superconductor in AdS{sub 2} and models the impurity screening. We quench the Kondo coupling either by a Gaussian pulse or by a hyperbolic tangent, the latter taking the system from the condensed to the uncondensed phase or vice-versa. We study the time dependence of the condensate induced by this quench. The timescale for equilibration is generically given by the leading quasinormal mode of the dual gravity model. This mode also governs the formation of the screening cloud, which is obtained as the decrease of impurity degrees of freedom with time. In the condensed phase, the leading quasinormal mode is imaginary and the relaxation of the condensate is over-damped. For quenches whose final state is close to the critical point of the large N phase transition, we study the critical slowing down and obtain the combination of critical exponents zν=1. When the final state is exactly at the phase transition, we find that the exponential ringing of the quasinormal modes is replaced by a power-law behaviour of the form ∼t{sup −a}sin (blog t). This indicates the emergence of a discrete scale invariance.

  6. Negativity as the Entanglement Measure to Probe the Kondo Regime in the Spin-Chain Kondo Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Sodano, Pasquale; Bose, Sougato

    2009-01-01

    We study the entanglement of an impurity at one end of a spin chain with a block of spins using negativity as a true measure of entanglement to characterize the unique features of the gapless Kondo regime in the spin chain Kondo model. For this spin chain in the Kondo regime we determine- with a true entanglement measure- the spatial extent of the Kondo screening cloud, we propose an ansatz for its ground state and demonstrate that the impurity spin is indeed maximally entangled with the clou...

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of Frustrated Kondo Lattice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshihiro; Assaad, Fakher F.; Grover, Tarun

    2018-03-01

    The absence of the negative sign problem in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of spin and fermion systems has different origins. World-line based algorithms for spins require positivity of matrix elements whereas auxiliary field approaches for fermions depend on symmetries such as particle-hole symmetry. For negative-sign-free spin and fermionic systems, we show that one can formulate a negative-sign-free auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that allows Kondo coupling of fermions with the spins. Using this general approach, we study a half-filled Kondo lattice model on the honeycomb lattice with geometric frustration. In addition to the conventional Kondo insulator and antiferromagnetically ordered phases, we find a partial Kondo screened state where spins are selectively screened so as to alleviate frustration, and the lattice rotation symmetry is broken nematically.

  8. Two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Hoyos, Carlos; O'Bannon, Andy; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Probst, Jonas; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2017-03-01

    We develop the formalism of holographic renormalization to compute two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model. The model describes a (0 + 1)-dimensional impurity spin of a gauged SU( N ) interacting with a (1 + 1)-dimensional, large- N , strongly-coupled Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We describe the impurity using Abrikosov pseudo-fermions, and define an SU( N )-invariant scalar operator O built from a pseudo-fermion and a CFT fermion. At large N the Kondo interaction is of the form O^{\\dagger}O, which is marginally relevant, and generates a Renormalization Group (RG) flow at the impurity. A second-order mean-field phase transition occurs in which O condenses below a critical temperature, leading to the Kondo effect, including screening of the impurity. Via holography, the phase transition is dual to holographic superconductivity in (1 + 1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. At all temperatures, spectral functions of O exhibit a Fano resonance, characteristic of a continuum of states interacting with an isolated resonance. In contrast to Fano resonances observed for example in quantum dots, our continuum and resonance arise from a (0 + 1)-dimensional UV fixed point and RG flow, respectively. In the low-temperature phase, the resonance comes from a pole in the Green's function of the form - i2, which is characteristic of a Kondo resonance.

  9. Two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Hoyos, Carlos [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain); O’Bannon, Andy [STAG Research Centre, Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I 34136 Trieste (Italy); Probst, Jonas [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Wu, Jackson M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    We develop the formalism of holographic renormalization to compute two-point functions in a holographic Kondo model. The model describes a (0+1)-dimensional impurity spin of a gauged SU(N) interacting with a (1+1)-dimensional, large-N, strongly-coupled Conformal Field Theory (CFT). We describe the impurity using Abrikosov pseudo-fermions, and define an SU(N)-invariant scalar operator O built from a pseudo-fermion and a CFT fermion. At large N the Kondo interaction is of the form O{sup †}O, which is marginally relevant, and generates a Renormalization Group (RG) flow at the impurity. A second-order mean-field phase transition occurs in which O condenses below a critical temperature, leading to the Kondo effect, including screening of the impurity. Via holography, the phase transition is dual to holographic superconductivity in (1+1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. At all temperatures, spectral functions of O exhibit a Fano resonance, characteristic of a continuum of states interacting with an isolated resonance. In contrast to Fano resonances observed for example in quantum dots, our continuum and resonance arise from a (0+1)-dimensional UV fixed point and RG flow, respectively. In the low-temperature phase, the resonance comes from a pole in the Green’s function of the form −i〈O〉{sup 2}, which is characteristic of a Kondo resonance.

  10. The 1D Kondo lattice model at criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulacsi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The transition from a ferromagnetic phase, to a disordered paramagnetic phase, which occurs in one-dimensional Kondo lattice models is described. The transition is the quantum order-disorder transition of the transverse-field Ising chain type, and reflects ferromagnetically ordered regions of localized spins being gradually destroyed as the coupling to the conduction electrons is reduced. For incommensurate conduction band fillings, the low-energy properties of the localized spins near the transition are dominated by anomalous ordered (disordered) regions of localized spins which survive into the ferromagnetic (paramagnetic) phase. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  11. Interaction effect in the Kondo energy of the periodic Anderson-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, K.; Fazekas, P.

    1996-07-01

    We extend the periodic Anderson model by switching on a Hubbard U for the conduction band. The nearly integral valent limit of the Anderson-Hubbard model is studied with the Gutzwiller variational method. The lattice Kondo energy shows U dependence both in the prefactor and the exponent. Switching on U reduces the Kondo scale, which can be understood to result from the blocking of hybridization. At half filling, we find a Brinkman-Rice-type transition from a Kondo insulator to a Mott insulator. Our findings should be relevant for a number of correlated two-band models of recent interest.

  12. Nonclassical Effects of a Four-Level Excited-Doublet Atom Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiansong; Xu Jingbo

    2006-01-01

    We adopt a dynamical algebraic method to study a four-level excited-doublet atom model and obtain the explicit expressions of the time-evolution operator and the density operator for the system. The nonclassical effects of the system, such as collapses and revivals of the atomic inversion and squeezing of the radiation field, are also discussed.

  13. Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongbae

    2011-07-13

    We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.

  14. Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongbae

    2011-01-01

    We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.

  15. Non-equilibrium scaling analysis of the Kondo model with voltage bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Peter; Kehrein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The quintessential description of Kondo physics in equilibrium is obtained within a scaling picture that shows the buildup of Kondo screening at low temperature. For the non-equilibrium Kondo model with a voltage bias, the key new feature are decoherence effects due to the current across the impurity. In the present paper, we show how one can develop a consistent framework for studying the non-equilibrium Kondo model within a scaling picture of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations). Decoherence effects appear naturally in third order of the β-function and dominate the Hamiltonian flow for sufficiently large voltage bias. We work out the spin dynamics in non-equilibrium and compare it with finite temperature equilibrium results. In particular, we report on the behavior of the static spin susceptibility including leading logarithmic corrections and compare it with the celebrated equilibrium result as a function of temperature.

  16. Model for a Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point in a 1D Kondo Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, Yashar; Coleman, Piers

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we study a quasi-one-dimensional model of a Kondo lattice with ferromagnetic coupling between the spins. Using bosonization and dynamical large-N techniques, we establish the presence of a Fermi liquid and a magnetic phase separated by a local quantum critical point, governed by the Kondo breakdown picture. Thermodynamic properties are studied and a gapless charged mode at the quantum critical point is highlighted.

  17. Phase diagram of the Kondo-Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice with geometrical frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Song, Hai-Feng; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    We calculated the phase diagram of the Kondo-Heisenberg model on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice with both nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic spin exchanges, to investigate the interplay between RKKY and Kondo interactions in the presence of magnetic frustration. Within a mean-field decoupling technology in slave-fermion representation, we derived the zero-temperature phase diagram as a function of Kondo coupling J k and frustration strength Q. The geometrical frustration can destroy the magnetic order, driving the original antiferromagnetic (AF) phase to non-magnetic valence bond solids (VBS). In addition, we found two distinct VBS. As J k is increased, a phase transition from AF to Kondo paramagnetic (KP) phase occurs, without the intermediate phase coexisting AF order with Kondo screening found in square lattice systems. In the KP phase, the enhancement of frustration weakens the Kondo screening effect, resulting in a phase transition from KP to VBS. We also found a process to recover the AF order from VBS by increasing J k in a wide range of frustration strength. Our work may provide predictions for future experimental observation of new processes of quantum phase transitions in frustrated heavy-fermion compounds.

  18. Chiral helimagnetic state in a Kondo lattice model with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shun; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2018-05-01

    Monoaxial chiral magnets can form a noncollinear twisted spin structure called the chiral helimagnetic state. We study magnetic properties of such a chiral helimagnetic state, with emphasis on the effect of itinerant electrons. Modeling a monoaxial chiral helimagnet by a one-dimensional Kondo lattice model with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, we perform a variational calculation to elucidate the stable spin configuration in the ground state. We obtain a chiral helimagnetic state as a candidate for the ground state, whose helical pitch is modulated by the model parameters: the Kondo coupling, the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction, and electron filling.

  19. A Kondo cluster-glass model for spin glass Cerium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G; Coqblin, B

    2011-01-01

    There are clear indications that the presence of disorder in Ce alloys, such as Ce(Ni,Cu) or Ce(Pd,Rh), is responsible for the existence of a cluster spin glass state which changes continuously into inhomogeneous ferromagnetism at low temperatures. We present a study of the competition between magnetism and Kondo effect in a cluster-glass model composed by a random inter-cluster interaction term and an intra-cluster one, which contains an intra-site Kondo interaction J k and an inter-site ferromagnetic one J 0 . The random interaction is given by the van Hemmen type of randomness which allows to solve the problem without the use of the replica method. The inter-cluster term is solved within the cluster mean-field theory and the remaining intra-cluster interactions can be treated by exact diagonalization. Results show the behavior of the cluster glass order parameter and the Kondo correlation function for several sizes of the clusters, J k , J 0 and values of the ferromagnetic inter-cluster average interaction I 0 . Particularly, for small J k , the magnetic solution is strongly dependent on I 0 and J 0 and a Kondo cluster-glass or a mixed phase can be obtained, while, for large J k , the Kondo effect is still dominant, both in good agreement with experiment in Ce(Ni,Cu) or Ce(Pd,Rh) alloys.

  20. Towards quantum simulation of the Kondo-Lattice-Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochanke, Andre

    2017-04-25

    Ultracold quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like metals are a versatile tool to investigate interacting many-body physics by realizing clean and controllable experimental model systems. Their intriguing properties range from energetically low-lying clock transitions, which allow for high-resolution spectroscopy, over meta-stable states, which can be regarded as a second species with orbital degree of freedom, to SU(N) symmetry, allowing novel magnetic phases. These open up new possibilities for quantum simulators. Using them in combination with optical lattices dissipative Fermi-Hubbard models and the Kondo-lattice-model can be realized, two promising examples for probing strongly correlated systems. This thesis presents an experimental apparatus for producing ultracold samples of fermionic {sup 173}Yb (N≤6). A new bicolor dipole trap was implemented with a final, average trap frequency of anti ω=36 Hz. Using optical, resonant pumping and an Optical-Stern-Gerlach scheme, the spin mixture can arbitrarily be changed from a six- to a one-component gas. Typically the degenerate Fermi gases consist of 87000 atoms at 17.5% T{sub F} (N=6) and of 47000 atoms at 19.4% T{sub F} (N=1). The lowest lying meta-stable state {sup 3}P{sub 0} (578 nm) is coherently controlled using a clock-laser setup with a linewidth of FWHM=1 Hz by means of Rabi oscillations or rapid adiabatic passage. By conducting spectroscopic measurements in a 3D magic lattice (759 nm) we demonstrate inter band transitions and observe the {sup 1}S{sub 0}<=>{sup 3}P{sub 0} excitation with a resolution of FWHM=50(2) Hz. Applying these techniques to a two-component spin mixture reveals a shift of the clock-transition caused by spin-exchange interaction between the orbital symmetric vertical stroke eg right angle {sup +} vertical stroke ↑↓ right angle {sup -} and the orbital antisymmetric vertical stroke eg right angle {sup -} vertical stroke ↑↓ right angle {sup +} state. Using the inelastic properties of

  1. Exploring the anisotropic Kondo model in and out of equilibrium with alkaline-earth atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanász-Nagy, Márton; Ashida, Yuto; Shi, Tao; Moca, Cǎtǎlin Paşcu; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N.; Fölling, Simon; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Zaránd, Gergely; Demler, Eugene A.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the Kondo model with tunable anisotropy using alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice. The new feature of our setup is Floquet engineering of interactions using time-dependent Zeeman shifts, that can be realized either using state-dependent optical Stark shifts or magnetic fields. The properties of the resulting Kondo model strongly depend on the anisotropy of the ferromagnetic interactions. In particular, easy-plane couplings give rise to Kondo singlet formation even though microscopic interactions are all ferromagnetic. We discuss both equilibrium and dynamical properties of the system that can be measured with ultracold atoms, including the impurity spin susceptibility, the impurity spin relaxation rate, as well as the equilibrium and dynamical spin correlations between the impurity and the ferromagnetic bath atoms. We analyze the nonequilibrium time evolution of the system using a variational non-Gaussian approach, which allows us to explore coherent dynamics over both short and long timescales, as set by the bandwidth and the Kondo singlet formation, respectively. In the quench-type experiments, when the Kondo interaction is suddenly switched on, we find that real-time dynamics shows crossovers reminiscent of poor man's renormalization group flow used to describe equilibrium systems. For bare easy-plane ferromagnetic couplings, this allows us to follow the formation of the Kondo screening cloud as the dynamics crosses over from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic behavior. On the other side of the phase diagram, our scheme makes it possible to measure quantum corrections to the well-known Korringa law describing the temperature dependence of the impurity spin relaxation rate. Theoretical results discussed in our paper can be measured using currently available experimental techniques.

  2. Nonequilibrium Kondo effect by the equilibrium numerical renormalization group method: The hybrid Anderson model subject to a finite spin bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tie-Feng; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2018-06-01

    We investigate Kondo correlations in a quantum dot with normal and superconducting electrodes, where a spin bias voltage is applied across the device and the local interaction U is either attractive or repulsive. When the spin current is blockaded in the large-gap regime, this nonequilibrium strongly correlated problem maps into an equilibrium model solvable by the numerical renormalization group method. The Kondo spectra with characteristic splitting due to the nonequilibrium spin accumulation are thus obtained at high precision. It is shown that while the bias-induced decoherence of the spin Kondo effect is partially compensated by the superconductivity, the charge Kondo effect is enhanced out of equilibrium and undergoes an additional splitting by the superconducting proximity effect, yielding four Kondo peaks in the local spectral density. In the charge Kondo regime, we find a universal scaling of charge conductance in this hybrid device under different spin biases. The universal conductance as a function of the coupling to the superconducting lead is peaked at and hence directly measures the Kondo temperature. Our results are of direct relevance to recent experiments realizing a negative-U charge Kondo effect in hybrid oxide quantum dots [Nat. Commun. 8, 395 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00495-7].

  3. Numerical renormalization group studies of the partially brogen SU(3) Kondo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuh Chuo, Evaristus

    2013-04-15

    The two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect with its exotic ground state properties has remained difficult to realize in physical systems. At low energies, a quantum impurity with orbital degree of freedom, like a proton bound in an interstitial lattice space, comprises a 3-level system with a unique ground state and (at least) doubly degenerate rotational excitations with excitation energy {Delta}{sub 0}. When immersed in a metal, electronic angular momentum scattering induces transitions between any two of these levels (couplings J), while the electron spin is conserved. We show by extensive numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations that without fi ne-tuning of parameters this system exhibits a 2CK fixed point, due to Kondo correlations in the excited-state doublet whose degeneracy is stabilized by the host lattice parity, while the channel symmetry (electron spin) is guaranteed by time reversal symmetry. We find a pronounced plateau in the entropy at S(T{sub K}>{Delta}{sub 0})=k{sub B} ln 3, and the 2CK ground state value, S(0)=k{sub B} ln {radical}(2). This indicates a downward renormalization of the doublet below the non-interacting ground state, thus realizing the 2CK fixed point, in agreement with earlier conjectures. We mapped out the phase diagram of the model in the J-{Delta}{sub 0} plane. The Kondo temperature T{sub K} shows non-monotonic J-dependence, characteristic for 2CK systems. Beside the two-channel Kondo effect of the model, we also study the single-channel version, which is realized by applying a strong magnetic fi eld to the conduction band electrons so that their degeneracy is lifted and consequently having only one kind of electrons scattering off the impurity. This single-channel case is easier to analyze since the Hilbert space is not as large as that of the 2CK. We equally find a downward renormalization of the excited state energy by the Kondo correlations in the SU(2) doublet

  4. Numerical renormalization group studies of the partially brogen SU(3) Kondo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuh Chuo, Evaristus

    2013-04-01

    The two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect with its exotic ground state properties has remained difficult to realize in physical systems. At low energies, a quantum impurity with orbital degree of freedom, like a proton bound in an interstitial lattice space, comprises a 3-level system with a unique ground state and (at least) doubly degenerate rotational excitations with excitation energy Δ 0 . When immersed in a metal, electronic angular momentum scattering induces transitions between any two of these levels (couplings J), while the electron spin is conserved. We show by extensive numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations that without fi ne-tuning of parameters this system exhibits a 2CK fixed point, due to Kondo correlations in the excited-state doublet whose degeneracy is stabilized by the host lattice parity, while the channel symmetry (electron spin) is guaranteed by time reversal symmetry. We find a pronounced plateau in the entropy at S(T K 0 )=k B ln 2 between the high-T value, S(T>>Δ 0 )=k B ln 3, and the 2CK ground state value, S(0)=k B ln √(2). This indicates a downward renormalization of the doublet below the non-interacting ground state, thus realizing the 2CK fixed point, in agreement with earlier conjectures. We mapped out the phase diagram of the model in the J-Δ 0 plane. The Kondo temperature T K shows non-monotonic J-dependence, characteristic for 2CK systems. Beside the two-channel Kondo effect of the model, we also study the single-channel version, which is realized by applying a strong magnetic fi eld to the conduction band electrons so that their degeneracy is lifted and consequently having only one kind of electrons scattering off the impurity. This single-channel case is easier to analyze since the Hilbert space is not as large as that of the 2CK. We equally find a downward renormalization of the excited state energy by the Kondo correlations in the SU(2) doublet. In a wide range of parameter values this stabilizes the single

  5. Photoemission and the electronic properties of heavy fermions -- limitations of the Kondo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.J.; Arko, A.J.; Andrews, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic properties of Yb-based heavy fermions have been investigated by means of high resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission and compared with predictions of the Kondo model. The Yb heavy fermion photoemission spectra show massive disagreement with the Kondo model predictions (as calculated within the Gunnarsson-Schonhammer computational method). Moreover, the Yb heavy fermion photoemission spectra give very strong indications of core-like characteristics and compare favorable to purely divalent Yb metal and core-like Lu 4f levels. The heavy fermions YbCu 2 Si 2 , YbAgCu 4 and YbAl 3 were measured and shown to have lineshapes much broader and deeper in binding energy than predicted by the Kondo model. The lineshape of the bulk component of the 4f emission for these three heavy fermion materials was compared with that from Yb metal and the Lu 4f levels in LuAl 3 , the heavy fermion materials show no substantive spectroscopic differences from simple 4f levels observed in Yb metal and LuAl 3 . Also, the variation with temperature of the 4f fineshape was measured for Yb metal and clearly demonstrates that phonon broadening plays a major role in 4f level lineshape analysis and must be accounted for before considerations of correlated electron resonance effects are presumed to be at work

  6. Interaction quench dynamics in the Kondo model in the presence of a local magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, M; Kehrein, S

    2010-09-01

    In this work we investigate the quench dynamics in the Kondo model on the Toulouse line in the presence of a local magnetic field. It is shown that this setup can be realized by either applying the local magnetic field directly or by preparing the system in a macroscopically spin-polarized initial state. In the latter case, the magnetic field results from a subtlety in applying the bosonization technique where terms that are usually referred to as finite-size corrections become important in the present non-equilibrium setting. The transient dynamics are studied by analyzing exact analytical results for the local spin dynamics. The timescale for the relaxation of the local dynamical quantities turns out to be exclusively determined by the Kondo scale. In the transient regime, one observes damped oscillations in the local correlation functions with a frequency set by the magnetic field.

  7. A low-temperature derivation of spin-spin exchange in Kondo lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Szeshiang; Mochena, Mogus

    2005-01-01

    Using Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and drone-fermion representations for spin-12 and for spin-32, which is presented for the first time, we make a path-integral formulation of the Kondo lattice model. In the case of weak coupling and low temperature, the functional integral over conduction fermions can be approximated to the quadratic order and this gives the well-known RKKY interaction. In the case of strong coupling, the same quadratic approximation leads to an effective local spin-spin interaction linear in hopping energy t

  8. A low-temperature derivation of spin-spin exchange in Kondo lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Szeshiang [Physics Department, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307 (United States)]. E-mail: shixiang.feng@famu.edu; Mochena, Mogus [Physics Department, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Using Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and drone-fermion representations for spin-12 and for spin-32, which is presented for the first time, we make a path-integral formulation of the Kondo lattice model. In the case of weak coupling and low temperature, the functional integral over conduction fermions can be approximated to the quadratic order and this gives the well-known RKKY interaction. In the case of strong coupling, the same quadratic approximation leads to an effective local spin-spin interaction linear in hopping energy t.

  9. One- and two-channel Kondo model with logarithmic Van Hove singularity: A numerical renormalization group solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, A. K.; Anokhin, A. O.; Irkhin, V. Yu.

    2018-02-01

    Simple scaling consideration and NRG solution of the one- and two-channel Kondo model in the presence of a logarithmic Van Hove singularity at the Fermi level is given. The temperature dependences of local and impurity magnetic susceptibility and impurity entropy are calculated. The low-temperature behavior of the impurity susceptibility and impurity entropy turns out to be non-universal in the Kondo sense and independent of the s-d coupling J. The resonant level model solution in the strong coupling regime confirms the NRG results. In the two-channel case the local susceptibility demonstrates a non-Fermi-liquid power-law behavior.

  10. Field induced magnetic quantum critical behavior in the Kondo necklace model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Daniel; Continentino, Mucio

    2008-01-01

    The Kondo necklace model augmented by a Zeeman term, serves as a useful model for heavy fermion compounds in an applied magnetic field. The phase diagram and thermodynamic behavior for arbitrary dimensions d has been investigated previously in the zero field case [D. Reyes, M. Continentino, Phys. Rev. B 76 (2007) 075114. ]. Here we extend the treatment to finite fields using a generalized bond operator representation for the localized and conduction electrons spins. A decoupling scheme on the double time Green's functions yields the dispersion relation for the excitations of the system. Two critical magnetic fields are found namely, a critical magnetic field called henceforth h c1 and a saturation field nominated h c2 . Then three important regions can be investigated: (i) Kondo spin liquid state (KSL) at low fields h c1 ; (ii) destruction of KSL state at h≥h c1 and appearance of a antiferromagnetic state; and (iii) saturated paramagnetic region above the upper critical field h c2

  11. Magnetic order and Kondo effect in the Anderson-lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, B.H.; Aguiar, C.; Kogoutiouk, I.; Coqblin, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Anderson-lattice model has been extensively developed to account for the properties of many anomalous rare-earth compounds and in particular for the competition between the Kondo effect and an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase in a cubic lattice. Here we apply the higher-order decoupling of the equations of motion for the Green Functions (GF) introduced in [H.G. Luo, S.J. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 1485]. We obtain an improved description of the phase diagram, where the AF phase subsists in a smaller range of the model parameters. As higher-order GF are included in the chain of equations, we are able to calculate directly the local spin-flip correlation function † ↓ d † ↑ f ↑ d ↓ >. As a further improvement to the previous approximation of [B.H. Bernhard, C. Aguiar, B. Coqblin, Physica B 378-380 (2006) 712], we obtain a reduced range of existence for the AF phase for the symmetric half-filled case and then we discuss the competition between the AF order and the Kondo effect as a function of the band filling

  12. Experimental test of a four-level kinetic model for excited-state intramolecular proton transfer dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costela, A; Munnoz, J M; Douhal, A; Figuera, J M; Acuna, A U [Inst. de Quimica Fisica ' ' Rocasolano' ' , C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain)

    1989-11-01

    The nanosecond pulses of a dye laser oscillator based on the excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer reaction (IPT) of salicylamide and 2'-hydroxylphenyl benzimidazole dyes have been studied as a function of several experimental parameters. To explain the operation of this laser a numerical four-level kinetic model was developed until the lasing properties of these dyes, in the presence of a variable oxygen concentration and pumped with a double pulse technique, could be reproduced. This was possible only by assuming that the efficiency of the laser is controlled by the absorption cross-section of a transient state with a lifetime in the nanosecond-picosecond range, which was tentatively identified as a ground state tautomeric species. (orig.).

  13. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  14. Formation of spin-polarons in the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model away from half-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, Y; Navarro, O; Vallejo, E; Avignon, M

    2012-01-01

    Even though realistic one-dimensional experiments in the field of half-metallic semiconductors are not at hand yet, we are interested in the underlying fundamental physics. In this regard we study a one-dimensional ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model, a model in which a conduction band is coupled ferromagnetically to a background of localized d moments with coupling constant J H , and investigate the T = 0 phase diagram as a function of the antiferromagnetic interaction J between the localized moments and the band-filling n, since it has been observed that doping of the compounds has led to formation of magnetic domains. We explore the spin-polaron formation by looking at the nearest-neighbour correlation functions in the spin and charge regimes for which we use the density matrix renormalization group method, which is a highly efficient method to investigate quasi-one-dimensional strongly correlated systems. (paper)

  15. Fermionology in the Kondo-Heisenberg model: the case of CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2015-09-01

    The Fermi surface of heavy electron systems plays a fundamental role in understanding their variety of puzzling phenomena, for example, quantum criticality, strange metal behavior, unconventional superconductivity and even enigmatic phases with yet unknown order parameters. The spectroscopy measurement of the typical heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 has demonstrated multi-Fermi surface structure, which has not been studied in detail theoretically in a model system like the Kondo-Heisenberg model. In this work, we take a step toward such a theoretical model by revisiting the Kondo-Heisenberg model. It is found that the usual self-consistent calculation cannot reproduce the fermionology of the experimental observation of the system due to the sign binding between the hopping of the conduction electrons and the mean-field valence-bond order. To overcome such inconsistency, the mean-field valence-bond order is considered as a free/fitting parameter to correlate them with real-life experiments as performed in recent experiments [M.P. Allan, F. Massee, D.K. Morr, J. Van Dyke, A.W. Rost, A.P. Mackenzie, C. Petrovic, J.C. Davis, Nat. Phys. 9, 468 (2013); J. Van Dyke, F. Massee, M.P. Allan, J.C. Davis, C. Petrovic, D.K. Morr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 11663 (2014)], which also explicitly reflects the intrinsic dispersion of local electrons observed in experimental measurements. Given the fermionology, the calculated effective mass enhancement, entropy, superfluid density and Knight shift are all in qualitative agreement with the experimental results of CeCoIn5, which confirms our assumption. Our result supports a d_{x^2 - y^2 }-wave pairing structure in the heavy fermion material CeCoIn5.

  16. Can Holstein-Kondo lattice model be used as a candidate for the theory of high transition temperature superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nourafkan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   It is a common knowledge that the formation of electron pairs is a necessary ingredient of any theoretical work describing superconductivity. Thus, finding the mechanism of the formation of the electron pairs is of utmost importance. There are some experiments on high transition temperature superconductors which support the electron-phonon (e-ph interactions as the pairing mechanism (ARPES, and there are others which support the spin fluctuations as their pairing mechanism (tunneling spectroscopy. In this paper, we introduce the Holstein-Kondo lattice model (H-KLM which incorporates the e-ph as well as the Kondo exchange interaction. We have used the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT to describe heavy fermion semiconductors and have employed the exact-diagonalization technique to obtain our results. The phase diagram of these systems in the parameter space of the e-ph coupling, g, and the Kondo exchange coupling, J, show that the system can be found in the Kondo insulating phase, metallic phase or the bi-polaronic phase. It is shown that these systems develop both spin gap and a charge gap, which are different and possess energies in the range of 1-100 meV. In view of the fact that both spin excitation energies and phonon energies lie in this range, we expect our work on H-KLM opens a way to formalize the theory of the high transition temperature superconductors .

  17. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.; Kee Haeyoung.

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach's Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins τ J , j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  18. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazekas, P; Haeyoung, Kee

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach`s Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins {tau}{sub J}, j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig.

  19. Kondo lattice model: Unitary transformations, spin dynamics, strongly correlated charged modes, and vacuum instability

    OpenAIRE

    Prats, J. M.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Using unitary transformations, we express the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian in terms of fermionic operators that annihilate the ground state of the interacting system and that represent the best possible approximations to the actual charged excitations. In this way, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian which, for small couplings, consists in a kinetic term for conduction electrons and holes, an RKKY-like term, and a renormalized Kondo interaction. The physical picture of the system implied by this ...

  20. Filling-enforced nonsymmorphic Kondo semimetals in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, J. H.; Lee, SungBin; Brandom, B.; Parameswaran, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    We study the competition between Kondo screening and frustrated magnetism on the nonsymmorphic Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice at a filling of two conduction electrons per unit cell. This model is known to host a set of gapless partially Kondo screened phases intermediate between the Kondo-destroyed paramagnet and the heavy Fermi liquid. Based on crystal symmetries, we argue that (i) both the paramagnet and the heavy Fermi liquid are semimetals protected by a glide symmetry; and (ii) partial Kondo screening breaks the symmetry, removing this protection and allowing the partially Kondo screened phase to be deformed into a Kondo insulator via a Lifshitz transition. We confirm these results using large-N mean-field theory and then use nonperturbative arguments to derive a generalized Luttinger sum rule constraining the phase structure of two-dimensional nonsymmorphic Kondo lattices beyond the mean-field limit.

  1. Overscreening-underscreening transition in the two-channel Kondo model induced by electron-electron repulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei; Chen Hong.

    1995-09-01

    The effects of the repulsion between the electrons on the two-channel Kondo problem are studied by use of the bosonization technique. Following Emery and Kivelson, we define a special case in the spin density wave sector, in which the impurity spin is actually detached from the dynamics of the electrons. The model is thus mapped to a local Sine-Gordon system. For weak repulsion, the basic features of the overscreening picture are maintained. However, at sufficient strong repulsion the system is driven into the weak coupling regime, hence an overscreening-underscreening transition emerges. (author). 22 refs

  2. Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsu; Hartstein, Máté; Wallace, Gregory J.; Davies, Alexander J.; Ciomaga Hatnean, Monica; Johannes, Michelle D.; Shitsevalova, Natalya; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2018-04-01

    We report magnetic quantum oscillations measured using torque magnetisation in the Kondo insulator YbB12 and discuss the potential origin of the underlying Fermi surface. Observed quantum oscillations as well as complementary quantities such as a finite linear specific heat capacity in YbB12 exhibit similarities with the Kondo insulator SmB6, yet also crucial differences. Small heavy Fermi sections are observed in YbB12 with similarities to the neighbouring heavy fermion semimetallic Fermi surface, in contrast to large light Fermi surface sections in SmB6 which are more similar to the conduction electron Fermi surface. A rich spectrum of theoretical models is suggested to explain the origin across different Kondo insulating families of a bulk Fermi surface potentially from novel itinerant quasiparticles that couple to magnetic fields, yet do not couple to weak DC electric fields.

  3. Tumor-Volume Simulation During Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Using a Four-Level Cell Population Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.; Dong Lei; Palta, Jantinder R.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fast computational radiobiologic model for quantitative analysis of tumor volume during fractionated radiotherapy. The tumor-volume model can be useful for optimizing image-guidance protocols and four-dimensional treatment simulations in proton therapy that is highly sensitive to physiologic changes. Methods: The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of total cell number and (2) tumor-cell population is separated into four subpopulations: oxygenated viable cells, oxygenated lethally damaged cells, hypoxic viable cells, and hypoxic lethally damaged cells. An exponential decay model is used for disintegration and removal of oxygenated lethally damaged cells from the tumor. Results: We tested our model on daily volumetric imaging data available for 14 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with an integrated computed tomography/linear accelerator system. A simulation based on the averaged values of radiobiologic parameters was able to describe eight cases during the entire treatment and four cases partially (50% of treatment time) with a maximum 20% error. The largest discrepancies between the model and clinical data were obtained for small tumors, which may be explained by larger errors in the manual tumor volume delineation procedure. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the change in gross tumor volume for head-and-neck cancer can be adequately described by a relatively simple radiobiologic model. In future research, we propose to study the variation of model parameters by fitting to clinical data for a cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer and other tumors. The potential impact of other processes, like concurrent chemotherapy, on tumor volume should be evaluated.

  4. Highly dissipative Hénon map behavior in the four-level model of the CO 2 laser with modulated losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando L., C. L.; Acosta, G. A. Luna; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.

    1995-02-01

    We show that the four-level model for the CO 2 laser with modulated losses behaves in a qualitatively similar way as the highly dissipative Hénon map. The ubiquity of elements of the universal sequence, their related symbolic dynamics, and the presence of reverse bifurcations of chaotic bands in the model are reminiscent of the logistic map which is the limit of the Hénon map when the Jacobian equals zero. The coexistence of attractors, its dynamics related to contraction of volumes in phase space and the associated return maps can be correlated with those of the highly dissipative Hénon map.

  5. Two strongly correlated electron systems: the Kondo mode in the strong coupling limit and a 2-D model of electrons close to an electronic topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouis, F.

    1999-01-01

    Two strongly correlated electron systems are considered in this work, Kondo insulators and high Tc cuprates. Experiments and theory suggest on one hand that the Kondo screening occurs on a rather short length scale and on the other hand that the Kondo coupling is renormalized to infinity in the low energy limit. The strong coupling limit is then the logical approach although the real coupling is moderate. A systematic development is performed around this limit in the first part. The band structure of these materials is reproduced within this scheme. Magnetic fluctuations are also studied. The antiferromagnetic transition is examined in the case where fermionic excitations are shifted to high energy. In the second part, the Popov and Fedotov representation of spins is used to formulate the Kondo and the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in terms of a non-polynomial action of boson fields. In the third part the properties of high Tc cuprates are explained by a change of topology of the Fermi surface. This phenomenon would happen near the point of optimal doping and zero temperature. It results in the appearance of a density wave phase in the under-doped regime. The possibility that this phase has a non-conventional symmetry is considered. The phase diagram that described the interaction and coexistence of density wave and superconductivity is established in the mean-field approximation. The similarities with the experimental observations are numerous in particular those concerning the pseudo-gap and the behavior of the resistivity near optimal doping. (author)

  6. Phase diagram of the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model with classical localized spins: a variational calculation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Munir; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-08-01

    We study the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model with additional Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions, exploring the possible magnetic phases in its multi-dimensional parameter space. Treating the local moments as classical spins and using a variational ansatz, we identify the parameter ranges over which various common magnetic orderings are potentially stabilized. Our results reveal that the competing interactions result in a heightened susceptibility towards a wide range of spin configurations including longitudinal ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order, coplanar flux configurations and most interestingly, multiple non-coplanar configurations including a novel canted-flux state as the different Hamiltonian parameters like electron density, interaction strengths and degree of frustration are varied. The non-coplanar and non-collinear magnetic ordering of localized spins behave like emergent electromagnetic fields and drive unusual transport and electronic phenomena.

  7. Two strongly correlated electron systems: the Kondo mode in the strong coupling limit and a 2-D model of electrons close to an electronic topological transition; Deux systemes d'electrons fortement correles: le modele de reseau Kondo dans la limite du couplage fort et un modele bidimensionnel d'electrons au voisinage d'une transition topologique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouis, F

    1999-10-14

    Two strongly correlated electron systems are considered in this work, Kondo insulators and high Tc cuprates. Experiments and theory suggest on one hand that the Kondo screening occurs on a rather short length scale and on the other hand that the Kondo coupling is renormalized to infinity in the low energy limit. The strong coupling limit is then the logical approach although the real coupling is moderate. A systematic development is performed around this limit in the first part. The band structure of these materials is reproduced within this scheme. Magnetic fluctuations are also studied. The antiferromagnetic transition is examined in the case where fermionic excitations are shifted to high energy. In the second part, the Popov and Fedotov representation of spins is used to formulate the Kondo and the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in terms of a non-polynomial action of boson fields. In the third part the properties of high Tc cuprates are explained by a change of topology of the Fermi surface. This phenomenon would happen near the point of optimal doping and zero temperature. It results in the appearance of a density wave phase in the under-doped regime. The possibility that this phase has a non-conventional symmetry is considered. The phase diagram that described the interaction and coexistence of density wave and superconductivity is established in the mean-field approximation. The similarities with the experimental observations are numerous in particular those concerning the pseudo-gap and the behavior of the resistivity near optimal doping. (author)

  8. Nanomechanical dissipation at a tip-induced Kondo onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Fabrizio, Michele; Tosatti, Erio

    2017-08-01

    The onset or demise of Kondo effect in a magnetic impurity on a metal surface can be triggered, as sometimes observed, by the simple mechanical nudging of a tip. Such a mechanically driven quantum phase transition must reflect in a corresponding mechanical dissipation peak; yet, this kind of signature has not been focused upon so far. Aiming at the simplest theoretical modeling, we treat the impurity as an Anderson impurity model, the tip action as a hybridization switching, and solve the problem by numerical renormalization group. Studying this model as function of temperature and magnetic field we are able to isolate the Kondo contribution to dissipation. While that is, reasonably, of the order of the Kondo energy, its temperature evolution shows a surprisingly large tail even above the Kondo temperature. The detectability of Kondo mechanical dissipation in atomic force microscopy is also discussed.

  9. Critical Kondo destruction and the violation of the quantum-to-classical mapping of quantum criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Stefan; Si Qimiao

    2009-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic heavy fermion metals close to their quantum critical points display a richness in their physical properties unanticipated by the traditional approach to quantum criticality, which describes the critical properties solely in terms of fluctuations of the order parameter. This has led to the question as to how the Kondo effect gets destroyed as the system undergoes a phase change. In one approach to the problem, Kondo lattice systems are studied through a self-consistent Bose-Fermi Kondo model within the extended dynamical mean field theory. The quantum phase transition of the Kondo lattice is thus mapped onto that of a sub-Ohmic Bose-Fermi Kondo model. In the present article we address some aspects of the failure of the standard order-parameter functional for the Kondo-destroying quantum critical point of the Bose-Fermi Kondo model.

  10. Response of Kondo lattice systems to pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.; Borges, H.A.; Fisk, Z.; Horn, S.; Parks, R.D.; Wells, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Yb-based Kondo lattice systems (YbAgCu 4 , YbCu 2 Si 2 , YbRh 2 Si 2 ) represent an interesting class of materials in which it is possible to study systematically the development of heavy electron behavior through the application of pressure. Certainly, additional experiments are required to determine to what extent Yb compounds are mirror images of their Ce counterparts. Finally, pressure reveals the presence of competing interactions for which a simple model exists that qualitatively accounts for the pressure response observed in a large number of Ce, U and Yb-based Kondo lattice systems

  11. Collective Kondo effect in the Anderson-Hubbard lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas, P.; Itai, K.

    1997-02-01

    The periodic Anderson model is extended by switching on a Hubbard U for the conduction electrons. We use the Gutzwiller variational method to study the nearly integral valent limit. The lattice Kondo energy contains the U-dependent chemical potential of the Hubbard subsystem in the exponent, and the correlation-induced band narrowing in the prefactor. Both effects tend to suppress the Kondo scale, which can be understood to result from the blocking of hybridization. At half-filling, we find a Brinkman-Rice-type transition from a Kondo insulator to a Mott insulator.

  12. Correlated mean filed Ansatz for the Kondo necklace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, H.Y.; Fazekas, P.

    1993-08-01

    We study the ground state phase diagram of the pseudospin model introduced by Doniach to describe the essential physics of Kondo lattices. We use variational trial states which augment the usual mean field solution by incorporating various intersite correlations. A composite spin correlation describing the antiparallel alignment of fluctuating triplets is found to be particularly favourable for large Kondo couplings. With this trial state, the magnetic-to-Kondo transition is suppressed and the strong coupling ground state is ordered with strongly reduced moments. The relevance of the findings is discussed. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs

  13. Correlated mean filed Ansatz for the Kondo necklace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, H Y; Fazekas, P

    1993-08-01

    We study the ground state phase diagram of the pseudospin model introduced by Doniach to describe the essential physics of Kondo lattices. We use variational trial states which augment the usual mean field solution by incorporating various intersite correlations. A composite spin correlation describing the antiparallel alignment of fluctuating triplets is found to be particularly favourable for large Kondo couplings. With this trial state, the magnetic-to-Kondo transition is suppressed and the strong coupling ground state is ordered with strongly reduced moments. The relevance of the findings is discussed. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs.

  14. Kondo-Anderson transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.

    2012-03-01

    Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.

  15. Coexisting Kondo singlet state with antiferromagnetic long-range order: A possible ground state for Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Yu Lu

    2000-04-01

    The ground-state phase diagram of a half-filled anisotropic Kondo lattice model is calculated within a mean-field theory. For small transverse exchange coupling J perpendicular perpendicular c1 , the ground state shows an antiferromagnetic long-range order with finite staggered magnetizations of both localized spins and conduction electrons. When J perpendicular > J perpendicular c2 , the long-range order is destroyed and the system is in a disordered Kondo singlet state with a hybridization gap. Both ground states can describe the low-temperature phases of Kondo insulating compounds. Between these two distinct phases, there may be a coexistent regime as a result of the balance between local Kondo screening and magnetic interactions. (author)

  16. Effects of pressure on doped Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chengchung; Xu, Wang

    1999-08-01

    The effects of pressure on the doped Kondo insulators (KI) are studied in the framework of the slave-boson mean-field theory under the coherent potential approximation (CPA). A unified picture for both electron-type KI and hole-type KI is presented. The density of states of the f-electrons under the applied pressures and its variation with the concentration of the Kondo holes are calculated self-consistently. The specific heat coefficient, the zero-temperature magnetic susceptibility as well as the low temperature electric resistivity of the doped KI under various pressures are obtained. The two contrasting pressure-dependent effects observed in the doped KI systems can be naturally explained within a microscopic model. (author)

  17. Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment and Overdistension During Four Levels of End-Expiratory Pressure with Protective Tidal Volume During Anesthesia in a Murine Lung-Healthy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joao Henrique Neves; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally; Bergamini, Bruno Curty; Gress, Maria Alice Kuster; Jandre, Frederico Caetano; Zin, Walter Araujo; Giannella-Neto, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    We compared respiratory mechanics between the positive end-expiratory pressure of minimal respiratory system elastance (PEEP minErs ) and three levels of PEEP during low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) ventilation in rats. Twenty-four rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Airway pressure (P aw ), flow (F), and volume (V) were fitted by a linear single compartment model (LSCM) P aw (t) = E rs  × V(t) + R rs  × F(t) + PEEP or a volume- and flow-dependent SCM (VFDSCM) P aw (t) = (E 1  + E 2  × V(t)) × V(t) + (K 1  + K 2  × |F(t)|) × F(t) + PEEP, where E rs and R rs are respiratory system elastance and resistance, respectively; E 1 and E 2 × V are volume-independent and volume-dependent E rs , respectively; and K 1 and K 2  × F are flow-independent and flow-dependent R rs , respectively. Animals were ventilated for 1 h at PEEP 0 cmH 2 O (ZEEP); PEEP minErs ; 2 cmH 2 O above PEEP minErs (PEEP minErs+2 ); or 4 cmH 2 O above PEEP minErs (PEEP minErs+4 ). Alveolar tidal recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension were assessed by the index %E 2  = 100 × [(E 2  × V T )/(E 1  + |E 2 | × V T )], and alveolar stability by the slope of E rs (t). %E 2 varied between 0 and 30% at PEEP minErs in most respiratory cycles. Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment (%E 2   30) were predominant in the absence of PEEP and in PEEP levels higher than PEEP minErs , respectively. The slope of E rs (t) was different from zero in all groups besides PEEP minErs+4 . PEEP minErs presented the best compromise between alveolar tidal recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension, during 1 h of low-V T mechanical ventilation.

  18. Kondo effect in a deformed molecule coupled asymmetrically to ferromagnetic electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui-Qiang, Wang; Kai-Ming, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The nonequilibrium Kondo effect is studied in a molecule quantum dot coupled asymmetrically to two ferromagnetic electrodes by employing the nonequilibrium Green function technique. The current-induced deformation of the molecule is taken into account, modeled as interactions with a phonon system, and phonon-assisted Kondo satellites arise on both sides of the usual main Kondo peak. In the antiparallel electrode configuration, the Kondo satellites can be split only for the asymmetric dot-lead couplings, distinguished from the parallel configuration where splitting also exists, even though it is for symmetric case. We also analyze how to compensate the splitting and restore the suppressed zero-bias Kondo resonance. It is shown that one can change the TMR ratio significantly from a negative dip to a positive peak only by slightly modulating a local external magnetic field, whose value is greatly dependent on the electron–phonon coupling strength. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Noncollinear magnetic ordering in the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice model: Insulating regime and the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Munir; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the emergence of complex, noncoplanar magnetic configurations in a Kondo lattice model with classical local moments on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice and their evolution in an external magnetic field. We demonstrate that topologically nontrivial spin textures, including a new canted flux state, with nonzero scalar chirality arise dynamically from realistic short-range interactions. Our results establish that a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction is necessary for the emergence of these novel magnetic states when the system is at half filling, for which the ground state is insulating. We identify the minimal set of DM vectors that are necessary for the stabilization of chiral magnetic phases. The noncoplanarity of such structures can be tuned continually by applying an external magnetic field. This is the first part in a series of two papers; in the following paper the effects of frustration, thermal fluctuations, and magnetic field on the emergence of novel noncollinear states at metallic filling of itinerant electrons are discussed. Our results are crucial in understanding the magnetic and electronic properties of the rare-earth tetraboride family of frustrated magnets with separate spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  20. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giuliano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  1. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Tagliacozzo, Arturo; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  2. From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.giuliano@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Sodano, Pasquale, E-mail: pasquale.sodano02@gmail.com [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departemento de Física Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Tagliacozzo, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.tagliacozzo@na.infn.it [INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Trombettoni, Andrea, E-mail: andreatr@sissa.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.

  3. Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Anisotropic Large Spins in the Kondo Regime: Time-Dependent Numerical Renormalization Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, David; Wegewijs, Maarten R.; Hofstetter, Walter

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the time-dependent Kondo effect in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) strongly coupled to metallic electrodes. Describing the SMM by a Kondo model with large spin S>1/2, we analyze the underscreening of the local moment and the effect of anisotropy terms on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization. Underscreening by single-channel Kondo processes leads to a logarithmically slow relaxation, while finite uniaxial anisotropy causes a saturation of the SMM’s magnetization. Additional transverse anisotropy terms induce quantum spin tunneling and a pseudospin-1/2 Kondo effect sensitive to the spin parity.

  4. Detecting Kondo Entanglement by Electron Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gwangsu; Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum entanglement between an impurity spin and electrons nearby is a key property of the single-channel Kondo effects. We show that the entanglement can be detected by measuring electron conductance through a double quantum dot in an orbital Kondo regime. We derive a relation between the entanglement and the conductance, when the SU(2) spin symmetry of the regime is weakly broken. The relation reflects the universal form of many-body states near the Kondo fixed point. Using it, the spatial distribution of the entanglement—hence, the Kondo cloud—can be detected, with breaking of the symmetry spatially nonuniformly by electrical means.

  5. Devil's staircase in Kondo semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Shibata, N.; Science Univ. of Tokyo; Ishii, C.

    1996-01-01

    Complex magnetic phase diagrams of the trivalent cerium monopnictides are widely known as an example of the devil's staircase. We present an effective Hamiltonian for CeX which explains their complex magnetic phase diagrams in a unified way. The effective Hamiltonian consists of semimetallic conduction bands and localized f spins. A new feature is the inter-band transitions with spin exchange which frustrates with the usual intra-band Kondo couplings. (orig.)

  6. Atomic four-level N systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the atomic four-level N configuration both analytically and numerically, for various pump and probe intensities, with and without transfer of coherence (TOC) and Doppler broadening, and compare the results obtained to those of realistic atomic systems. We find that TOC affects the whole spectrum, in addition to producing an electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) peak at line center. We show that the EIA peak splits as the pump intensity increases. These results are compared with those of realistic systems. When the pump is σ + polarized and the probe is π polarized, the results are similar to those of the N configuration. When the pump and probe polarizations are both linear with perpendicular polarizations, various N-like subsystems contribute to the spectrum. Consequently, the splitting of the EIA peak only occurs at very high pump intensities. We also discuss the influence of the probe on the pump absorption and refraction and find that both the pump and probe show EIA peaks when the pump intensity is low, and complementary behavior when the pump is intense. At both low and high pump intensity, the pump and probe dispersions are of opposite sign

  7. Competition between direct interaction and Kondo effect: Renormalization-group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allub, R.

    1988-03-01

    Via the Wilson renormalization-group approach, the effect of the competition between direct interaction (J L ) and Kondo coupling is studied, in the magnetic susceptibility of a model with two different magnetic impurities. For the ferromagnetic interaction (J L > 0) between the localized impurities, we find a magnetic ground state and a divergent susceptibility at low temperatures. For (J L < 0), two different Kondo temperatures and a non-magnetic ground state are distinguished. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  8. Frustrated quantum magnetism in the Kondo lattice on the zigzag ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, Matthias; Rausch, Roman; Potthoff, Michael

    2018-03-01

    The interplay between the Kondo effect, indirect magnetic interaction, and geometrical frustration is studied in the Kondo lattice on the one-dimensional zigzag ladder. Using the density-matrix renormalization group, the ground-state and various short- and long-range spin- and density-correlation functions are calculated for the model at half filling as a function of the antiferromagnetic Kondo interaction down to J =0.3 t , where t is the nearest-neighbor hopping on the zigzag ladder. Geometrical frustration is shown to lead to at least two critical points: Starting from the strong-J limit, where almost local Kondo screening dominates and where the system is a nonmagnetic Kondo insulator, antiferromagnetic correlations between nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor local spins become stronger and stronger, until at Jcdim≈0.89 t frustration is alleviated by a spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry and a corresponding transition to a dimerized state. This is characterized by antiferromagnetic correlations along the legs and by alternating antiferro- and ferromagnetic correlations on the rungs of the ladder. A mechanism of partial Kondo screening that has been suggested for the Kondo lattice on the two-dimensional triangular lattice is not realized in the one-dimensional case. Furthermore, within the symmetry-broken dimerized state, there is a magnetic transition to a 90∘ quantum spin spiral with quasi-long-range order at Jcmag≈0.84 t . The quantum-critical point is characterized by a closure of the spin gap (with decreasing J ) and a divergence of the spin-correlation length and of the spin-structure factor S (q ) at wave vector q =π /2 . This is opposed to the model on the one-dimensional bipartite chain, which is known to have a finite spin gap for all J >0 at half filling.

  9. Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Pengbin, E-mail: 120233951@qq.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Nie, Yi-Hang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies & Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the MoE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Many factors containing bias, spin–orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin–orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments. - Highlights: • We study Kondo peak splitting in single molecular magnets. • We study Kondo effect by Hubbard operator Green's function method. • We find Kondo peak splitting structures and a Kondo dip at Fermi level. • The exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy induce fine splitting structure. • The splitting structures are explained by inter-level or intra-level transitions.

  10. Conductance of closed and open long Aharonov-Bohm-Kondo rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Komijani, Yashar

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the finite temperature linear dc conductance of a generic single-impurity Anderson model containing an arbitrary number of Fermi liquid leads, and apply the formalism to closed and open long Aharonov-Bohm-Kondo (ABK) rings. We show that, as with the short ABK ring, there is a contribution to the conductance from the connected four-point Green's function of the conduction electrons. At sufficiently low temperatures this contribution can be eliminated, and the conductance can be expressed as a linear function of the T matrix of the screening channel. For closed rings we show that at temperatures high compared to the Kondo temperature, the conductance behaves differently for temperatures above and below vF/L , where vF is the Fermi velocity and L is the circumference of the ring. For open rings, when the ring arms have both a small transmission and a small reflection, we show from the microscopic model that the ring behaves like a two-path interferometer, and that the Kondo temperature is unaffected by details of the ring. Our findings confirm that ABK rings are potentially useful in the detection of the size of the Kondo screening cloud, the π /2 scattering phase shift from the Kondo singlet, and the suppression of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations due to inelastic scattering.

  11. Observations of the Kondo effect and its coexistence with ferromagnetism in a magnetically undoped metal oxide nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Maloney, F. Scott; Wang, Wenyong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report unusual observations of Kondo effect and coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetism in indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires that were synthesized without incorporating any magnetic impurities. The temperature-dependent resistivity (ρ -T ) data exhibited an upturn below 80 K and then tended to saturate below 10 K. The ρ -T and magnetoresistance data were analyzed using the n -channel Kondo model, and from the obtained values of S =1 and n ˜1 , the nanowires were expected to be an underscreened Kondo system. A model was also proposed to explain the formation of localized S =1 spin centers in the ITO nanowires. This work could provide insights into the understanding of spin-related novel phenomena in metal oxide nanostructures.

  12. The Kondo effect in ferromagnetic atomic contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M Reyes; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquín; Palacios, Juan José; Jacob, David; Natelson, Douglas; Untiedt, Carlos

    2009-04-30

    Iron, cobalt and nickel are archetypal ferromagnetic metals. In bulk, electronic conduction in these materials takes place mainly through the s and p electrons, whereas the magnetic moments are mostly in the narrow d-electron bands, where they tend to align. This general picture may change at the nanoscale because electrons at the surfaces of materials experience interactions that differ from those in the bulk. Here we show direct evidence for such changes: electronic transport in atomic-scale contacts of pure ferromagnets (iron, cobalt and nickel), despite their strong bulk ferromagnetism, unexpectedly reveal Kondo physics, that is, the screening of local magnetic moments by the conduction electrons below a characteristic temperature. The Kondo effect creates a sharp resonance at the Fermi energy, affecting the electrical properties of the system; this appears as a Fano-Kondo resonance in the conductance characteristics as observed in other artificial nanostructures. The study of hundreds of contacts shows material-dependent log-normal distributions of the resonance width that arise naturally from Kondo theory. These resonances broaden and disappear with increasing temperature, also as in standard Kondo systems. Our observations, supported by calculations, imply that coordination changes can significantly modify magnetism at the nanoscale. Therefore, in addition to standard micromagnetic physics, strong electronic correlations along with atomic-scale geometry need to be considered when investigating the magnetic properties of magnetic nanostructures.

  13. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, Andrey E; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Gull, Emanuel

    2016-01-22

    We examine the dynamics of a correlated quantum dot in the mixed valence regime. We perform numerically exact calculations of the current after a quantum quench from equilibrium by rapidly applying a bias voltage in a wide range of initial temperatures. The current exhibits short equilibration times and saturates upon the decrease of temperature at all times, indicating Kondo behavior both in the transient regime and in the steady state. The time-dependent current saturation temperature connects the equilibrium Kondo temperature to a substantially increased value at voltages outside of the linear response. These signatures are directly observable by experiments in the time domain.

  14. Nonequilibrium Quasiparticle Distribution Induced by Kondo Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroha, J.; Zawadowski, A.

    2002-04-01

    It is shown that in resistive nanowires out of equilibrium containing either single- or two-channel Kondo impurities the distribution function f(E,U) obeys scaling behavior in terms of the quasiparticle energy E and the bias voltage U. The numerically calculated f(E,U) curves explain quantitatively recent experiments on Cu and Au nanowires. The systematics of the impurity concentration cimp extracted from the comparison between theory and results on various Cu and Au samples strongly suggests that in these systems the scaling arises from magnetic Kondo impurities.

  15. Prediction of femtosecond oscillations in the transient current of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime

    KAUST Repository

    Goker, A.

    2010-10-11

    We invoke the time-dependent noncrossing approximation in order to study the effects of the density of states of gold contacts on the instantaneous conductance of a single electron transistor which is abruptly moved into the Kondo regime by means of a gate voltage. For an asymmetrically coupled system, we observe that the instantaneous conductance in the Kondo time scale exhibits beating with distinct frequencies, which are proportional to the separation between the Fermi level and the sharp features in the density of states of gold. Increasing the ambient temperature or bias quenches the amplitude of the oscillations. We attribute the oscillations to interference between the emerging Kondo resonance and van-Hove singularities in the density of state. In addition, we propose an experimental realization of this model.

  16. Influence of kondo effect on the specific heat jump of anisotropic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoksan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A calculation for the specific heat jump of an anisotropic superconductor with Kondo impurities is presented. The impurities are treated within the Matsuura - Ichinose - Nagaoka framework and the anisotropy effect is described by the factorizable model of Markowitz and Kadanoff. We give explicit expressions for the change in specific heat jump due to anisotropy and impurities which can be tested experimentally.

  17. Influence of Kondo effect on the specific heat jump of anisotropic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A calculation for the specific heat jump of an anisotropic superconductor with Kondo impurities is presented. The impurities are treated within the Matsuura - Ichinose - Nagaoka framework and the anisotropy effect is described by the factorizable model of Markowitz and Kadanoff. Explicit expressions are given for the change in specific heat jump due to anisotropy and impurities which can be tested experimentally. (author)

  18. Single- or multi-flavor Kondo effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Kai-He; Berakdar, Jamal

    2010-06-01

    Based on the tight-binding formalism, we investigate the Anderson and the Kondo model for an adatom magnetic impurity above graphene. Different impurity positions are analyzed. Employing a partial-wave representation we study the nature of the coupling between the impurity and the conducting electrons. The components from the two Dirac points are mixed while interacting with the impurity. Two configurations are considered explicitly: the adatom is above one atom (ADA), the other case is the adatom above the center the honeycomb (ADC). For ADA the impurity is coupled with one flavor for both A and B sublattice and both Dirac points. For ADC the impurity couples with multi-flavor states for a spinor state of the impurity. We show, explicitly for a 3d magnetic atom, dz2, (dxz,dyz), and (dx2- y2,dxy) couple respectively with the Γ1, Γ5(E1), and Γ6(E2) representations (reps) of C6v group in ADC case. The bases for these reps of graphene are also derived explicitly. For ADA we calculate the Kondo temperature.

  19. Nonequilibrium Floquet States in Topological Kondo Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    approximately 200 mW of power (given ~5 ohm sample Figure 2: Longitudinal resistance measured in SmB6 crystal with simultaneous ultrasound ...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 floquet Kondo topological ultrasound REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...observation of a positive effect. Further work is required to understand the origin of the anomalous effect of ultrasound propagation on electrical

  20. Temperature-Independent Fermi Surface in the Kondo Lattice YbRh_{2}Si_{2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kummer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Strongly correlated electron systems are one of the central topics in contemporary solid-state physics. Prominent examples for such systems are Kondo lattices, i.e., intermetallic materials in which below a critical temperature, the Kondo temperature T_{K}, the magnetic moments become quenched and the effective masses of the conduction electrons approach the mass of a proton. In Ce- and Yb-based systems, this so-called heavy-fermion behavior is caused by interactions between the strongly localized 4f and itinerant electrons. A major and very controversially discussed issue in this context is how the localized electronic degree of freedom gets involved in the Fermi surface (FS upon increasing the interaction between both kinds of electrons or upon changing the temperature. In this paper, we show that the FS of a prototypic Kondo lattice, YbRh_{2}Si_{2}, does not change its size or shape in a wide temperature range extending from well below to far above the single-ion Kondo temperature T_{K}∼25  K of this system. This experimental observation, obtained by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, is in remarkable contrast to the widely believed evolution from a large FS, including the 4f degrees of freedom, to a small FS, without the 4f’s, upon increasing temperature. Our results explicitly demonstrate a need to further advance in theoretical approaches based on the periodic Anderson model in order to elucidate the temperature dependence of Fermi surfaces in Kondo lattices.

  1. Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Victor M.; Orellana, Pedro A.; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT).

  2. Studies on Kondo insulating FeSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, A.; Mani, Awadhesh; Ravindran, Nithya; Mathi Jaya, S.; Sundar, C.S.; Hariharan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurements have been carried out in Fe (1-x) Ru x Si and FeSi (1-x) Ge x to examine the robustness of the Kondo Insulating gap to substitution in the Fe and Si sublattices. The gap is seen to decrease with Ge substitution, while for Ru substitution the gap shows an initial decrease followed by an increase at higher concentration. The results can be understood in terms of the shift in the mobility edge due to disorder and/or pressure effects in combination with changes in band structure

  3. Two-color Fermi-liquid theory for transport through a multilevel Kondo impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, D. B.; Mora, Christophe; von Delft, Jan; Kiselev, Mikhail N.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a quantum dot with K ≥2 orbital levels occupied by two electrons connected to two electric terminals. The generic model is given by a multilevel Anderson Hamiltonian. The weak-coupling theory at the particle-hole symmetric point is governed by a two-channel S =1 Kondo model characterized by intrinsic channels asymmetry. Based on a conformal field theory approach we derived an effective Hamiltonian at a strong-coupling fixed point. The Hamiltonian capturing the low-energy physics of a two-stage Kondo screening represents the quantum impurity by a two-color local Fermi liquid. Using nonequilibrium (Keldysh) perturbation theory around the strong-coupling fixed point we analyze the transport properties of the model at finite temperature, Zeeman magnetic field, and source-drain voltage applied across the quantum dot. We compute the Fermi-liquid transport constants and discuss different universality classes associated with emergent symmetries.

  4. Nonadiabatic population transfer in a driven four-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prants, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of a four-level quantum system with an arbitrary level configuration is described analytically in the modulated polychromatic laser field. The method of dynamical symmetries is invoked to develop the formalism for explicit calculation of the evolution matrix of the system in the resonance fields. The method is free of the usual adiabatic-passage, weak-field approximations, and approximation of the slowly varying amplitudes. The conditions for occurrence of the coherent effects of the total inversion and the total depletion of the initial level of a system driven simultaneously driven simultaneously at several transitions by the laser pulses of arbitrary shape are derived analytically. The obtained results can be applied to problems of the control of quantum processes in multilevel atoms and molecules. 14 refs

  5. Engineering the Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Rohit; Kabir, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    Correlated interaction between dilute localized impurity electrons and the itinerant host conduction electrons in metals gives rise to the conventional many-body Kondo effect below sufficiently low temperature. In sharp contrast to these conventional Kondo systems, we report an intrinsic, robust, and high-temperature Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene. While absorbed at a thermodynamically stable lattice defect, Cr impurity triggers an electronic phase transition in phosphorene to provide conduction electrons, which strongly interact with the localized moment generated at the Cr site. These manifest into the intrinsic Kondo state, where the impurity moment is quenched in multiple stages and at temperatures in the 40-200 K range. Further, along with a much smaller extension of the Kondo cloud, the predicted Kondo state is shown to be robust under uniaxial strain and layer thickness, which greatly simplifies its future experimental realization. We predict the present study will open up new avenues in Kondo physics and trigger further theoretical and experimental studies.

  6. Green's function approach to the anisotropic Kondo-necklace lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, H.; Langari, A.; Thalmeier, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We have studied the effect of anisotropy on the quantum phase transition of the 2D anisotropic Kondo necklace lattice [1] within a Green's function approach [2]. In the disordered phase the ground state is the product of all singlet bonds between itinerant and localized spins. It is separated by a finite energy gap from the triplet excited states. The quantum phase transition to the antiferromagnetically ordered phase takes place where the gap vanishes. In this approach we use the bond operator formalism introduced in Ref.[3] where each bond is represented by the singlet and triplet operators. The Kondo necklace Hamiltonian in the bond operator representation is composed of the kinetic energy and pairing part (H2), the two particle interaction (H4) of the boson gas and a term which includes three boson operators (H3). In order to ensure that the physical states are either singlets or triplets we impose the hard-core condition by introducing an infinite on-site repulsion between triplet bosons (H U ). The scattering vertex in the ladder approximation satisfies the Bethe-Salpeter equation [4]. By calculating the scattering vertex function we obtain the self energy contribution of the Hamiltonian H U . We have added the second order contribution of the self energy of H3 to the self energy of H U . It should be noted that the non conservation of triplet boson numbers requires the inclusion of the anomalous Green's functions. We treat H 4 in mean-field theory, by splitting the quartic operator into all possible pairs. Finally we obtain the renormalization of coefficients in the H 2 Hamiltonian and calculate the energy gap. Indeed at the critical point a condensation of triplet bosons occurs. We have numerically found the critical point of this model and compared our results with the corresponding mean field values [5]. Moreover, the critical exponent of the energy gap can be obtained more accurately than the mean field results. (authors)

  7. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  8. Kondo effect and heavy fermions in Yb compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonville, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Kondo properties of Yb dilute alloys and intermetallics have been investigated using Moessbauer spectroscopy on 170 Yb. In the dilute alloys AuYb and LaBe 13 Yb, the Kondo logarithmic anomaly of the impurity relaxation rate has been detected, and in the concentrated Yb compounds YbBe 13 , YbP and YbAs, and YbCuAl, the manifestations of the interplay between the Kondo effect and the magnetic ordering due to the RKKY interaction have been characterized

  9. Two interacting spins in external fields. Four-level systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Baldiotti, M.C.; Gitman, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Levin, A.D. [Dexter Research Center (United States)

    2007-04-15

    In the present article, we consider the so-called two-spin equation that describes four-level quantum systems. Recently, these systems attract attention due to their relation to the problem of quantum computation. We study general properties of the two-spin equation and show that the problem for certain external backgrounds can be identified with the problem of one spin in an appropriate background. This allows one to generate a number of exact solutions for two-spin equations on the basis of already known exact solutions of the one-spin equation. Besides, we present some exact solutions for the two-spin equation with an external background different for each spin but having the same direction. We study the eigenvalue problem for a time-independent spin interaction and a time-independent external background. A possible analogue of the Rabi problem for the two-spin equation is defined. We present its exact solution and demonstrate the existence of magnetic resonances in two specific frequencies, one of them coinciding with the Rabi frequency, and the other depending on the rotating field magnitude. The resonance that corresponds to the second frequency is suppressed with respect to the first one. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Tunable quantum criticality and super-ballistic transport in a "charge" Kondo circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Z; Anthore, A; Mitchell, A K; Parmentier, F D; Gennser, U; Ouerghi, A; Cavanna, A; Mora, C; Simon, P; Pierre, F

    2018-05-03

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) are ubiquitous in strongly-correlated materials. However the microscopic complexity of these systems impedes the quantitative understanding of QPTs. Here, we observe and thoroughly analyze the rich strongly-correlated physics in two profoundly dissimilar regimes of quantum criticality. With a circuit implementing a quantum simulator for the three-channel Kondo model, we reveal the universal scalings toward different low-temperature fixed points and along the multiple crossovers from quantum criticality. Notably, an unanticipated violation of the maximum conductance for ballistic free electrons is uncovered. The present charge pseudospin implementation of a Kondo impurity opens access to a broad variety of strongly-correlated phenomena. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Emery-Kivelson solution of the two-channel Kondo problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anirvan M.; Georges, Antoine

    1994-04-01

    We consider the two-channel Kondo model in the Emery-Kivelson approach, and calculate the total susceptibility enhancement due to the impurity χimp=χ-χbulk. We find that χimp exactly vanishes at the solvable point, in a completely analogous way to the singular part of the specific heat Cimp. A perturbative calculation around the solvable point yields the generic behavior χimp~log(1/T), Cimp~T logT and the known universal value of the Wilson ratio RW=8/3. From this calculation, the Kondo temperature can be identified and is found to behave as the inverse square of the perturbation parameter. The small-field, zero-temperature behavior χimp~log(1/h) is also recovered.

  12. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...

  13. Kondo effect in single-molecule magnet transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael; Mucciolo, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    We present a careful and thorough microscopic derivation of the anisotropic Kondo Hamiltonian for single-molecule magnet (SMM) transistors. When the molecule is strongly coupled to metallic leads, we show that by applying a transverse magnetic field it is possible to topologically induce or quench the Kondo effect in the conductance of a SMM with either an integer or a half-integer spin S>1/2. This topological Kondo effect is due to the Berry-phase interference between multiple quantum tunneling paths of the spin. We calculate the renormalized Berry-phase oscillations of the two Kondo peaks as a function of a transverse magnetic field by means of the poor man's scaling approach. We illustrate our findings with the SMM Ni4, which we propose as a possible candidate for the experimental observation of the conductance oscillations.

  14. Green's function approach to the Kondo effect in nanosized quantum corrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. L.; Wang, R.; Xie, K. X.; Li, X. X.; Zheng, C.; Cao, R. X.; Miao, B. F.; Sun, L.; Wang, B. G.; Ding, H. F.

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the Kondo effect for a magnetic atom placed inside nanocorrals using Green's function calculations. Based on the standard mapping of the Anderson impurity model to a one-dimensional chain model, we formulate a weak-coupling theory to study the Anderson impurities in a hosting bath with a surface state. With further taking into account the multiple scattering effect of the surrounding atoms, our calculations show that the Kondo resonance width of the atom placed at the center of the nanocorral can be significantly tuned by the corral size, in good agreement with recent experiments [Q. L. Li et al., Phys. Rev. B 97, 035417 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.035417]. The method can also be applied to the atom placed at an arbitrary position inside the corral where our calculation shows that the Kondo resonance width also oscillates as the function of its separation from the corral center. The prediction is further confirmed by the low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy studies where a one-to-one correspondence is found. The good agreement with the experiments validates the generality of the method to the system where multiadatoms are involved.

  15. Crossover from 2d to 3d in anisotropic Kondo lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, D.; Continentino, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the crossover from two to three dimensions in Kondo lattices (KLM) using the Kondo necklace model (KNM). In order to diagonalize the KNM, we use a representation for the localized and conduction electron spins in terms of bond operators and a decoupling for the relevant Green's functions. Both models have a quantum critical point at a finite value of the ratio (J/t) between the Kondo coupling (J) and the hopping (t). In 2d there is no line of finite temperature antiferromagnetic (AF) transitions while for d≥3 this line is given by, T N ∝|g| 1/(d-1) [D. Reyes, M.A. Continentino, Phys. Rev. B 76 (2007) 075114]. The crossover from 2d to 3d is investigated by turning on the electronic hopping (t -perpendicular ) of conduction electrons between different planes. The phase diagram as a function of temperature T, J/t -parallel and ξ=t -perpendicular /t -parallel , where t -parallel is the hopping within the planes is calculated

  16. Phenomenological crystal-field model of the magnetic and thermal properties of the Kondo-like system UCu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troć, R.; Gajek, Z.; Pikul, A.; Misiorek, H.; Colineau, E.; Wastin, F.

    2013-07-01

    The transport properties described previously [Troć , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.224434 85, 224434 (2012)] as well as the magnetic and thermal properties presented in this paper, observed for single-crystalline UCu2Si2, are discussed by assuming a dual (localized-itinerant) scenario. The electronic states of the localized 5f electrons in UCu2Si2 are constructed using the effective Hamiltonian known for ionic systems, allowing us to treat the Coulomb, spin-orbital, and crystal-field interactions on equal footing. The space of parameters has been restricted in the initial steps with the aid of the angular overlap model approximation. The final crystal-field parameters, obtained from the refined steps of calculations, are relatively large (in absolute values), which we attribute to the hybridization characteristic of the metallic systems on the verge of localization. The proposed crystal-field model reproduces correctly with satisfactory accuracy the magnetic and thermal properties of UCu2Si2 in agreement also with the transport properties reported previously. Considerable crystal-field splitting of the ground multiplet of 2760 K is responsible for a large anisotropy in the magnetic behavior, observed in the whole temperature range explored.

  17. Modification of optical properties by adiabatic shifting of resonances in a four-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Panchadhyayee, Pradipta

    2018-04-01

    We describe the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a four-level atomic system, after reducing it to an effective two-level atomic model under the condition of adiabatic shifting of resonances driven by two coherent off-resonant fields. The reduced form of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the two-level system is obtained by employing an adiabatic elimination procedure in the rate equations of the probability amplitudes for the proposed four-level model. For a weak probe field operating in the system, the nonlinear dependence of complex susceptibility on the Rabi frequencies and the detuning parameters of the off-resonant driving fields makes it possible to exhibit coherent control of single-photon and two-photon absorption and transparency, the evolution of enhanced Self-Kerr nonlinearity and noticeable dispersive switching. We have shown how the quantum interference results in the generic four-level model at the adiabatic limit. The present scheme describes the appearance of single-photon transparency without invoking any exact two-photon resonance.

  18. Phonon-assisted Kondo effect in single-molecule quantum dots coupled to ferromagnetic leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hui; Wen Tingdun; Liang, J.-Q.; Sun, Q.F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the infinite-U Anderson model spin-polarized transport through the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) system of single-molecule quantum dot is investigated under the interplay of strong electron correlation and electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling. The spectral density and the nonlinear differential conductance are studied using the extended non-equilibrium Green's function method through calculating the dot-level splitting self-consistently. The results exhibit that a serial of peaks emerge on the two sides of the main Kondo peak for the antiparallel magnetic configuration of electrodes, while for the parallel case both the main and phonon-assisted satellite Kondo peaks all split up into two asymmetric peaks even at zero-bias. Correspondingly, the nonlinear differential conductance displays a set of satellite-peaks around the Kondo-peak in the presence of the e-ph interaction. Furthermore, extra maxima and minima appear in the TMR curve. The TMR alternates between the positive and the negative values along with the variation of bias voltage

  19. Pressure dependence of the Curie temperature in the Kondo lattice compound YbNiSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, G; Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hamzic, A [Dept. of Physics, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1992-04-03

    We have measured the magnetic susceptibility (2 K < T < 300 K) and the electrical resistivity under pressure (1.2 K < T < 300 K; p < 20 kbar) of the Kondo lattice compound YbNiSn, which may be considered as the ''hole'' analogue of the isostructural compound CeNiSn. In contrast with CeNiSn, YbNiSn does not show an energy gap at low temperatures but instead undergoes a magnetic phase transition at T{sub M} = 5.5 K. The magnetic state might be either a weakly ferromagnetic or a complex antiferromagnetic state. By applying pressure the room temperature resistance {rho}{sub RT} decreases, while T{sub M} increases. This behavior can be interpreted with respect to Doniach's Kondo necklace model as a decrease in the local exchange coupling constant J with increasing pressure, which reduces Kondo spin compensation and favors long-range magnetic order. These results show that the idea that YbNiSn is the hole counterpart to CeNiSn holds well for the properties such as dT{sub M}/dP and d{rho}{sub RT}/dP but that it fails in more detailed aspects, such as the origin of the energy gap formation. (orig.).

  20. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy...... consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....

  1. Spin-Orbit Interaction and Kondo Scattering at the PrAlO3/SrTiO3 Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shirin; Guchhait, Samaresh; Markert, John

    We have investigated the effect of oxygen content, in the PO2 range of 6 ×10-6 - 1 ×10-3 torr, on the spin-orbit (SO) interaction at PrAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. The most-conducting 2-D-like PrAlO3 interfaces were not as conducting as comparable LaAlO3 samples, indicating either a steric or mixed-valent effect. The least-conducting, most oxygenated PrAlO3 interface exhibits hole conductivity, a departure from the typical electron-doped behavior. For 10-5 and 10-4 torr samples, high-temperature metallic behavior is accompanied by an upturn in resistivity at low temperatures, consistent with Kondo scattering theory; analysis gives a Kondo temperature 17 K. The magnetoresistance (MR) for the low PO2-grown samples was modeled with a positive part due to weak anti-localization (WAL) from a strong SO interaction, and a negative part due to the Kondo effect. The variation of MR suggests a strong SO interaction for the 10-5 torr sample with HSO = 1.25 T in both field orientations. The WAL effect is smaller for higher PO2-grown samples, where the high-field MR is dominated by the Kondo effect.

  2. Kondo Impurities Coupled to a Helical Luttinger Liquid: RKKY-Kondo Physics Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg M; Yudson, Vladimir I

    2018-04-06

    We show that the paradigmatic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) description of two local magnetic moments coupled to propagating electrons breaks down in helical Luttinger liquids when the electron interaction is stronger than some critical value. In this novel regime, the Kondo effect overwhelms the RKKY interaction over all macroscopic interimpurity distances. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the helicity (realized, for instance, at edges of a time-reversal invariant topological insulator) and does not take place in usual (nonhelical) Luttinger liquids.

  3. X-boson cumulant approach to the topological Kondo insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, E.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.; Foglio, M. E.; Figueira, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present a generalization of our previous work of the X-boson approach to the periodic Anderson model (PAM), adequate to study a novel class of intermetallic 4f and 5f orbitals materials: the topological Kondo insulators, whose paradigmatic material is the compound SmB6. For simplicity, we consider a version of the PAM on a 2D square lattice, adequate to describe Ce-based compounds in two dimensions. The starting point of the model is the 4f - Ce ions orbitals, with J = 5/2 multiplet, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. Our technique works well for all of the parameters of the model and avoids the unwanted phase transitions of the slave boson mean field theory. We present a critical comparison of our results with those of the usual slave boson method, that has been intensively used to describe this class of materials. We also obtain a new valence first order transition which we attribute to the vec k dependence of the hybridization.

  4. Two-Channel Kondo Effect in a Modified Single Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Yuval; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2003-04-01

    We suggest a simple system of two electron droplets which should display two-channel Kondo behavior at experimentally accessible temperatures. Stabilization of the two-channel Kondo fixed point requires fine control of the electrochemical potential in each droplet, which can be achieved by adjusting voltages on nearby gate electrodes. We study the conditions for obtaining this type of two-channel Kondo behavior, discuss the experimentally observable consequences, and explore the gener­alization to the multichannel Kondo case.

  5. Four-level conservative finite-difference schemes for Boussinesq paradigm equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, N.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a two-parametric family of four level conservative finite difference schemes is constructed for the multidimensional Boussinesq paradigm equation. The schemes are explicit in the sense that no inner iterations are needed for evaluation of the numerical solution. The preservation of the discrete energy with this method is proved. The schemes have been numerically tested on one soliton propagation model and two solitons interaction model. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed family of schemes has second order of convergence in space and time steps in the discrete maximal norm.

  6. Two stages of Kondo effect and competition between RKKY and Kondo in Gd-based intermetallic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaezzadeh, Mehdi [Department of Physics, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: mehdi@kntu.ac.ir; Yazdani, Ahmad [Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezzadeh, Majid [Department of Physics, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshmand, Gissoo [Department of Physics, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kanzeghi, Ali [Department of Physics, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-05-01

    The magnetic behavior of Gd-based intermetallic compound (Gd{sub 2}Al{sub (1-x)}Au{sub x}) in the form of the powder and needle, is investigated. All the samples are an orthorhombic crystal structure. Only the compound with x=0.4 shows the Kondo effect (other compounds have a normal behavior). Although, for the compound in the form of powder, with x=0.4, the susceptibility measurement {chi}(T) shows two different stages. Moreover for (T>T{sub K2}) a fall of the value of {chi}(T) is observable, which indicates a weak presence of ferromagnetic phase. About the two stages of Kondo effect, we observe at the first (T{sub K1}) an increase of {chi}(T) and in the second stage (T{sub K2}) a new remarkable decrease of {chi}(T) (T{sub K1}>T{sub K2}). For the sample in the form of needles, the first stage is observable only under high magnetic field. This first stage could be corresponds to a narrow resonance between Kondo cloud and itinerant electron. The second stage, which is remarkably visible for the sample in the form of the powder, can be attribute to a complete polarization of Kondo cloud. Observation of these two Kondo stages could be due to the weak presence of RKKY contribution.

  7. Two stages of Kondo effect and competition between RKKY and Kondo in Gd-based intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaezzadeh, Mehdi; Yazdani, Ahmad; Vaezzadeh, Majid; Daneshmand, Gissoo; Kanzeghi, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of Gd-based intermetallic compound (Gd 2 Al (1-x) Au x ) in the form of the powder and needle, is investigated. All the samples are an orthorhombic crystal structure. Only the compound with x=0.4 shows the Kondo effect (other compounds have a normal behavior). Although, for the compound in the form of powder, with x=0.4, the susceptibility measurement χ(T) shows two different stages. Moreover for (T>T K2 ) a fall of the value of χ(T) is observable, which indicates a weak presence of ferromagnetic phase. About the two stages of Kondo effect, we observe at the first (T K1 ) an increase of χ(T) and in the second stage (T K2 ) a new remarkable decrease of χ(T) (T K1 >T K2 ). For the sample in the form of needles, the first stage is observable only under high magnetic field. This first stage could be corresponds to a narrow resonance between Kondo cloud and itinerant electron. The second stage, which is remarkably visible for the sample in the form of the powder, can be attribute to a complete polarization of Kondo cloud. Observation of these two Kondo stages could be due to the weak presence of RKKY contribution

  8. Spin dynamics and Kondo physics in optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiheng; Lester, Brian J.; Brown, Mark O.; Kaufman, Adam M.; Long, Junling; Ball, Randall J.; Isaev, Leonid; Wall, Michael L.; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy A.

    2016-05-01

    We propose to use optical tweezers as a toolset for direct observation of the interplay between quantum statistics, kinetic energy and interactions, and thus implement minimum instances of the Kondo lattice model in systems with few bosonic rubidium atoms. By taking advantage of strong local exchange interactions, our ability to tune the spin-dependent potential shifts between the two wells and complete control over spin and motional degrees of freedom, we design an adiabatic tunneling scheme that efficiently creates a spin-singlet state in one well starting from two initially separated atoms (one atom per tweezer) in opposite spin state. For three atoms in a double-well, two localized in the lowest vibrational mode of each tweezer and one atom in an excited delocalized state, we plan to use similar techniques and observe resonant transfer of two-atom singlet-triplet states between the wells in the regime when the exchange coupling exceeds the mobile atom hopping. Moreover, we argue that such three-atom double-tweezers could potentially be used for quantum computation by encoding logical qubits in collective spin and motional degrees of freedom. Current address: Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

  9. Transport through semiconductor nanowire quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaus, Stefan; Koerting, Verena; Woelfle, Peter [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recent experiments on quantum dots made of semiconductor nanowires in the Coulomb blockade regime have shown the influence of several approximately equidistant levels on the conductance. We study a model with three levels occupied by three electrons. At finite bias voltage charge energy conserving excitations into several higher lying states occur leading to features in the differential conductance. We restrict our study to the six lowest lying states by performing a Schrieffer-Wolff type projection onto this subspace. The emerging effective Kondo Hamiltonian is treated in non-equilibrium perturbation theory in the coupling to the leads. For convenience we use a pseudoparticle representation and an exact projection method. The voltage-dependence of the occupation numbers is discussed. The density matrix on the dot turns out to be off-diagonal in the dot eigenstate Hilbert space in certain parameter regimes. The dependence of the differential conductance on magnetic field and temperature is calculated in lowest order in the dot-lead coupling and the results are compared with experiment.

  10. Quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) of Kondo lattice heavy fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L. H.; Narasiwodeyar, S. M.; Banerjee, P.; Park, W. K.; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Baumbach, R. E.; Ronning, F.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.

    2013-03-01

    Point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) is a powerful technique to study electronic properties via measurements of non-linear current-voltage characteristic across a ballistic junction. It has been frequently adopted to investigate novel and/or unconventional superconductors by detecting the energy-dependent Andreev scattering. PCS of non-superconducting materials has been much rarely reported. From our recent studies on heavy fermions, we have frequently observed strongly bias-dependent and asymmetric conductance behaviors. Based on a Fano resonance model in a Kondo lattice, we attribute them to energy-dependent quasiparticle scattering off hybridized renormalized electronic states, dubbing it QPS. We will present our QPS results on several heavy-fermion systems and discuss QPS as a novel technique to probe the bulk spectroscopic properties of the electronic structure. For instance, it reveals that the hybridization gap in URu2Si2 opens well above the hidden order transition. The work at UIUC is supported by the U.S. DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and the NSF DMR 12-06766, and the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.

  11. Interaction effects in Aharonov-Bohm-Kondo rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, Yashar; Yoshii, Ryosuke; Affleck, Ian

    2013-12-01

    We study the conductance through an Aharonov-Bohm ring, containing a quantum dot in the Kondo regime in one arm, at finite temperature and arbitrary electronic density. We develop a general method for this calculation based on changing the basis to the screening and nonscreening channels. We show that an unusual term appears in the conductance, involving the connected four-point Green's function of the conduction electrons. However, this term and the terms quadratic in the T matrix can be eliminated at sufficiently low temperatures, leading to an expression for the conductance linear in the Kondo T matrix. Explicit results are given for temperatures that are high compared to the Kondo temperature.

  12. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect

  13. Nonlinear susceptibility: A direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo effect in UBe13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.P.; Chandra, P.; Coleman, P.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.; Ott, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the nonlinear susceptibility as a direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo scenario for heavy fermion behavior, and apply it to the case of cubic crystal-field symmetry. Within a single-ion model we compute the nonlinear susceptibility resulting from low-lying Γ 3 (5f 2 ) and Kramers (5f 3 ) doublets. We find that nonlinear susceptibility measurements on single-crystal UBe 13 are inconsistent with a quadrupolar (5f 2 ) ground state of the uranium ion; the experimental data indicate that the low-lying magnetic excitations of UBe 13 are predominantly dipolar in character

  14. Kondo resonance in the neutron spectra of intermediate-valent YbAl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, U.; Holland-Moritz, E.; Fisk, Z.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the dynamic susceptibility of intermediate-valent YbAl 3 by means of cold-neutron scattering. We find two intense magnetic excitations below 40 meV. One of these, with location around 18 meV at helium temperatures, shifts steadily toward 0 meV with increasing temperatures. While crystal field interactions are unable to account for such a behavior, this excitation is in good agreement with a transition from the f ground state to a Kondo resonance as described by the Anderson model. In particular, it definitely excludes a gaplike magnetic response with gap width Δ=30 meV as asserted earlier

  15. Three stage Kondo effect in a three quantum dot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Guillermo; Costa Ribeiro, Laercio; Hamad, Ignacio; Victoriano Anda, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this work we study the transport properties of a series connected three quantum dot (QD) system with local strong Coulomb interaction and with one of the extremity QD connected to two metallic leads. We evaluate the local density of states (LDOS) in the QDs and the conductance between the metallic leads considering different magnitudes for the coupling between the central and the extremity QD which is not connected to the leads (side QDs). For small magnitudes of this coupling the LDOS of the QD coupled to the leads present a Kondo resonance with a dip and a very tiny peak at the Fermi level. The widths of these structures are associated to three energy scales, or three Kondo temperatures, which characterizes the three stage Kondo regime. Increasing the coupling between the side QDs we observe a transition to the conventional Kondo regime. We use the multi-configuration Lanczos calculations and the finite U slave-boson mean-field theory. The results present qualitative and quantitative agreement.

  16. Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a

  17. Controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient in a four-level atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Eslami-Majd, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    A novel four level atomic configuration is proposed for controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient with application on all-optical switching. Two circularly polarized components from a weak linearly-polarized probe beam are interacted separately by two transitions of this medium. A coherent coupling field has derived another atomic transition. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient of two orthogonally polarized beams at different frequencies can be achieved by adjusting the magnitude of the external magnetic field. It is found that the threshold of the optical bistability can be controlled by magnitude of the external magnetic field. Also, it is shown that optical bistability can be converted to optical multistability by switching the two orthogonally polarized beams. - Highlights: ► An inverted Y-type four level atomic system is proposed. ► Transmission coefficient can be controlled by a novel interesting parameter. ► Optical bistability and multistability can be achieved via external magnetic field. ► It is shown that our proposed model is suitable for all optical switching application.

  18. Analyzing the Relationship between Poverty and Child Maltreatment: Investigating the Relative Performance of Four Levels of Geographic Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Sarah B.; McCrowell, Jean; Moon, Alyson; Yamano, Ryoichi; Roark, Duston A.; Simmons, Monica; Tatanashvili, Zurab; Drake, Brett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare four different levels of aggregation to assess their utility as areal units in child maltreatment research. The units examined are county, zip code, tract, and block group levels. Each of the four levels is analyzed to determine which show the strongest effects in modeling the correlation between poverty…

  19. Spontaneous emission spectrum of a four-level atom coupled by three kinds of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Wang Jian; Zhang, Hanzhuang; Yao Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    A model of a four-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic crystal (PC) is presented. The atomic transitions from the upper two levels to the lower two levels are coupled by the same reservoir which is assumed in turn to be isotropic PC modes, anisotropic PC modes and free vacuum modes. The effects of the fine structure of the atomic ground state levels and the quantum interference on the spontaneous emission spectrum of an atom are investigated in detail. Most interestingly, it is shown for the first time that new spontaneous emission lines are produced from the fine splitting of atomic ground state levels in the isotropic PC case. Quantum interference induces additional narrow spontaneous lines near the transition from the empty upper level to the lower levels

  20. Simulation of rectifier voltage malfunction on OWECS, four-level converter, HVDC light link: Smart grid context tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, M.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Floating offshore wind turbine in deep water. • DC link and voltage malfunction. • Converter topology considered is four-level. • Controllers are based on fractional-order. • Smart grid context. - Abstract: This paper presents a model for the simulation of an offshore wind system having a rectifier input voltage malfunction at one phase. The offshore wind system model comprises a variable-speed wind turbine supported on a floating platform, equipped with a permanent magnet synchronous generator using full-power four-level neutral point clamped converter. The link from the offshore floating platform to the onshore electrical grid is done through a light high voltage direct current submarine cable. The drive train is modeled by a three-mass model. Considerations about the smart grid context are offered for the use of the model in such a context. The rectifier voltage malfunction domino effect is presented as a case study to show capabilities of the model

  1. Magnetic and orbital instabilities in a lattice of SU(4) organometallic Kondo complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobos, A M; Aligia, A A

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by experiments of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) on self- assembled networks of iron(II)-phtalocyanine (FePc) molecules deposited on a clean Au(111) surface [FePc/Au(111)] and its explanation in terms of the extension of the impurity SU(4) Anderson model to the lattice in the Kondo regime, we study the competition between the Kondo effect and the magneto-orbital interactions occurring in FePc/Au(111). We explore the quantum phases and critical points of the model using a large-N slave-boson method in the mean-field approximation. The SU(4) symmetry in the impurity appears as a combination of the usual spin and an orbital pseudospin arising from the degenerate 3d xz and 3d yz orbitals in the Fe atom. In the case of the lattice, our results show that the additional orbital degrees of freedom crucially modify the low-temperature phase diagram, and induce new types of orbital interactions among the Fe atoms, which can potentially stabilize exotic quantum phases with magnetic and orbital order. The dominant instability corresponds to spin ferromagnetic and orbital antiferromagnetic order

  2. Direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in gallium arsenide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ru-Nan; Zhang, Ting; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Besides the spin Kondo effect, other degrees of freedom can give rise to the pseudospin Kondo effect. We report a direct observation of the orbital spin Kondo effect in a series-coupled gallium arsenide (GaAs) double quantum dot device where orbital degrees act as pseudospin. Electron occupation in both dots induces a pseudospin Kondo effect. In a region of one net spin impurity, complete spectra with three resonance peaks are observed. Furthermore, we observe a pseudo-Zeeman effect and demonstrate its electrical controllability for the artificial pseudospin in this orbital spin Kondo process via gate voltage control. The fourfold degeneracy point is realized at a specific value supplemented by spin degeneracy, indicating a transition from the SU(2) to the SU(4) Kondo effect.

  3. Multi-pole orders and Kondo screening: Implications for quantum phase transitions in multipolar heavy-fermion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Hua; Nica, Emilian; Si, Qimiao

    Motivated by the properties of the heavy-fermion Ce3Pd20Si6 compound which exhibits both antiferro-magnetic (AFM) and antiferro-quadrupolar (AFQ) orders, we study a simplified quantum non-linear sigma model for spin-1 systems, with generalized multi-pole Kondo couplings to conduction electrons. We first consider the case when an SU(3) symmetry relates the spin and quadrupolar channels. We then analyze the effect of breaking the SU(3) symmetry, so that the interaction parameters in the spin and quadrupolar sectors are no longer equivalent, and different stages of Kondo screenings are allowed. A renormalization group analysis is used to analyze the interplay between the Kondo effect and the AFM/AFQ orders. Our work paves the way for understanding the global phase diagram in settings beyond the prototypical spin-1/2 cases. We also discuss similar considerations in the non-Kramers systems such as the heavy fermion compound PrV2Al20

  4. Charge Fractionalization in the Two-Channel Kondo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, L. Aviad; Cornfeld, Eyal; Sela, Eran

    2018-05-01

    The phenomenon of charge fractionalization describes the emergence of novel excitations with fractional quantum numbers, as predicted in strongly correlated systems such as spin liquids. We elucidate that precisely such an unusual effect may occur in the simplest possible non-Fermi liquid, the two-channel Kondo effect. To bring this concept down to experimental test, we study nonequilibrium transport through a device realizing the charge two-channel Kondo critical point in a recent experiment by Iftikhar et al. [Nature (London) 526, 233 (2015), 10.1038/nature15384]. The shot noise at low voltages is predicted to result in a universal Fano factor e*/e =1 /2 . This allows us to experimentally identify elementary transport processes of emergent fermions carrying half-integer charge.

  5. Quantum critical scaling and fluctuations in Kondo lattice materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-feng; Pines, David; Lonzarich, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological framework for three classes of Kondo lattice materials that incorporates the interplay between the fluctuations associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point and those produced by the hybridization quantum critical point that marks the end of local moment behavior. We show that these fluctuations give rise to two distinct regions of quantum critical scaling: Hybridization fluctuations are responsible for the logarithmic scaling in the density of states of the heavy electron Kondo liquid that emerges below the coherence temperature T∗, whereas the unconventional power law scaling in the resistivity that emerges at lower temperatures below TQC may reflect the combined effects of hybridization and antiferromagnetic quantum critical fluctuations. Our framework is supported by experimental measurements on CeCoIn5, CeRhIn5, and other heavy electron materials. PMID:28559308

  6. Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy for magnetic atoms and the Kondo resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E C; Flores, F

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a single magnetic atom and the metal environment (including a magnetic field) is analyzed by introducing an ionic Hamiltonian combined with an effective crystal-field term, and by using a Green-function equation of motion method. This approach describes the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy and the Kondo resonances as due to atomic spin fluctuations associated with electron co-tunneling processes between the leads and the atom. We analyze in the case of Fe on CuN the possible spin fluctuations between states with S = 2 and 3/2 or 5/2 and conclude that the experimentally found asymmetries in the conductance with respect to the applied bias, and its marked structures, are well explained by the 2↔3/2 spin fluctuations. The case of Co is also considered and shown to present, in contrast with Fe, a resonance at the Fermi energy corresponding to a Kondo temperature of 6 K. (paper)

  7. Interplay between Kondo and Majorana Interactions in Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of a quantum dot coupled to a topological superconductor and a normal lead and discuss the interplay between Kondo-and Majorana-induced couplings in quantum dots. The latter appears due to the presence of Majorana zero-energy modes localized, for example, at the ends of the one-dimensional superconductor. We investigate the phase diagram of the system as a function of Kondo and Majorana interactions using a renormalization-group analysis, a slave-boson mean-field theory, and numerical simulations using the density-matrix renormalization-group method. We show that, in addition to the well-known Kondo fixed point, the system may flow to a new fixed point controlled by the Majorana-induced coupling, which is characterized by nontrivial correlations between a localized spin on the dot and the fermion parity of the topological superconductor and the normal lead. We compute several measurable quantities, such as differential tunneling conductance and impurity-spin susceptibility, which highlight some peculiar features characteristic to the Majorana fixed point.

  8. Quantum quench of Kondo correlations in optical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, C; Haupt, F; Hanl, M; Weichselbaum, A; Claassen, M; Wuester, W; Fallahi, P; Faelt, S; Glazman, L; von Delft, J; Türeci, H E; Imamoglu, A

    2011-06-29

    The interaction between a single confined spin and the spins of an electron reservoir leads to one of the most remarkable phenomena of many-body physics--the Kondo effect. Electronic transport measurements on single artificial atoms, or quantum dots, have made it possible to study the effect in great detail. Here we report optical measurements on a single semiconductor quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a degenerate electron gas which show that absorption of a single photon leads to an abrupt change in the system Hamiltonian and a quantum quench of Kondo correlations. By inferring the characteristic power-law exponents from the experimental absorption line shapes, we find a unique signature of the quench in the form of an Anderson orthogonality catastrophe, induced by a vanishing overlap between the initial and final many-body wavefunctions. We show that the power-law exponent that determines the degree of orthogonality can be tuned using an external magnetic field, which unequivocally demonstrates that the observed absorption line shape originates from Kondo correlations. Our experiments demonstrate that optical measurements on single artificial atoms offer new perspectives on many-body phenomena previously studied using transport spectroscopy only.

  9. Spin-1 two-impurity Kondo problem on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerdt, A.; Žitko, R.; Feiguin, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    We present an extensive study of the two-impurity Kondo problem for spin-1 adatoms on a square lattice using an exact canonical transformation to map the problem onto an effective one-dimensional system that can be numerically solved using the density matrix renormalization group method. We provide a simple intuitive picture and identify the different regimes, depending on the distance between the two impurities, Kondo coupling JK, longitudinal anisotropy D , and transverse anisotropy E . In the isotropic case, two impurities on opposite (the same) sublattices have a singlet (triplet) ground state. However, the energy difference between the triplet ground state and the singlet excited state is very small and we expect an effectively fourfold-degenerate ground state, i.e., two decoupled impurities. For large enough JK the impurities are practically uncorrelated forming two independent underscreened states with the conduction electrons, a clear nonperturbative effect. When the impurities are entangled in an RKKY-like state, Kondo correlations persist and the two effects coexist: the impurities are underscreened, and the dangling spin-1 /2 degrees of freedom are responsible for the interimpurity entanglement. We analyze the effects of magnetic anisotropy in the development of quasiclassical correlations.

  10. Four-level time decomposition quasi-static power flow and successive disturbances analysis. [Power system disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S M [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (YU)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a model and an appropriate numerical procedure for a four-level time decomposition quasi-static power flow and successive disturbances analysis of power systems. The analysis consists of the sequential computation of the zero, primary, secondary and tertiary quasi-static states and of the estimation of successive structural disturbances during the 1200 s dynamics after a structural disturbance. The model is developed by detailed inspection of the time decomposition characteristics of automatic protection and control devices. Adequate speed of the numerical procedure is attained by a specific application of the inversion matrix lemma and the decoupled model constant coefficient matrices. The four-level time decomposition quasi-static method is intended for security and emergency analysis. (author).

  11. Spins of adsorbed molecules investigated by the detection of Kondo resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Tadahiro

    2014-12-01

    Surface magnetism has been one of the platforms to explore the magnetism in low dimensions. It is also a key component for the development of quantum information processes, which utilizes the spin degree of freedom. The Kondo resonance is a phenomenon that is caused by an interaction between an isolated spin and conduction electrons. First observed in the 1930s as an anomalous increase in the low-temperature resistance of metals embedded with magnetic atoms, the Kondo physics mainly studied the effects of bulk magnetic impurities in the resistivity. In the last 15 years it has undergone a revival by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which enables the measurement of the Kondo resonance at surfaces using an atomic scale point contact. The detection of the Kondo resonance can be a powerful tool to explore surface magnetism. In this article, I review recent studies of the surface spin of adsorbed molecules by the detection of the Kondo resonance. Researches on metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and porphyrin molecules will be examined. In addition, the Kondo resonance for double-decker lanthanoide Pc molecules will be discussed. Some of the double-decker Pc molecules show single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior, which attracts attention as a material for electronic devices. For both classes, the ligand plays a crucial role in determining the parameters of the Kondo resonance, such as the Kondo temperature and the change of the shape from peak to Fano-dip. In addition, the spin in delocalized molecular orbital forms the Kondo resonance, which shows significant differences from the Kondo resonance formed by the metal spins. Since molecular orbital can be tuned in a flexible manner by the design of the molecule, the Kondo resonance formed by delocalized molecular orbital might expand the knowledge of this field.

  12. Variational local moment approach: From Kondo effect to Mott transition in correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauch, Anna; Byczuk, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The variational local moment approach (VLMA) solution of the single impurity Anderson model is presented. It generalizes the local moment approach of Logan et al. by invoking the variational principle to determine the lengths of local moments and orbital occupancies. We show that VLMA is a comprehensive, conserving and thermodynamically consistent approximation and treats both Fermi and non-Fermi liquid regimes as well as local moment phases on equal footing. We tested VLMA on selected problems. We solved the single- and multi-orbital impurity Anderson model in various regions of parameters, where different types of Kondo effects occur. The application of VLMA as an impurity solver of the dynamical mean-field theory, used to solve the multi-orbital Hubbard model, is also addressed.

  13. The control of superluminal group velocity in a system equivalent to the Y-type four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Luming; Guo Hong; Xiao Feng; Peng Xiang; Chen Xuzong

    2005-01-01

    We study a new way to control the superluminal group velocity of light pulse in hot atomic gases with the five-level atomic configuration. The model of an equivalent Y-type four-level is applied and shows that the light goes faster by using an additional incoherent pumping field. The experiment is performed and shows in good agreement with our theoretical predictions

  14. Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in a pyrochlore Kondo lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefe, Sarah; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao

    The metallic variant of the pyrochlore iridates Pr2Ir2O7 has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state [PRL 96 087204 (2006), PRL 98, 057203 (2007), Nature 463, 210 (2010)] and quantum criticality [Nat. Mater. 13, 356 (2014)]. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr2Ir2O7 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on the pyrochlore lattice. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations and determine the zero-temperature phase diagram. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr2Ir2O7 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.

  15. Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in frustrated Kondo lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschen, Silke; Grefe, Sarah Elaine; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao

    Among the pyrochlore iridates, the metallic compound Pr2 Ir2O7 (Pr-227) has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state and quantum criticality. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr-227 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on frustrated lattices. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr-227 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.

  16. Spin dynamics of the Kondo insulator CeNiSn approaching the metallic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, A.; Aeppli, G.; Mason, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    The spin dynamics of Kondo insulators has been studied by high-resolution magnetic neutron spectroscopy at a triple-axes spectrometer on CeNi1-xCuxSn single crystals using a vertical 9 T magnet. While upon doping (x = 0.13) the spin gap of the Kondo insulator CeNiSn collapses at the transition to...

  17. Splitting and Restoration of Kondo Peak in a Deformed Molecule Quantum Dot Coupled to Ferromagnetic Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruiqiang; Jiang Kaiming

    2010-01-01

    We adopt the nonequilibrium Green's function method to theoretically study the Kondo effect in a deformed molecule, which is treated as an electron-phonon interaction (EPI) system. The self-energy for phonon part is calculated in the standard many-body diagrammatic expansion up to the second order in EPI strength. We find that the multiple phonon-assisted Kondo satellites arise besides the usual Kondo resonance. In the antiparallel magnetic configuration the splitting of main Kondo peak and phonon-assisted satellites only happen for asymmetrical dot-lead couplings, but it is free from the symmetry for the parallel magnetic configuration. The EPI strength and vibrational frequency can enhance the spin splitting of both main Kondo and satellites. It is shown that the suppressed zero-bias Kondo resonance can be restored by applying an external magnetic field, whose magnitude is dependent on the phononic effect remarkably. Although the asymmetry in tunnel coupling has no contribution to the restoration of spin splitting of Kondo peak, it can shrink the external field needed to switch tunneling magnetoresistance ratio between large negative dip and large positive peak. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Defects in higher-dimensional quantum field theory. Relations to AdS/CFT-correspondence and Kondo lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.

    2007-03-15

    The present work is addressed to defects and boundaries in quantum field theory considering the application to AdS/CFT correspondence. We examine interactions of fermions with spins localised on these boundaries. Therefore, an algebra method is emphasised adding reflection and transmission terms to the canonical quantisation prescription. This method has already been applied to bosons in two space-time dimensions before. We show the possibilities of such reflection-transmission algebras in two, three, and four dimensions. We compare with models of solid state physics as well as with the conformal field theory approach to the Kondo effect. Furthermore, we discuss ansatzes of extensions to lattice structures. (orig.)

  19. Implementations of a four-level mechanical architecture for fault-tolerant robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Richard; Sreevijayan, Dev; Tesar, Delbert; Geisinger, Joseph; Kapoor, Chelan

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a fault tolerant mechanical architecture with four levels devised and implemented in concert with NASA (Tesar, D. and Sreevijayan, D., Four-level fault tolerance in manipulator design for space operations. In First Int. Symp. Measurement and Control in Robotics (ISMCR '90), Houston, Texas, 20-22 June 1990.) Subsequent work has clarified and revised the architecture. The four levels proceed from fault tolerance at the actuator level, to fault tolerance via in-parallel chains, to fault tolerance using serial kinematic redundancy, and finally to the fault tolerance multiple arm systems provide. This is a subsumptive architecture because each successive layer can incorporate the fault tolerance provided by all layers beneath. For instance a serially-redundant robot can incorporate dual fault-tolerant actuators. Redundant systems provide the fault tolerance, but the guiding principle of this architecture is that functional redundancies actively increase the performance of the system. Redundancies do not simply remain dormant until needed. This paper includes specific examples of hardware and/or software implementation at all four levels

  20. A Four-Level Hierarchy for Organizing Wildland Stream Resource Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry Parrott; Daniel A. Marion; R. Douglas Perkinson

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of current USDA Forest Service methods of collecting and using wildland stream resource data indicates that required information can be organized into a four-level hierarchy. Information at each level is tiered with information at the preceding level. Level 1 is the ASSOCIATION, which is differentiated by stream size and flow regime. Level 2, STREAM TYPE,...

  1. The Kondo effect of an adatom in graphene and its scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Ni Yangyang; Zhong Yin; Fang Tiefeng; Luo Honggang

    2013-01-01

    We study the Kondo effect of a single magnetic adatom on the surface of graphene. The unique linear dispersion relation near the Dirac points in graphene makes it easier for the magnetic atom to form a local magnetic moment, which simply means that the Kondo resonance can be observed in a wider parameter region than in the metallic host. Our study indicates that the Kondo resonance, whenever the chemical potential is tuned away from the Dirac points, can indeed occur ranging from the Kondo regime, to the mixed valence, even to the empty orbital regime defined in the conventional metal host. While the Kondo resonance appears as a sharp peak in the Kondo regime, it has a peak-dip structure and/or an anti-resonance in the mixed valence and empty orbital regimes, which result from the Fano resonance due to the significant background due to dramatic broadening of the impurity level in graphene. We also study the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of the adatom and they show obvious particle–hole asymmetry when the chemical potential is tuned by the gate voltages applied to the graphene. Finally, we explore the influence of the direct tunneling channel between the STM tip and the graphene on the Kondo resonance and find that the lineshape of the Kondo resonance is unaffected, which can be attributed to an unusually large asymmetry factor in graphene. Our study indicates that graphene is an ideal platform to systematically study Kondo physics and these results are useful to further stimulate relevant experimental studies on the system. (paper)

  2. Trichromatic π-Pulse for Ultrafast Total Inversion of a Four-Level Ladder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serrat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical solution for complete population inversion in a four-level ladder system obtained by using a full π-pulse illumination scheme with resonant ultrashort phase-locked Gaussian laser pulses. We find that a set of pulse areas such as √3π , √2π , and √3π completely inverts the four-level system considering identical effective dipole coupling coefficients. The solution is consistent provided the involved electric fields are not too strong and it is amply accurate also in the case of diverse transition dipole moments. We study the effect of detuning and chirp of the laser pulses on the complete population inversion using the level structure of atomic sodium interacting with ps and fs pulses as an example. Our result opens the door for multiple applications such as efficient ultrashort pulse lasing in the UV or the engineering of quantum states for quantum computing.

  3. Evaluation of the thermodynamics of a four level system using canonical density matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoga Oladunjoye A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a four-level system with two subsystems coupled by weak interaction. The system is in thermal equilibrium. The thermodynamics of the system, namely internal energy, free energy, entropy and heat capacity, are evaluated using the canonical density matrix by two methods. First by Kronecker product method and later by treating the subsystems separately and then adding the evaluated thermodynamic properties of each subsystem. It is discovered that both methods yield the same result, the results obey the laws of thermodynamics and are the same as earlier obtained results. The results also show that each level of the subsystems introduces a new degree of freedom and increases the entropy of the entire system. We also found that the four-level system predicts a linear relationship between heat capacity and temperature at very low temperatures just as in metals. Our numerical results show the same trend.

  4. Two-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Ping; Ge Qiang; Ruan Yu-Hua; Yu Ben-Li

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via probe absorption in a coherently driven four-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of 2D atom localization can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization

  5. Cervical spondylolysis in child with four levels of simultaneous involvement: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Hye Won; Jang, Sung Jo; Oh, Jung Taek [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition, and less than 100 cases have been reported in the world literature. Cervical spondylolysis is defined as a well corticated defect in the posterior element of a cervical vertebra. Although the etiology of cervical spondylolysis is unknown, its association with dysplastic changes and spina bifida occulta suggest that the lesion is congenital. Here, we describe the radiographs and CT images of cervical spondylolysis involving four levels in a 9 year old boy.

  6. Cervical spondylolysis in child with four levels of simultaneous involvement: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Hye Won; Jang, Sung Jo; Oh, Jung Taek

    2006-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition, and less than 100 cases have been reported in the world literature. Cervical spondylolysis is defined as a well corticated defect in the posterior element of a cervical vertebra. Although the etiology of cervical spondylolysis is unknown, its association with dysplastic changes and spina bifida occulta suggest that the lesion is congenital. Here, we describe the radiographs and CT images of cervical spondylolysis involving four levels in a 9 year old boy

  7. Electrostatic tuning of Kondo effect in a rare-earth-doped wide-band-gap oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongfeng; Deng, Rui; Lin, Weinan; Tian, Yufeng; Peng, Haiyang; Yi, Jiabao; Yao, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    As a long-lived theme in solid-state physics, the Kondo effect reflects the many-body physics involving the short-range Coulomb interactions between itinerant electrons and localized spins in metallic materials. Here we show that the Kondo effect is present in ZnO, a prototypical wide-band-gap oxide, doped with a rare-earth element (Gd). The localized 4f electrons of Gd ions do not produce remanent magnetism, but interact strongly with the host electrons, giving rise to a saturating resistance upturn and negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures. Furthermore, the Kondo temperature and resistance can be electrostatically modulated using electric-double-layer gating with liquid ionic electrolyte. Our experiments provide the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in ZnO, underscoring the magnetic interactions between localized and itinerant electrons and the emergent transport behaviors in such doped wide-band-gap oxides.

  8. The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin

    2016-01-01

    We use the Hirsch–Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin–orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin–orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin–orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin–orbit coupling. (paper)

  9. Thermoelectric Phenomena in a Quantum Dot Attached to Ferromagnetic Leads in Kondo Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiao; Zhao Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the thermoelectric properties through ferromagnetic leads-QD coupled system (F-QD-F) in the Kondo regime by nonequilibrium Green's functions method. The spin-flip effect induced by ferromagnetic leads and Kondo effect influence the thermoelectric properties significantly. The peak-valley structure emerges at the low temperature due to Kondo resonance, and the peak-valley structure also relies on the polarization angle θ, the spin-dependent linewidth function Γ γσ and the energy level of QD ∈ d . Novel resonant peak also emerges in the curve of ZT c versus polarization angle θ. The Kondo effect suppresses the figure of merit ZT c and the spin-dependent figure of merit ZT s . In addition, the spin-dependent figure of merit ZT s is relate with the gap between Γ γ↑ and Γ γ↓ . (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Prediction of femtosecond oscillations in the transient current of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime

    KAUST Repository

    Goker, A.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    of a gate voltage. For an asymmetrically coupled system, we observe that the instantaneous conductance in the Kondo time scale exhibits beating with distinct frequencies, which are proportional to the separation between the Fermi level and the sharp

  11. Intra- and inter-shell Kondo effects in carbon nanotube quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychowski, Damian; Lipiński, Stanisław

    2018-01-01

    The linear response transport properties of carbon nanotube quantum dot in the strongly correlated regime are discussed. The finite-U mean field slave boson approach is used to study many-body effects. Magnetic field can rebuilt Kondo correlations, which are destroyed by the effect of spin-orbit interaction or valley mixing. Apart from the field induced revivals of SU(2) Kondo effects of different types: spin, valley or spin-valley, also more exotic phenomena appear, such as SU(3) Kondo effect. Threefold degeneracy occurs due to the effective intervalley exchange induced by short-range part of Coulomb interaction or due to the intershell mixing. In narrow gap nanotubes the full spin-orbital degeneracy might be recovered in the absence of magnetic field opening the condition for a formation of SU(4) Kondo resonance.

  12. Self-sustained oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems induced by Kondo resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taegeun; Kiselev, Mikhail N; Kikoin, Konstantin; Shekhter, Robert I; Gorelik, Leonid Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the instability and dynamical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems represented by a single-electron device containing movable quantum dots attached to a vibrating cantilever via asymmetric tunnel contacts. The Kondo resonance in electron tunneling between the source and shuttle facilitates self-sustained oscillations originating from the strong coupling of mechanical and electronic/spin degrees of freedom. We analyze a stability diagram for the two-channel Kondo shuttling regime due to limitations given by the electromotive force acting on a moving shuttle, and find that the saturation oscillation amplitude is associated with the retardation effect of the Kondo cloud. The results shed light on possible ways to experimentally realize the Kondo-cloud dynamical probe by using high mechanical dissipation tunability as well as supersensitive detection of mechanical displacement

  13. Self-sustained oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems induced by Kondo resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taegeun; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Kikoin, Konstantin; Shekhter, Robert I.; Gorelik, Leonid Y.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the instability and dynamical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems represented by a single-electron device containing movable quantum dots attached to a vibrating cantilever via asymmetric tunnel contacts. The Kondo resonance in electron tunneling between the source and shuttle facilitates self-sustained oscillations originating from the strong coupling of mechanical and electronic/spin degrees of freedom. We analyze a stability diagram for the two-channel Kondo shuttling regime due to limitations given by the electromotive force acting on a moving shuttle, and find that the saturation oscillation amplitude is associated with the retardation effect of the Kondo cloud. The results shed light on possible ways to experimentally realize the Kondo-cloud dynamical probe by using high mechanical dissipation tunability as well as supersensitive detection of mechanical displacement.

  14. Electrostatic tuning of Kondo effect in a rare-earth-doped wide-band-gap oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-04-29

    As a long-lived theme in solid-state physics, the Kondo effect reflects the many-body physics involving the short-range Coulomb interactions between itinerant electrons and localized spins in metallic materials. Here we show that the Kondo effect is present in ZnO, a prototypical wide-band-gap oxide, doped with a rare-earth element (Gd). The localized 4f electrons of Gd ions do not produce remanent magnetism, but interact strongly with the host electrons, giving rise to a saturating resistance upturn and negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures. Furthermore, the Kondo temperature and resistance can be electrostatically modulated using electric-double-layer gating with liquid ionic electrolyte. Our experiments provide the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in ZnO, underscoring the magnetic interactions between localized and itinerant electrons and the emergent transport behaviors in such doped wide-band-gap oxides.

  15. Numerical simulations of heavy fermion systems. From He-3 bilayers to topological Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of model calculations based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion. By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential μ and inverse temperature β=1/T. The method is a cluster extension to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correlations beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green's function and other observables of interest. As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale T coh . While the density is rather high for small filling, for larger filling T coh is increasingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z∝T coh and an enhanced mass renormalization m * /m∝T coh -1 . Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the coherence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers. Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size N c =2 and 3. Furthermore a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single Kramer's doublet coupled to

  16. Quantum phase transitions in multi-impurity and lattice Kondo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejati, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to provide a detailed development of a self-consistent perturbative renormalization group (RG) method to investigate the quantum phases and quantum phase transitions of multi-impurity Kondo systems (e.g., two impurities or a lattice of impurities). The essence of the RG method is an extension of the standard ''poor man's scaling'' by including the dynamical effects of the magnetic fluctuations in the Kondo vertex. Such magnetic fluctuations arise due to the indirect carrier-mediated exchange interaction (RKKY interaction) between the impurities and compete with the Kondo effect to determine the ground-state. The aim is to take the most 'economic' route and avoid intensive numerical computations as far as possible. In general, it is shown in detail how a relatively small amount of such magnetic fluctuations can suppress and ultimately, destroy the Kondo-screened phase in a universal manner, and without incurring a magnetic instability in the system. The renormalization group method and its extensions are further applied to several distinct experimental realization of the multi-impurity Kondo effect; namely, Kondo adatoms studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy, a highly-tunable double-quantum-dot system based on semiconducting heterostructures, and finally, the heavy fermionic compounds as Kondo lattices. We demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative agreement of the RG theory with the experimental findings, which supports the validity of the method. In the case of Kondo lattices, we further include the possibility of a magnetic ordering in the lattice to see whether a magnetic ordering can happen simultaneously with or before the Kondo breakdown (or even prevent it altogether). In the last chapter, we consider the fate of the local moments in the absence of full Kondo screening while Kondo fluctuations are still present. This partially-screened phase needs itself an extensive study

  17. Quantum phase transitions in multi-impurity and lattice Kondo systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejati, Ammar

    2017-01-16

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to provide a detailed development of a self-consistent perturbative renormalization group (RG) method to investigate the quantum phases and quantum phase transitions of multi-impurity Kondo systems (e.g., two impurities or a lattice of impurities). The essence of the RG method is an extension of the standard ''poor man's scaling'' by including the dynamical effects of the magnetic fluctuations in the Kondo vertex. Such magnetic fluctuations arise due to the indirect carrier-mediated exchange interaction (RKKY interaction) between the impurities and compete with the Kondo effect to determine the ground-state. The aim is to take the most 'economic' route and avoid intensive numerical computations as far as possible. In general, it is shown in detail how a relatively small amount of such magnetic fluctuations can suppress and ultimately, destroy the Kondo-screened phase in a universal manner, and without incurring a magnetic instability in the system. The renormalization group method and its extensions are further applied to several distinct experimental realization of the multi-impurity Kondo effect; namely, Kondo adatoms studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy, a highly-tunable double-quantum-dot system based on semiconducting heterostructures, and finally, the heavy fermionic compounds as Kondo lattices. We demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative agreement of the RG theory with the experimental findings, which supports the validity of the method. In the case of Kondo lattices, we further include the possibility of a magnetic ordering in the lattice to see whether a magnetic ordering can happen simultaneously with or before the Kondo breakdown (or even prevent it altogether). In the last chapter, we consider the fate of the local moments in the absence of full Kondo screening while Kondo fluctuations are still present. This partially-screened phase needs itself an extensive study

  18. Quenching of overcompensated Kondo impurities via channel asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.; Lee, K.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a spin-1/2 impurity interacting with conduction electrons in two different orbital channels via an isotropic spin exchange. The exchange is the same for both channels, but a crystalline field breaks the symmetry between the orbital channels. This corresponds to a splitting of the conduction electron Γ 8 into two doublets in the quadrupolar Kondo effect and to the application of an external magnetic field in the electron assisted tunneling of an atom in a double-well potential. We study the ground-state properties of the impurity as a function of the magnetic and crystalline fields. The crystalline field quenches the critical behavior of the overcompensated fixed point: The impurity ground state is a singlet. (orig.)

  19. Correlated evolution of colossal thermoelectric effect and Kondo insulating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Fuccillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic and transport properties of the Ru1−xFexSb2 solid solution, showing how the colossal thermoelectric performance of FeSb2 evolves due to changes in the amount of 3d vs. 4d electron character. The physical property trends shed light on the physical picture underlying one of the best low-T thermoelectric power factors known to date. Some of the compositions warrant further study as possible n- and p-type thermoelements for Peltier cooling well below 300 K. Our findings enable us to suggest possible new Kondo insulating systems that might behave similarly to FeSb2 as advanced thermoelectrics.

  20. Nuclear orientation studies of manganese in copper Kondo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalyar, D.

    1977-08-01

    The internal field seen by the 54 Mn nuclei in a dilute (about 1 part per billion) manganese in copper Kondo system was measured using nuclear orientation. The measurements were made at temperatures on the order of 4 mK in applied fields of 5 kG to 40 kG. Temperatures were measured using a 60 Co in nickel nuclear orientation thermometer and were achieved by adiabatically demagnetizing an ingot of the hyperfine enhanced nuclear coolant PrCu 6 from temperatures of about 30 mK (the mixing chamber temperature of a dilution refrigerator). The data was temperature independent but there was evidence of iteractions between the manganese atoms at manganese concentrations of 1 / 2 part per million. The data was interpreted by assuming that the internal field consisted of the hyperfine field minus the applied field (i.e. the hyperfine field and applied field were aligned in opposite directions). The hyperfine field versus applied field data was compared to three approximate solutions to the Kondo Hamiltonian. Two of the solutions, one by Luther and Emery and the other by Goetze and Schlottmann, fit the data very well. The third solution, that proposed by Ishii, does not fit the data. Fitted to the data, the Luther-Emery solution predicts a saturation value of the hyperfine field of 303 kG whereas the Goetze-Schlottmann solution predicts a saturation value of 297 kG. The hyperfine field is only beginning to reach its saturation value with applied fields of 40 kG

  1. Fano–Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dots Coupled to Ferromagnetic Leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Hua, Bi; Shao-Quan, Wu; Tao, Hou; Wei-Li, Sun

    2008-01-01

    Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function and equation-of-motion technique, we have qualitatively studied the spin-dependent transport of a triple-QD system in the Kondo regime. It is shown that the Kondo resonance and Fano interference coexist, and in this system the Fano–Kondo effect shows dip behaviours richer than that in the T-shaped QDs. The interdot coupling, the energy level of the side coupled QDs and the spin polarization strength greatly influence the DOS of the central quantum dot QD 0 . Either the increase of the coupling strength between the two QDs or that of the energy levels of the side coupled QDs enhances the Kondo resonance. Especially, the Kondo resonance is strengthened greatly when the side dot energy is fixed at the Fermi energy. Meanwhile, the Kondo resonance splits for the spin-up and spin-down configurations due to the polarization: the down-spin resonance is enhanced, and the up-spin resonance is suppressed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Topological surface states interacting with bulk excitations in the Kondo insulator SmB6 revealed via planar tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Kyu; Sun, Lunan; Noddings, Alexander; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Fisk, Zachary; Greene, Laura H

    2016-06-14

    Samarium hexaboride (SmB6), a well-known Kondo insulator in which the insulating bulk arises from strong electron correlations, has recently attracted great attention owing to increasing evidence for its topological nature, thereby harboring protected surface states. However, corroborative spectroscopic evidence is still lacking, unlike in the weakly correlated counterparts, including Bi2Se3 Here, we report results from planar tunneling that unveil the detailed spectroscopic properties of SmB6 The tunneling conductance obtained on the (001) and (011) single crystal surfaces reveals linear density of states as expected for two and one Dirac cone(s), respectively. Quite remarkably, it is found that these topological states are not protected completely within the bulk hybridization gap. A phenomenological model of the tunneling process invoking interaction of the surface states with bulk excitations (spin excitons), as predicted by a recent theory, provides a consistent explanation for all of the observed features. Our spectroscopic study supports and explains the proposed picture of the incompletely protected surface states in this topological Kondo insulator SmB6.

  3. Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy study of a Kondo insulating thin-film Sm B6 : Evidence for an emergent surface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Yong, Jie; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard L.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2018-04-01

    We utilize terahertz time domain spectroscopy to investigate thin films of the heavy fermion compound Sm B6 , a prototype Kondo insulator. Temperature-dependent terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements reveal a rapid decrease in the Drude weight and carrier scattering rate at ˜T*=20 K , well below the hybridization gap onset temperature (100 K). Moreover, a low-temperature conductivity plateau (below 20 K) suggests the emergence of a surface state with an effective electron mass of 0.1 me . The conductivity dynamics following optical excitation is also measured and interpreted using Rothwarf-Taylor (R-T) phenomenology, yielding a hybridization gap energy of 17 meV. However, R-T modeling of the conductivity dynamics reveals a deviation from the expected thermally excited quasiparticle density at temperatures below 20 K, indicative of another channel opening up in the low-energy electrodynamics. Taken together, these results are consistent with the onset of a surface state well below the crossover temperature (100 K) after long-range coherence of the f -electron Kondo lattice is established.

  4. Simulating spontaneously generated coherence in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Gao Jinyue; Wu Jinhui; Wang Lei

    2005-01-01

    We study the spontaneous emission property of a four-level atomic system driven by two coherent fields. By numerical calculations in the bare state picture, we show that such interesting phenomena as extremely narrow peaks and spontaneous emission quenching can be realized, which are well understood by qualitative explanations in the partially and fully dressed state pictures. Especially, this coherently driven atomic system has two close-lying levels in the partially dressed state picture so that spontaneously generated coherence arises. Using our considered scheme it is feasible to carry out experiments based on spontaneously generated coherence because all rigorous requirements have been avoided in the bare state picture

  5. 2D atom localization in a four-level tripod system in laser fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Rozhdestvensky, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization in a four-level tripod system under an influence of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Position information of the atom is retained in the atomic internal states by an additional probe field either of a standing or of a running wave. It is shown that the localization factors depend crucially on the atom-field coupling that results in such spatial structures of populations as spikes, craters and waves. We demonstrate a high-preci...

  6. Superluminal propagation in a poly-chromatically driven gain assisted four-level N-type atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, Bakht Amin; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ullah, Arif; Ali, Hazrat

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of light propagation in an N-type four-level gain assisted model (Agarwal and Dasgupta 2004 Phys. Rev. A 70 023802) under poly-chromatic pump fields. The system exhibits interesting results of multiple controllable pairs of the gain doublet profile with changes in the intensity of the control field. We observe multiple anomalous dispersive regions for superluminal propagation in the medium. A negative group velocity of −37.50 m s −1 with a negative time delay of −8 ms is observed between each gain doublet in anomalous dispersive regions. This generalized model and its predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups. (paper)

  7. A Four-Level T-Type Neutral Point Piloted Inverter for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam Shueai Alnamer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverters provide an output signal with low harmonic distortion and superior output voltages. This work proposes a new four-level T-type neutral point piloted (T-NPP topology with higher efficiency and low total harmonic distortion (THD and with the ability to withstand high voltage stresses, especially for high-power applications. The proposed topology is designed in such manner that the direct current (DC-voltage stresses split over the components with strong possibilities to increase the load current and switching frequency. However, the operation of the proposed topology is based on two essential principles. The first principle is that each upper and lower switch of each leg consists of two insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs connected in series in order to withstand high voltage stresses and make it split over the two IGBTs in each switch. The second principle is using the DC-link circuit (T1 & T2 to generate 2Vdc and 1Vdc by connecting the bidirectional switches of each leg to the DC-link’s mid-point. Furthermore, the proposed four-level T-NPP inverter outperforms other converters by the high number of output voltage level, low number of components, simple structure and higher efficiency. Finally, the proposed T-NPP topology concept was validated via simulation, experiments and theoretical analysis.

  8. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Study of Quantum Interference in Metallic Photonic Crystals Doped with Four-Level Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the absorption coefficient of a metallic photonic crystal doped with nanoparticles has been obtained using numerical simulation techniques. The effects of quantum interference and the concentration of doped particles on the absorption coefficient of the system have been investigated. The nanoparticles have been considered as semiconductor quantum dots which behave as a four-level quantum system and are driven by a single coherent laser field. The results show that changing the position of the photonic band gap about the resonant energy of the two lower levels directly affects the decay rate, and the system can be switched between transparent and opaque states if the probe laser field is tuned to the resonance frequency. These results provide an application for metallic nanostructures in the fabrication of new optical switches and photonic devices.

  10. Three-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a cascade four-level atomic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For an atomic system with cascade four-level type, a useful scheme about three-dimensional (3D atom localization is proposed. In our scheme the atomic system is coherently controlled by using a radio-frequency field to couple with two-folded levels under the condition of the existence of probe absorption. Our results show that detecting precision of 3D atom localization may be obviously improved by properly adjusting the frequency detuning and strength of the radio-frequency driving field. So our scheme could be helpful to realize 3D atom localization with high-efficiency and high-precision . In the field of laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography, our studies provide potential applications.

  11. Strongly correlated photons generated by coupling a three- or four-level system to a waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Baranger, Harold U.

    2012-04-01

    We study the generation of strongly correlated photons by coupling an atom to photonic quantum fields in a one-dimensional waveguide. Specifically, we consider a three-level or four-level system for the atom. Photon-photon bound states emerge as a manifestation of the strong photon-photon correlation mediated by the atom. Effective repulsive or attractive interaction between photons can be produced, causing either suppressed multiphoton transmission (photon blockade) or enhanced multiphoton transmission (photon-induced tunneling). As a result, nonclassical light sources can be generated on demand by sending coherent states into the proposed system. We calculate the second-order correlation function of the transmitted field and observe bunching and antibunching caused by the bound states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can produce photon pairs with a high degree of spectral entanglement, which have a large capacity for carrying information and are important for large-alphabet quantum communication.

  12. Resonance Fluorescence of a Trapped Four-Level Atom with Bichromatic Driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergou, J.; Jakob, M.; Abranyos, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The resonance fluorescence spectrum of a bichromatically driven four-level atom is polarization dependent. Very narrow lines occur in the incoherent parts of the spectrum for polarization directions which are different from that of the driving fields. The degree of squeezing has a maximum of 56% which should make it easily observable. The second-order correlation function exhibits anti bunching for zero time delay and strong super bunching for certain values of the interaction parameter and time delay. For these parameters resonant two-photon emission takes place in the form of polarization entangled photon pairs. The system can be a novel source of photons in the EPR and/or Bell states. Some experiments will be proposed which make use of this unique source. (Authors)

  13. Achieving nonlinear optical modulation via four-wave mixing in a four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2018-05-01

    We propose an accessible scheme for implementing tunable nonlinear optical amplification and attenuation via a synergetic mechanism of four-wave mixing (FWM) and optical interference in a four-level ladder-type atomic system. By constructing a cyclic atom-field interaction, we show that two reverse FWM processes can coexist via optical transitions in different branches. In the suitable input-field conditions, strong interference effects between the input fields and the generated FWM fields can be induced and result in large amplification and deep attenuation of the output fields. Moreover, such an optical modulation from enhancement to suppression can be controlled by tuning the relative phase. The quantum system can be served as a switchable optical modulator with potential applications in quantum nonlinear optics.

  14. Multiqubit quantum phase gate using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices coupled to superconducting resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Shahid, E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize three-qubit quantum phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling two target qubits using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. The two lowest levels Divides 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket of each SQUID are used to represent logical states while the higher energy levels Divides 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 3 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are utilized for gate realization. Our scheme does not require adiabatic passage, second order detuning, and the adjustment of the level spacing during gate operation which reduce the gate time significantly. The scheme is generalized for an arbitrary n-qubit quantum phase gate. We also apply the scheme to implement three-qubit quantum Fourier transform.

  15. Three-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a cascade four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2018-03-01

    For an atomic system with cascade four-level type, a useful scheme about three-dimensional (3D) atom localization is proposed. In our scheme the atomic system is coherently controlled by using a radio-frequency field to couple with two-folded levels under the condition of the existence of probe absorption. Our results show that detecting precision of 3D atom localization may be obviously improved by properly adjusting the frequency detuning and strength of the radio-frequency driving field. So our scheme could be helpful to realize 3D atom localization with high-efficiency and high-precision . In the field of laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography, our studies provide potential applications.

  16. Four-level and two-qubit systems, subalgebras, and unitary integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.P.; Selvaraj, G.; Uskov, D.

    2005-01-01

    Four-level systems in quantum optics, and for representing two qubits in quantum computing, are difficult to solve for general time-dependent Hamiltonians. A systematic procedure is presented which combines analytical handling of the algebraic operator aspects with simple solutions of classical, first-order differential equations. In particular, by exploiting su(2)+su(2) and su(2)+su(2)+u(1) subalgebras of the full SU(4) dynamical group of the system, the nontrivial part of the final calculation is reduced to a single Riccati (first-order, quadratically nonlinear) equation, itself simply solved. Examples are provided of two-qubit problems from the recent literature, including implementation of two-qubit gates with Josephson junctions

  17. From Kondo to local singlet state in graphene nanoribbons with magnetic impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, G. S.; Luiz, G. I.; Latgé, A.; Vernek, E.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the Kondo effect of a magnetic impurity in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is addressed. An adatom is coupled to the graphene nanoribbon via a hybridization amplitude Γimp in a hollow- or top-site configuration. In addition, the adatom is also weakly coupled to a metallic scanning tunnel microscope (STM) tip by a hybridization function Γtip that provides a Kondo screening of its magnetic moment. The entire system is described by an Anderson-like Hamiltonian whose low-temperature physics is accessed by employing the numerical renormalization-group approach, which allows us to obtain the thermodynamic properties used to compute the Kondo temperature of the system. We find two screening regimes when the adatom is close to the edge of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon: (1) a weak-coupling regime (Γimp≪Γtip ), in which the edge states produce an enhancement of the Kondo temperature TK, and (2) a strong-coupling regime (Γimp≫Γtip ), in which a local singlet is formed, to the detriment of the Kondo screening by the STM tip. These two regimes can be clearly distinguished by the dependence of their characteristic temperature T* on the coupling between the adatom and the carbon sites of the graphene nanoribbon Vimp. We observe that in the weak-coupling regime T* increases exponentially with Vimp2. Differently, in the strong-coupling regime, T* increases linearly with Vimp2.

  18. Lateral spin-orbit coupling and the Kondo effect in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernek, Edson; Ngo, Anh; Ulloa, Sergio

    2010-03-01

    We present studies of the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes of transport of a quantum dot connected to current leads through spin-polarizing quantum point contacts (QPCs) [1]. This configuration, arising from the effect of lateral spin-orbit fields, results in spin-polarized currents even in the absence of external magnetic fields and greatly affects the correlations in the dot. Using an equation-of-motion technique and numerical renormalization group calculations we obtain the conductance and spin polarization for this system under different parameter regimes. Our results show that both the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes exhibit non-zero spin-polarized conductance. We analyze the role that the spin-dependent tunneling amplitudes of the QPC play in determining the charge and net magnetic moment in the dot. We find that the Kondo regime exhibits a strongly dependent Kondo temperature on the QPC polarizability. These effects, controllable by lateral gate voltages, may provide a new approach for exploring Kondo correlations, as well as possible spin devices. Supported by NSF DMR-MWN and PIRE. [1] P. Debray et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 759 (2009).

  19. Passive synchronized Q-switching between a quasi-three-level and a four-level laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized Q-switching between quasi-three-level and four-level lasers is interesting for sum-frequency generation into the blue and ultraviolet. We report, for the first time, stable synchronized Q-switching between a quasi-three-level laser at 946 nm and a four-level laser at 1064 nm in an all...

  20. Fano-Andreev effect in Quantum Dots in Kondo regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Pedro; Calle, Ana Maria; Pacheco, Monica; Apel, Victor

    In the present work, we investigate the transport through a T-shaped double quantum dot system coupled to two normal leads and to a superconducting lead. We study the role of the superconducting lead in the quantum interferometric features of the double quantum dot and by means of a slave boson mean field approximation at low temperature regime. We inquire into the influence of intradot interactions in the electronic properties of the system as well. Our results show that Fano resonances due to Andreev bound states are exhibited in the transmission from normal to normal lead as a consequence of quantum interference and proximity effect. This Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot was called Fano-Andreev effect, which remains valid even if the electron-electron interaction are taken into account, that is, the Fano-Andreev effect is robust against e-e interactions even in Kondo regime. We acknowledge the financial support from FONDECYT program Grants No. 3140053 and 11400571.

  1. Interaction-driven sub-gap resonance in the topological Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Wesley

    2015-03-01

    Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a strongly correlated Kondo Insulator with a non-trivial band-structure topology. I will discuss recent neutron scattering experiments and analysis that expose a 14 meV resonant mode in SmB6 and relate it to the low energy insulating band structure. Repeating outside the first Brillouin zone, the mode is coherent with a 5 d-like magnetic form factor. I will discuss how band inversion can be inferred from neutron scattering and show that a perturbative slave boson treatment of a hybridized 2 species (d/ f) band structure within an Anderson model can produce a spin exciton with the observed characteristics. This analysis provides a detailed physical picture of how the SmB6 band topology arises from strong electron interactions, and accounts for the 14 meV resonant mode as a magnetically active exciton. The work at IQM was supported by the US Department of Energy, office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering under Grant DE-FG02-08ER46544.

  2. Quenching of orbital momentum by crystalline fields in a multichannel Kondo impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.; Lee, K.

    1995-01-01

    We consider an impurity of spin S interacting via an isotropic spin exchange with conduction electrons of spin 1/2. The conduction electrons can be in n different orbital channels. We assume that crystalline fields split the orbital degrees of freedom into two multiplets, the one with lower energy consisting of n * orbitals and the one of higher energy of n-n * orbitals. The exchange coupling is the same for all channels. We derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations for this model and discuss the ground-state properties of the impurity as a function of the spin S and the magnetic field. The solution of the ground-state Bethe ansatz equations is obtained numerically. Three situations have to be distinguished when the magnetic field is small compared to the Kondo temperature: (i) If S=n/2 or S=n * /2 the conduction electrons exactly compensate the impurity spin into a singlet ground state, (ii) if S>n/2 the impurity is undercompensated, i.e., only partially compensated leaving an effective spin S-n/2 at low temperatures, and (iii) in all other cases the impurity spin is overcompensated giving rise to critical behavior. The quenching of the orbits by the crystalline field dramatically affects the cases S * /2

  3. The ferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compound SmFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, N

    2003-01-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of a filled skutterudite compound, SmFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2. Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements revealed a ferromagnetic transition at 1.6 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity exhibits a Kondo-lattice behaviour and the electronic specific heat coefficient attains values as large as 370 mJ mol sup - sup 1 K sup - sup 2. This compound is thereby the first Sm-based heavy-fermion system found with a ferromagnetic ground state. The Kondo temperature is estimated to be about 30 K. (letter to the editor)

  4. Kondo effect and non-Fermi liquid behavior in metallic glasses containing Yb, Ce, and Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B.; Yang, Y. F.; Wang, W. H.

    2013-04-01

    The low temperature properties of metallic glasses containing different concentrations of ytterbium, cerium, and samarium are studied. It is found that the Kondo effect caused by exchange interactions between the conduction and 4f electrons and non-Fermi liquid behavior appear in the strongly disordered alloys. We study the origins for these unique features and demonstrate that the found Kondo effect is inherited from the crystalline counterparts. The results might have significance on investigating the strong electron-electron interaction systems with structural disorder and be helpful for designing new metallic glasses with functional properties.

  5. Coherence effects in three- and four-level laser-cooled rubidium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Echaniz, Sebastian R.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis presents developmental work on the existing magneto-optical trap (MOT) system and novel studies of coherence effects. The developmental work was carried out on the experimental apparatus used previously in this laboratory in order to perform experiments to study coherence effects in three- and four-level rubidium systems in the MOT. This developmental work includes the upgrading and installation of new laser systems, the improvement of the MOT, the installation of data acquisition hardware and software, and the commissioning of a new 'second generation' MOT. As part of our studies of coherence effects, we present a wide-ranging theoretical and experimental study of non-adiabatic transient phenomena in a Λ system which exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency when a strong coupling field is rapidly switched on or off using a Pockels cell. The theoretical treatment uses a Laplace transform approach as well as standard numerical methods to solve the time-dependent density matrix equation. The results show clear Rabi oscillations and transient gain without population inversion of a weak probe in parameter regions not previously studied, and provide insight into the transition dynamics between bare a dressed states. Experimental studies of a doubly driven V system are also reported, together with a theoretical dressed-state analysis of such systems. The expected three-peak spectrum is explored for various coupling field strengths and detunings. In all this work we have found good agreement between the theory and the experimental spectra once light shifts and uncoupled absorption in the rubidium system are taken into account. (author)

  6. Numerical simulations of heavy fermion systems. From He-3 bilayers to topological Kondo insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Jan

    2015-03-27

    In this thesis the results of model calculations based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion. By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential μ and inverse temperature β=1/T. The method is a cluster extension to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correlations beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green's function and other observables of interest. As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale T{sub coh}. While the density is rather high for small filling, for larger filling T{sub coh} is increasingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z∝T{sub coh} and an enhanced mass renormalization m{sup *}/m∝T{sub coh}{sup -1}. Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the coherence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers. Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size N{sub c}=2 and 3. Furthermore a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single

  7. Spin-orbit interaction and asymmetry effects on Kondo ridges at finite magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grap, Stephan; Andergassen, Sabine; Paaske, Jens

    2011-01-01

    ridges, which are robust against SOI as time-reversal symmetry is preserved. As a result of the crossing of a spin-up and a spin-down level at vanishing SOI, two additional Kondo plateaus appear at finite B. They are not protected by symmetry and rapidly vanish if the SOI is turned on. Left......-right asymmetric level-lead couplings and detuned on-site energies lead to a simultaneous breaking of left-right and bonding-antibonding state symmetry. In this case, the finite-B Kondo ridges in the Vg-B plane are bent with respect to the Vg axis. For the Kondo ridge to develop, different level renormalizations......We study electron transport through a serial double quantum dot with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Zeeman field of amplitude B in the presence of local Coulomb repulsion. The linear conductance as a function of a gate voltage Vg equally shifting the levels on both dots shows two B=0 Kondo...

  8. Spin relaxation through Kondo scattering in Cu/Py lateral spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, J. T.; Rosaond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.

    Within non-magnetic metals it is reasonable to expect the Elliot-Yafet mechanism to govern spin-relaxation and thus the temperature dependence of the spin diffusion length might be inversely proportional to resistivity. However, in lateral spin valves, measurements have found that at low temperatures the spin diffusion length unexpectedly decreases. We have fabricated lateral spin valves from Cu with different concentrations of magnetic impurities. Through temperature dependent charge and spin transport measurements we present clear evidence linking the presence of the Kondo effect within Cu to the suppression of the spin diffusion length below 30 K. We have calculated the spin-relaxation rate and isolated the contribution from magnetic impurities. At very low temperatures electron-electron interactions play a more prominent role in the Kondo effect. Well below the Kondo temperature a strong-coupling regime exists, where the moments become screened and the magnetic dephasing rate is reduced. We also investigate the effect of this low temperature regime (>1 K) on a pure spin current. This work shows the dominant role of Kondo scattering, even in low concentrations of order 1 ppm, within pure spin transport.

  9. Spatial variations of order parameter around Kondo impurity for T<=Tsub(c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, S.

    1980-04-01

    Analytic expressions for the spatial variations of the order parameter around a Kondo impurity are obtained. The oscillatory contribution due to the impurity scattering is calculated using the t matrix of Matsuura which conveniently yields the general results below Tsub(c). Differences between our values and those of Schlottmann are reported. (author)

  10. Importance of conduction electron correlation in a Kondo lattice, Ce₂CoSi₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil; Pandey, Sudhir K; Medicherla, V R R; Singh, R S; Bindu, R; Sampathkumaran, E V; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2010-06-30

    Kondo systems are usually described by the interaction of the correlation induced local moments with the highly itinerant conduction electrons. Here, we study the role of electron correlations among conduction electrons in the electronic structure of a Kondo lattice compound, Ce₂CoSi₃, using high resolution photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio band structure calculations, where Co 3d electrons contribute in the conduction band. High energy resolution employed in the measurements helped to reveal the signatures of Ce 4f states derived Kondo resonance features at the Fermi level and the dominance of Co 3d contributions at higher binding energies in the conduction band. The lineshape of the experimental Co 3d band is found to be significantly different from that obtained from the band structure calculations within the local density approximations, LDA. Consideration of electron-electron Coulomb repulsion, U, among Co 3d electrons within the LDA + U method leads to a better representation of experimental results. The signature of an electron correlation induced satellite feature is also observed in the Co 2p core level spectrum. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of the electron correlation among conduction electrons in deriving the microscopic description of such Kondo systems.

  11. Charge dynamics in the Kondo insulator Ce3Bi4Pt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, B.; Schlesinger, Z.; Canfield, P.C.; Fisk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    We report the reflectivity and optical conductivity of the Kondo insulator Ce 3 Bi 4 Pt 3 . For temperatures less than 100 K, depletion of the conductivity below about 300 cm -1 signifies the development of a charge gap. The temperature dependence of the disappearance of the spectral weight scales with the quenching of the Ce 4f moments. ((orig.))

  12. Suppression of the ferromagnetic state by disorder in the Kondo lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisan, M.; Popoviciu, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that ferromagnetic ground state of a Kondo lattice with a low concentration of conduction electrons is ferromagnetic. Assuming the existence of disorder in the Fermi liquid of the conduction electrons the authors show that the ferromagnetic state can be suppressed by the effect of the spin fluctuations of the disordered Fermi liquid

  13. Test of s-wave pairing in heavy-fermion systems due to Kondo volume collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svozil, K.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to utilize resonant Raman scattering on heavy-fermion superconductors as a test for Cooper pairing via an effective phonon-mediated attraction due to the Kondo volume collapse. The suggested experiment might help to discriminate between singlet and triplet pairing

  14. CePdAl. A frustrated Kondo lattice at a quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Veronika [EP 6, Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Sakai, Akito; Gegenwart, Philipp [EP 6, Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg (Germany); Huesges, Zita; Lucas, Stefan; Stockert, Oliver [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Kittler, Wolfram; Taubenheim, Christian; Grube, Kai; Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Huang, Chien-Lung [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    CePdAl is one of the rare frustrated Kondo lattice systems that can be tuned across a quantum critical point (QCP) by means of chemical pressure, i. e., the substitution of Pd by Ni. Magnetic frustration and Kondo effect are antithetic phenomena: The Kondo effect with the incipient delocalization of the magnetic moments, is not beneficial for the formation of a frustrated state. On the other hand, magnetic frustrated exchange interactions between the local moments can result in a breakdown of Kondo screening. Furthermore, the fate of frustration is unclear when approaching the QCP, since there is no simple observable to quantify the degree of frustration. We present thermodynamic and neutron scattering experiments on CePd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Al close to the critical concentration x ∼0.14. Our experiments indicate that even at the QCP magnetic frustration is still present, opening the perspective to find new universality classes at such a quantum phase transition.

  15. SU(4) Kondo effect in double quantum dots with ferromagnetic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Ireneusz; Chirla, Razvan; Trocha, Piotr; Moca, Cǎtǎlin Paşcu

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the spin-resolved transport properties, such as the linear conductance and the tunnel magnetoresistance, of a double quantum dot device attached to ferromagnetic leads and look for signatures of the SU (4 ) symmetry in the Kondo regime. We show that the transport behavior greatly depends on the magnetic configuration of the device, and the spin-SU(2) as well as the orbital and spin-SU(4) Kondo effects become generally suppressed when the magnetic configuration of the leads varies from the antiparallel to the parallel one. Furthermore, a finite spin polarization of the leads lifts the spin degeneracy and drives the system from the SU(4) to an orbital-SU(2) Kondo state. We analyze in detail the crossover and show that the Kondo temperature between the two fixed points has a nonmonotonic dependence on the degree of spin polarization of the leads. In terms of methods used, we characterize transport by using a combination of analytical and numerical renormalization group approaches.

  16. Antiferromagnetism and Kondo effect in a two quantum dot system: a slave boson approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, I.J.; Anda, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In a recent experiment, Jakob et. al proposed a device consisting of a cobalt atom attached to the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which interacts with another Co atom adsorbed on a gold surface. The high capacity to tune the tip-sample distance obtained by the authors, with a sub-picometre resolution, enabled the control of the electronic interaction between the two Co atoms and allowed the access to a very rich set of physical phenomena, specifically, those associated to the interplay of the antiferromagnetic interaction between the spins of the Co atoms and the Kondo correlation with the electronic reservoir spins. As well, it is possible to carefully study the geometrical aspects of the experimental disposition creating Fano anti resonances in the differential conductance as a function of the applied potential. In order to reproduce the physics observed in such an experiment we elaborate a model consisting of two sites where the electrons are highly correlated, that simulates the two Co atoms. Each atom interacts with an electronic reservoir and between themselves by means of a directed coupling and also, indirectly, through a coupling between the two electronic reservoirs. The many- body system is solved using a Slave Boson Formalism, solving the problem in the mean field approximation for finite values of U, the Coulomb electronic repulsion at the Co sites. Unlike the NRG calculations developed in the mentioned work, which partially explain the measurements, our results carries the physics information associated to the direct coupling between the Co atoms that permits to study the different regimes and the geometrical implications on the conductance results. Our study is able to explain the experimental results in all the parameter space. (author)

  17. Hybridization and crystal-field effects in Kondo insulators studied by means of core-level spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Fabio

    2015-04-13

    and even for symmetries lower than tetragonal. In addition to that, HAXPES measurements on the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} series are presented. A common technique for studying hybridization effects in rare earths, and their electronic structure in general, is photoelectron spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range (hv ≤ 1.5 keV). However, in this energy region surface effects are known to matter so that the picture about the hybridization interaction might be distorted with respect to the bulk. The use of hard X-rays (hν=5-10 keV) guarantees a sufficiently large probing depth for obtaining information about the actual bulk electronic structure. In a detailed quantitative analysis of HAXPES 3d core level spectra - using a combination of full multiplet calculations and a configuration interaction model (fm-CI model) - the hybridization strength can be quantified. The XAS results show that the CEF ground states of CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 10} and CeOs{sub 2}Al are very similar, while it is clearly different for the non-ordering system CeFe{sub 2}Al{sub 10}. The CEF description nicely explains the magnetic anisotropy observed in susceptibility data and to a large extent the small ordered moments along the c axis. We provide a reliable quantitative description of the CEF ground state of the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} compounds. Furthermore, the analysis of the HAXPES data in the fm-CI model allows to quantify the intermediate 4f valence and establishes that the exchange interaction increases within the series from Ru to Os to Fe. A substantial amount of Kondo screening is shown to be present even in the magnetically ordered Ru and Os compounds. The polarized XAS study on CeNiSn demonstrates that the monoclinic CEF is well described in a trigonal approximation, and the determined 4f ground-state wave function is consistent with results from inelastic neutron scattering for Cu-doped CeNiSn. Moreover, the systematic investigation of the CeRh{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}In{sub 5} substitution series by means

  18. Two-stage multipolar ordering in Pr T2Al20 Kondo materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Frederic; Attig, Jan; Lee, SungBin; Paramekanti, Arun; Trebst, Simon; Kim, Yong Baek

    2018-03-01

    Among heavy fermion materials, there is a set of rare-earth intermetallics with non-Kramers Pr3 +4 f2 moments which exhibit a rich phase diagram with intertwined quadrupolar orders, superconductivity, and non-Fermi liquid behavior. However, more subtle broken symmetries such as multipolar orders in these Kondo materials remain poorly studied. Here, we argue that multi-spin interactions between local moments beyond the conventional two-spin exchange must play an important role in Kondo materials near the ordered to heavy Fermi liquid transition. We show that this drives a plethora of phases with coexisting multipolar orders and multiple thermal phase transitions, providing a natural framework for interpreting experiments on the Pr(T) 2Al20 class of compounds.

  19. Evidence for charge Kondo effect in superconducting Tl-doped PbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, I

    2010-01-11

    We report results of low-temperature thermodynamic and transport measurements of Pb{sub 1-x}Tl{sub x}Te single crystals for Tl concentrations up to the solubility limit of approximately x = 1.5%. For all doped samples, we observe a low-temperature resistivity upturn that scales in magnitude with the Tl concentration. The temperature and field dependence of this upturn are consistent with a charge Kondo effect involving degenerate Tl valence states differing by two electrons, with a characteristic Kondo temperature T{sub K} {approx} 6 K. The observation of such an effect supports an electronic pairing mechanism for superconductivity in this material and may account for the anomalously high T{sub c} values.

  20. Coherence Kondo gap in CeNiSn and CeRhSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, T.; Nakamoto, G.; Tanaka, H.; Bando, Y.; Fujii, H.; Nishigori, S.; Goshima, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oguro, I.; Hiraoka, T.; Malik, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    CeNiSn and CeRhSb are Kondo-lattice compounds showing the behavior of a small-gap semiconductor at temperatures below 7 K. We review and discuss the magnetic, transport and specific-heat measurements performed on single crystals of CeNiSn and polycrystals of CeRhSb. Prerequisites for gap formation are deduced from the effects of substitution and application of a magnetic field and pressure on the gapped state. ((orig.))

  1. Heavy Fermion Materials and Quantum Phase Transitions Workshop on Frontiers of the Kondo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The contemporary studies of the Kondo effect and heavy -fermion materials occur at the intersection of some of the most...magnetism. Electronic systems in this intermediate regime are particularly tunable. Correspondingly, heavy fermions have emerged as a promising setting...materials. Second, heavy -fermion materials typically contain heavy elements, and there is an increasing 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND

  2. Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a new predator of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchao, Ever Camilo; Kondo, Takumasa; González F., Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The Colombian fluted scale (CFS), Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) is a polyphagous scale insect which affects about 100 species of plants. Between 2010–2013, the species was reported as an invasive pest on the islands of San Andres and Old Providence, Colombian territory in the Caribbean sea. Currently, populations of the CFS also have increased in the city of Cali, Valle del Cauca State, mainland Colombia, affecting different host plants, especially l...

  3. Investigating the large degeneracy Kondo lattice metamagnet CeTiGe: Crystal growth and doping studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Deppe, M.; Geibel, C. [MPI fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, 01187, Dresden (Germany); Sereni, J. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    CeTiGe is a paramagnetic Kondo lattice system with a large orbital degeneracy involved in the formation of the heavy Fermion ground state. Recently we discovered that this compound presents a huge metamagnetic transition at B{sub MMT} {approx} 13 T, with much larger anomalies in magnetization, magnetoresistance and magnetostriction than in the archetypical Kondo lattice metamagnet CeRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Since CeTiGe forms in a pronounced peritectic reaction the growth of single crystals is difficult. We therefore studied the Ce-Ti-Ge ternary metallographic phase diagram to get a sound basis for future crystal growth attempts. Preliminary results of growth experiments based on these studies are promising and shall be discussed. Furthermore, Ti-rich CeTiGe was recently reported to present a high temperature phase crystallizing in the closely related CeScSi structure type. In order to study this structural instability and the effect on the physical properties, we studied the effect of substituting Sc for Ti, since pure CeScGe crystallizes in the CeScSi structure type. In well annealed samples we observed a two phase region in the range 10% - 25%-Sc-substitution. Preliminary investigations of the CeSc{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}Ge alloy suggest it is a promising candidate for the observation of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point in a large degeneracy Kondo lattice system.

  4. Hybridization in Kondo lattice heavy fermions via quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasiwodeyar, Sanjay; Dwyer, Matt; Greene, Laura; Park, Wan Kyu; Bauer, Eric; Tobash, Paul; Baumbach, Ryan; Ronning, Filip; Sarrao, John; Thompson, Joe; Canfield, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Band renormalization in a Kondo lattice via hybridization of the conduction band with localized states has been a hot topic over the last several years. In part, this has to do with recently reignited interest in the hidden order problem in URu2Si2. Despite recent developments regarding the electronic structure in this compound, it remains to be resolved whether the hidden order phase transition is related to the opening of a hybridization gap. Our quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) has shown they are not related directly. This can be understood naturally since in principle band renormalization does not involve symmetry breaking. To deepen our understanding, we extend to other Kondo lattice compounds. For instance, when applied to YbAl3, a vegetable heavy-fermion system, QPS reveals conductance signatures for hybridization in a Kondo lattice such as asymmetric Fano background along with characteristic energy scales. Presenting new results on these materials, we will discuss a broader picture. The work at UIUC is supported by the NSF DMR 12-06766, the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, and the work done at Ames Lab. was supported under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  5. Muon spin relaxation and nonmagnetic Kondo state in PrInAg2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaughlin, D. E.; Heffner, R. H.; Nieuwenhuys, G. J.; Canfield, P. C.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.; Schenck, A.; Luke, G. M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Uemura, Y. J.

    2000-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation experiments have been carried out in the Kondo compound PrInAg 2 . The zero-field muon relaxation rate is found to be independent of temperature between 0.1 and 10 K, which rules out a magnetic origin (spin freezing or a conventional Kondo effect) for the previously observed specific-heat anomaly at ∼0.5 K. At low temperatures the muon relaxation can be quantitatively understood in terms of the muon's interaction with nuclear magnetism, including hyperfine enhancement of the 141 Pr nuclear moment at low temperatures. This argues against a Pr 3+ ground-state electronic magnetic moment, and is strong evidence for the doublet Γ 3 crystalline-electric-field-split ground state required for a nonmagnetic route to heavy-electron behavior. The data imply the existence of an exchange interaction between neighboring Pr 3+ ions of the order of 0.2 K in temperature units, which should be taken into account in a complete theory of a nonmagnetic Kondo effect in PrInAg 2 . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. Angle-resolved photoemission on the Kondo surface alloy CePd{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulazzi, Mattia; Seibel, Christoph; Schwab, Holger [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII (Germany); Shimada, Kenya; Jiang, Jiang [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    This films of the Cerium were evaporated on a Pd(001) substrate an further annealed to obtain a thin surface alloy layer of stoichiometry CePd{sub 7}, as observed by Auger spectroscopy. From LEED measurements it was possible to determine that the alloy has a (√(5) x √(5))R26.6 {sup circle} reconstruction, commensurate to the Palladium substrate. Photon-energy dependent ARPES measurements crossing the 4d-4f resonance show the presence of a strong peak near the Fermi level, having actually two components, the actual Kondo peak at the Fermi level and the spin-orbit peak at 280 meV binding energy. Resonant and non-resonant Fermi surface maps shows large intensity variations of the Pd bands, when measured at the resonance, a sign of strong hybridization between the conduction and the 4f electrons. While previous work assigns the CePd7 to the class of intermediate valence systems, our work shows that it is actually a Kondo system, with a rather high Kondo temperature.

  7. Spin relaxation and the Kondo effect in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Habib; Moghaddam, Ali G; Asgari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spin relaxation and Kondo resistivity caused by magnetic impurities in doped transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. We show that momentum and spin relaxation times, due to the exchange interaction by magnetic impurities, are much longer when the Fermi level is inside the spin-split region of the valence band. In contrast to the spin relaxation, we find that the dependence of Kondo temperature T K on the doping is not strongly affected by the spin–orbit induced splitting, although only one of the spin species are present at each valley. This result, which is obtained using both perturbation theory and the poor man’s scaling methods, originates from the intervalley spin-flip scattering in the spin-split region. We further demonstrate the decline in the conductivity with temperatures close to T K , which can vary with the doping. Our findings reveal the qualitative difference with the Kondo physics in conventional metallic systems and other Dirac materials. (paper)

  8. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  9. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-02-26

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  10. Influences of a Side-Coupled Triple Quantum Dot on Kondo Transport Through a Quantum Dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhaotan; Yang Yannan; Qin Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    Kondo transport properties through a Kondo-type quantum dot (QD) with a side-coupled triple-QD structure are systematically investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We firstly derive the formulae of the current, the linear conductance, the transmission coefficient, and the local density of states. Then we carry out the analytical and numerical studies and some universal conductance properties are obtained. It is shown that the number of the conductance valleys is intrinsically determined by the side-coupled QDs and at most equal to the number of the QDs included in the side-coupled structure in the asymmetric limit. In the process of forming the conductance valleys, the side-coupled QD system plays the dominant role while the couplings between the Kondo-type QD and the side-coupled structure play the subsidiary and indispensable roles. To testify the validity of the universal conductance properties, another different kinds of side-coupled triple-QD structures are considered. It should be emphasized that these universal properties are applicable in understanding this kind of systems with arbitrary many-QD side structures.

  11. Phase dependence of optical bistability and multistability in a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

    2016-01-01

    The optical bistability and multistability properties of a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are studied theoretically. Two orthogonal circularly polarized laser fields with the same frequency, different phases and electric fields amplitude are interacted by four-level quantum system. It is found that in the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, the bistable behaviors related to one of the laser fields propagating through the unidirectional ring cavity can be modified by relative phase and amplitude control of another laser fields. Our obtained results show that the optical bistability can be converted into the optical multistability by varying the value of distance between the quantum system and the surface of the plasmonic nanostructure. Moreover, it is shown that under specific condition related to the distance, the lasing without population inversion can be obtained

  12. Phase dependence of optical bistability and multistability in a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H., E-mail: Rahimpour@guilan.ac.ir [Computational Nanophysics Laboratory (CNL), Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-14

    The optical bistability and multistability properties of a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are studied theoretically. Two orthogonal circularly polarized laser fields with the same frequency, different phases and electric fields amplitude are interacted by four-level quantum system. It is found that in the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, the bistable behaviors related to one of the laser fields propagating through the unidirectional ring cavity can be modified by relative phase and amplitude control of another laser fields. Our obtained results show that the optical bistability can be converted into the optical multistability by varying the value of distance between the quantum system and the surface of the plasmonic nanostructure. Moreover, it is shown that under specific condition related to the distance, the lasing without population inversion can be obtained.

  13. Two-dimensional atom localization via two standing-wave fields in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongtao; Wang Hui; Wang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the two-dimensional (2D) localization of an atom in a four-level Y-type atomic system. By applying two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atoms can be localized at some special positions, leading to the formation of sub-wavelength 2D periodic spatial distributions. The localization peak position and number as well as the conditional position probability can be controlled by the intensities and detunings of optical fields.

  14. Competition of Kondo spin fluctuations and RKKY interactions in CeRh/sub 2/Si/sub 2-x/Ge/sub x/ and CeM/sub 2/X/sub 2/ compounds: a Kondo necklace problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, C; Gupta, L C; Tomy, C V; Vijayaraghavan, R; Thompson, J D

    1989-02-15

    We present the results of our measurements of the lattice constants and magnetic susceptibility of the pseudo-ternary system which crystallizes in the tetragonal ThCr/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ structure. Both of the cell constants a and c increase linearly with x. The magnetic ordering temperature T/sub N/ exhibits initially an enhancement with the increase in x and then decreases as x continues to increase further. These results, along with those on the pressure dependence of T/sub N/ in CeRh/sub 2/Si/sub 2/, can be understood on the basis of the Doniach's model of a Kondo necklace. We discuss also the applicability of this model to describe the strong correlation between the structural aspects and the ground-state properties of the whole series of Ce-based ternaries CeM/sub 2/X/sub 2/ (M = 3d, 4d and 5d elements; X = Si, Ge).

  15. Site dependence of the Kondo scale in CePd{sub 1-x}Rh{sub x} evidenced by thermopower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockert, Ulrike; Hartmann, Stefanie; Deppe, Micha; Caroca-Canales, Nubia; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Sereni, Julian [Division Bajas Temperaturas, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    CePd{sub 1-x}Rh{sub x} undergoes a continuous evolution from ferromagnetic order in CePd to an intermediate-valence (IV) ground state for CeRh. Close to the disappearance of magnetic order at x{sub cr} ∼ 0.87 unusual behavior of the ac susceptibility and the specific heat was observed. It was explained with a broad distribution of local Kondo temperatures T{sub K} from below 2 K to above 50 K due to the disorder introduced by Pd-Rh exchange. The thermopower S is very sensitive to Kondo scattering even for diluted 4f systems. In Ce compounds a large positive maximum in S(T) is usually observed around T{sub K}. We studied S(T) in CePd{sub 1-x}Rh{sub x} in order to evaluate the presence of Kondo scattering and the involved energy scales. Pure CeRh shows typical IV behavior with a large maximum at 220 K and small values at low T. Already 5 % Pd substitution leads to a strong enhancement of the low-T thermopower. Even larger values are found around x{sub cr}, while the high-T maximum shifts only moderately. Our results are in line with the existence of low (local) Kondo scales in the presence of IV behavior at high Rh content x > x{sub cr}. For lower Rh content a decreasing (average) Kondo scale is found.

  16. On the zero-bias anomaly and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts near pinch-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, S; Xiao, S; Fuji, K; Shibuya, K; Endo, T; Yumoto, N; Morimoto, T; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y

    2014-03-26

    We investigate the linear and non-linear conductance of quantum point contacts (QPCs), in the region near pinch-off where Kondo physics has previously been connected to the appearance of the 0.7 feature. In studies of seven different QPCs, fabricated in the same high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction, the linear conductance is widely found to show the presence of the 0.7 feature. The differential conductance, on the other hand, does not generally exhibit the zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) that has been proposed to indicate the Kondo effect. Indeed, even in the small subset of QPCs found to exhibit such an anomaly, the linear conductance does not always follow the universal temperature-dependent scaling behavior expected for the Kondo effect. Taken collectively, our observations demonstrate that, unlike the 0.7 feature, the ZBA is not a generic feature of low-temperature QPC conduction. We furthermore conclude that the mere observation of the ZBA alone is insufficient evidence for concluding that Kondo physics is active. While we do not rule out the possibility that the Kondo effect may occur in QPCs, our results appear to indicate that its observation requires a very strict set of conditions to be satisfied. This should be contrasted with the case of the 0.7 feature, which has been apparent since the earliest experimental investigations of QPC transport.

  17. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Yosida-Kondo resonance for a single magnetic atom adsorbed on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dino, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Rodulfo, Emmanuel Tapas; Nishi, Mayuko

    2006-01-01

    Manifestations of the Kondo effect on an atomic length scale on and around a magnetic atom adsorbed on a nonmagnetic surface differ depending on the spectroscopic mode of operation of the scanning tunneling microscope. Two prominent signatures of the Kondo effect that can be observed at surfaces are the development of a sharp resonance (Yosida-Kondo resonance) at the Fermi level, which broadens with increasing temperature, and the splitting of this sharp resonance upon application of an external magnetic field. Until recently, observing the temperature and magnetic field dependence has been a challenge, because the experimental conditions strongly depend on the system's critical temperature, the so-called Kondo temperature T K . In order to clearly observe the temperature dependence, one needs to choose a system with a large T K . One can thus perform the experiments at temperatures T K . However, because the applied external magnetic field necessary to observe the magnetic field dependence scales with T K , one needs to choose a system with a very small T K . This in turn means that one should perform the experiments at very low temperatures, e.g., in the mK range. Here we discuss the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Yosida-Kondo resonance for a single magnetic atom on a metal surface, in relation to recent experimental developments

  18. Impurity quadrupole Kondo ground state in a dilute Pr system Y1-xPrxIr2Zn20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Yu; Onimaru, Takahiro; Uenishi, Kazuto; Wakiya, Kazuhei; Matsumoto, Keisuke T.; Umeo, Kazunori; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2018-05-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ and specific heat C of a dilute Pr system Y1-xPrxIr2Zn20 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.44 were measured to study the phenomena arising from active quadrupoles of the Pr3+ ion with 4f2 configuration. On cooling, ρ's of all samples monotonically decrease, while the residual resistivity ratio ρ(300 K)/ρ(3 K) drastically decreases with x. In the whole range x ≤ 0.44, the magnetic contribution to the specific heat divided by temperature Cm/T shows a broad maximum at around 10 K, which can be reproduced by a two-level model with a first-excited triplet separated by 30 K from a ground state doublet. This indicates that the crystalline electric field ground state of the Pr ions remains in the Γ3 doublet for the cubic Td point group. On cooling, the Cm/T data for x = 0.085 and 0.44 approach constant values at Texpected from the random two-level model. By contrast, Cm/T for x = 0.044 increases continuously down to 0.08 K, suggesting a non-Fermi liquid state due to the impurity quadrupole Kondo effect.

  19. Revisiting the four-level inverted-Y system under both Doppler-free and Doppler-broadened conditions: an analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Islam, Khairul; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    We report the occurrence of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the simulated probe response signal for a four-level inverted-Y type system that is being acted upon by a weak coherent probe field, a strong coherent pump field and a coherent repump field. There are two ground energy levels, one intermediate energy level and one uppermost energy level. The weak probe field couples the lowest ground level to the intermediate level whereas the repump field connects the other ground level with the intermediate level. The strong control field couples the intermediate level with the uppermost energy level, thereby forming an inverted-Y type system. The density matrix based theoretical model has been developed and solved analytically for this four-level system and the probe response signal has been simulated at different values of the control and repump Rabi frequencies, control and repump frequency detunings and under both Doppler-free and Doppler-broadened conditions using the parameters of 87 Rb D 2 transition. Extremely low line width (few tens of kHz) for the EIT signal has been noticed under thermal averaging for copropagating probe, control and repump field configuration. The EIT signal is found to be immune to the variation in the control Rabi frequency. (paper)

  20. Selective Deflection of Polarized Light Via Coherently Driven Four-Level Atoms in a Double-Λ Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two circular polarized components, i.e., σ - and σ + polarization, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a double-Λ configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a polarized control light with spatially inhomogeneous profile. We analyse the deflection of the polarized probe light and we find that we can selectively determine which circular component will be deflected after the polarized probe light enters the atom medium via adjusting the polarization and detuning of the control field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Influence of Fano interference and incoherent processes on optical bistability in a four-level quantum dot nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed; Solookinejad, G; Panahi, M; Ahmadi Sangachin, E

    2016-01-01

    Role of Fano interference and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability in a four-level designed InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are analyzed. It is found that intensity threshold of optical bistability can be manipulated by Fano interference. It is shown that incoherent pumping fields make the threshold of optical bistability behave differently by Fano interference. Moreover, in the presence of Fano interference the medium becomes phase-dependent. Therefore, the relative phase of applied fields can affect the behaviors of optical bistability and intensity threshold can be controlled easily. (paper)

  2. Dressed-state analysis of efficient two-dimensional atom localization in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional atom localization via spontaneous emission in a four-level atomic system. It is found that the detection probability and precision of two-dimensional atom localization can be significantly improved due to the interference effect between the spontaneous decay channels and the dynamically induced quantum interference generated by the probe and composite fields. More importantly, a 100% probability of finding an atom within the sub-half-wavelength domain of the standing waves can be reached when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or atom nano-lithography via atom localization. (paper)

  3. Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shujing; Yang Xudong; Cao Xuemin; Zhang Chunhong; Xie Changde; Wang Hai

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental observations on the simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects for probe and trigger fields (double EIT) as well as the enhanced cross-phase modulation (XPM) between the two fields in a four-level tripod EIT system of the D1 line of 87 Rb atoms. The XPM coefficients (larger than 2x10 -5 cm 2 /W) and the accompanying transmissions (higher than 60%) are measured at a slight detuning of the probe field from the exact EIT-resonance condition. The system and enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearities presented here can be applied to quantum information processes

  4. Reply to "Comment on `Conductance scaling in Kondo-correlated quantum dots: Role of level asymmetry and charging energy'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, L.; Kirchner, S.; Muñoz, E.; Costi, T. A.

    2014-08-01

    The Comment of A. A. Aligia claims that the superperturbation theory (SPT) approach [E. Muñoz, C. J. Bolech, and S. Kirchner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 016601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.016601] formulated using dual fermions [A. N. Rubtsov, M. I. Katsnelson, and A. I. Lichtenstein, Phys. Rev. B 77, 033101 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.033101] and used by us to compare with numerical renormalization group (NRG) results for the conductance [L. Merker, S. Kirchner, E. Muñoz, and T. A. Costi, Phys. Rev. B 87, 165132 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.165132], fails to correctly extend the results of the symmetric Anderson impurity model (SIAM) for general values of the local level Ed in the Kondo regime. We answer this criticism. We also compare new NRG results for cB, with cB calculated directly from the low-field conductance, with new higher-order SPT calculations for this quantity, finding excellent agreement for all Ed and for U /πΔ extending into the strong coupling regime.

  5. Controlling the optical bistability via quantum interference in a four-level N-type atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, M.; Asadpour, S.H.; Mahrami, H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the optical bistability (OB) and optical multi-stability (OM) in a four-level N-type atomic system. The effect of spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) on OB and OM is then discussed. It is found that SGC makes the medium phase dependent, so the optical bistability and multi-stability threshold can be controlled via relative phase between applied fields. We realize that the frequency detuning of probe and coupling fields with the corresponding atomic transition plays an important role in creation OB and OM. Moreover, the effect of laser coupling fields and an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB and OM threshold is then discussed. - Highlights: → We modulate the optical bistability (OB) in a four-level N-type atomic system. The effect of spontaneously generated coherence on OB is discussed. → Spontaneously generated coherence makes the medium phase dependent. → The frequency of coupling field can reduce OB threshold. → We discuss the effect of an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB threshold.

  6. Phase time delay and Hartman effect in a one-dimensional photonic crystal with four-level atomic defect layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Rabia; Ali, Abu Bakar; Abbas, Muqaddar; Badshah, Fazal; Qamar, Sajid

    2017-08-01

    The Hartman effect is revisited using a Gaussian beam incident on a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) having a defect layer doped with four-level atoms. It is considered that each atom of the defect layer interacts with three driving fields, whereas a Gaussian beam of width w is used as a probe light to study Hartman effect. The atom-field interaction inside the defect layer exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The 1DPC acts as positive index material (PIM) and negative index material (NIM) corresponding to the normal and anomalous dispersion of the defect layer, respectively, via control of the phase associated with the driving fields and probe detuning. The positive and negative Hartman effects are noticed for PIM and NIM, respectively, via control of the relative phase corresponding to the driving fields and probe detuning. The advantage of using four-level EIT system is that a much smaller absorption of the transmitted beam occurs as compared to three-level EIT system corresponding to the anomalous dispersion, leading to negative Hartman effect.

  7. Spin and charge controlled by antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling in a triangular-triple-quantum-dot Kondo system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.

    2018-05-01

    We study a local antisymmetric spin-orbit (ASO) coupling effect on a triangular-triple-quantum-dot (TTQD) system as a theoretical proposal for a new application of the Kondo physics to nanoscale devices. The electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect is strongly correlated with the spin configurations and molecular orbital degrees of freedom in the TTQD. In particular, an abrupt sign reversal of the emergent electric polarization is associated with a quantum critical point in a magnetic field, which can also be controlled by the ASO coupling that changes the mixing weight of different orbital components in the TTQD ground state.

  8. Photoemission study of the temperature-dependent energy-gap formation in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Arita, M.; Takeda, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Higashiguchi, M.; Oguchi, T.; Sasakawa, T.; Suemitsu, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The orthorhombic CeRhAs, known as a Kondo semiconductor, has attracted much interest for its unusual energy-gap formation associated with the successive 1st order phase transitions. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the energy- gap formation, we have done high-resolution temperature-dependent photoemission spectroscopy on the undulator beamlines of a compact electron-storage ring, HiSOR, at Hiroshima University. We have observed directly the energy-gap formation in the Ce 4f states and in the conduction bands. Comparing with the isostructural Kondo semimetal CeRhSb, we discuss the energy gap formation in CeRhAs

  9. Quantum size effects in Pb layers with absorbed Kondo adatoms: Determination of the exchange coupling constant

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Shelykh, I. A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the magnetic interaction of manganese phtalocyanine (MnPc) absorbed on Pb layers that were grown on a Si substrate. We perform an ab initio calculation of the density of states and Kondo temperature as a function of the number of Pb monolayers. Comparison to experimental data [Y.-S. Fu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 256601 (2007)] then allows us to determine the exchange coupling constant J between the spins of the adsorbed molecules and those of the Pb host. This approach gives rise to a general and reliable method for obtaining J by combining experimental and numerical results.

  10. Principle-theoretic approach of kondo and construction-theoretic formalism of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein classified various theories in physics as principle-theories and constructive-theories. In this lecture Kondo's approach to microscopic and macroscopic phenomena is analysed for its principle theoretic pursuit as followed by construction. The fundamentals of his theory may be recalled as Tristimulus principle, Observation principle, Kawaguchi spaces, empirical information, epistemological point of view, unitarity, intrinsicality, and dimensional analysis subject to logical and geometrical achievement. On the other hand, various physicists have evolved constructive gauge theories through the phenomenological point of view, often a collective one. Their synthetic method involves fibre bundles and connections, path integrals as well as other hypothetical structures. They lead towards clarity, completeness and adaptability

  11. Quantum size effects in Pb layers with absorbed Kondo adatoms: Determination of the exchange coupling constant

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-07-01

    We consider the magnetic interaction of manganese phtalocyanine (MnPc) absorbed on Pb layers that were grown on a Si substrate. We perform an ab initio calculation of the density of states and Kondo temperature as a function of the number of Pb monolayers. Comparison to experimental data [Y.-S. Fu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 256601 (2007)] then allows us to determine the exchange coupling constant J between the spins of the adsorbed molecules and those of the Pb host. This approach gives rise to a general and reliable method for obtaining J by combining experimental and numerical results.

  12. Adaptation of Kirkpatrick's Four Level Model of Training Criteria to Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Program Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslova, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of educational effectiveness provides vitally important feedback to Institutions of Higher Education. It also provides important information to external stakeholders, such as prospective students, parents, governmental and local regulatory entities, professional and regional accrediting organizations, and representatives of the…

  13. Reduction of Kondo lattice effects in Yb1-xLuxAl3 observed by soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, J; Sekiyama, A; Imada, S; Yamasaki, A; Tsunekawa, M; Muro, T; Ebihara, T; Onuki, Y; Suga, S

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out the bulk-sensitive and high-resolution soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on Lu substituted intermediate-valence compound Yb 1-x Lu x Al 3 (x = 0.4) at temperatures from 200 to 20 K. The temperature dependences of the bulk Yb 4f photoelectron spectra revealed in our preceding works on high purity YbAl 3 have not been observed in this Lu substituted system. The temperature dependences of the bulk Yb 4f peak positions and the Yb valence in this system can be well reproduced by the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM), whereas the spectral behaviors in YbAl 3 were not at all reproduced by the SIAM. These results confirm the importance of the Kondo lattice effects for YbAl 3 , for which the coherent lattice periodicity plays essential roles

  14. Nonlinear Absorption-Gain Response and Population Dynamics in a Laser-Driven Four-Level Dense Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Luo Jinming; Xie Xiaotao

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the response of nonlinear absorption and population dynamics in optically dense media of four-level atoms driven by a single-mode probe laser, via taking the density-dependent near dipole-dipole (NDD) interactions into consideration. The influence of the NDD effects on the absorption of the probe field and population dynamics is predicted via numerical calculations. It is shown that the NDD effects can reduce gradually to transient absorption with the increase of the strengths of the NDD interactions, and transient amplification can be achieved. In the steady-state limit, the probe field exhibits transparency for strong NDD interactions. Alternatively, the population entirely remains at the ground state due to the NDD effects.

  15. Study on the capability of four-level partial response equalization in RSOA-based WDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Tran, An Vu

    2010-12-01

    The expected development of advanced video services with HDTV quality demands the delivery of more than Gb/s link to end users across the last mile connection. Future access networks are also required to have long reach for reduction in the number of central offices (CO). Fueled by those requirements, we propose a novel equalization scheme that increases the capacity and reach of the wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) based on a low bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). We investigate the characteristics of 10 Gb/s upstream transmission in WDM-PON using RSOA with only 1.2 GHz electrical bandwidth and various lengths of fiber. It is proven that the proposed four-level partial response equalizer (PRE) is capable of mitigating the impact of ISI in the received signals from optical network units (ONU) located 0 km to 75 km away from the optical line terminal (OLT).

  16. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Jiahua; Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2012-05-01

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission.

  17. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@gmail.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia_li@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-05-21

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  18. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Jiahua; Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  19. Optical polarization modulation by competing atomic coherence effects in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jong; Park, Chang Yong; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of optical polarization modulation of a linearly polarized infrared probe field is studied in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system. We have observed an anomalous transmission spectra of two circular polarization components of the probe field exhibiting an enhanced two-photon absorption and a three-photon gain with comparable magnitude, leading to the lossless transmission and enhanced circular dichroism. We carried out a proof-of-principle experiment of fast optical polarization modulation in such a system by modulating the polarization state of the coupling field. The observed enhanced two-photon absorption and three-photon gain of the probe field are due to the result of competing atomic coherence effects

  20. Influence of nonmagnetic disorder on specific heat and electrical resistivity in Kondo lattice system CePd{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnida, D., E-mail: d.gnida@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Dominyuk, N.; Zaremba, V. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mephodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Interplay of Kondo and RKKY interactions in the presence of nonmagnetic disorder. • Suppression of the coherent Kondo state by nonmagnetic impurities. • Observation of quantum interference phenomena in Ce-based Kondo system. • Coexistence of incoherent Kondo effect and Altshuler-Aronov quantum correction. - Abstract: The alloy system CePd{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}In with 0.1⩽x⩽0.4 was investigated by means of heat capacity and electrical resistivity measurements. Its low-temperature behavior has been found to be governed by the interplay of Kondo effect and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions in the presence of atomic disorder in nonmagnetic atoms sublattice. The coherent Kondo state, observed for CePdIn, gradually vanishes with increasing the Ge-content. The incoherent Kondo state, which characterizes Ge-rich alloys, appears very sensitive to applied magnetic field. The observed systematic changes in the temperature- and field-dependent electrical transport in CePd{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x}In manifest the important role of quantum correction due to electron-electron interactions in weakly localized regime.

  1. Interplay between surface and bulk states in the Topological Kondo Insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sangram; Hatnean, Monica Ciomaga; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Bid, Aveek

    Kondo insulator SmB6 is predicted to have topologically protected conducting surface states(TSS). We have studied electrical transport through surface states(SS) at ultra-low temperatures in single crystals of SmB6 using local-nonlocal transport scheme and found a large nonlocal signal at temperatures lower than bulk Kondo gap scale. Using resistance fluctuation spectroscopy, we probed the local and nonlocal transport channels and showed that at low temperatures, transport in this system takes place only through SS. The measured noise in this temperature range arises due to Universal Conductance Fluctuations whose statistics was found to be consistent with theoretical predictions for that of 2D systems in the Symplectic symmetry class. We studied the temperature dependence of noise and found that, unlike the topological insulators of the dichalcogenide family, the noise in surface and bulk conduction channels in SmB6 are uncorrelated - at sufficiently low temperatures, the bulk has no discernible contribution to electrical transport in SmB6 making it an ideal platform for probing the physics of TSS. Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Indian Institute of Scienc and EPSRC, UK, Grant EP/L014963/1.

  2. Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F

    2008-01-01

    We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased

  3. Kondo Effect of U Impurities in Dilute (YU)2Zn17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Anzai, Kousuke

    2001-10-01

    Extending previous work on single-site properties of U ions in (LaU)2Zn17, we have investigated, from ρ(T), χ(T) and Cp(T) on single crystals, (Y1-xUx)2Zn17 with x=0.025 and 0.050, which has almost the same unit-cell volume as an antiferromagnetic heavy-electron compound U2Zn17. Remarkable features in the dilute-impurity limit have been clarified, which include Kondo behavior of ρ(T), large and almost isotropic χimp(T), and strongly enhanced Cimp(T)/T with gigantic γimp=2.02 2.05 J/K2·mole-U as T→0 due to a low characteristic energy-scale of the system. It is shown that gross features of the data are explained in terms of the conventional Kondo effect in the presence of the crystal field with the U3+ \\varGamma6 doublet ground state. It is also shown that the variation of γ with the unit-cell volume in related systems is not explained as a volume effect on TK and that even the behavior of fictitious “paramagnetic” U2Zn17 is not described as a collection of U impurities in dilute (YU)2Zn17.

  4. Valence skipping driven superconductivity and charge Kondo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi; Hase, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Valence skipping in metallic compounds can give rise to an unconventional superconductivity. •Several elements in the periodic table show valence skipping (or valence missing), for example, Bi forms the compounds in valence states +3 and +5. •The doping of valence skipping elements will induce superconductivity and this will lead to a possibility of high temperature superconductivity. •We consider the Wolf model with negative-U impurities, and show a phase diagram including superconducting phase. •There is a high temperature region near the boundary. -- Abstract: Valence skipping in metallic compounds can give rise to an unconventional superconductivity. Several elements in the periodic table show valence skipping (or valence missing), for example, Bi forms the compounds in valence states +3 and +5. The doping of valence skipping elements will induce superconductivity and this will lead to a possibility of high temperature superconductivity. We consider the Wolf model with negative-U impurities, and show a phase diagram including superconducting phase. The superconducting state is changed into a metallic state with a local singlet as the attractive interaction |U| increases. There is a high temperature region near the boundary

  5. Neutron diffraction study of dense-Kondo compound CeNi2Al5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Givord, F.; Boucherie, J.X.; Flouquet, J.; Isikawa, Y.; Mizushima, T.; Sakurai, J.; Mori, K.; Oliveira, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic CeNi 2 Al 5 is a dense-Kondo compound with a magnetic transition temperature at 2.6 K. We have carried out a neutron diffraction measurement to study a magnetic structure of CeNi 2 Al 5 using a powder sample and a single crystalline sample. It is found that the magnetic structure is an incommensurate sinusoidal one with a propagation vector k = (0.5, 0.405, 0.083) and that the amplitude of magnetic moment is 1.54 μ Β and the direction of magnetic moment is declined 8 deg. from the b-axis toward the a-axis. (authors). 3 refs., 2 figs

  6. Landau quantization and spin-momentum locking in topological Kondo insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlottmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a strong topological Kondo insulator and experimentally it has been confirmed that at low temperatures the electrical conductivity only takes place at the surfaces of the crystal. Quantum oscillations and ARPES measurements revealed several Dirac cones on the (001 and (101 surfaces of the crystal. We considered three types of surface Dirac cones with an additional parabolic dispersion and studied their Landau quantization and the expectation value of the spin of the electrons. The Landau quantization is quite similar in all three cases and would give rise to very similar de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The spin-momentum locking, on the other hand, differs dramatically. Without the additional parabolic dispersion the spins are locked in the plane of the surface. The parabolic dispersion, however, produces a gradual canting of the spins out of the surface plane.

  7. Transport properties of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the irradiation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guo-Bao; Yang Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study transport properties of the X point in the Brillouin zone of the topological Kondo insulator SmB 6 under the application of a circularly polarized light. The transport properties at high-frequency regime and low-frequency regime as a function of the ratio ( κ ) of the Dresselhaus-like and Rashba-like spin–orbit parameter are studied based on the Floquet theory and Boltzmann equation respectively. The sign of Hall conductivity at high-frequency regime can be reversed by the ratio κ and the amplitude of the light. The amplitude of the current can be enhanced by the ratio κ . Our findings provide a way to control the transport properties of the Dirac materials at low-frequency regime. (paper)

  8. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, A.; Flouquet, J.; Palleau, J.; Buevoz, J.L.

    1979-08-01

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al 3 Ce and Al 11 Ce 3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al 3 Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al 3 Ce. For Al 11 Ce 3 , two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  9. Analytical determination of Kondo and Fano resonances of electron Green's function in a single-level quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Bich Ha; Nguyen Van Hop

    2009-01-01

    The Kondo and Fano resonances in the two-point Green's function of the single-level quantum dot were found and investigated in many previous works by means of different numerical calculation methods. In this work we present the derivation of the analytical expressions of resonance terms in the expression of the two-point Green's function. For that purpose the system of Dyson equations for the two-point nonequilibrium Green's functions in the complex-time Keldysh formalism was established in the second order with respect to the tunneling coupling constants and the mean field approximation. This system of Dyson equations was solved exactly and the analytical expressions of the resonance terms are derived. The conditions for the existence of Kondo or Fano resonances are found.

  10. Transient dynamics of a quantum-dot: From Kondo regime to mixed valence and to empty orbital regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, YongXi; Li, ZhenHua; Wei, JianHua; Nie, YiHang; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    Based on the hierarchical equations of motion approach, we study the time-dependent transport properties of a strongly correlated quantum dot system in the Kondo regime (KR), mixed valence regime (MVR), and empty orbital regime (EOR). We find that the transient current in KR shows the strongest nonlinear response and the most distinct oscillation behaviors. Both behaviors become weaker in MVR and diminish in EOR. To understand the physical insight, we examine also the corresponding dot occupancies and the spectral functions, with their dependence on the Coulomb interaction, temperature, and applied step bias voltage. The above nonlinear and oscillation behaviors could be understood as the interplay between dynamical Kondo resonance and single electron resonant-tunneling.

  11. Anomalous Kondo-Switching Effect of a Spin-Flip Quantum Dot Embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiongwen; Shi Zhengang; Song Kehui

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the Kondo effect of a quantum dot embedded in a mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring in the presence of the spin flip processes by means of the one-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian. Based on the slave-boson mean-field theory, we find that in this system the persistent current (PC) sensitively depends on the parity and size of the AB ring and can be tuned by the spin-flip scattering (R). In the small AB ring, the PC is suppressed due to the enhancing R weakening the Kondo resonance. On the contrary, in the large AB ring, with R increasing, the peak of PC firstly moves up to max-peak and then down. Especially, the PC phase shift of π appears suddenly with the proper value of R, implying the existence of the anomalous Kondo effect in this system. Thus this system may be a candidate for quantum switch. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. First-Order 0-π Quantum Phase Transition in the Kondo Regime of a Superconducting Carbon-Nanotube Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Maurand

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study a carbon-nanotube quantum dot embedded in a superconducting-quantum-interference-device loop in order to investigate the competition of strong electron correlations with a proximity effect. Depending on whether local pairing or local magnetism prevails, a superconducting quantum dot will exhibit a positive or a negative supercurrent, referred to as a 0 or π Josephson junction, respectively. In the regime of a strong Coulomb blockade, the 0-to-π transition is typically controlled by a change in the discrete charge state of the dot, from even to odd. In contrast, at a larger tunneling amplitude, the Kondo effect develops for an odd-charge (magnetic dot in the normal state, and quenches magnetism. In this situation, we find that a first-order 0-to-π quantum phase transition can be triggered at a fixed valence when superconductivity is brought in, due to the competition of the superconducting gap and the Kondo temperature. The superconducting-quantum-interference-device geometry together with the tunability of our device allows the exploration of the associated phase diagram predicted by recent theories. We also report on the observation of anharmonic behavior of the current-phase relation in the transition regime, which we associate with the two accessible superconducting states. Our results finally demonstrate that the spin-singlet nature of the Kondo state helps to enhance the stability of the 0 phase far from the mixed-valence regime in odd-charge superconducting quantum dots.

  13. The Interaction of a N-Type Four Level Atom with the Electromagnetic Field for a Kerr Medium Induced Intensity-Dependent Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anas; Yevick, David

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of a N-type four-level atom with a single field in the presence of an intensity-dependent coupling in a nonlinear Kerr medium is investigated. The exact analytic solution is obtained in the case that the atom and electromagnetic field are initially in a higher excited state and a coherent state, respectively. It is then demonstrated that effects such as nonclassical light generation, degree of entanglement stabilization, Kerr medium nonclassical control, and squeezed light are can be more efficiently implemented within this four-level framework than in many competing procedures. Additionally, inversion, linear entropy, Mandel Q-parameter and normal squeezing dynamics are examined.

  14. Transport, Thermal, and Magnetic Properties of YbNi3X9 (X = Al, Ga): A Newly Synthesized Yb-Based Kondo Lattice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tetsuro; Miyazaki, Ryoichi; Aoki, Yuji; Ohara, Shigeo

    2012-03-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing a new Yb-based Kondo lattice system, YbNi3X9 (X = Al, Ga). Our study reveals that YbNi3Al9 shows typical features of a heavy-fermion antiferromagnet with a Néel temperature of TN = 3.4 K. All of the properties reflect a competition between the Kondo effect and the crystalline electric field (CEF) effect. The moderate heavy-fermion state leads to an enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient of 100 mJ/(mol\\cdotK2), even if ordered antiferromagnetically. On the other hand, the isostructural gallide YbNi3Ga9 is an intermediate-valence system with a Kondo temperature of TK = 570 K. A large hybridization scale can overcome the CEF splitting energy, and a moderately heavy Fermi-liquid ground state with high local moment degeneracy should form at low temperatures. Note that the quality of single-crystalline YbNi3X9 is extremely high compared with those of other Yb-based Kondo lattice compounds. We conclude that YbNi3X9 is a suitable system for investigating the electronic structure of Yb-based Kondo lattice systems from a heavy-fermion system with an antiferromagnetically ordered ground state to an intermediate-valence system.

  15. Electrical resistivity of the Kondo system Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Pt{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziane, K.; Du Plessis, P. de V [f-Electron Magnetism and Heavy-Fermion Physics Programme, Department of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, PO Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1999-04-19

    The electrical resistivities of the Kondo system Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Pt{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) are reported. It is observed that the resistivities of the alloy samples are reduced considerably as a result of annealing the samples. The results furthermore indicate the evolution from dense Kondo behaviour to single-ion incoherent Kondo scattering as x is increased. The resistivity in the dense Kondo regime shows a maximum which drops from T{sub max}=62 K for CePt{sub 2}Si{sub 2} to T{sub max}=36 K for x=0.2. Using the relationship T{sub max} {proportional_to} T{sub K} {proportional_to} exp(-1/JN(E{sub F})) where T{sub K} is the Kondo temperature, J is the exchange integral and N(E{sub F}) is the density of states at the Fermi level E{sub F}, and the experimentally observed values of T{sub max}(X) leads to vertical bar JN(E{sub F})vertical bar {sub 0} = 0.0645 {+-} 0.0004. (author)

  16. Magnetic Doping and Kondo Effect in Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Judy J.; Williams, James R.; Kong, Desheng; Meister, Stefan; Peng, Hailin; Bestwick, Andrew J.; Gallagher, Patrick; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    A simple surface band structure and a large bulk band gap have allowed Bi2Se3 to become a reference material for the newly discovered three-dimensional topological insulators, which exhibit topologically protected conducting surface states that reside inside the bulk band gap. Studying topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 in nanostructures is advantageous because of the high surfaceto-volume ratio, which enhances effects from the surface states; recently reported Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in topological insulator nanoribbons by some of us is a good example. Theoretically, introducing magnetic impurities in topological insulators is predicted to open a small gap in the surface states by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Here, we present synthesis of magnetically doped Bi 2Se3 nanoribbons by vapor-liquid-solid growth using magnetic metal thin films as catalysts. Although the doping concentration is less than ∼2 %. low-temperature transport measurements of the Fe-doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbon devices show a clear Kondo effect at temperatures below 30 K, confirming the presence of magnetic impurities in the Bi2Se3 nanoribbons. The capability to dope topological insulator nanostructures magnetically opens up exciting opportunities for spintronics. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. NMR of Cu satellites in the Kondo alloy CuCr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, L.J.; Follstaedt, D.; Narath, A.

    1978-01-01

    Using pulsed NMR techniques, resonances of Cu nuclei which are near neighbors to Cr impurities (c = 100 and 200 ppM) in CuCr (theta/sub k/ approx. 3K) have been studied in the temperature range 1 to 4K and applied fields H 0 = 20 to 125 kOe. At the highest fields and lowest temperatures the satellite shifts approach saturation. Above approx. 40 kOe the spin-lattice relaxation rate T 1 -1 is proportional to T/H 0 2 , indicating that the dominant relaxation mechanism arises from transverse fluctuations of a polarized local moment. The measured rates yield a local-moment/conduction-electron exchange interaction vertical bar J 0 vertical bar/g = 0.30, where g is the Cr g-value. Below approx. 40 kOe T 1 -1 appears to be slightly enhanced in comparison with the high-field behavior, but becomes field independent below approx. 30 kOe. Both effects are attributed to Kondo anomalies

  18. Competition between heavy fermion and Kondo interaction in isoelectronic A-site-ordered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, D.; Middey, S.; Cheng, J. -G.; Mukherjee, Swarnakamal; Gray, B. A.; Cao, Yanwei; Zhou, J. -S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Choi, Yongseong; Haskel, D.; Freeland, J. W.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Chakhalian, J.

    2014-12-17

    With current research efforts shifting towards the 4d and 5d transition metal oxides, understanding the evolution of the electronic and magnetic structure as one moves away from 3d materials is of critical importance. Here we perform X-ray spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations on A-site-ordered perovskites with Cu in the A-site and the B-sites descending along the ninth group of the periodic table to elucidate the emerging properties as d-orbitals change from partially filled 3d to 4d to 5d. The results show that when descending from Co to Ir, the charge transfers from the cuprate-like Zhang-Rice state on Cu to the t2g orbital of the B site. As the Cu d-orbital occupation approaches the Cu2þ limit, a mixed valence state in CaCu3Rh4O12 and heavy fermion state in CaCu3Ir4O12 are obtained. The investigated d-electron compounds are mapped onto the Doniach phase diagram of the competing RKKY and Kondo interactions developed for the f-electron systems.

  19. Effects of magnetic field on the pseudogap in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, S.; Kindo, K.; Sasakawa, T.; Suemitsu, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization and magnetoresistance of single-crystalline CeRhAs, which is the so-called Kondo semiconductor with an energygap of ∼280 K, have been measured in pulsed magnetic field up to 55 T. At 1.3 K, the slopes of the magnetization M for H parallel b and H parallel c decrease slightly at around 16 and 13 T, respectively, while M(H parallel a) shows monotonous dependence. Weak anisotropy is observed on the whole, M b (H)>M c (H)>M a (H). M b (H) reaches only to 0.07 μ B /f.u. at 55 T, which indicates the non-magnetic state being stable even in the high magnetic field. Strongly anisotropic behaviors are observed in the magnetoresistance. The longitudinal magnetoresistance (LMR) along the b- and c-axis show characteristic structures partly associated with the anomalies of the magnetizations, while the LMR along the a-axis shows only a broad maximum. The transverse magnetoresistances (TMR) for I parallel b and I parallel c follow the relation Δρ(H)/ρ(0)∝H α (α=1.5-1.7) below 5 T, whereas TMR for I parallel a exhibits only the weak field dependence. These results suggest the existence of a narrow and anisotropic structure within the wide pseudogap structure in the density of states

  20. Magnetic Doping and Kondo Effect in Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Judy J.

    2010-03-10

    A simple surface band structure and a large bulk band gap have allowed Bi2Se3 to become a reference material for the newly discovered three-dimensional topological insulators, which exhibit topologically protected conducting surface states that reside inside the bulk band gap. Studying topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 in nanostructures is advantageous because of the high surfaceto-volume ratio, which enhances effects from the surface states; recently reported Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in topological insulator nanoribbons by some of us is a good example. Theoretically, introducing magnetic impurities in topological insulators is predicted to open a small gap in the surface states by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Here, we present synthesis of magnetically doped Bi 2Se3 nanoribbons by vapor-liquid-solid growth using magnetic metal thin films as catalysts. Although the doping concentration is less than ∼2 %. low-temperature transport measurements of the Fe-doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbon devices show a clear Kondo effect at temperatures below 30 K, confirming the presence of magnetic impurities in the Bi2Se3 nanoribbons. The capability to dope topological insulator nanostructures magnetically opens up exciting opportunities for spintronics. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Enhancing the nonlinear thermoelectric response of a correlated quantum dot in the Kondo regime by asymmetrical coupling to the leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Daroca, Diego; Roura-Bas, Pablo; Aligia, Armando A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the low-temperature properties of the differential response of the current to a temperature gradient at finite voltage in a single-level quantum dot including electron-electron interaction, nonsymmetric couplings to the leads, and nonlinear effects. The calculated response is significantly enhanced in setups with large asymmetries between the tunnel couplings. In the investigated range of voltages and temperatures with corresponding energies up to several times the Kondo energy scale, the maximum response is enhanced nearly an order of magnitude with respect to symmetric coupling to the leads.

  2. Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shiqi; Gong Shangqing; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2004-01-01

    Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via a technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in an excited-doublet four-level atomic system have been analyzed. It is shown that the behavior of adiabatic passage in this system depends crucially on the detunings between the laser frequencies and the corresponding atomic transition frequencies. Particularly, if both the fields are tuned to the center of the two upper levels, the four-level system has two degenerate dark states, although one of them contains the contribution from the excited atomic states. The nonadiabatic coupling of the two degenerate dark states is intrinsic, it originates from the energy difference of the two upper levels. An arbitrary superposition of atomic states can be prepared due to such nonadiabatic coupling effect

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of Dirac fermions, Bi-Sb alloys, interacting Bloch fermions, dilute nonmagnetic alloys, and Kondo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buot, Felix A., E-mail: fbuot@gmu.edu [Computational Materials Science Center, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); TCSE Center, Spintronics Group, Physics Department, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu 6000 (Philippines); C& LB Research Institute, Carmen, Cebu 6005 (Philippines); Otadoy, Roland E.S.; Rivero, Karla B. [TCSE Center, Spintronics Group, Physics Department, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu 6000 (Philippines)

    2017-03-01

    Wide ranging interest in Dirac Hamiltonian is due to the emergence of novel materials, namely, graphene, topological insulators and superconductors, the newly-discovered Weyl semimetals, and still actively-sought after Majorana fermions in real materials. We give a brief review of the relativistic Dirac quantum mechanics and its impact in the developments of modern physics. The quantum band dynamics of Dirac Hamiltonian is crucial in resolving the giant diamagnetism of bismuth and Bi-Sb alloys. Quantitative agreement of the theory with the experiments on Bi-Sb alloys has been achieved, and physically meaningful contributions to the diamagnetism has been identified. We also treat relativistic Dirac fermion as an interband dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. For the interacting Bloch electrons, the role of translation symmetry for calculating the magnetic susceptibility avoids any approximation to second order in the field. The expressions for magnetic susceptibility of dilute nonmagnetic alloys give a firm theoretical foundation of the empirical formulas used in fitting experimental results. The unified treatment of all the above calculations is based on the lattice Weyl-Wigner formulation of discrete phase-space quantum mechanics. For completeness, the magnetic susceptibility of Kondo alloys is also given since Dirac fermions in conduction band and magnetic impurities exhibit Kondo effect.

  4. Tunneling observation at very low temperature of impurity bands within the gap of the Kondo superconducting system CuFe/Pb(T(K)>T(c))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Louis; Le Fur, Daniel

    1976-01-01

    Very low temperature superconducting tunneling experiments on CuFe(12.10 -6 ) backed by superconducting lead show a band of localized states next to the gap edge. There is no quantitative agreement with the perturbative approach of Mueller-Hartmann Zittartz in this system where the Kondo temperature is larger than the superconductive T(c) [fr

  5. Magnetic and transport properties of CePt.sub.3./sub.Ge Kondo lattice in crystallineand sub-micron state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poltierová Vejpravová, Jana; Prokleška, J.; Pospíšil, J.; Kitazawa, H.; Goncalves, A.P.; Komatsubara, T.; Ritter, C.; Isnard, O.; Sechovský, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 520, Apr (2012), s. 22-29 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : CePt 3 Ge * Kondo lattice * short-range magnetic order * size effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2012

  6. Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hayato; Ichimura, Kouichi

    2007-01-01

    Coherent population transfer in a laser-driven four-level system in a tripod configuration is experimentally investigated with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal (Pr 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 ). The population transfers observed here indicate that a main process inducing them is not optical pumping, which is an incoherent process inducing population transfer. Moreover, numerical simulation, which well reproduces the experimental results, also shows that the process inducing the observed population transfers is similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) in the sense that this process possesses characteristic features of STIRAP

  7. Induced dual EIT and EIA resonances with optical trapping phenomenon in near/far fields in the N-type four-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kariman I.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2017-01-01

    The optical trapping phenomenon is investigated in the probe absorptive susceptibility spectra, during the interaction of four-level N-type atomic system with three transverse Gaussian fields, in a Doppler broadened medium. The system was studied under different temperature settings of 87Rb atomic vapor as well as different non-radiative decay rate. The system exhibits a combination of dual electromagnetically induced transparency with electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) or transparency (EIT) resonances simultaneously in near/far field. Also, the optical trapping phenomenon is considerably affected by the non-radiative decay rate.

  8. From Kondo model and strong coupling lattice QCD to the Isgur-Wise function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Apoorva

    1995-01-01

    Isgur-Wise functions parametrise the leading behaviour of weak decay form factors of mesons and baryons containing a single heavy quark. The form factors for the quark mass operator are calculated in strong coupling lattice QCD, and Isgur-Wise functions extracted from them. Based on renormalisation group invariance of the operators involved, it is argued that the Isgur-Wise functions would be the same in the weak coupling continuum theory. (author)

  9. 09 September 2013 - Japanese Members of Internal Affairs and Communications Committee House of Representatives visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton. T. Kondo and K. Yoshida present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    09 September 2013 - Japanese Members of Internal Affairs and Communications Committee House of Representatives visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton. T. Kondo and K. Yoshida present.

  10. Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) representative H. Ikukawa visiting ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, KEK representative T. Kondo and Advisor to CERN DG J. Ellis on 15 May 2007.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) representative H. Ikukawa visiting ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, KEK representative T. Kondo and Advisor to CERN DG J. Ellis on 15 May 2007.

  11. Enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding for four-level holographic data storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2017-09-01

    An enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding is proposed for four-level holographic data storage systems. While the previous four-ary modulation codes focus on preventing maximum two-dimensional intersymbol interference patterns, the proposed four-ary modulation code aims at maximizing the coding gains for better bit error rate performances. For achieving significant coding gains from the four-ary modulation codes, we design a new 2/3 four-ary modulation code in order to enlarge the free distance on the trellis through extensive simulation. The free distance of the proposed four-ary modulation code is extended from 1.21 to 2.04 compared with that of the conventional four-ary modulation code. The simulation result shows that the proposed four-ary modulation code has more than 1 dB gains compared with the conventional four-ary modulation code.

  12. Linear entropy and collapse–revival phenomenon for a general formalism N-type four-level atom interacting with a single-mode field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eied, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the linear entropy and collapse-revival phenomenon through the relation ( -{\\bar{n}}) in a system of N-configuration four-level atom interacting with a single-mode field with additional forms of nonlinearities of both the field and the intensity-dependent atom-field coupling functional are investigated. A factorization of the initial density operator is assumed, considering the field to be initially in a squeezed coherent states and the atom initially in its most upper excited state. The dynamical behavior of the linear entropy and the time evolution of ( -{\\bar{n}}) are analyzed. In particular, the effects of the mean photon number, detuning, Kerr-like medium and the intensity-dependent coupling functional on the entropy and the evolution of ( -{\\bar{n}}) are examined.

  13. Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light beams from a cavity with a four-level Raman gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate spatial and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts (both negative and positive) in the reflected light for a partial coherent light incident on a cavity. A four-level Raman gain atomic medium is considered in a cavity. The effects of spatial coherence, beam width, and mode index of partial coherent light fields on spatial and angular GH shifts are studied. Our results reveal that a large magnitude of negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light is achievable with the introduction of partial coherent light fields. Furthermore, the amplitude of spatial (negative and positive) GH shifts are sharply affected by the partial coherent light beam as compared to angular (negative and positive) GH shifts in the reflected light.

  14. Control of one- and two-photon absorption in a four-level atomic system by changing the amplitude and phase of a driving microwave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, B P; Wang, S J; Yu, W L; Sun, W L

    2005-01-01

    We consider the one- and two-photon absorption spectra of a four-level Y-type atom with the two highest lying levels driven by a microwave field. We found that in the one-photon absorption case, the microwave field can lead to the probe gain, and the absorption and gain spectral structures depend strongly on the microwave field amplitude. For the two-photon absorption case, the strong microwave field can enhance the absorption. When the microwave field amplitude is reduced to a certain value, the single absorption peak in the two-photon spectrum changes into a structure of two-peak structure with different magnitudes. Moreover, the one- and two-photon absorption spectra can be modulated by the phase of the microwave field which produces a closed-loop configuration. Finally, we use the analytic solutions in terms of dressed-state basis to explain the results from our numerical calculation

  15. Proposal for efficient two-dimensional atom localization using probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao; Zhang Duo

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.

  16. Crystal structure and anisotropic magnetic properties of new ferromagnetic Kondo lattice compound Ce(Cu,Al,Si){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S.K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Provino, A.; Pani, M.; Costa, G.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Institute SPIN-CNR, Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Single crystals of the new compound CeCu{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.24}Si{sub 1.58} have been grown by high-temperature solution growth method using a eutectic Al-Si mixture as flux. This compound is derived from the binary CeSi{sub 2} (tetragonal α-ThSi{sub 2}-type, Pearson symbol tI12, space group I4{sub 1}/amd) obtained by partial substitution of Si by Cu and Al atoms but showing full occupation of the Si crystal site (8e). While CeSi{sub 2} is a well-known valence-fluctuating paramagnetic compound, the CeCu{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.24}Si{sub 1.58} phase orders ferromagnetically at T{sub C}=9.3 K. At low temperatures the easy-axis of magnetization is along the a-axis, which re-orients itself along the c-axis above 30 K. The presence of hysteresis in the magnetization curve, negative temperature coefficient of resistivity at high temperatures, reduced jump in the heat capacity and a relatively lower entropy released up to the ordering temperature, and enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient (≈100 mJ/mol K{sup 2}) show that CeCu{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.24}Si{sub 1.58} is a Kondo lattice ferromagnetic, moderate heavy fermion compound. Analysis of the high temperature heat capacity data in the paramagnetic region lets us infer that the crystal electric field split doublet levels are located at 178 and 357 K, respectively, and Kondo temperature (8.4 K) is of the order of T{sub C} in CeCu{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.24}Si{sub 1.58}.

  17. Topological Properties and the Dynamical Crossover from Mixed-Valence to Kondo-Lattice Behavior in the Golden Phase of SmS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Jong; Choi, Hong Chul; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B I

    2015-04-24

    We have investigated temperature-dependent behaviors of electronic structure and resistivity in a mixed-valent golden phase of SmS, based on the dynamical mean-field-theory band-structure calculations. Upon cooling, the coherent Sm 4f bands are formed to produce the hybridization-induced pseudogap near the Fermi level, and accordingly the topology of the Fermi surface is changed to exhibit a Lifshitz-like transition. The surface states emerging in the bulk gap region are found to be not topologically protected states but just typical Rashba spin-polarized states, indicating that SmS is not a topological Kondo semimetal. From the analysis of anomalous resistivity behavior in SmS, we have identified universal energy scales, which characterize the Kondo-mixed-valent semimetallic systems.

  18. Spin-orbit interaction and Kondo scattering at the PrAlO3/SrTiO3 interface: effects of oxygen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shirin; Guchhait, Samaresh; Markert, John T.

    2017-10-01

    We report the effects of oxygen pressure during growth (PO2 ) on the electronic and magnetic properties of PrAlO3 films grown on TiO2 -terminated SrTiO3 substrates. Resistivity measurements show an increase in the sheet resistance as PO2 is increased. The saturation of the sheet resistance down to 0.3 K is consistent with Kondo theory for PO2 ≥slant 10-5 torr. Resistivity data fits indicate Kondo temperatures of 16-18 K. For the 10-4 sample, we measured a moderate positive magnetoresistance (MR) due to a strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction at low magnetic fields that evolves into a larger negative MR at high fields due to the Kondo effect. Analysis of the MR data permitted the extraction of the SO interaction critical field for the PO2=10-5 torr interface ( H_SO=1.25 T). We observed high positive MR for the least oxygenated sample, where a fraction of the n-type carriers are derived from oxygen vacancies and possible cation interdiffusion; for this 6×10-6 torr sample, Hall effect data indicate a thick conducting layer. Its extremely high MR (˜400% ) is attributed to classical behavior due to a distribution of mobilities.

  19. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T.B.K.; Thomas, Alex D.; Stamatis, Dimitri; Bertsch, Jon; Isbandi, Michelle; Jansson, Jakob; Mallajosyula, Jyothi; Pagani, Ioanna; Lobos, Elizabeth A.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2015-01-01

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Here we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19 200 studies, 56 000 Biosamples, 56 000 sequencing projects and 39 400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards. PMID:25348402

  20. The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) v.5: a metadata management system based on a four level (meta)genome project classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Tatiparthi B. K. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Thomas, Alex D. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Stamatis, Dimitri [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Bertsch, Jon [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Isbandi, Michelle [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Jansson, Jakob [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mallajosyula, Jyothi [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Pagani, Ioanna [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lobos, Elizabeth A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos C. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-27

    The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD; http://www.genomesonline.org) is a comprehensive online resource to catalog and monitor genetic studies worldwide. GOLD provides up-to-date status on complete and ongoing sequencing projects along with a broad array of curated metadata. Within this paper, we report version 5 (v.5) of the database. The newly designed database schema and web user interface supports several new features including the implementation of a four level (meta)genome project classification system and a simplified intuitive web interface to access reports and launch search tools. The database currently hosts information for about 19 200 studies, 56 000 Biosamples, 56 000 sequencing projects and 39 400 analysis projects. More than just a catalog of worldwide genome projects, GOLD is a manually curated, quality-controlled metadata warehouse. The problems encountered in integrating disparate and varying quality data into GOLD are briefly highlighted. Lastly, GOLD fully supports and follows the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Minimum Information standards.

  1. High-precision two-dimensional atom localization from four-wave mixing in a double-Λ four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Tao; Yang, Wen-Xing; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Shaopeng; Li, Ling; Zhu, Zhonghu

    2018-03-01

    We propose a scheme for high-precision two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a four-level double-Λ atomic system. Due to the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the 2D position information of the atoms can be directly determined by the measurement of the normalized light intensity of output FWM-generated field. We further show that, when the position-dependent generated FWM field has become sufficiently intense, efficient back-coupling to the FWM generating state becomes important. This back-coupling pathway leads to competitive multiphoton destructive interference of the FWM generating state by three supplied and one internally generated fields. We find that the precision of 2D atom localization can be improved significantly by the multiphoton destructive interference and depends sensitively on the frequency detunings and the pump field intensity. Interestingly enough, we show that adjusting the frequency detunings and the pump field intensity can modify significantly the FWM efficiency, and consequently lead to a redistribution of the atoms. As a result, the atom can be localized in one of four quadrants with holding the precision of atom localization.

  2. Spin injection and inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of topological Kondo insulator SmB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi; Mi, Jian; Zhao, Dan; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xian Hui; Xie, X. C.; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin–momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the spin injection and observe the inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of a topological Kondo insulator, SmB6. At low temperatures when only surface carriers are present, a clear spin signal is observed. Furthermore, the magnetic field angle dependence of the spin signal is consistent with spin–momentum locking property of surface states of SmB6. PMID:27834378

  3. Study of the magnetic properties of the Ce{sub x} La{sub 1−x} Pt alloy system: Which interaction establishes ferromagnetism in Kondo systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Očko, M., E-mail: ocko@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička c 46, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička c. 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Zadro, K. [Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Drobac, Đ.; Aviani, I.; Salamon, K. [Institute of Physics, Bijenička c 46, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mixson, D.; Bauer, E.D.; Sarrao, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop K 764, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In order to study Kondo ferromagnetism, particularly of the CePt compound, we investigate the magnetic properties of the Ce{sub x}La{sub 1−x}Pt alloy system in the temperature range from 1.8 K to 320 K. The results of these investigations can be summarized as follows: dc-susceptibility can be described by the Curie–Weiss law at higher temperatures down to about 100 K, but also at the low temperatures above the phase transition. At higher temperatures, the extracted Curie–Weiss constant, θ{sub p}, is negative in contrast to the low temperatures, where θ{sub C} is positive. The extracted effective magnetic moment from the higher temperatures is the same for all the alloys and is close to the theoretical value of the isolated Ce{sup 3+} ion, μ=2.54 μ{sub B}, indicating the hybridization is weak and, and consequently, Kondo interaction is weak. These observations confirm the main important conclusions inferred from an earlier transport properties investigation of this alloy system. The Curie temperature extracted by various approaches was compared to the extraction from the ac-susceptibility measurements. We show that its concentration dependence is not consistent with Doniach's diagram. Hence, RKKY interaction is not responsible for the ferromagnetism in this alloy system. - Highlights: • We have found that for Ce{sub x}La{sub 1−x}Pt the temperature of the ferromagnetic transition linearly depends on x. • The Kondo temperature is independent of x. • Hence, RKKY interaction is not responsible for the ferromagnetism. • The lattice parameters show that direct exchange interaction is possible. • We expect that the investigations of Ce{sub x}Y{sub 1−x} will confirm our conclusions.

  4. Kondo effect and spin-glass freezing of the magnetic impurities Cr, Mn, and Fe in superconducting palladium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dongen, J.C.M.; van Dijk, D.; Mydosh, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Through low-field ac susceptibility measurements we have determined the depression of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ in palladium hydride (T/sub c/0 = 9.3 K) as a function of impurity concentration x for Cr, Mn, and Fe. For Cr and Fe similar values for the initial T/sub c/ depression were found, i.e., -150 K/at. % Cr and -145 K/at. % Fe. From resistivity experiments we are able to estimate the Kondo temperatures T/sub K/, i.e., T/sub K/approx. =10 K for Cr and T/sub K/approx. =5 K for Fe. Since i.e., T/sub K/approx. =10 K for Cr and T/sub K/approx. =5 K for Fe. Since systems exhibits an enhanced pair breaking as described by the theory of Mueller-Hartmann and Zittartz. In contrast, for Mn the initial T/sub c/ depression is -21 K/at. % and T/sub K/<< T/sub c/0, as can be concluded from our resistivity measurements. This means that Mn in PdH exhibits a temperature-independent pair breaking of the Abrikosov and Gor'kov type. However, at larger Mnx values a shoulder appears in T/sub c/(x). We interpret this enhanced superconductivity, according to the theory of Soukoulis and Grest, as being due to the onset of time correlations and short-range antiferromagnetic ordering between the Mn moments. These interaction effects are a precursor to the spin-glass freezing at a lower temperature T/sub f/. Our results suggest a favorable coexistance of superconductivity with the spin-glass state

  5. Leading temperature dependence of the conductance in Kondo-correlated quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligia, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Using renormalized perturbation theory in the Coulomb repulsion, we derive an analytical expression for the leading term in the temperature dependence of the conductance through a quantum dot described by the impurity Anderson model, in terms of the renormalized parameters of the model. Taking these parameters from the literature, we compare the results with published ones calculated using the numerical renormalization group obtaining a very good agreement. The approach is superior to alternative perturbative treatments. We compare in particular to the results of a simple interpolative perturbation approach.

  6. High-resolution photoemission study of Ce1-x La x RhAs: A collapse of the energy gap in the Kondo semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Higashiguchi, M.; Fujimori, S.-I.; Saitoh, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Sasakawa, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution resonance-photoemission spectroscopy has been performed on the Ce 1- x La x RhAs (0≤x≤0.05) single crystal to elucidate a collapse of the energy gap in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs by La substitution. With increasing x, the spectral intensity of the Ce4f 1 derived states near the Fermi level decreases and new 4f derived spectral feature appears at a higher binding energy. The Rh4d-derived states, on the other hand, are not significantly changed by the substitution. New 4f-derived states have incoherent nature, which is responsible for the collapse of the semiconducting state for x>∼0.02

  7. Four Levels of Moral Conflict in ISD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Tero

    This study introduces a literature-based classification of moral conflicts in information systems development (ISD). The classification describes what moral conflicts an IS professional confronts in ISD as a whole and includes intentional, functional, managerial, and societal levels. The internal structure of moral conflicts is exemplified by means of a philosophical and a business ethics theory. The limitations of the study are considered and practical implications for the teaching of computer ethics are discussed.

  8. Dynamics of carrions in the spin-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemskij, A.L.; Marvakov, D.

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum of hole quasiparticles (carrions) and the role of magnetic correlations has been considered in the framework of spin-fermion (Kondo-Heisenberg) model by means of the equation-of-motion method. The hole quasiparticle dynamics has been discussed for t-J model and compared with that of for spin-fermion model to determine how the one- and two-magnon processes define the true nature of carriers in HTSC. For this Kondo-Heisenberg-type model it was clearly pointed out on the self-energy level, beyond Hartree-Fock approximation, that two-magnon processes can play a role for the formation of the superconducting state. 60 refs

  9. The Kondo contribution to the electrical resistivity in UCu sub 5 sub - sub x Ni sub x and the non-Fermi liquid behaviour of UCu sub 4 Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, L D L; Ellerby, M; McEwen, K A

    2003-01-01

    We report on electrical resistivity measurements performed on polycrystalline samples of UCu sub 5 sub - sub x Ni sub x (x = 0.25, 1). In order to extract the Kondo contribution to the resistivity, the experiments were carried out over a wide temperature range (0.4-800 K). From the analysis of our results, we conclude that the Kondo temperature takes values of T sub K approx 240 K for x = 1 and T sub K approx 245 K for x = 0.25, and that for both Ni concentrations the dominant part of the remarkably high residual resistivity (rho(0) approx 400 mu OMEGA cm) corresponds to the Kondo contribution. These results are discussed in comparison with previous analysis of specific heat and magnetic susceptibility data that produced similar values of T sub K. We interpret our results in terms of disorder-driven non-Fermi liquid behaviour for UCu sub 4 Ni, as indicated by the anomalous temperature dependences of the electrical, thermal and magnetic properties previously observed in this compound.

  10. Asymptotically exact solution of the multi-channel resonant-level model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu.

    1994-01-01

    An asymptotically exact partition function of the multi-channel resonant-level model is obtained through Tomonaga-Luttinger bosonization. A Fermi-liquid vs. non-Fermi-liquid transition, resulting from a competition between the Kondo and X-ray edge physics, is elucidated explicitly via the renormalization group theory. In the strong-coupling limit, the model is renormalized to the Toulouse limit. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig

  11. Two-Channel Kondo Physics due to As Vacancies in the Layered Compound ZrAs1.58Se0.39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan; Cichorek, T.; Bochenek, L.; Schmidt, M.; Niewa, R.; Czuluccki, A.; Auffermann, G.; Steglich, F.; Kniep, R.

    We address the origin of the magnetic-field independent - | A | T 1 / 2 term observed in the low-temperature resistivity of several As-based metallic systems of the PbFCl structure type. For the layered compound ZrAs1.58Se0.39, we show that vacancies in the square nets of As give rise to the low-temperature transport anomaly over a wide temperature regime of almost two decades in temperature. This low-temperature behavior is in line with the non-magnetic version of the two-channel Kondo effect, whose origin we ascribe to a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect operating at the vacancy-carrying As layer with a C4 symmetry. The pair-breaking nature of the dynamical defects in the square nets of As explains the low superconducting transition temperature Tc 0 . 14 K of ZrAs1.58Se0.39, as compared to the free-of-vacancies homologue ZrP1.54S0.46 (Tc 3 . 7 K). Our findings should be relevant to a wide class of metals with disordered pnictogen layers.

  12. Magnetic properties of Ce{sup 3+} in Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Ce{sub x}Se: Kondo and crystal-field effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratens, X.; Charar, S.; Averous, M. [Groupe dEtude des Semiconducteurs URA 357, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Isber, S. [Department of Physic, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (CANADA); Deportes, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, Avenue des Martyres, BP 166X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Golacki, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pl. 02-668, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments were performed on a Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Ce{sub x}Se crystal at liquid-helium temperatures and show very clearly that the doublet {Gamma}{sub 7} is the ground state for cerium ions. The cubic symmetry is shown and the effective Land{acute e} factor for the Ce{sup 3+} is determined to be 1.354{plus_minus}0.003. An orbital reduction factor is introduced to explain the g experimental value. High-field magnetization results are in good agreement with the EPR results. The nominal Ce composition in PbSe deduced from saturation of the magnetization, x=0.0405{plus_minus}0.0003, is very closed to the value determined by microprobe analysis (x=0.04). At 1.5 K, an antiferromagnetic interaction between the nearest-neighbor cerium atoms is found, J{sub ex}/k{sub B}={minus}0.715thinspK. The low-field magnetic-susceptibility results show that the magnetic moment of cerium impurities is strongly temperature dependent, explained by the presence of the crystal-field effect and the Kondo effect. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. sup 7 sup 5 As NQR/NMR study of successive phase transitions and energy gap formation in Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, M; Takabatake, T; Tsuji, S; Tou, H; Sera, M

    2003-01-01

    sup 7 sup 5 As NQR/NMR studies were performed to investigate the successive phase transitions found recently, the gap formation and their interplay in a Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs. NQR/NMR spectra in their respective phases change, reflecting lattice modulation modes, q sub 1 = (0, 1/2, 1/2), q sub 2 = (0, 1/3, 1/3) and q sub 3 = (1/3, 0, 0). In particular for well-resolved three NQR lines corresponding to the q sub 3 mode in the lowest temperature phase, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (T sub 1 T) sup - sup 1 shows an activation type T-dependence, suggesting a gap opening over the entire Fermi surface, in contrast to the V-shaped gap in isostructural CeNiSn and CeRhSn. The evaluated gap of 272 K and the bandwidth of about 4000 K are one order of magnitude larger than those in CeNiSn and CeRhSb. A lattice modulation forms a gap different from the V-shaped gap. (author)

  14. Determinant method and quantum simulations of many-body effects in a single impurity Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.; Olson, T.; Scalapino, D.J.; Sugar, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A short description is presented of a quantum Monte Carlo technique, often referred to as the determinant method, that has proved useful for simulating many-body effects in systems of interacting fermions at finite temperatures. Preliminary results using this technique on a single impurity Anderson model are reported. Examples of such many-body effects as local moment formation, Kondo behavior, and mixed valence phenomena found in the simulations are shown. 10 refs., 3 figs

  15. Ground state and elementary excitations of a model valence-fluctuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandow, B.H.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the valence fluctuation problem is described, and motivations are given for an Anderson-lattice model Hamiltonian. A simple trial wave function is posed for the ground state, and the variational problem is solved. This demonstrates clearly that there is no Kondo-like divergence; the present concentrated Kondo problem is thus more simple mathematically than the sngle-impurity problem. Elementary excitations are studies by the Green's function techniques of Zubarev and Hubbard. Quenching of local moments and a large specific heat are found at low temperatures. The quasi-particle spectrum exhibits a gap, but epsilon/sub F/ does not lie in this gap. The insulation-like feature of SmB 6 , SmS, and TmSe at very low temperatures is explained in terms of a strongly reduced mobility for states near the gap, and reasons are given why this feature is not observed in other valence-fluctuation compounds. 73 references

  16. Orientation-dependent Kondo resonance of the Ni{sub 2}(hfaa){sub 4}(bpm) and Mn{sub 2}(hfaa){sub 4}(bpm) single molecular magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Schackert, Michael; Miyamachi, Toshio; Yamada, Toyokazu; Wulfhekel, Wulf [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (Germany); Schramm, Frank; Ruben, Mario [Institut of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Single molecular magnets (SMM) attract much interest due to their potential applications in spintronics. We investigated metal organic molecules based on (hfaa){sub 4}(bpm) containing two 3d ions (Ni or Mn) using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 1 K in ultra-high vacuum. In the bulk, the two metallic ions couple antiferromagnetically leading to an S=0 ground state. The Ni{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2} molecules were sublimed onto atomically clean Cu(100) surfaces resulting in two different absorptions configurations. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with a high energy resolution of 0.3 meV showed a strong Kondo resonance on the position of the metal ions inside the molecules indicating that the hybridization of the local spins with the substrate is more efficient than their antiferromagnetic coupling. The Fano resonance showed a pronounced dependence on the adsorption geometry indicating different Kondo temperatures and q-parameters. This is explained by a adsorption dependent hybridization between SMM and the substrate.

  17. 31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphaël Piguet

    2011-01-01

    31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

  18. 2nd September 2010 - Japanese Senior Vice-Minister of the Environment I. Tajima signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the ATLAS control room with physicists T. Kondo and H. Fukuda, Members of the ATLAS Collaboration and KEK.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    2nd September 2010 - Japanese Senior Vice-Minister of the Environment I. Tajima signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the ATLAS control room with physicists T. Kondo and H. Fukuda, Members of the ATLAS Collaboration and KEK.

  19. 30 August 2013 - Senior Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in Japan M. Matsuyama signing the guest book with CERN Director-General; visit the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with former ATLAS Japan national contact physicist T. Kondo. R. Voss and K. Yoshida present throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    30 August 2013 - Senior Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs in Japan M. Matsuyama signing the guest book with CERN Director-General; visit the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with former ATLAS Japan national contact physicist T. Kondo. R. Voss and K. Yoshida present throughout.

  20. 19 September 2011 - Japan Science and Technology Agency President K. Kitazawa visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with engineer M. Bajko; the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior Scientist T. Kondo; signing the guest book with Adviser R.Voss and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    19 September 2011 - Japan Science and Technology Agency President K. Kitazawa visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with engineer M. Bajko; the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior Scientist T. Kondo; signing the guest book with Adviser R.Voss and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  1. Non-Fermi liquid behaviour in an extended Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuliang; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu.

    1996-08-01

    An extended Anderson model, including screening channels (non-hybridizing, but interacting with the local orbit), is studied within the Anderson-Yuval approach, originally devised for the single-chanell Kondo problem. By comparing the perturbation expansions of this model and a generalized resonant level model, the spin-spin correlation functions are calculated which show non-Fermi liquid exponent depending on the strength of the scattering potential. The relevance of this result to experiments in some heavy fermion systems is briefly discussed. (author). 31 refs

  2. Quantum lattice model solver HΦ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Todo, Synge; Kawashima, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    HΦ [aitch-phi ] is a program package based on the Lanczos-type eigenvalue solution applicable to a broad range of quantum lattice models, i.e., arbitrary quantum lattice models with two-body interactions, including the Heisenberg model, the Kitaev model, the Hubbard model and the Kondo-lattice model. While it works well on PCs and PC-clusters, HΦ also runs efficiently on massively parallel computers, which considerably extends the tractable range of the system size. In addition, unlike most existing packages, HΦ supports finite-temperature calculations through the method of thermal pure quantum (TPQ) states. In this paper, we explain theoretical background and user-interface of HΦ. We also show the benchmark results of HΦ on supercomputers such as the K computer at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS) and SGI ICE XA (Sekirei) at the Institute for the Solid State Physics (ISSP).

  3. Kondo Effect in Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Franceschi, Silvano; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Sattler, Klaus D.

    The research community has long understood the value of formal specifications in building robust software. However, the adoption of any specifications beyond run-time assertions in industrial software has been limited. All of this has changed at Microsoft in the last few years. Today, formal

  4. Superconducting instabilities in the finite U Anderson lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbowski, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated superconducting instabilities in the finite U Anderson lattice model within the Zou-Anderson slave boson representation in the Kondo lattice limit appropriate for heavy fermion systems. We found Cooper instability in the p channel and a repulsion in both the s and d channels. Based on the above mechanism of pairing, we have derived a ratio of the Gruneisen parameters Γ(T c )/Γ(T K ) which can be negative or positive, consistent with the experimental data. This result cannot be achieved in the U=∞ limit, which gives only positive values for this ratio. ((orig.))

  5. CT-QMC-simulations on the single impurity Anderson model with a superconducting bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Florian; Pruschke, Thomas [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Coupling a heavy fermion impurity to a superconducting lead induces a competition between the Kondo effect and superconductivity in the low temperature regime. This situation has been modeled with a single impurity Anderson model, where the normal state bath is replaced by a BCS-type superconducting bath in mean field approximation. We study this model using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo hybridization expansion algorithm. Results include the impurity Green's functions as well as the corresponding spectral functions obtained from analytic continuation. Two side bands are observed which we discuss in the light of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states.

  6. Protein retention assessment of four levels of poultry by-product substitution of fishmeal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets using stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) as natural tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo, Daniel; Herzka, Sharon Z; Viana, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This is second part from an experiment where the nitrogen retention of poultry by-product meal (PBM) compared to fishmeal (FM) was evaluated using traditional indices. Here a quantitative method using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N values) as natural tracers of nitrogen incorporation into fish biomass is assessed. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed for 80 days on isotopically distinct diets in which 0, 33, 66 and 100% of FM as main protein source was replaced by PBM. The diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic and similar in gross energy content. Fish in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium by the end of the experiment. Two-source isotope mixing models that incorporated the isotopic composition of FM and PBM as well as that of formulated feeds, empirically derived trophic discrimination factors and the isotopic composition of fish that had reached isotopic equilibrium to the diets were used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the retention of each source of nitrogen. Fish fed the diets with 33 and 66% replacement of FM by PBM retained poultry by-product meal roughly in proportion to its level of inclusion in the diets, whereas no differences were detected in the protein efficiency ratio. Coupled with the similar biomass gain of fishes fed the different diets, our results support the inclusion of PBM as replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. A re-feeding experiment in which all fish were fed a diet of 100% FM for 28 days indicated isotopic turnover occurred very fast, providing further support for the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of the retention of specific protein sources into fish tissues. Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool for studies that seek to obtain quantitative estimates of the retention of different protein sources.

  7. Two band model for the cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiu; White, Steven

    2009-03-01

    We use a numerical canonical transformation approach to derive an effective two-band model for the hole-doped cuprates, which keeps both oxygen and copper orbitals but removes double occupancy from each. A similar model was considered previously by Frenkel, Gooding, Shraiman, and Siggia (PRB 41, number 1, page 350). We compare the numerically derived model with previously obtained analytical results. In addition to the usual hopping terms between oxygens tpp and Cu-Cu exchange terms Jdd, the model also includes a strong copper-oxygen exchange interaction Jpd and a Kondo-like spin-flip oxygen-oxygen hopping term Kpdp. We use the density matrix renormalization group to study the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the derived model on ladder systems.

  8. Four-level systems and a universal quantum gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Gitman, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    We discuss the possibility of implementing a universal quantum XOR gate by using two coupled quantum dots subject to external magnetic fields that are parallel and slightly different. We consider this system in two different field configurations. In the first case, parallel external fields with the intensity difference at each spin being proportional to the time-dependent interaction between the spins. A general exact solution describing this system is presented and analyzed to adjust field parameters. Then we consider parallel fields with intensity difference at each spin being constant and the interaction between the spins switching on and off adiabatically. In both cases we adjust characteristics of the external fields (their intensities and duration) in order to have the parallel pulse adequate for constructing the XOR gate. In order to provide a complete theoretical description of all the cases, we derive relations between the spin interaction, the inter-dot distance, and the external field. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Magnetically robust non-fermi liquid behavior due to the competition between crystalline-electric field singlet and Kondo-Yosida singlet in f2-based heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Shinya; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2011-01-01

    In f 2 -based heavy fermion systems with a tetragonal symmetry, we investigate the magnetic field dependence of a non-fermi liquid (NFL) which arises related to the quantum critical point (QCP) due to the competition between the crystalline-electric field (CEF) singlet and the Kondo-Yosida singlet states. On the basis of the Wilson numerical renormalization group method, we find that the magnetic field less than a characteristic magnetic field H z * does not affect the characteristic temperature T F * at which the specific heat takes a maximum value. Since such H z * increases as the deviation from the QCP increases, slightly off the QCP, there are parameter regions where NFL behaviors are robust at an observable temperature range T > T F *against a magnetic field of up to H z * which is far larger than T F *. Our result suggests that such robust NFL behaviors can arise also in systems with other CEF symmetries; e.g., magnetically robust NFL behaviors observed in UBe 13 may be understood on this basis.

  10. Model for the orientation, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of the specific heat of CeCu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a model calculation of the orientation, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of the specific heat C of CeCu 6 are found to be in good agreement with the single-crystal data of Amato et al. The model incorporates both the Kondo and crystal-field effects. It is suggested that the low-temperature Wilson's ratio CTchi, where chi is the susceptibility, may not change in an applied field H and that both CT and chi at low temperatures as a function of H may be proportional to the many-body density of states at the energy μH

  11. Heat transfer in the spin-boson model: a comparative study in the incoherent tunneling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-07-01

    We study the transfer of heat in the nonequilibrium spin-boson model with an Ohmic dissipation. In the nonadiabatic limit we derive a formula for the thermal conductance based on a rate equation formalism at the level of the noninteracting blip approximation, valid for temperatures T>T(K), with T(K) as the Kondo temperature. We evaluate this expression analytically assuming either weak or strong couplings, and demonstrate that our results agree with exact relations. Far-from-equilibrium situations are further examined, showing a close correspondence to the linear response limit.

  12. Symmetric Anderson impurity model: Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and Wilson ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalom, Peter; Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav

    2018-05-01

    We extend the spin-polarized effective-interaction approximation of the parquet renormalization scheme from Refs. [1,2] applied on the symmetric Anderson model by adding the low-temperature asymptotics of the total energy and the specific heat. We calculate numerically the Wilson ratio and determine analytically its asymptotic value in the strong-coupling limit. We demonstrate in this way that the exponentially small Kondo scale from the strong-coupling regime emerges in qualitatively the same way in the spectral function, magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat.

  13. 網路課輔中層次性閱讀教學對偏鄉學童閱讀能力影響之研究 Effects of Four-Level Reading Instruction for an Online Tutoring Project on Promoting the Reading Ability of Rural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    高台茜 Tai-Chien Kao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 為滿足偏鄉學童的國語文學習需求,提升其閱讀能力,本研究於線上課輔活動中導入層次性閱讀教學,並探求此教學對學童閱讀的助益。本研究以教育部數位學伴網路課輔計畫中,國立東華大學輔導的82 位(實驗組與對照組各41 位)東部偏鄉國小學童為研究對象。研究方法採不等組前後測設計。實驗組學童於每週兩次的一對一即時線上課輔活動中,各接受30分鐘層次性故事短文的閱讀教學,共15 次。對照組依學童學校國語課程進度進行課業輔導。 兩組於教學實驗前、後皆進行閱讀測驗。層次性閱讀教學是依閱讀能力發展進程,將教學分成字詞理解、訊息截取、訊息推論及統整詮釋四個層次。本研究先採多因子共變數分析探求兩組在整體閱讀能力表現上的差異,並進一步將性別與年段納為調節變項,進行多因子多變量共變數分析,以探知網路課輔中閱讀教學對偏鄉學童閱讀能力進步的影響。結果顯示,網路課輔中,接受層次性閱讀教學之學童整體閱讀表現優於一般語文教學。背景變項中,年段具調節作用。中年段實驗組學童之訊息推論表現顯著優於對照組;高年段實驗組學童則在統整詮釋上顯著優於對照組,此結果建議網路課輔閱讀教學應依據學童能力的發展階段進行適性調整。 To satisfy the language-learning needs of students living in rural areas and to promote their reading ability, this study developed four-level reading instruction for an afterschool online tutoring program and evaluated its effects on student reading ability. The study participants were drawn from 142 students at 11 elementary schools in Eastern Taiwan who were tutored by college students at National Dong-Hwa University as a part of the Digital Partner Afterschool Online Tutoring Program in the fall semester of 2014. 41

  14. Pressure induced valence transitions in the Anderson lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, B.H.; Coqblin, B.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the equation of motion method to the Anderson lattice model, which describes the physical properties of heavy fermion compounds. In particular, we focus here on the variation of the number of f electrons with pressure, associated to the crossover from the Kondo regime to the intermediate valence regime. We treat here the non-magnetic case and introduce an improved approximation, which consists of an alloy analogy based decoupling for the Anderson lattice model. It is implemented by partial incorporation of the spatial correlations contained in higher-order Green's functions involved in the problem that have been formerly neglected. As it has been verified in the framework of the Hubbard model, the alloy analogy avoids the breakdown of sum rules and is more appropriate to explore the asymmetric case of the periodic Anderson Hamiltonian. The densities of states for a simple cubic lattice are calculated for various values of the model parameters V, t, E f , and U.

  15. Competency Model 101. The Process of Developing Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Lisa Wright; Hewlett, Peggy O'Neill

    1999-01-01

    The Mississippi Competency Model defines nurses' roles as provider (caregiver, teacher, counselor, advocate), professional (scholar, collaborator, ethicist, researcher), and manager (leader, facilitator, intrapreneur, decision maker, technology user) for four levels of nursing: licensed practical nurse, associate degree, bachelor's degree, and…

  16. Validação de um instrumento que classifica os pacientes em quatro graus de dependência do cuidado de enfermagem Elaboración de un instrumento que clasifica a los pacientes en cuatro grados de dependencia de cuidados realizados por enfermeros Validation of an instrument that classifies patients in four levels of dependence to nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa apresenta o processo de validação de um instrumento que classifica os pacientes em quatro graus de dependência do cuidado de enfermagem realizado em um hospital universitário público. O estudo proporcionou aos enfermeiros participantes a oportunidade para analisar as necessidades dos pacientes, tornando-se o instrumento uma ferramenta de trabalho eficiente na prática de enfermagem.Esta investigación presenta el proceso de elaboración de un instrumento que clasifica a los pacientes en cuatro grados de dependencia de cuidados realizados por enfermeros en un hospital universitario público. El estudio ha proporcionado a los enfermeros participantes, la oportunidad de analizar las necesidades de los pacientes, constituyéndose el instrumento en una herramienta de trabajo importante en la práctica de la enfermería.This study presents the process of validation of a tool that classifies patients in four levels of dependence to the nursing care delivered at a University Hospital. The research gave to participants an opportunity to analyse patients' needs, showing the instrument as an efficient tool for nursing practice.

  17. Quantum dynamics of the driven and dissipative Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Loïc; Ristivojevic, Zoran; Orth, Peter P.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2014-08-01

    The Rabi model considers a two-level system (or spin 1/2) coupled to a quantized harmonic oscillator and describes the simplest interaction between matter and light. The recent experimental progress in solid-state circuit quantum electrodynamics has engendered theoretical efforts to quantitatively describe the mathematical and physical aspects of the light-matter interaction beyond the rotating-wave approximation. We develop a stochastic Schrödinger equation approach which enables us to access the strong-coupling limit of the Rabi model and study the effects of dissipation and ac drive in an exact manner. We include the effect of Ohmic noise on the non-Markovian spin dynamics, resulting in Kondo-type correlations, as well as cavity losses. We compute the time evolution of spin variables in various conditions. As a consideration for future work, we discuss the possibility of reaching a steady state with one polariton in realistic experimental conditions.

  18. Functional renormalization group study of the Anderson–Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M A; Kennes, D M; Jakobs, S G; Meden, V

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the spectral and transport properties in the Anderson–Holstein model both in and out of equilibrium using the functional renormalization group (fRG). We show how the previously established machinery of Matsubara and Keldysh fRG can be extended to include the local phonon mode. Based on the analysis of spectral properties in equilibrium we identify different regimes depending on the strength of the electron–phonon interaction and the frequency of the phonon mode. We supplement these considerations with analytical results from the Kondo model. We also calculate the nonlinear differential conductance through the Anderson–Holstein quantum dot and find clear signatures of the presence of the phonon mode. (paper)

  19. Theory of Kondo effect in superconductors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shin-ichi

    1977-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of superconducting alloys near the transition temperature are studied within the interpolation approximation which is constructed so as to coincide with theories in limiting cases. By the use of this approximation, the specific heat jump at the transition temperature is calculated in the case of the magnitude of the impurity spin being 1/2. The result shows a continuous change of the specific heat jump with T sub(K)/T sub(c0) from the Abrikosov-Gorkov value to essentially BCS-like behavior in contrast to the Mueller-Hartmann-Zittartz theory. One has an example of a cross over between a weak coupling situation at T sub(K)/T sub(c0) > 1. The Hartree-Fock theory is also discussed in connection with the present calculation. (auth.)

  20. Theory of the Anderson impurity model: The Schrieffer endash Wolff transformation reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrein, S.K.; Mielke, A.

    1996-01-01

    We test the method of infinitesimal unitary transformations recently introduced by Wegner on the Anderson single impurity model. It is demonstrated that infinitesimal unitary transformations in contrast to the Schrieffer endash Wolff transformation allow the construction of an effective Kondo Hamiltonian consistent with the established results in this well understood model. The main reason for this is the intrinsic energy scale separation of Wegner close-quote s approach with respect to arbitrary energy differences coupled by matrix elements. This allows the construction of an effective Hamiltonian without facing a vanishing energy denominator problem. Similar energy denominator problems are troublesome in many models. Infinitesimal unitary transformations have the potential to provide a general framework for the systematic derivation of effective Hamiltonians without such problems. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  1. Numerical renormalization group calculation of impurity internal energy and specific heat of quantum impurity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, L.; Costi, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a method to obtain the specific heat of quantum impurity models via a direct calculation of the impurity internal energy requiring only the evaluation of local quantities within a single numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation for the total system. For the Anderson impurity model we show that the impurity internal energy can be expressed as a sum of purely local static correlation functions and a term that involves also the impurity Green function. The temperature dependence of the latter can be neglected in many cases, thereby allowing the impurity specific heat Cimp to be calculated accurately from local static correlation functions; specifically via Cimp=(∂Eionic)/(∂T)+(1)/(2)(∂Ehyb)/(∂T), where Eionic and Ehyb are the energies of the (embedded) impurity and the hybridization energy, respectively. The term involving the Green function can also be evaluated in cases where its temperature dependence is non-negligible, adding an extra term to Cimp. For the nondegenerate Anderson impurity model, we show by comparison with exact Bethe ansatz calculations that the results recover accurately both the Kondo induced peak in the specific heat at low temperatures as well as the high-temperature peak due to the resonant level. The approach applies to multiorbital and multichannel Anderson impurity models with arbitrary local Coulomb interactions. An application to the Ohmic two-state system and the anisotropic Kondo model is also given, with comparisons to Bethe ansatz calculations. The approach could also be of interest within other impurity solvers, for example, within quantum Monte Carlo techniques.

  2. Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias

    2014-10-31

    One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally.

  3. Systems with Many Degrees of Freedom: from Mean - Theories of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Impurity Models to Implied Binomial Trees for Modeling Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barle, Stanko

    In this dissertation, two dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom are analyzed. One is the system of highly correlated electrons in the two-impurity Kondo problem. The other deals with building a realistic model of diffusion underlying financial markets. The simplest mean-field theory capable of mimicking the non-Fermi liquid behavior of the critical point in the two-impurity Kondo problem is presented. In this approach Landau's adiabaticity assumption--of a one-to-one correspondence between the low-energy excitations of the interacting and noninteracting systems--is violated through the presence of decoupled local degrees of freedom. These do not couple directly to external fields but appear indirectly in the physical properties leading, for example, to the log(T, omega) behavior of the staggered magnetic susceptibility. Also, as observed previously, the correlation function = -1/4 is a consequence of the equal weights of the singlet and triplet impurity configurations at the critical point. In the second problem, a numerical model is developed to describe the diffusion of prices in the market. Implied binomial (or multinomial) trees are constructed to enable practical pricing of derivative securities in consistency with the existing market. The method developed here is capable of accounting for both the strike price and term structure of the implied volatility. It includes the correct treatment of interest rate and dividends which proves robust even if these quantities are unusually large. The method is explained both as a set of individual innovations and, from a different prospective, as a consequence of a single plausible transformation from the tree of spot prices to the tree of futures prices.

  4. Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of d-f Coulomb interaction (Udf) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of Udf and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of the QCP depends on the other parameters of the Hamiltonian. For larger values of Udf, the Kondo regime is bounded by two first-order transitions. These first-order transitions merge into a triple point at a certain value of Udf. For even larger Udf valence skipping occurs. Although the other methods do not give a critical point, they support this scenario.

  5. Mott transitions in the periodic Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, David E; Galpin, Martin R; Mannouch, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The periodic Anderson model (PAM) is studied within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, with particular emphasis on the interaction-driven Mott transition it contains, and on resultant Mott insulators of both Mott–Hubbard and charge-transfer type. The form of the PAM phase diagram is first deduced on general grounds using two exact results, over the full range of model parameters and including metallic, Mott, Kondo and band insulator phases. The effective low-energy model which describes the PAM in the vicinity of a Mott transition is then shown to be a one-band Hubbard model, with effective hoppings that are not in general solely nearest neighbour, but decay exponentially with distance. This mapping is shown to have a range of implications for the physics of the problem, from phase boundaries to single-particle dynamics; all of which are confirmed and supplemented by NRG calculations. Finally we consider the locally degenerate, non-Fermi liquid Mott insulator, to describe which requires a two-self-energy description. This is shown to yield a number of exact results for the associated local moment, charge, and interaction-renormalised levels, together with a generalisation of Luttinger’s theorem to the Mott insulator. (paper)

  6. Univariate and Multivariate Specification Search Indices in Covariance Structure Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    Simulated population data were used to compare relative performances of the modification index and C. Chou and P. M. Bentler's Lagrange multiplier test (a multivariate generalization of a modification index) for four levels of model misspecification. Both indices failed to recover the true model except at the lowest level of misspecification. (SLD)

  7. The Instructional Model for Using History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Hayati

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the levels of The Instructional Model for Using History of Science (UHOS) to explain the relationship between the history of science and science teaching. The UHOS model proposes four levels: Conceptual Level, Epistemological Level, Sociocultural Level, and Interest Level. Each Level has sublevels with regards to types of…

  8. From coherent motion to localization: II. Dynamics of the spin-boson model with sub-Ohmic spectral density at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haobin; Thoss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: □□□ - Abstract: The dynamics of the spin-boson model at zero temperature is studied for a bath characterized by a sub-Ohmic spectral density. Using the numerically exact multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method, the population dynamics of the two-level subsystem has been investigated in a broad range of parameter space. The results show the transition of the dynamics from weakly damped coherent motion to localization upon increase of the system-bath coupling strength. Comparison of the exact ML-MCTDH simulations with the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA) shows that the latter performs rather poorly in the weak coupling regime with small Kondo parameters. However, NIBA improves significantly upon increase in the coupling strength and is quantitatively correct in the strong coupling, nonadiabatic limit. The transition from coherent motion to localization as a function of the different parameters of the model is analyzed in some detail.

  9. BRFSS Prevalence and Trends Data: Tobacco Use - Four Level Smoking Data for 1995-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Percentages are weighted to population characteristics. Data are not available if it did not meet BRFSS stability requirements.For more information on these...

  10. BRFSS Prevalence and Trends Data: Tobacco Use - Four Level Smoking Data for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 2011 BRFSS data reflects a change in weighting methodology (raking) and the addition of cell phone only respondents. Shifts in observed prevalence from 2010 to...

  11. Soliton Trains Induced by Adaptive Shaping with Periodic Traps in Four-Level Ultracold Atom Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouom Tchenkoue, M. L.; Welakuh Mbangheku, D.; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that an optical trap can be imprinted by a light field in an ultracold-atom system embedded in an optical cavity, and driven by three different coherent fields. Of the three fields coexisting in the optical cavity there is an intense control field that induces a giant Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically-induced transparency, and another field that creates a periodic optical grating of strength proportional to the square of the associated Rabi frequency. In this work elliptic-soliton solutions to the nonlinear equation governing the propagation of the probe field are considered, with emphasis on the possible generation of optical soliton trains forming a discrete spectrum with well defined quantum numbers. The problem is treated assuming two distinct types of periodic optical gratings and taking into account the negative and positive signs of detunings (detuning above or below resonance). Results predict that the competition between the self-phase and cross-phase modulation nonlinearities gives rise to a rich family of temporal soliton train modes characterized by distinct quantum numbers. (paper)

  12. Soliton Trains Induced by Adaptive Shaping with Periodic Traps in Four-Level Ultracold Atom Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouom Tchenkoue, M. L.; Welakuh Mbangheku, D.; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that an optical trap can be imprinted by a light field in an ultracold-atom system embedded in an optical cavity, and driven by three different coherent fields. Of the three fields coexisting in the optical cavity there is an intense control field that induces a giant Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically-induced transparency, and another field that creates a periodic optical grating of strength proportional to the square of the associated Rabi frequency. In this work elliptic-soliton solutions to the nonlinear equation governing the propagation of the probe field are considered, with emphasis on the possible generation of optical soliton trains forming a discrete spectrum with well defined quantum numbers. The problem is treated assuming two distinct types of periodic optical gratings and taking into account the negative and positive signs of detunings (detuning above or below resonance). Results predict that the competition between the self-phase and cross-phase modulation nonlinearities gives rise to a rich family of temporal soliton train modes characterized by distinct quantum numbers.

  13. Association between Four-Level Categorisation of Indoor Exposure and Perceived Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Tähtinen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a tool for assessing urgency of indoor air quality (IAQ measures. The condition of the 27 buildings were investigated and results were categorized. Statistical test studied the differences between the categories and the employees’ complaints about their work environment. To study the employees’ experiences of the work premises, a validated indoor air (IA questionnaire was used. This study reveals a multifaceted problem: many factors affecting IAQ may also affect perceived IAQ, making it difficult to separate the impurity sources and ventilation system deficiencies affecting to employee experiences. An examination of the relationship between the categories and perceived IAQ revealed an association between the mould odour perceived by employees and mould detected by the researcher. A weak link was also found between the assessed categories and environmental complaints. However, we cannot make far-reaching conclusions regarding the assessed probability of abnormal IA exposure in the building on the basis of employee experiences. According to the results, categorising tool can partly support the assessment of the urgency for repairs when several factors that affect IAQ are taken into account.

  14. Efficient cooling of quantized vibrations using a four-level configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Feng, Mang

    2016-12-01

    Cooling vibrational degrees of freedom down to ground states is essential to observation of quantum properties of systems with mechanical vibration. We propose two cooling schemes employing four internal levels of the systems, which achieve the ground-state cooling in an efficient fashion by completely deleting the carrier and first-order blue-sideband transitions. The schemes, based on quantum interference and Stark-shift gates, are robust to fluctuations of laser intensity and frequency. The feasibility of the schemes is justified using current laboratory technology. In practice, our proposal readily applies to a nanodiamond nitrogen-vacancy center levitated in an optical trap or attached to a cantilever.

  15. Nitrogen balance study in young Nigerian adult males using four levels of protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, T; Mbofung, C M; Egun, G; Osotimehin, B

    1988-11-01

    1. The present study was carried out to estimate precisely, via the nitrogen balance technique, the protein requirement of Nigerians (earlier estimated via the obligatory N method) using graded levels of protein intake. 2. Fifteen medical students of the University of Ibadan who volunteered to participate in the study were given graded levels of protein (0.3, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg body-weight per d) derived from foods similar to those usually consumed by the subjects. 3. Each subject was given each of the dietary protein levels for a period of 10 d. Subjects were divided into two groups and the feeding pattern followed a criss-cross design with one group starting with the highest level of protein intake (0.3 g). Mean energy intake during each of the eleven experimental periods was maintained at 0.2 MJ/kg per d. After an initial 5 d adaptation period in each experimental period, 24 h urine and faecal samples were collected in marked containers for five consecutive days for N determination. 4. Mean N balance during consumption of the four protein levels (0.30, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg) were -11.02 (SD 8.07), -9.90 (SD 6.64), +9.70 (SD 4.15) and +5.13 (SD 4.62) respectively. Using regression analysis, the mean daily N requirement was estimated at 110.25 mg N/kg body-weight (0.69 g protein/kg body-weight). Estimates of allowances for individual variations to cover 97.5% of the population adjusted this value to 0.75 g protein/kg body-weight. Net protein utilization for the diet at maintenance level was estimated at 57.5.

  16. TWO-DIMENSIONAL LOCALIZATION OF ATOMIC POPULATIONS IN FOUR-LEVEL QUANTUM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Efremova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of one aspect of fundamental problem of laser radiation interaction with the matter. This problem is spatial localization of atomic populations due to fields impact of few running waves. We are the first to propose in our work two–dimensional spatial localization of atomic populations in medium with tripod–like configuration of levels under the field influence of running waves only. Three running waves, propagating along one plane 120o angle-wise to each other, form the system of standing waves in this plane. Atomic populations can be localized in the field of these standing waves. Moreover, the degree of such localization can make up hundredth parts of the wavelength of the incident optical radiation. It is shown that an excitation of the central transition of the tripod-like system using a field of multidirectional linearly polarized running waves is the necessary condition of the population dependence from spatial coordinates in the XY – plane. The two–dimensional shapes that appear in this system can have very complicated structure such as “double – craters”.

  17. Association between Four-Level Categorisation of Indoor Exposure and Perceived Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtinen, Katja; Lappalainen, Sanna; Karvala, Kirsi; Remes, Jouko; Salonen, Heidi

    2018-04-04

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a tool for assessing urgency of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures. The condition of the 27 buildings were investigated and results were categorized. Statistical test studied the differences between the categories and the employees’ complaints about their work environment. To study the employees’ experiences of the work premises, a validated indoor air (IA) questionnaire was used. This study reveals a multifaceted problem: many factors affecting IAQ may also affect perceived IAQ, making it difficult to separate the impurity sources and ventilation system deficiencies affecting to employee experiences. An examination of the relationship between the categories and perceived IAQ revealed an association between the mould odour perceived by employees and mould detected by the researcher. A weak link was also found between the assessed categories and environmental complaints. However, we cannot make far-reaching conclusions regarding the assessed probability of abnormal IA exposure in the building on the basis of employee experiences. According to the results, categorising tool can partly support the assessment of the urgency for repairs when several factors that affect IAQ are taken into account.

  18. Maximal violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for four-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Libin; Chen Jingling; Chen Shigang

    2004-01-01

    Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for bipartite systems of four dimensions is studied in detail by employing the unbiased eight-port beam splitters measurements. The uniform formulas for the maximum and minimum values of this inequality for such measurements are obtained. Based on these formulas, we show that an optimal nonmaximally entangled state is about 6% more resistant to noise than the maximally entangled one. We also give the optimal state and the optimal angles which are important for experimental realization

  19. CO2 laser with modulated losses: Theoretical models and experiments in the chaotic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pando L, C.L.; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.; Arecchi, F.T.

    1993-04-01

    We compare two different theoretical models for a CO 2 laser, namely the two-and four-level model, and show that the second one traces with much better accuracy the experimental behavior in the case of a chaotic dynamics due to time modulation of the cavity losses. Even though the two-level model provides a qualitative explanation of the chaotic dynamics, only the four-level one assures a quantitative fitting. We also show that, at the onset of chaos, the chaotic dynamics is low dimensional and can be described in terms of a noninvertible unidimensional map. (author). 12 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  1. Modeling the damage of welded steel, using the GTN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ahmar Kadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is the modeling of the damage in the weld metal according to the finite element method and the concepts of fracture mechanics based on local approaches using the code ABAQUS calculates. The use of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model axisymmetric specimens AE type to three different zones (Base metal, molten metal and heat affected Zone with four levels of triaxiality (AE2, AE4, AE10 and AE80, we have used to model the behavior of damage to welded steel, which is described as being due to the growth and coalescence of cavities with high rates of triaxiality

  2. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  3. Prediction of strongly-heated gas flows in a vertical tube using explicit algebraic stress/heat-flux models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seong Gu; Park, Seung O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the assessment of prediction performance of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models under conditions of mixed convective gas flows in a strongly-heated vertical tube. Two explicit algebraic stress models and four algebraic heat-flux models are selected for assessment. Eight combinations of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models are used in predicting the flows experimentally studied by Shehata and McEligot (IJHMT 41(1998) p.4333) in which property variation was significant. Among the various model combinations, the Wallin and Johansson (JFM 403(2000) p. 89) explicit algebraic stress model-Abe, Kondo, and Nagano (IJHFF 17(1996) p. 228) algebraic heat-flux model combination is found to perform best. We also found that the dimensionless wall distance y + should be calculated based on the local property rather than the property at the wall for property-variation flows. When the buoyancy or the property variation effects are so strong that the flow may relaminarize, the choice of the basic platform two-equation model is a most important factor in improving the predictions

  4. Circulation in the Gulf of Trieste: measurements and model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogunovici, B.; Malacic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The study presents seasonal variability of currents in the southern part of the Gulf of Trieste. A time series analysis of currents and wind stress for the period 2003-2006, which were measured by the coastal oceanographic buoy, was conducted. A comparison between these data and results obtained from a numerical model of circulation in the Gulf was performed to validate model results. Three different approaches were applied to the wind data to determine the wind stress. Similarities were found between Kondo and Smith approaches while the method of Vera shows differences which were particularly noticeable for lower (= 1 m/s) and higher wind speeds (= 15 m/s). Mean currents in the surface layer are generally outflow currents from the Gulf due to wind forcing (bora). However in all other depth layers inflow currents are dominant. With the principal component analysis (Pca) major and minor axes were determined for all seasons. The major axis of maximum variance in years between 2003 and 2006 is prevailing in Ne-Sw direction, which is parallel to the coastline. Comparison of observation and model results is showing that currents are similar (in direction) for the surface and bottom layers but are significantly different for the middle layer (5-13 m). At a depth between 14-21 m velocities are comparable in direction as well as in magnitude even though model values are higher. Higher values of modelled currents at the surface and near the bottom are explained by higher values of wind stress that were used in the model as driving input with respect to the stress calculated from the measured winds. Larger values of modelled currents near the bottom are related to the larger inflow that needs to compensate for the larger modelled outflow at the surface. However, inspection of the vertical structure of temperature, salinity and density shows that the model is reproducing a weaker density gradient which enables the penetration of the outflow surface currents to larger depths.

  5. Periodic Anderson model with correlated conduction electrons: Variational and exact diagonalization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate an extended version of the periodic Anderson model (the so-called periodic Anderson-Hubbard model) with the aim to understand the role of interaction between conduction electrons in the formation of the heavy-fermion and mixed-valence states. Two methods are used: (i) variational calculation with the Gutzwiller wave function optimizing numerically the ground-state energy and (ii) exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for short chains. The f-level occupancy and the renormalization factor of the quasiparticles are calculated as a function of the energy of the f orbital for a wide range of the interaction parameters. The results obtained by the two methods are in reasonably good agreement for the periodic Anderson model. The agreement is maintained even when the interaction between band electrons, Ud, is taken into account, except for the half-filled case. This discrepancy can be explained by the difference between the physics of the one- and higher-dimensional models. We find that this interaction shifts and widens the energy range of the bare f level, where heavy-fermion behavior can be observed. For large-enough Ud this range may lie even above the bare conduction band. The Gutzwiller method indicates a robust transition from Kondo insulator to Mott insulator in the half-filled model, while Ud enhances the quasiparticle mass when the filling is close to half filling.

  6. The Research on Influencing Factors of Medical Logistics Cost Based on ISM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yunkai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason why medical logistics cost remains high is a system problem, this paper analyzes the system through the ISM model. The result presents that medical logistics cost factors have four levels of relationship, primary factor is the national policies, secondary factors are the talent construction and pharmaceutical enterprise scale, Intermediate factors are medical information management system and inventory cost, the key factors are transportation cost and distribution center location. Finally, according to the four levels of relationship, this paper put forward specific suggestions to reduce logistics cost.

  7. Homoclinic crises in a model for the CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pando L, C.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1993-04-01

    We show that the four-level model for the CO 2 laser with modulated losses predicts a critical exponent close to 1/2 for the characteristic times in two homoclinic crises. In the five-dimensional Poincare map corresponding to this model, a sequential horseshoe formation due to the period three unstable orbit takes place after a region of multistability. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  8. Urban Morphology Influence on Urban Albedo: A Revisit with the S olene Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Dominique; Mestayer, Patrice G.

    2013-05-01

    This heuristic study of the urban morphology influence on urban albedo is based on some 3,500 simulations with the S olene model. The studied configurations include square blocks in regular and staggered rows, rectangular blocks with different street widths, cross-shaped blocks, infinite street canyons and several actual districts in Marseilles, Toulouse and Nantes, France. The scanned variables are plan density, facade density, building height, layout orientation, latitude, date and time of the day. The sky-view factors of the ground and canopy surfaces are also considered. This study demonstrates the significance of the facade density, in addition to the built plan density, as the explanatory geometrical factor to characterize the urban morphology, rather than building height. On the basis of these albedo calculations the puzzling results of Kondo et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 100:225-242, 2001) for the influence of building height are explained, and the plan density influence is quantitatively assessed. It is shown that the albedo relationship with plan and facade densities obtained with the regular square plot configuration may be considered as a reference for all other configurations, with the exception of the infinite street canyon that shows systematic differences for the lower plan densities. The curves representing this empirical relationship may be used as a sort of abacus for all other geometries while an approximate simple mathematical model is proposed, as well as relationships between the albedo and sky-view factors.

  9. Adoption of the international model of a well-governed land expropriation system in China : problems and the way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current international documents on a good governance of land tenure, a four-level participation procedure in land expropriation can be summarized. Although it is a combination of all the good experience from different countries which constructs an ideal model for expropriation, it is

  10. Mathematical Modeling in Support of Military Operational Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    can also accept measured under armor data, in which case the vest and plate are not modeled by the code. The equations describing the motion of...normalized work done on the lung as well as probabilities of four levels of lung injury. In addition, the time histories of under armor pressure and of...chest wall motion can be saved in easily read disc files. INJURY-K code predictions for under armor pressure have shown excellent agreement with

  11. Two-band model with off-diagonal occupation dependent hopping rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper two-band hopping model is treated on a two-dimensional square lattice. The atoms are located at the corners and the middles of the edges of the squares. In addition to the strongly overlapping orbitals of the atoms, there are extra orbitals at the corners, which are weakly hybridized. The assumption is made that the Fermi level is inside the broad band and is every near to the narrow band formed by the extra orbitals. The hamiltonian is Hubbard type, but the off-diagonal part of the two-site interaction t is kept also where one creation or annihilation operator acts on the extra orbital and the others on one of its neighbors. The weak coupling t is enhanced by the on-site Coulomb repulsion at the corners, which enhancement is a power function of the ratio of the broad band width and the narrow bank position measured from the Fermi level. That enhancement is obtained by summation of logarithmic Kondo-type corrections of orbital origin, which reflects the formation of a ground state of new type with strong orbital and spin correlations. Interaction between the particles of the broad band is generated by processes with one heavy and one light particle in the intermediate state

  12. The Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human–computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human–artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI....... By reinterpreting the activity theoretical foundation, we present a framework that helps addressing the analysis of individual interactive artifacts while embracing that they are part of a larger ecology of artifacts. We show how the human–artifact model helps structuring the understanding of an artifact's action......-possibilities in relation to the artifact ecology surrounding it. Essential to the model is that it provides four interconnected levels of analysis and addresses the possibilities and problems at these four levels. Artifacts and their use are constantly developing, and we address development in, and of, use. The framework...

  13. Optimization of typical diffuse herbicide pollution control by soil amendment configurations under four levels of rainfall intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Weijia; Wei, Peng; Hao, Fanghua; Yu, Yongyong

    2016-06-15

    Herbicides are a main source of agricultural diffuse pollution due to their wide application in tillage practices. The aim of this study is to optimize the control efficiency of the herbicide atrazine with the aid of modified soil amendments. The soil amendments were composed of a combination of biochar and gravel. The biochar was created from corn straw with a catalytic pyrolysis of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. The leaching experiments under four rainfall conditions were measured for the following designs: raw soil, soil amended with gravel, biochar individually and together with gravel. The control efficiency of each design was also identified. With the designed equipment, the atrazine content in the contaminant load layer, gravel substrate layer, biochar amendment layer and soil layer was measured under four types of rainfall intensities (1.25 mm/h, 2.50 mm/h, 5.00 mm/h and 10.00 mm/h). Furthermore, the vertical distribution of atrazine in the soil sections was also monitored. The results showed that the herbicide leaching load increased under the highest rainfall intensity in all designs. The soil with the combination of gravel and biochar provided the highest control efficiency of 87.85% on atrazine when the additional proportion of biochar was 3.0%. The performance assessment under the four kinds of rainfall intensity conditions provided the guideline for the soil amendment configuration. The combination of gravel and biochar is recommended as an efficient method for controlling diffuse herbicide pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing in a four-level confined atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Mei-Zhen, Shi; Dong-Ning, Liu; Jian-Ping, Song; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated coexisting four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing (SWM) in ultra-thin, micrometre and long vapour cells. There exists competition between Dicke-narrowing features and polarization interference in the micrometre cell. The oscillation behaviour of SWM signal intensities and linewidths results from destructive interference. With a larger destructive interference, the SWM signal in ultra-thin cells shows a narrow spectrum, in contrast to the long cell case. Due to the Dicke-narrowing features, a narrow spectrum can be obtained, and such spectra can be used for high precision measurements and metrological standards. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  15. Sickness-related dysfunction in persons with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity at four levels of severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Vogel, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    To examine quality of life outcome for persons who self-report chemical sensitivity, often referred to as multiple chemical sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity is poorly understood with few providers specialising in its treatment. This lack of treatment and the ubiquity of chemicals engender severe life impacts such as job loss, financial loss, social isolation and even homelessness for persons who experience these sensitivities. Survey. We examined chemical incitants, symptoms and sickness-related behavioural dysfunction as measured by the Sickness Impact Profile in 254 persons self-identified with multiple chemical sensitivity. Chemicals rated as causing the most symptomatology in respondents were pesticide, formaldehyde, fresh paint, new carpet, diesel exhaust, perfume and air fresheners. The five highest rated symptoms in this sample were tiredness/lethargy, difficulty concentrating, muscle aches, memory difficulties and long-term fatigue. Overall mean Sickness Impact Profile score was 25.25%, showing serious impairment, with the most serious dysfunction in the categories of work (55.36%), alertness behaviour (53.45%) and recreation and pastimes (45.20%). Multiple chemical sensitivity is an important health care issue because it often includes serious dysfunction, is poorly understood by providers and poses extensive financial and treatment obstacles for those who experience it. Persons with multiple chemical sensitivity seek medical treatment in a variety of contexts and informed providers can both avoid iatrogenic harm due to medical exposures and provide any possible treatment for the chemical sensitivities. Understanding the impact of the health condition is crucial to communicate with and treat persons who experience the sensitivities.

  16. Preoperative axillary lymph node staging by ultrasound-guided cytology using a four-level sonographic score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, Caroline; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Boutemy, Rachel; Simon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The staging of axillary lymph nodes is critical to the management and prognosis of breast cancer, the most frequent cancer in females. Neoadjuvant therapy and lymph node dissection are recommended when malignant cells invade the lymph nodes. Therefore the pre-operative examination of these lymph nodes is crucial to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of cytology through ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USG-FNA) and ultrasound (US) imaging using an established classification system in correctly identifying lymph node status compared to the final histological results after surgery. Cytology by USG-FNA and US classification were found to be promising methods of axillary lymph node staging. US and CB offer minimally invasive techniques to pre-operatively examine these lymph nodes in patients with primary breast cancer

  17. Four-level evaluation of health promotion intervention for preventing early childhood caries: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, Leila; Rasteh, Bita; Montazeri, Ali; Araban, Marzieh

    2017-10-02

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children's primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10) consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received "standard well baby care". The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children's teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p  0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001), health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01), oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01), and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001). This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion for evidence-based decision-making processes regarding ECCs prevention programs. IRCT2017070210804N10 (retrospectively registered).

  18. Four-level evaluation of health promotion intervention for preventing early childhood caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Basir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children’s primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. Method The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10 consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received “standard well baby care”. The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children’s teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p  0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001, health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01, oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01, and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001. Conclusion This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion for evidence-based decision-making processes regarding ECCs prevention programs. Trial registration IRCT2017070210804N10 (retrospectively registered

  19. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Renormalization group approaches to low-dimensional systems. Scrutinization of the spin-functional RG for the 2D XXZ model and real-time RG study of a generic 2-level quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime in nonequilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettel, Stefan

    2015-05-22

    In this thesis, we study two recently developed methods to tackle low-dimensional correlated quantum systems. In the first part, we benchmark the extension of the functional renormalization group to spin-systems. We apply it to the two-dimensional XXZ model and reproduce the prediction for the phase transition from planar to axial ordering at the isotropic point. The interpretation of the critical scale (where the flow of the susceptibility diverges) as the critical temperature of the system can be questioned, since it yields only good results in the Ising limit. Especially near the isotropic point, this interpretation becomes unsatisfactory as the Mermin-Wagner theorem is violated. We discuss several problems of the method and conclude that it should only be used to explore phase diagrams. In the second part, we extend previous works to two-level quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime with special hopping matrices in nonequilibrium, e.g., the Kondo model, to the generic form, including ferromagnetic leads, spin-orbit interactions etc. The dot and the transport observables are determined completely by the hybridization matrix, leading to one of our major results that all these models can be mapped to the Anderson impurity model with ferromagnetic leads. We investigate this model with a well-controlled real-time renormalization group approach and justify the results of a poor man's scaling analysis. By using a singular value decomposition of the tunneling matrix we can rotate the model to the anisotropic Kondo model in the high-energy regime to solve the flow equations analytically. With this, we calculate the stationary dot magnetization and the current. The minimum of the magnetization is found to be an ellipsoid as function of the magnetic field, where the stretching factor determines the distance to the scaling limit. Afterwards, we consider the special case of two external reservoirs and the system being in the scaling limit and discuss the golden

  1. Theoretical studies of Anderson impurity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glossop, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    A Local Moment Approach (LMA) is developed for single-particle excitations of a symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) with a soft-gap hybridization vanishing at the Fermi level, Δ I ∝ vertical bar W vertical bar r with r > 0, and for the generic asymmetric case of the 'normal' (r = 0) SIAM. In all cases we work within a two-self-energy description with local moments introduced explicitly from the outset, and in which single-particle excitations are coupled dynamically to low-energy transverse spin fluctuations. For the soft-gap symmetric SIAM, the resultant theory is applicable on all energy scales, and captures both the spin-fluctuation regime of strong coupling (large-U), as well as the weak coupling regime where it is perturbatively exact for those r-domains in which perturbation theory in U is non-singular. While the primary emphasis is on single-particle dynamics, the quantum phase transition between strong coupling (SC) and local moment (LM) phases can also be addressed directly; for the spin-fluctuation regime in particular a number of asymptotically exact results are thereby obtained, notably for the behaviour of the critical U c (r) separating SC/LM states and the Kondo scale w m (r) characteristic of the SC phase. Results for both single-particle spectra and SG/LM phase boundaries are found to agree well with recent numerical renormalization group (NRG) studies; and a number of further testable predictions are made. Single-particle spectra are examined systematically for both SC and LM states; in particular, for all 0 ≤ r 0 SC phase which, in agreement with conclusions drawn from recent NRG work, may be viewed as a non-trivial but natural generalization of Fermi liquid physics. We also reinvestigate the problem via the NRG in light of the predictions arising from the LMA: all are borne out and excellent agreement is found. For the asymmetric single impurity Anderson model (ASIAM) we establish general conditions which must be satisfied

  2. An FDTD algorithm for simulation of EM waves propagation in laser with static and dynamic gain models

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents methods of simulating gain media in the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm utilizing a generalized polarization formulation. The gain can be static or dynamic. For static gain, Lorentzian and non-Lorentzian models are presented and tested. For the dynamic gain, rate equations for two-level and four-level models are incorporated in the FDTD scheme. The simulation results conform with the expected behavior of wave amplification and dynamic population inversion.

  3. Numerical renormalization group method for entanglement negativity at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jeongmin; Sim, H.-S.; Lee, Seung-Sup B.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a numerical method to compute the negativity, an entanglement measure for mixed states, between the impurity and the bath in quantum impurity systems at finite temperature. We construct a thermal density matrix by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG), and evaluate the negativity by implementing the NRG approximation that reduces computational cost exponentially. We apply the method to the single-impurity Kondo model and the single-impurity Anderson model. In the Kondo model, the negativity exhibits a power-law scaling at temperature much lower than the Kondo temperature and a sudden death at high temperature. In the Anderson model, the charge fluctuation of the impurity contributes to the negativity even at zero temperature when the on-site Coulomb repulsion of the impurity is finite, while at low temperature the negativity between the impurity spin and the bath exhibits the same power-law scaling behavior as in the Kondo model.

  4. Magnetic impurity in a system of interacting electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thanh Duc; Nguyen Toan Thang

    1999-04-01

    The Kondo effect of the Anderson impurity in a correlated conduction electron system is studied within the slave boson mean-field theory. The interacting conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard model with an interaction of strength U. It is shown that the Kondo temperature T K decreases with an increase of U. In the intermediate regime at half-filling the exponential scale of the Kondo temperature T K is lost already at the saddle-point level of slave boson formulation. (author)

  5. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    offline to ensure no feedback to larger scale conditions within the modelling domain. Initially, participants were issued with just forcing data from an unknown urban site (termed "Alpha"); in subsequent stages, further details of the site were provided. Results from each stage, for each participating model, were then compared using a variety of statistical and graphical techniques. * The EGU2009-5713 Team: C.S.B. Grimmond1, M. Blackett1, M. Best2 and J. Barlow3and J.-J. Baik4, S. Belcher3, S. Bohnenstengel3, I. Calmet5, F. Chen6, A. Dandou7, K. Fortuniak8, M. Gouvea1, R. Hamdi9, M. Hendry2, H. Kondo10, S. Krayenhoff11, S. H. Lee4, T. Loridan1, A. Martilli12, S. Miao13, K. Oleson6, G. Pigeon14, A. Porson2,3, F. Salamanca12, L. Shashua-Bar15, G.-J. Steeneveld16, M. Tombrou7, J. Voogt17, N. Zhang18. 1King's College London, UK, 2UK Met Office, UK, 3University of Reading, UK, 4Seoul National University, Korea, 5Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France, 6National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA, 7University of Athens, Greece, 8University of Ł ódź , Poland, 9Royal Meteorological Institute, Belgium, 10National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan, 11University of British Columbia, Canada, 12CIEMAT, Spain, 13IUM, CMA, China, 14Meteo France, France, 15Ben Gurion University, Israel, 16Wageningen University, Netherlands, 17University of Western Ontario, Canada, 18Nanjing University, China.

  6. Variational theory of valence fluctuations: Ground states and quasiparticle excitations of the Anderson lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandow, B. H.

    1986-01-01

    A variational study of ground states of the orbitally nondegenerate Anderson lattice model, using a wave function with one variational parameter per Bloch state k, has been extended to deal with essentially metallic systems having a nonintegral number of electrons per site. Quasiparticle excitations are obtained by direct appeal to Landau's original definition for interacting Fermi liquids, scrEqp(k,σ)=δEtotal/δn qp(k,σ). This approach provides a simple and explicit realization of the Luttinger picture of a periodic Fermi liquid. A close correspondence is maintained between the ``interacting'' (U=∞) system and the corresponding ``noninteracting'' (U=0) case, i.e., ordinary band theory; the result can be described as a renormalized band or renormalized hybridization theory. The occupation-number distribution for the conduction orbitals displays a finite discontinuity at the Fermi surface. If the d-f hybridization is nonzero throughout the Brillouin zone, the quasiparticle spectrum will always exhibit a gap, although this gap becomes exponentially small (i.e., of order TK) in the Kondo-lattice regime. In the ``ionic'' case with precisely two electrons per site, such a system may therefore exhibit an insulating (semiconducting) gap. The quasiparticle state density exhibits a prominent spike on each side of the spectral gap, just as in the elementary hybridization model (the U=0 case). For the metallic case, with a nonintegral number of electrons per site, the Fermi level falls within one of the two sharp density peaks. The effective mass at the Fermi surface tends to be very large; enhancements by a factor >~102 are quite feasible. The foregoing variational theory has also been refined by means of a trial wave function having two variational parameters per Bloch state k. The above qualitative features are all retained, with some quantitative differences, but there are also some qualitatively new features. The most interesting of these is the appearance, within

  7. Theory of exotic superconductivity and normal states of heavy electron and high temperature superconductivity materials. Progress report, February 15, 1994--February 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This is a progress report for the DOE project covering the period 2/15/94 to 2/14/95. The PI had a fruitful sabbatical during this period, and had some important new results, particularly in the area of new phenomenology for heavy fermion superconductivity. Significant new research accomplishments are in the area of odd-in-time-reversal pairing states/staggered superconductivity, the two-channel Kondo lattice, and a general model for Ce impurities which admits one-, two-, and three-channel Kondo effects. Papers submitted touch on these areas: staggered superconductivity - a new phenomenology for UPt 3 ; theory of the two-channel Kondo lattice in infinite dimensions; general model of a Ce 3+ impurity. Other work was done in the areas: Knight shift in heavy fermion alloys and compounds; symmetry analysis of singular pairing correlations for the two-channel Kondo impurity model

  8. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Hukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    of a computer aided multilevel modeling network consisting a collection of new and adopted models, methods and tools for the systematic design and analysis of processes employing lipid technology. This is achieved by decomposing the problem into four levels of modeling: 1. pure component properties; 2. mixtures...... and phase behavior; 3. unit operations; and 4. process synthesis and design. The methods and tools in each level include: For the first level, a lipid‐database of collected experimental data from the open literature, confidential data from industry and generated data from validated predictive property...... of these unit operations with respect to performance parameters such as minimum total cost, product yield improvement, operability etc., and process intensification for the retrofit of existing biofuel plants. In the fourth level the information and models developed are used as building blocks...

  9. Equilibrium charge fluctuations of a charge detector and its effect on a nearby quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tijerina, David; Vernek, Edson; Ulloa, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    We study the Kondo state of a spin-1/2 quantum dot (QD), in close proximity to a quantum point contact (QPC) charge detector near the conductance regime of the 0.7 anomaly. The electrostatic coupling between the QD and QPC introduces a remote gate on the QD level, which varies with the QPC gate voltage. Furthermore, models for the 0.7 anomaly [Y. Meir et al., PRL 89,196802(2002)] suggest that the QPC lodges a Kondo-screened level with charge-correlated hybridization, which may be also affected by capacitive coupling to the QD, giving rise to a competition between the two Kondo ground states. We model the QD-QPC system as two capacitively-coupled Kondo impurities, and explore the zero-bias transport of both the QD and the QPC for different local gate voltages and coupling strengths, using the numerical renormalization group and variational methods. We find that the capacitive coupling produces a remote gating effect, non-monotonic in the gate voltages, which reduces the gate voltage window for Kondo screening in either impurity, and which can also drive a quantum phase transition out of the Kondo regime. Our study is carried out for intermediate coupling strengths, and as such is highly relevant to experiments; particularly, to recent studies of decoherence effects on QDs. Supported by MWN/CIAM and NSF PIRE.

  10. Discovery of a new phase with magnetic short range correlations and its possible relevance for the hidden order in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Steffen [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Becker, Klaus W. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we discuss a new phase of the Kondo lattice model which arises from the competition of Kondo and RKKY energy scales. Normally the Kondo lattice model is used to capture the low-energy physics of heavy fermion systems. However, according to the so-called Doniach picture the Kondo state will be replaced by an antiferromagnetic state for the case that the Kondo energy scale becomes smaller than the magnetic interaction between magnetic ions. In the present study we start instead from a modified electronic one-particle dispersion which avoids nesting of particle-hole excitations. Thus the magnetic ordered state should be suppressed which provides an opportunity for the inset of a new low-energy state with competing Kondo and magnetic energies. As will be shown, this new state avoids magnetic symmetry breaking but leads to a number of physical properties which are relevant for the understanding of the hidden order state in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  11. Developing an Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM in order to Achieve Agility via Information Technology in Manufacturing Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agility is considered the ability to respond quickly to changes and a major factor for success and survival in today's business. The purpose of this research is to offer a conceptual model using Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM. To this end after reviewing literature and theoretical background, the indices related to achieving agility via information technology (IT have been identified and then the Interpretive Structural Model in four levels has been represented. Findings show that tendency and commitment of top managers, organizational climate and strategic planning alignment with information technology planning is the major factors affecting agility achievement via information technology (IT.

  12. Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muender, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    involving a Kondo exciton and population switching in quantum dots. It turns out that both phenomena rely on the various manifestations of Anderson orthogonality (AO), which describes the fact that the response of the Fermi sea to a quantum quench (i.e. an abrupt change of some property of the impurity or quantum dot) is a change of the scattering phase shifts of all the single-particle wave functions, therefore drastically changing the system. In this context, we demonstrate that NRG, a highly accurate method for quantum impurity models, allows for the calculation of all static and dynamic quantities related to AO and present an extensive NRG study for population switching in quantum dots. (orig.)

  13. Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muender, Wolfgang

    2011-09-28

    involving a Kondo exciton and population switching in quantum dots. It turns out that both phenomena rely on the various manifestations of Anderson orthogonality (AO), which describes the fact that the response of the Fermi sea to a quantum quench (i.e. an abrupt change of some property of the impurity or quantum dot) is a change of the scattering phase shifts of all the single-particle wave functions, therefore drastically changing the system. In this context, we demonstrate that NRG, a highly accurate method for quantum impurity models, allows for the calculation of all static and dynamic quantities related to AO and present an extensive NRG study for population switching in quantum dots. (orig.)

  14. EPTS Curriculum Model in the Education of Gifted Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Sak

    Full Text Available In this article, the author reviews the EPTS Model (Education Programs for Talented Students and discuss how it was developed through multiple stages, the ways it is used to develop programs for gifted students, and then presents research carried out on the effectiveness of this model in the education of gifted students. The EPTS Model has two dimensions: ability and content. The ability dimension has a hierarchical structure composed of three levels of cognitive skills. The content dimension is the extension of the regular curriculum but organized at four levels: data, concept, generalization and theory. Included in the article also is a brief critics of the current state of curricular programs in gifted education.

  15. Applying Quality Function Deployment Model in Burn Unit Service Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Hashemi, Neda; Kharazmi, Erfan; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is one of the most effective quality design tools. This study applies QFD technique to improve the quality of the burn unit services in Ghotbedin Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. First, the patients' expectations of burn unit services and their priorities were determined through Delphi method. Thereafter, burn unit service specifications were determined through Delphi method. Further, the relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and also the relationships between service specifications were determined through an expert group's opinion. Last, the final importance scores of service specifications were calculated through simple additive weighting method. The findings show that burn unit patients have 40 expectations in six different areas. These expectations are in 16 priority levels. Burn units also have 45 service specifications in six different areas. There are four-level relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and four-level relationships between service specifications. The most important burn unit service specifications have been identified in this study. The QFD model developed in the study can be a general guideline for QFD planners and executives.

  16. A complex regulatory network controls aerobic ethanol oxidation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: indication of four levels of sensor kinases and response regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mern, Demissew S; Ha, Seung-Wook; Khodaverdi, Viola; Gliese, Nicole; Görisch, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    In addition to the known response regulator ErbR (former AgmR) and the two-component regulatory system EraSR (former ExaDE), three additional regulatory proteins have been identified as being involved in controlling transcription of the aerobic ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two putative sensor kinases, ErcS and ErcS', and a response regulator, ErdR, were found, all of which show significant similarity to the two-component flhSR system that controls methanol and formaldehyde metabolism in Paracoccus denitrificans. All three identified response regulators, EraR (formerly ExaE), ErbR (formerly AgmR) and ErdR, are members of the luxR family. The three sensor kinases EraS (formerly ExaD), ErcS and ErcS' do not contain a membrane domain. Apparently, they are localized in the cytoplasm and recognize cytoplasmic signals. Inactivation of gene ercS caused an extended lag phase on ethanol. Inactivation of both genes, ercS and ercS', resulted in no growth at all on ethanol, as did inactivation of erdR. Of the three sensor kinases and three response regulators identified thus far, only the EraSR (formerly ExaDE) system forms a corresponding kinase/regulator pair. Using reporter gene constructs of all identified regulatory genes in different mutants allowed the hierarchy of a hypothetical complex regulatory network to be established. Probably, two additional sensor kinases and two additional response regulators, which are hidden among the numerous regulatory genes annotated in the genome of P. aeruginosa, remain to be identified.

  17. Is ozonation environmentally benign for reverse osmosis concentrate treatment? Four-level analysis on toxicity reduction based on organic matter fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jingxia; Jia, Huichao; Wu, Bing; Pan, Bingcai

    2018-01-01

    Ozonation is a promising option to treat reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). However, a systematic understanding and assessment of ozonation on toxicity reduction is insufficient. In this study, ROC sampled from a typical industrial park wastewater treatment plant of China was fractionated into hydrophobic acid (HOA), hydrophobic base (HOB), hydrophobic neutral (HON), and hydrophilic fraction (HI). Systematic bioassays covering bacteria, algae, fish, and human cell lines were conducted to reveal the role of ozonation in toxicity variation of the four ROC fractions. HOA in the raw ROC exhibited the highest toxicity, followed by HON and HI. Ozonation significantly reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and UV 254 values in HOA, HON, and HI and their toxicity except in HOB. Correlation analysis indicated that chemical data (TOC and UV 254 ) of HOA and HON correlated well with their toxicities; however, poor correlations were observed for HOB and HI, suggesting that a battery of toxicity assays is necessary. This study indicates that TOC reduction during ozonation could not fully reflect the toxicity issue, and toxicity assessment is required in conjunction with the chemical data to evaluate the effectiveness of ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Delay time dependence of wave packet motion and population transfer of four-level K2 molecule in pump–pump–probe pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiqiang; Li, Changming; Guo, Wei; Yao, Hongbin

    2018-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11704178 and 11764041) and the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 15B204).

  19. Voltage-Sharing Converter to Supply Single-Phase Asymmetrical Four-Level Diode-Clamped Inverter With High Power Factor Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boora, Arash A.; Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz

    2010-01-01

    The output voltage quality of some of the single-phase multilevel inverters can be improved when their dc-link voltages are regulated asymmetrically. Symmetrical and asymmetrical multilevel diode-clamped inverters have the problem of dc-link capacitor voltage balancing, especially when power factor...... that the proposed combination of introduced multioutput dc–dc converter and single-phase ADCI is a good candidate for power conversion in residential photovoltaic (PV) utilization....

  20. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  1. Theoretical analysis of the multiple resonances for many-level spin systems. The four-level spin system of s electron ions subjected to strong microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, F.F.; Marica, F.

    1994-01-01

    The analytic steady state solutions of master equation for the density matrix of a multilevel spin system in dilute paramagnetic crystals at high temperature, subjected to strong microwave fields, are discussed. These solutions enable to obtain the populations of the levels, and the microwave powers absorbed or emitted by the crystal, in the presence of one, two or more microwave fields. A detailed theoretical study of the maser effects for s electron ions with nuclear spin one-half is carried out. In the case of three frequency correlated strong fields, when 'the spectroscopic' bridge conditions are fulfilled, sensitive detections, or high efficient generations of microwaves of frequency higher than those of the pumping fields are predicted. (author) 16 figs., 16 refs

  2. Perturbing an electromagnetically induced transparency in a Λ system using a low-frequency driving field. II. Four-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Manson, N. B.; Wei, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect a perturbing field has on an electromagnetically induced transparency within a three-level Λ system is presented. The perturbing field is applied resonant between one of the lower levels of the Λ system and a fourth level. The electromagnetically induced transparency feature is split and this is measured experimentally for both single and bichromatic driving fields. In the single-driving-field case a density matrix treatment is shown to be in reasonable agreement with experiment and in both single and bichromatic cases the structure in the spectrum can be explained using a dressed-state analysis

  3. Short communication: Glucose kinetics in dairy heifers limit-fed a low- or high-forage ration at four levels of nitrogen intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of level of forage and nitrogen (N) intake on glucose kinetics in growing dairy heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (beginning at 362 ± 7 kg body weight (BW) and 12.3 ± 0.4 months of age) were fed eight rations according to a split-plot, 4 x 4 La...

  4. All passive synchronized Q-switching of a quasi-three-level and a four-level Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Using an all passive approach, synchronized Q-switching of two Nd:YAG lasers, at 946 nm and 1064 nm, is reported. Two laser crystals are used to avoid gain competition, and stable operation is reported for the first time. The pulse trains are synchronized over a wide range of pump powers...

  5. Extended Two-Channel Kondo Phase of a Rotational Quantum Defect in a Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuo, E Fuh; Ballmann, K; Kroha, J; Borda, L

    2014-01-01

    We show by numerical renormalization group calculations that a quantum defect with a two-dimensional rotational degree of freedom, immersed in a bath of fermionic particles with angular momentum scattering, exhibits an extended 2CK phase without fine-tuning of parameters. It is stabilized by a correlation effect which causes the states with angular momentum m=±1 to be the lowest energy states of the defect. This level crossing with the noninteracting m = 0 ground state is signaled by a plateau in the temperature-dependent impurity entropy at S(T) = k_B ln 2, before the 2CK ground state value S(0) = k_B In √2 is reached.

  6. Spin-glass, antiferromagnetism and Kondo behavior in Ce 2 Au 1- ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) and magnetoresistance of various alloys of this solid solution in order to gain better knowledge of the magnetism of these alloys. High pressure resistivity behavior is consistent with the proposal that Ce2AuSi3 lies at the left-hand side of the ...

  7. Spin gap and antiferromagnetic correlations in the kondo insulator CeNiSn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Aeppli, G.; Ramirez, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements show that the crossover (at T less than or similar to 10 K) from metallic heavy-fermion to semiconducting behavior coincides with the formation of a gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum of CeNiSn. In contrast to the simple band picture of an insulator, the gap...... is well defined only at particular values of the momentum transfer Q. While substantial antiferromagnetic correlations in the a-c plane characterize the low-T state, the corresponding zero-frequency response function is Q independent....

  8. Electron spin resonance in Yb-based Kondo-lattice systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wykhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The systems Yb 1-w A 1-w (Rh 1-x Co x )(Si 1-y Ge y ) 2 with A=La respectively Lu, as well as YbIr 2 Si 2 are studied. The measurements are presented sortedly for systems, dopings, and external parameters. Beside these external parameters furthermore the orientation of the sample related to the quasistatic magnetic field and the microwave magnetic field was varied.

  9. The Kondo problem. II. Crossover from asymptotic freedom to infrared slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1982-04-01

    In the preceding paper we transformed the s-d Hamiltonian onto a resonance level with a large perturbation and derived the scaling equations for the vertices, the invariant coupling, and the resonance width. The scaling equations are integrated under the assumption that the energy dependence of the resonance width can be neglected. The transcendental equation obtained in this way for the renormalized resonance width is solved in the relevant limits and allows a calculation of the static and dynamical susceptibility. At high temperatures the perturbation expansion for the relaxation rate and the susceptibility is reproduced up to third order in Jρ. At low temperatures the lifetime and χ0 remain finite and vary according to a Fermi-liquid theory. The approximation scheme interpolates in this way between the asymptotic freedom and the infrared slavery, yielding a smooth crossover. The present results are in quantitative agreement with previous ones obtained with the relaxation-kernel method by Götze and Schlottmann. The advantages and drawbacks of the method are discussed. The calculation of the dynamical susceptibility is extended to nonzero external magnetic fields. The quasielastic peak of χ''(ω)ω is suppressed at low temperatures and large magnetic fields and shoulders develop at ω=+/-B.

  10. TQUID Magnetometer and Artificial Neural Circuitry Based on a Topological Kondo Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    samples are leached out in sodium hydroxide solution. The surfaces of these crystals were carefully etched using an equal mixture of hydrochloric acid...Dopants using EDS Left: EDS data of a 3% Ce doped SmB6 sample and right: SEM image of the sample (with 4 gold wires for transport measurements

  11. Polarized-neutron study of spin dynamics in the Kondo insulator YbB12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemkovski, K S; Mignot, J-M; Alekseev, P A; Ivanov, A S; Nefeodova, E V; Rybina, A V; Regnault, L-P; Iga, F; Takabatake, T

    2007-09-28

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on the archetype compound YbB(12), using neutron polarization analysis to separate the magnetic signal from the phonon background. With decreasing temperature, components characteristic for a single-site spin-fluctuation dynamics are suppressed, giving place to specific, strongly Q-dependent, low-energy excitations near the spin-gap edge. This crossover is discussed in terms of a simple crystal-field description of the incoherent high-temperature state and a predominantly local mechanism for the formation of the low-temperature singlet ground state.

  12. [Realistic theories of heavy electron and other strongly correlated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on the following topics is summarized: non-perturbative treatments of multi-channel Kondo models, non-perturbative treatments of multi-band models for the quadrupolar fluctuation model of the cuprates, extension of the two-channel Kondo model to other materials and treatment of the infinite-dimensional Hubbard model within the Non-crossing approximation. Data on the specific heat of Y 0.8 U 0.2 Pd 3 and the c-axis susceptibility and specific heat of U in ThRu 2 Si are shown. 5 figs., 84 refs

  13. Testing the efficacy of existing force-endurance models to account for the prevalence of obesity in the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoutan, Mojdeh; Cavuoto, Lora A; Mehta, Ranjana K

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluates whether the existing force-endurance relationship models are predictive of endurance time for overweight and obese individuals, and if not, provide revised models that can be applied for ergonomics practice. Data was collected from 141 participants (49 normal weight, 50 overweight, 42 obese) who each performed isometric endurance tasks of hand grip, shoulder flexion, and trunk extension at four levels of relative workload. Subject-specific fatigue rates and a general model of the force-endurance relationship were determined and compared to two fatigue models from the literature. There was a lack of fit between previous models and the current data for the grip (ICC = 0.8), with a shift toward lower endurance times for the new data. Application of the revised models can facilitate improved workplace design and job evaluation to accommodate the capacities of the current workforce.

  14. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...

  15. Considering a point-source in a regional air pollution model; Prise en compte d`une source ponctuelle dans un modele regional de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipphardt, M.

    1997-06-19

    This thesis deals with the development and validation of a point-source plume model, with the aim to refine the representation of intensive point-source emissions in regional-scale air quality models. The plume is modelled at four levels of increasing complexity, from a modified Gaussian plume model to the Freiberg and Lusis ring model. Plume elevation is determined by Netterville`s plume rise model, using turbulence and atmospheric stability parameters. A model for the effect of a fine-scale turbulence on the mean concentrations in the plume is developed and integrated in the ring model. A comparison between results with and without considering micro-mixing shows the importance of this effect in a chemically reactive plume. The plume model is integrated into the Eulerian transport/chemistry model AIRQUAL, using an interface between Airqual and the sub-model, and interactions between the two scales are described. A simulation of an air pollution episode over Paris is carried out, showing that the utilization of such a sub-scale model improves the accuracy of the air quality model

  16. Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  17. Models and role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Towards the maturity model for feature oriented domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the quality of a model has always been a challenge for researchers in academia and industry. The quality of a feature model is a prime factor because it is used in the development of products. A degraded feature model leads the development of low quality products. Few efforts have been made on improving the quality of feature models. This paper is an effort to present our ongoing work i.e. development of FODA (Feature Oriented Domain Analysis maturity model which will help to evaluate the quality of a given feature model. In this paper, we provide the quality levels along with their descriptions. The proposed model consists of four levels starting from level 0 to level 3. Design of each level is based on the severity of errors, whereas severity of errors decreases from level 0 to level 3. We elaborate each level with the help of examples. We borrowed all examples from the material published by the research community of Software Product Lines (SPL for the application of our framework.

  19. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  20. Models and role models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  1. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  2. Magnetism v.5

    CERN Document Server

    Suhl, Harry

    1973-01-01

    Magnetism, Volume V: Magnetic Properties of Metallic Alloys deals with the magnetic properties of metallic alloys and covers topics ranging from conditions favoring the localization of effective moments to the s-d model and the Kondo effect, along with perturbative, scattering, and Green's function theories of the s-d model. Asymptotically exact methods used in addressing the Kondo problem are also described.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a review of experimental results and phenomenology concerning the formation of local magnetic moments in metals, followed by a Har

  3. Interaction between electrons and tunneling levels in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.L.; Gyorffy, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple model in which the conduction electrons of a metallic glass experience a local time-dependent potential due to two-level tunneling states is considered. The model exhibits interesting divergent behavior which is quite different from that predicted by an earlier ''s-d Kondo'' model

  4. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  5. Similarities between the Hubbard and Periodic Anderson Models at Finite Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, K.; Huscroft, C.; Scalettar, R. T.; McMahan, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    The single band Hubbard and the two band periodic Anderson Hamiltonians have traditionally been applied to rather different physical problems--the Mott transition and itinerant magnetism, and Kondo singlet formation and scattering off localized magnetic states, respectively. In this paper, we compare the magnetic and charge correlations, and spectral functions, of the two systems. We show quantitatively that they exhibit remarkably similar behavior, including a nearly identical topology of the finite temperature phase diagrams at half filling. We address potential implications of this for theories of the rare earth ''volume collapse'' transition. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise s...

  7. A wave model test bed study for wave energy resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Neary, Vincent S.; Wang, Taiping; Gunawan, Budi; Dallman, Annie R.; Wu, Wei-Cheng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a test bed study conducted to evaluate best practices in wave modeling to characterize energy resources. The model test bed off the central Oregon Coast was selected because of the high wave energy and available measured data at the site. Two third-generation spectral wave models, SWAN and WWIII, were evaluated. A four-level nested-grid approach—from global to test bed scale—was employed. Model skills were assessed using a set of model performance metrics based on comparing six simulated wave resource parameters to observations from a wave buoy inside the test bed. Both WWIII and SWAN performed well at the test bed site and exhibited similar modeling skills. The ST4 package with WWIII, which represents better physics for wave growth and dissipation, out-performed ST2 physics and improved wave power density and significant wave height predictions. However, ST4 physics tended to overpredict the wave energy period. The newly developed ST6 physics did not improve the overall model skill for predicting the six wave resource parameters. Sensitivity analysis using different wave frequencies and direction resolutions indicated the model results were not sensitive to spectral resolutions at the test bed site, likely due to the absence of complex bathymetric and geometric features.

  8. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Rauscher, H. M.

    1993-04-06

    Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

  9. Document Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Malykh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of locally simple models is considered. Locally simple models are arbitrarily complex models built from relatively simple components. A lot of practically important domains of discourse can be described as locally simple models, for example, business models of enterprises and companies. Up to now, research in human reasoning automation has been mainly concentrated around the most intellectually intensive activities, such as automated theorem proving. On the other hand, the retailer business model is formed from ”jobs”, and each ”job” can be modelled and automated more or less easily. At the same time, the whole retailer model as an integrated system is extremely complex. In this paper, we offer a variant of the mathematical definition of a locally simple model. This definition is intended for modelling a wide range of domains. Therefore, we also must take into account the perceptual and psychological issues. Logic is elitist, and if we want to attract to our models as many people as possible, we need to hide this elitism behind some metaphor, to which ’ordinary’ people are accustomed. As such a metaphor, we use the concept of a document, so our locally simple models are called document models. Document models are built in the paradigm of semantic programming. This allows us to achieve another important goal - to make the documentary models executable. Executable models are models that can act as practical information systems in the described domain of discourse. Thus, if our model is executable, then programming becomes redundant. The direct use of a model, instead of its programming coding, brings important advantages, for example, a drastic cost reduction for development and maintenance. Moreover, since the model is well and sound, and not dissolved within programming modules, we can directly apply AI tools, in particular, machine learning. This significantly expands the possibilities for automation and

  10. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  11. Modeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    Simulation models are widely used in all types of hydrologic studies, and many of these models can be used to estimate recharge. Models can provide important insight into the functioning of hydrologic systems by identifying factors that influence recharge. The predictive capability of models can be used to evaluate how changes in climate, water use, land use, and other factors may affect recharge rates. Most hydrological simulation models, including watershed models and groundwater-flow models, are based on some form of water-budget equation, so the material in this chapter is closely linked to that in Chapter 2. Empirical models that are not based on a water-budget equation have also been used for estimating recharge; these models generally take the form of simple estimation equations that define annual recharge as a function of precipitation and possibly other climatic data or watershed characteristics.Model complexity varies greatly. Some models are simple accounting models; others attempt to accurately represent the physics of water movement through each compartment of the hydrologic system. Some models provide estimates of recharge explicitly; for example, a model based on the Richards equation can simulate water movement from the soil surface through the unsaturated zone to the water table. Recharge estimates can be obtained indirectly from other models. For example, recharge is a parameter in groundwater-flow models that solve for hydraulic head (i.e. groundwater level). Recharge estimates can be obtained through a model calibration process in which recharge and other model parameter values are adjusted so that simulated water levels agree with measured water levels. The simulation that provides the closest agreement is called the best fit, and the recharge value used in that simulation is the model-generated estimate of recharge.

  12. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  13. Model-model Perencanaan Strategik

    OpenAIRE

    Amirin, Tatang M

    2005-01-01

    The process of strategic planning, used to be called as long-term planning, consists of several components, including strategic analysis, setting strategic direction (covering of mission, vision, and values), and action planning. Many writers develop models representing the steps of the strategic planning process, i.e. basic planning model, problem-based planning model, scenario model, and organic or self-organizing model.

  14. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  15. Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzaneh [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ribeiro, Pedro [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya Street 100 A, Skolkovo, Moscow Area, 143025 (Russian Federation); Kirchner, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kirchner@correlated-matter.com [Center for Correlated Matter, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points. - Highlights: • Critical Kondo destruction explains the unusual properties of quantum critical heavy fermion compounds. • We review the concept of effective temperatures in models of critical Kondo destruction. • We compare effective temperatures found near non-interacting and fully interacting fixed points. • A comparison with non-interacting quantum impurity models is presented.

  16. [Theory of exotic superconducting and normal states of heavy electron and high Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses: quadrupole Kondo effect; heavy electron transport properties; quadrupolar fluctuation mechanism for high-T c superconductors; research accomplishments for the t--J model of high-T c superconductors; interpretation of high-T c superconductors experimental data; and dynamics of strongly correlated systems

  17. Stemcell Information: SKIP000909 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cellular and molecular pathology of astrocytes. Kondo T, Funayama M, Miyake M, Tsukita K, Era T, Osaka H, A...9 10.1186/s40478-016-0337-0 Modeling Alexander disease with patient iPSCs reveals

  18. Analytical method of CIM to PIM transformation in Model Driven Architecture (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kardos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information system’s models on higher level of abstraction have become a daily routine in many software companies. The concept of Model Driven Architecture (MDA published by standardization body OMG1 since 2001 has become a concept for creation of software applications and information systems. MDA specifies four levels of abstraction: top three levels are created as graphical models and the last one as implementation code model. Many research works of MDA are focusing on the lower levels and transformations between each other. The top level of abstraction, called Computation Independent Model (CIM and its transformation to the lower level called Platform Independent Model (PIM is not so extensive research topic. Considering to a great importance and usability of this level in practice of IS2Keywords: transformation, MDA, CIM, PIM, UML, DFD. development now our research activity is focused to this highest level of abstraction – CIM and its possible transformation to the lower PIM level. In this article we are presenting a possible solution of CIM modeling and its analytic method of transformation to PIM.

  19. Three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the pulsed-power Z-pinch accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional, fully electromagnetic model of the principal pulsed-power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator [D. H. McDaniel et al., in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches (AIP, New York, 2002, p. 23] has been developed. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the accelerator’s intermediate-storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, triplate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The insulator-stack electrodes are coupled to a transmission-line circuit model of the four-level magnetically insulated vacuum-transmission-line section and double-post-hole convolute. The vacuum-section circuit model is terminated by a one-dimensional self-consistent dynamic model of an imploding z-pinch load. The simulation results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator, and are in good agreement with the data, especially for times until peak load power. This modeling effort demonstrates that 3D electromagnetic models of large-scale, multiple-module, pulsed-power accelerators are now computationally tractable. This, in turn, presents new opportunities for simulating the operation of existing pulsed-power systems used in a variety of high-energy-density-physics and radiographic applications, as well as even higher-power next-generation accelerators before they are constructed.

  20. A calibration hierarchy for risk models was defined: from utopia to empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, Ben; Nieboer, Daan; Vergouwe, Yvonne; De Cock, Bavo; Pencina, Michael J; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2016-06-01

    Calibrated risk models are vital for valid decision support. We define four levels of calibration and describe implications for model development and external validation of predictions. We present results based on simulated data sets. A common definition of calibration is "having an event rate of R% among patients with a predicted risk of R%," which we refer to as "moderate calibration." Weaker forms of calibration only require the average predicted risk (mean calibration) or the average prediction effects (weak calibration) to be correct. "Strong calibration" requires that the event rate equals the predicted risk for every covariate pattern. This implies that the model is fully correct for the validation setting. We argue that this is unrealistic: the model type may be incorrect, the linear predictor is only asymptotically unbiased, and all nonlinear and interaction effects should be correctly modeled. In addition, we prove that moderate calibration guarantees nonharmful decision making. Finally, results indicate that a flexible assessment of calibration in small validation data sets is problematic. Strong calibration is desirable for individualized decision support but unrealistic and counter productive by stimulating the development of overly complex models. Model development and external validation should focus on moderate calibration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical model and simulations for a cw exciplex pumped alkali laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Xiaochuan

    2015-12-14

    The Exciplex Pumped Alkali Laser (XPAL) system, which is similar to DPAL (Diode Pumped Alkali vapor Laser), has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapor, Ar, with and without ethane. Unlike DPAL, it uses the broadband absorption blue satellite of the alkali D2 line, created by naturally occuring collision pairs. For example, Cs-Ar collision pairs have an absorption width which is as wide as the one of commercial semiconductor diode lasers. A continuous wave XPAL four-level theoretical model is presented in this paper. More factors are considered, such as the spectral dependence of pumped laser absorption for broadband pumping and the longitudinal population variation. Some intra-cavity details, such as longitudinal distributions of pumped laser and alkali laser, can also be solved well. The predictions of optical-to-optical efficiency as a function of temperature and pumped laser intensity are presented. The model predicts that there is an optimum value of temperature or pumped laser intensity. The analysis of the influence of cell length on optical-to-optical efficiency shows that a better performance can be achieved when using longer cell. The prediction of influence of Ar concentration and reflectivity of output coupler shows that higher optical-to-optical efficiency could be achieved if lower reflectivity of output coupler and higher Ar concentration are used. The optical-to-optical efficiency as high as 84% achieved by optimizing configuration with the pumped intensity of 5 × 10⁷ W/cm² presented shows that broadband pumped four-level XPAL system has a potential of high optical-to-optical efficiency.

  2. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  3. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...... the degrees of freedom, dependent and independent variables and solution strategy. Vapour-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium is covered, and applications to droplet evaporation and kinetic models are given....

  4. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two....... The model describes both functional and timing properties of an interface...

  5. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  6. Theoretical models of the spin-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in metals and semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    -spots'', which are an important characteristic of the spin-orbit interaction in the hole system. Based on the results for holes in GaAs, we have introduced a model for the laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization in the ferromagnetic transition metals cobalt and nickel. Our approach is based on an Elliott-Yafet-type mechanism, i.e., it describes spin-dependent dynamics due to (mainly electron-electron) scattering transitions between states including the spin-orbit interaction. By incorporating details of the optical excitation and scattering mechanisms as well as a sufficiently realistic single-particle band structure we obtain a good agreement with experimental results for the magnitude and time scale of the demagnetization in cobalt and nickel. The last part of this thesis is concerned with an attempt to include correlations of a magnetic type and to go beyond the scattering dynamics in single-particle band structures. We investigate model systems with parameters typical of ferromagnetic semiconductors. We examine correlated spin dynamics in a one-dimensional Kondo-lattice system, and explore the ground state properties by computing the relevant two-particle correlation functions starting from an uncorrelated initial state. (orig.)

  7. ICRF modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.

    1985-12-01

    This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs

  8. Kitaev honeycomb model. Majorana fermion representation and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschocke, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    and observables of the Kitaev model. This is relevant in two respects: Firstly, disorder is ubiquitous in nature and secondly, it may be used strategically to probe the response of a system. The central result of this work is that Majorana fermions hereby indeed obtain a true physical and observable significance. The thesis starts with an introduction of frustrated quantum mechanical systems and spin liquids, and discusses some of the effects that arise through lattice distortions or impurities. Afterwards we show how the frustrated interactions in the Kitaev model lead to a spin liquid ground state. The analytical solution of the model is achieved through the introduction of Majorana fermions. However, resulting from the introduction of these quasi-particles the Hilbert space per spin doubles. A central aspect of this thesis is therefore the right selection of the ''physical'' states, which correspond to a state of the original spin Hamiltonian. To do this, we distinguish between periodic and open boundary conditions explicitly. We were able to prove that there is always one excited fermion in the gapless phase of the periodic system. This leads to large finite-size effects, as we will illustrate for the susceptibility and the magnetic flux gap. Moreover we compute the static and dynamic spin susceptibilities for finite-size systems subject to disorder in the exchange couplings. In a possible experimental realization, this kind of disorder arises from lattice distortions or chemical disorder on nonmagnetic sites. Specifically, we calculate the distribution of local susceptibilities and extract the lineshape, which can be measured in nuclear-magnetic-resonance experiments. Further, for increasing disorder we predict a transition to a random-flux state. Another core of this dissertation is the investigation of a magnetic impurity in the Kitaev model. This setup represents the unusual case of a Kondo effect in a quantum spin liquid. Utilizing the

  9. Modelling in Business Model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and

  10. Acceptance of Addiction Prevention Exiting Methods and Presentation of Appropriate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Savad-Kouhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is assessment of acceptance of addiction prevention existing methods and design and present of appropriate model. Materials & Methods: This research has done by survey and desariptive method by using questionnaire we assessed knowledge and belief of people about suggesting and existing methods of addiction prevention and their acceptence and finally design new and appropriate model of addiction prevention. For designing questionnaire, first exports and professors were openly interviewed and according their views final questionnaire was planned. We used questionnaire with 2 open ended and 61 close-ended tests for gathering data. The subjects of research were 2500 persons 13-35 years old that were selected by randomized sampling from 15 provinces. Results: The findings showed that according to people who were studied, they have positive beliefs about prevention methods and their effectiveness. According to findings a good model is inclusive model that able to do in four level: knowledge, change believe and attitude, control and change behavior. Conclusion: The people of study belive that acceptance of suggesting and existing methods of addiction prevention are effective direct and indirect to others, and appropriate model is inclusive model.

  11. Characterizing the EPODE logic model: unravelling the past and informing the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Koperen, T M; Jebb, S A; Summerbell, C D; Visscher, T L S; Romon, M; Borys, J M; Seidell, J C

    2013-02-01

    EPODE ('Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité De Enfants' or 'Together let's Prevent Childhood Obesity') is a large-scale, centrally coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. Since 2004, EPODE has been implemented in over 500 communities in six countries. Although based on emergent practice and scientific knowledge, EPODE, as many community programs, lacks a logic model depicting key elements of the approach. The objective of this study is to gain insight in the dynamics and key elements of EPODE and to represent these in a schematic logic model. EPODE's process manuals and documents were collected and interviews were held with professionals involved in the planning and delivery of EPODE. Retrieved data were coded, themed and placed in a four-level logic model. With input from international experts, this model was scaled down to a concise logic model covering four critical components: political commitment, public and private partnerships, social marketing and evaluation. The EPODE logic model presented here can be used as a reference for future and follow-up research; to support future implementation of EPODE in communities; as a tool in the engagement of stakeholders; and to guide the construction of a locally tailored evaluation plan. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Eclipse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Three existing eclipse models for the PSR 1957 + 20 pulsar are discussed in terms of their requirements and the information they yield about the pulsar wind: the interacting wind from a companion model, the magnetosphere model, and the occulting disk model. It is shown out that the wind model requires an MHD wind from the pulsar, with enough particles that the Poynting flux of the wind can be thermalized; in this model, a large flux of energetic radiation from the pulsar is required to accompany the wind and drive the wind off the companion. The magnetosphere model requires an EM wind, which is Poynting flux dominated; the advantage of this model over the wind model is that the plasma density inside the magnetosphere can be orders of magnitude larger than in a magnetospheric tail blown back by wind interaction. The occulting disk model also requires an EM wind so that the interaction would be pushed down onto the companion surface, minimizing direct interaction of the wind with the orbiting macroscopic particles

  13. Ventilation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future

  14. Anisotropic magnetic phase diagram of Kondo-Lattice compound Ce3Pd20Ge6 with quadrupolar ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Jiro; Takeda, Naoya; Ishikawa, Masayasu; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ishiguro, Akiko; Kimura, Noriaki; Komatsubara, Takemi

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the specific heat and the electrical resistivity of Ce 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 in magnetic fields up to 4T applied along three principal directions. The compound shows the large negative magnetoresistance in the quadrupolar phase. The coefficient of the electronic specific heat and T 2 -coefficient of the electrical resistivity are considerably reduced at 4T. The magnetic phase diagram constructed from these measurements suggests the existence of a highly anisotropic interaction between the electric quadrupolar moments and the magnetic dipolar moments. (author)

  15. Pressure effects on the magnetic and transport properties of the Kondo lattice system Ce3RuSn6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiya, Kazuhei; Tomaki, Takeru; Kimura, Minami; Uehara, Masatomo; Gouchi, Jun; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Umehara, Izuru

    2018-05-01

    The magnetization and electrical resistivity of Ce3RuSn6 have been measured in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and in the pressure range up to 1 GPa. At ambient pressure, the magnetization shows a ferromagnetic-like steep rise below 4 K. The electrical resistivity drops at TC = 3.3 K due to the magnetic transition. We found that TC is slightly enhanced by applying pressure, suggesting that this compound sits on the left side of the peak in the Doniach phase diagram.

  16. Magneto-heat capacity study on Kondo lattice system Ce(Ni1−xCux ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author for correspondence (vganesan@csr.res.in) also been speculated from the resistivity under magnetic fields that the formation of a Fermi liquid-like behaviour is quite probable and is in line with the expectations of specific heat studies [17]. However, a convincing study is needed towards this and is the aim of the ...

  17. Electron spin resonance in Yb-based Kondo-lattice systems; Elektronenspinresonanz in Yb-basierten Kondogitter-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wykhoff, Jan

    2010-07-07

    The systems Yb{sub 1-w}A{sub 1-w}(Rh{sub 1-x}Co{sub x})(Si{sub 1-y}Ge{sub y}){sub 2} with A=La respectively Lu, as well as YbIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are studied. The measurements are presented sortedly for systems, dopings, and external parameters. Beside these external parameters furthermore the orientation of the sample related to the quasistatic magnetic field and the microwave magnetic field was varied.

  18. Distribution and infestation levels of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae on San Andrés island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluted scale Crypticerya multicicatrices (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae is an invasive insect that became a major pest on the island of San Andrés. To generate control strategies for this insect, its distribution and infestation levels on palm species, fruit trees, leguminous trees and other plant species were determined during January 14–18, 2013. A total of 96 points were sampled in order to determine the distribution of the insect on the island. During the study, the fluted scale was found distributed throughout the island of San Andrés, including Haynes Cay and Johnny Cay. The palms were the plants with the highest levels of infestation, 70.8% had some degree of infestation (37.5% high infestation levels; followed by fruit trees which had 65.6% with some degree of infestation (30.2% high infestation levels; followed by leguminous trees which had 59.6% with some degree of infestation (13.5% high infestation levels and finally “other hosts” which had 51.1% with some level of infestation (11.5% high infestation levels. This study is the first detailed mapping of C. multicicatrices on the island of San Andrés which will become the basis for future work on the population dynamics of the fluted scale and its distribution on the island.

  19. Effect of magnetic fields on the Kondo insulator CeRhSb: Magnetoresistance and high-field heat capacity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.K.; Menon, L.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The compound CeRhSb is a mixed valent Ce-based compound which shows a gap in the electronic density of states at low temperatures. The gap manifests by a rise in electrical resistivity below about 8 K from which the gap energy is estimated to be about 4 K. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on this compound in various applied fields up to 9.85 T. The magnetic contribution to the heat capacity, ΔC, is found to have a maximum in ΔC/T vs T at 10 K, below which ΔC/T is linear with T. This is attributed to the fact that below this temperature, in the gapped state, the electronic density of states decreases linearly with decreasing temperature. On application of a magnetic field, the electronic specific heat coefficient γ in the gapped state increases by ∼4mJ/molK 2 . The maximum in ΔC/T vs T is observed in all fields, which shifts to lower temperatures ∼1K at 5.32 T and raises again at 9.85 T to about the same values as at H=0T. This suggests that the gap exists for all fields up to 9.85 T. Above 10 K, in the mixed-valent state, ΔC/T vs T decreases with increasing temperature in zero field. There is hardly any effect of application of field in the mixed-valent state. We have also carried out magnetoresistance measurements on CeRhSb up to fields of 5.5 T at 2, 4.5, 10, 20, and 30 K. The magnetoresistance in CeRhSb is positive at temperatures of 4.5 K and above, in applied fields up to 5.5 T. At 5.5 T, the magnetoresistance is maximum at 4.5 K (6%) and decreases with increasing temperature. The observation of the maximum is consistent with the observation of a maximum in ΔC/T vs T and is due to a change in the density of states. At a temperature of 2 K, a negative magnetoresistance is observed for magnetic fields greater than ∼3.5T which suggests reduction in the gap. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...

  1. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  2. Model : making

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  3. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA

  4. Model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly seen at HERA. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Quantum frustrated and correlated electron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Thalmeier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available  Quantum phases and fluctuations in correlated electron systems with frustration and competing interactions are reviewed. In the localized moment case the S=1/2 J1 - J2 - model on a square lattice exhibits a rich phase diagram with magnetic as well as exotic hidden order phases due to the interplay of frustration and quantum fluctuations. Their signature in magnetocaloric quantities and the high field magnetization are surveyed. The possible quantum phase transitions are discussed and applied to layered vanadium oxides. In itinerant electron systems frustration is an emergent property caused by electron correlations. It leads to enhanced spin fluctuations in a very large region of momentum space and therefore may cause heavy fermion type low temperature anomalies as in the 3d spinel compound LiV2O4 . Competing on-site and inter-site electronic interactions in Kondo compounds are responsible for the quantum phase transition between nonmagnetic Kondo singlet phase and magnetic phase such as observed in many 4f compounds. They may be described by Kondo lattice and simplified Kondo necklace type models. Their quantum phase transitions are investigated by numerical exact diagonalization and analytical bond operator methods respectively.

  6. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  7. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  8. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  9. Didactical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Hansen, Rune

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Didactical Modelling as a research methodology in mathematics education. We compare the methodology with other approaches and argue that Didactical Modelling has its own specificity. We discuss the methodological “why” and explain why we find it useful...

  10. Design modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, van A.; Kok, H.; Wagter, H.

    1992-01-01

    In Computer Aided Drafting three groups of three-dimensional geometric modelling can be recognized: wire frame, surface and solid modelling. One of the methods to describe a solid is by using a boundary based representation. The topology of the surface of a solid is the adjacency information between

  11. Education models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Sybilla; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Educational models describes a case study on a complex learning object. Possibilities are investigated for using this learning object, which is based on a particular educational model, outside of its original context. Furthermore, this study provides advice that might lead to an increase in

  12. VENTILATION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Chipman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses

  13. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  14. STEREOMETRIC MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Grimaldi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : – the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program; – the shot visualization in two distinct windows – the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view

  15. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C α RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Appraisal of the coordinator-based transplant organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, F; De Simone, P; Mosca, F

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Italian Parliament passed a law aimed at setting the standards of practice and quality in organ, tissue and cell donation, and transplantation. For the first time in the history of Italian transplantation, a coordinator-based model reproducing some of the basic principles of the Spanish system was officially enacted by the Parliament, bringing to an end years of lacking regulation. What differentiates those coordinator-based systems adopted in Southern Europe from Northern European national and multinational transplant organizations is the functional integration of donor and transplant care activities enacted by national governments. The Italian model of transplant health care consists of four levels of transplant coordination: local, regional, interregional, and national. The latter is represented by Centro Nazionale Trapianti (CNT; the Italian National Center for Transplantation). CNT objectives consist of ensuring equitable access to donation and transplant care for all citizens according to the principles of the Italian National Health System. In achieving these goals, CNT acts in cooperation with three interregional transplant agencies: the Nord Italia Transplant program, the Associazione InterRegionale Trapianti, and the Organizzazione Centro Sud Trapianti. Whereas local and interregional coordinators are at the front line of all donation and transplant activities, regional and national coordinators function to monitor, direct, and plan donation and transplant health care activities. Based on the increase in donation and transplant activities recently achieved in those countries that have adopted a governmental coordinator-based transplant care model, we believe that such a system is appropriate to serve patients' interests according to the principles of subsidiary and equity. However, it should further be improved by expansion of the governance model throughout Europe, through implementation of current standards of care, and by adopting the

  17. Graphical Rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    Rasch models; Partial Credit models; Rating Scale models; Item bias; Differential item functioning; Local independence; Graphical models......Rasch models; Partial Credit models; Rating Scale models; Item bias; Differential item functioning; Local independence; Graphical models...

  18. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; California, University, Livermore, CA); Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the Ni-56 produced therein is reviewed. The expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra for this model of type I explosions and a model for type II explosions are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed. While the theoretical results of existing models are predicated upon the assumption of a successful core bounce calculation and the neglect of such two-dimensional effects as rotation and magnetic fields the new model suggests an entirely different scenario in which a considerable portion of the energy carried by an equatorially ejected blob is deposited in the red giant envelope overlying the mantle of the star

  19. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  20. Markov model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur ... the most accepted method for modelling LULCC using current .... We used UTM coordinate system with zone 45 .... need to develop criteria for making decision about.

  1. Paleoclimate Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Computer simulations of past climate. Variables provided as model output are described by parameter keyword. In some cases the parameter keywords are a subset of all...

  2. Energy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...

  3. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  4. Ventilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaret, Eimund

    Calculation procedures, used in the design of ventilating systems, which are especially suited for displacement ventilation in addition to linking it to mixing ventilation, are addressed. The two zone flow model is considered and the steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Different methods of supplying air are discussed, and different types of air flow are considered: piston flow, plane flow and radial flow. An evaluation model for ventilation systems is presented.

  5. Model uncertainty: Probabilities for models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Like any other type of uncertainty, model uncertainty should be treated in terms of probabilities. The question is how to do this. The most commonly-used approach has a drawback related to the interpretation of the probabilities assigned to the models. If we step back and look at the big picture, asking what the appropriate focus of the model uncertainty question should be in the context of risk and decision analysis, we see that a different probabilistic approach makes more sense, although it raise some implementation questions. Current work that is underway to address these questions looks very promising

  6. The Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) Model: An Integrated Model for Medical Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2017-11-01

    Not all students cope successfully with the demands of medical school, and students' struggles may result in study delay or dropout. To prevent these outcomes, medical schools need to identify students who are experiencing academic difficul ties and provide them with timely interventions through access to support programs. Although the importance of early identification and intervention is well recognized, less is known about successful strategies for identifying and supporting struggling students.Building on the literature and their own empirical findings, the authors propose an integrated, school-wide model for medical student success comprising a continuum of academic and behavioral support. This Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) model focuses on improving both academic and behavioral outcomes by offering support for students at four levels, which range from adequate instruction for all, to targeted small-group interventions, to individualized support, and also include exit support for students who might be better off in another degree program. Additionally, medical schools should provide both academic and behavioral support; set high, yet realistic expectations and clearly communicate these to students; and intervene early, which requires timely identification of at-risk students who would benefit from the different types and tiers of support. Finally, interventions should be evidence based and fit the needs of the identified groups of students. The authors argue that adopting the core principles of the 4T-CABS model will enable medical schools to maximize academic engagement and performance for all students.

  7. Thermocouple modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature measurements provided by thermocouples (TCs) are important for the operation of pressurized water reactors. During severe inadequate core cooling incidents, extreme temperatures may cause type K thermocouples (TCs) used for core exit temperature monitoring to perform poorly. A model of TC electrical behavior has been developed to determine how TCs react under extreme temperatures. The model predicts the voltage output of the TC and its impedance. A series of experiments were conducted on a length of type K thermocouple to validate the model. Impedance was measured at several temperatures between 22 0 C and 1100 0 C and at frequencies between dc and 10 MHz. The model was able to accurately predict impedance over this wide range of conditions. The average percentage difference between experimental data and the model was less than 6.5%. Experimental accuracy was +-2.5%. There is a sriking difference between impedance versus frequency plots at 300 0 C and at higher temperatures. This may be useful in validating TC data during accident conditions

  8. Photoionization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.

    2010-01-01

    Warm absorber spectra are characterized by the many lines from partially ionized intermediate-Z elements, and iron, detected with the grating instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. If these ions are formed in a gas which is in photoionization equilibrium, they correspond to a broad range of ionization parameters, although there is evidence for certain preferred values. A test for any dynamical model for these outflows is to reproduce these properties, at some level of detail. In this paper we present a statistical analysis of the ionization distribution which can be applied both the observed spectra and to theoretical models. As an example, we apply it to our dynamical models for warm absorber outflows, based on evaporation from the molecular torus.

  9. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  10. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  11. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  12. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  13. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the 56 Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed

  14. [Use of theories and models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health, 2000 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Arana, Gustavo Alonso

    2007-12-01

    To characterize frequency and type of use of theories or models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health between 2000 and 2004. The Revista de Saúde Pública was chosen because of its history of periodic publication without interruption and current impact on the scientific communication of the area. A standard procedure was applied for reading and classifying articles in an arbitrary typology of four levels, according to the depth of the use of models or theoretical references to describe problems or issues, to formulate methods and to discuss results. Of 482 articles included, 421 (87%) were research studies, 42 (9%) reviews or special contributions and 19 (4%) opinion texts or assays . Of 421 research studies, 286 (68%) had a quantitative focus, 110 (26%) qualitative and 25 (6%) mixed. Reference to theories or models is uncommon, only 90 (19%) articles mentioned a theory or model. According to the depth of the use, 29 (6%) were classified as type I, 9 (2%) as type II, 6 (1.3%) were type III and the 46 remaining texts (9.5%) were type IV. Reference to models was nine-fold more frequent than the use of theoretical references. The ideal use, type IV, occurred in one of every ten articles studied. It is of relevance to show theoretical and models frames used when approaching topics, formulating hypothesis, designing methods and discussing findings in papers.

  15. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  16. Entrepreneurship Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  17. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil...

  18. Eclipse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of, if one overlooks their idiosyncratic difficulties, what could be learned from the various models about the pulsar wind? The wind model requires an MHD wind from the pulsar, namely, one with enough particles that the Poynting flux of the wind can be thermalized. Otherwise, there is no shock and the pulsar wind simply reflects like a flashlight beam. Additionally, a large flux of energetic radiation from the pulsar is required to accompany the wind and drive the wind off the companion. The magnetosphere model probably requires an EM wind, which is Poynting flux dominated. Reflection in this case would arguably minimize the intimate interaction between the two flows that leads to tail formation and thereby permit a weakly magnetized tail. The occulting disk model also would point to an EM wind so that the interaction would be pushed down onto the companion surface (to form the neutral fountain) and so as to also minimize direct interaction of the wind with the orbiting macroscopic particles

  19. (SSE) model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple analytic polynomials have been proposed for estimating solar radiation in the traditional Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi. There is a strong agreement between the polynomials and the SSE model with R2 values of 0.988, 0.989 and 0.989 and root mean square errors of 0.061, 0.057 and 0.062 ...

  20. Successful modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    Tichelaar and Ruff [1989] propose to “estimate model variance in complicated geophysical problems,” including the determination of focal depth in earthquakes, by means of unconventional statistical methods such as bootstrapping. They are successful insofar as they are able to duplicate the results from more conventional procedures.

  1. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgett, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  2. Cadastral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders...

  3. The Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    About the reconstruction of Palle Nielsen's (f. 1942) work The Model from 1968: a gigantic playground for children in the museum, where they can freely romp about, climb in ropes, crawl on wooden structures, work with tools, jump in foam rubber, paint with finger paints and dress up in costumes....

  4. Biotran model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The BIOTRAN model was developed at Los Alamos to help predict short- and long-term consequences to man from releases of radionuclides into the environment. It is a dynamic model that simulates on a daily and yearly basis the flux of biomass, water, and radionuclides through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Biomass, water, and radionuclides are driven within the ecosystems by climate variables stochastically generated by BIOTRAN each simulation day. The climate variables influence soil hydraulics, plant growth, evapotranspiration, and particle suspension and deposition. BIOTRAN has 22 different plant growth strategies for simulating various grasses, shrubs, trees, and crops. Ruminants and humans are also dynamically simulated by using the simulated crops and forage as intake for user-specified diets. BIOTRAN has been used at Los Alamos for long-term prediction of health effects to populations following potential accidental releases of uranium and plutonium. Newly developed subroutines are described: a human dynamic physiological and metabolic model; a soil hydrology and irrigation model; limnetic nutrient and radionuclide cycling in fresh-water lakes. 7 references

  5. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  6. Hydroballistics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    thai h’liathe0in antd is finaull’ %IIIrd alt %tramlit And drohlttle. Mike aplpars Ito inua•,e upward in outler a rei and dowoi. ward it %iunr areli, Oil...fiducial marks should be constant and the edges phobic nor hydrophilic is better for routine sharpl ) defined. model testing. Before each launching in

  7. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  9. Building Models and Building Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Skauge, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    I rapportens indledende kapitel beskrives de primære begreber vedrørende bygningsmodeller og nogle fundamentale forhold vedrørende computerbaseret modulering bliver opstillet. Desuden bliver forskellen mellem tegneprogrammer og bygnings­model­lerings­programmer beskrevet. Vigtige aspekter om comp...

  10. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  11. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  12. Acyclic models

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.

  13. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  14. RNICE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Stritch, Justin Michael

    2018-01-01

    Replication studies relate to the scientific principle of replicability and serve the significant purpose of providing supporting (or contradicting) evidence regarding the existence of a phenomenon. However, replication has never been an integral part of public administration and management...... research. Recently, scholars have issued calls for more replication, but academic reflections on when replication adds substantive value to public administration and management research are needed. This concise article presents a conceptual model, RNICE, for assessing when and how a replication study...... contributes knowledge about a social phenomenon and advances knowledge in the public administration and management literatures. The RNICE model provides a vehicle for researchers who seek to evaluate or demonstrate the value of a replication study systematically. We illustrate the practical application...

  15. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  16. Modelling Defiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    advantageous manner. Stepping on the catwalk’s sloping, moving surfaces decelerates the models’ walk and makes it cautious, hesitant and shaky: suddenly the models lack exactly the affirmative, staccato, striving quality of motion, and the condescending expression that they perform on most contemporary......For the presentation of his autumn/winter 2012 collection in Paris and subsequently in Copenhagen, Danish designer Henrik Vibskov installed a mobile catwalk. The article investigates the choreographic impact of this scenography on those who move through it. Drawing on Dance Studies, the analytical...... focus centres on how the catwalk scenography evokes a ‘defiguration’ of the walking models and to what effect. Vibskov’s mobile catwalk draws attention to the walk, which is a key element of models’ performance but which usually functions in fashion shows merely to present clothes in the most...

  17. Cheating models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    The article discusses the use of algorithmic models for so-called High Frequency Trading (HFT) in finance. HFT is controversial yet widespread in modern financial markets. It is a form of automated trading technology which critics among other things claim can lead to market manipulation. Drawing....... The article analyses these challenges and argues that we witness a new post-social form of human-technology interaction that will lead to a reconfiguration of professional codes for financial trading....

  18. Biomimetic modelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Julian F V

    2003-01-01

    Biomimetics is seen as a path from biology to engineering. The only path from engineering to biology in current use is the application of engineering concepts and models to biological systems. However, there is another pathway: the verification of biological mechanisms by manufacture, leading to an iterative process between biology and engineering in which the new understanding that the engineering implementation of a biological system can bring is fed back into biology, allowing a more compl...

  19. Kirkpatrick evaluation model for in-service training on cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Dorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several evaluation models that can be used to evaluate the effect of in-service training; one of them is the Kirkpatrick model. The aim of the present study is to assess the in-service training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR for nurses based on the Kirkpatrick′s model. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study based on the Kirkpatrick′s model in which the efficacy of in-service training of CPR to nurses was assessed in the Shahadaye Lenjan Hospital in Isfahan province in 2014. 80 nurses and Nurse′s aides participated in the study after providing informed consent. The in-service training course was evaluated in reaction, learning, behavior, and results level of the Kirkpatrick model. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35 ± 8.5 years. The effectiveness score obtained in the reaction level (first level in the Kirkpatrick model was 4.2 ± 0.32. The effectiveness score in the second level of model or the learning level was 4.70 ± 0.09, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. The effectiveness score at the third and fourth level were 4.1 ± 0.34 and 4.3 ± 0.12, respectively. Total effectiveness score was 4.35. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that CPR in-service training has a favorable effect on all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model for nurses and nurse′s aides.

  20. Multiresolution Modeling of Semidilute Polymer Solutions: Coarse-Graining Using Wavelet-Accelerated Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Agarwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a hierarchical coarse-graining framework for modeling semidilute polymer solutions, based on the wavelet-accelerated Monte Carlo (WAMC method. This framework forms a hierarchy of resolutions to model polymers at length scales that cannot be reached via atomistic or even standard coarse-grained simulations. Previously, it was applied to simulations examining the structure of individual polymer chains in solution using up to four levels of coarse-graining (Ismail et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 122, 234901 and Ismail et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 122, 234902, recovering the correct scaling behavior in the coarse-grained representation. In the present work, we extend this method to the study of polymer solutions, deriving the bonded and non-bonded potentials between coarse-grained superatoms from the single chain statistics. A universal scaling function is obtained, which does not require recalculation of the potentials as the scale of the system is changed. To model semi-dilute polymer solutions, we assume the intermolecular potential between the coarse-grained beads to be equal to the non-bonded potential, which is a reasonable approximation in the case of semidilute systems. Thus, a minimal input of microscopic data is required for simulating the systems at the mesoscopic scale. We show that coarse-grained polymer solutions can reproduce results obtained from the more detailed atomistic system without a significant loss of accuracy.