WorldWideScience

Sample records for fossils predict body

  1. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  2. Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Timothy D.; Jei-Fu Shaw; Liang Zheng; Chun-Lan Huang; YiLung Chang; ChuanWei Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils, reports a new discovery of well preserved three dimensional macro body fossils of the Ediacaran Period in central YunNan province in the People's Republic of China. These body fossils will enable more detailed and in-depth exploration of the evolution of multi-cellular macro organisms on this planet, whereas in the past, researches could only rely on cast or imprint fossils.

  3. Allometric scaling in the dentition of primates and prediction of body weight from tooth size in fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, P D; Smith, B H; Rosenberg, K

    1982-05-01

    Tooth size varies exponentially with body weight in primates. Logarithmic transformation of tooth crown area and body weight yields a linear model of slope 0.67 as an isometric (geometric) baseline for study of dental allometry. This model is compared with that predicted by metabolic scaling (slope = 0.75). Tarsius and other insectivores have larger teeth for their body size than generalized primates do and they are not included in this analysis. Among generalized primates, tooth size is highly correlated with body size. Correlations of upper and lower cheek teeth with body size range from 0.90-0.97, depending on tooth position. Central cheek teeth (P44 and M11) have allometric coefficients ranging from 0.57-0.65, falling well below geometric scaling. Anterior and posterior cheek teeth scale at or above metabolic scaling. Considered individually or as a group, upper cheek teeth scale allometrically with lower coefficients than corresponding lower cheek teeth; the reverse is true for incisors. The sum of crown areas for all upper cheek teeth scales significantly below geometric scaling, while the sum of crown areas for all lower cheek teeth approximates geometric scaling. Tooth size can be used to predict the body weight of generalized fossil primates. This is illustrated for Aegyptopithecus and other Eocene, Oligocene, and miocene primates. Regressions based on tooth size in generalized primates yield reasonable estimates of body weight, but much remains to be learned about tooth size and body size scaling in more restricted systematic groups and dietary guilds.

  4. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated m1

  5. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating head and body length in fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates for head and body length (HBL) of fossil rodents. We assembled HBL data and tooth row length data (LTR, UTR) for a large number of extant rodents, and calculated regression lines of HBL on LTR and UTR for all rodents together (all-rodents equation), and for separate taxonomic gr

  7. On Prediction of Depreciation Time of Fossil Fuel in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Jin Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fossil fuels play a crucial role in the world energy markets. Demand for fossil fuels become increasingly high and worrisome, because of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced and ultimately exhausted. This study was conducted to predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels in Malaysia and estimate the time remaining before the fossil fuels will finish. Approach: To predict the depreciation time of fossil fuels, the reserves, consumption and prices of fossil fuel will be used. The prediction of fossil fuel reserves were estimated using ratio of fossil fuel reserve versus consumption, Klass Model and Modified Klass Model. The prediction time will give us the opportunity to prepare for the coming energy crisis and discover new energy sources. The results from the analysis will be concluded alongside with the Olduvai Theory and Hubbert Peak Theory. Both of the theories are highly related to the energy crisis. The Olduvai Theory states that the industrial civilization will last for approximately 100 year: circa 1930-2030. As for Hubbert Peak Theory, it can estimate the total amount of fossil fuels available based on the production rate from time to time. Results: Due to the vast usage of petroleum, it will be depleted faster than natural gas and coal. After 14 years, natural gas and coal will replace petroleum as a fossil fuel and coal would then be the major fossil fuels. Based on the results from Hubbert Peak Theory, the rate of production of petroleum has reached the maximum level in 2004 and started to decline since that time; while in the Olduvai theory, it has explained that the life expectancy of the industrial civilization was found to be ended in 2030. Petroleum will be spent over in 2020, followed by natural gas in 2058 and coal around the year 2066. Conclusion: So far, Malaysia has not facing disconnection of electricity as other developed countries. When this happens, it gives the meaning of the end of the

  8. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria

    OpenAIRE

    Puttick, Mark; Thomas, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small a...

  9. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns.

  10. Discovery of sponge body fossils from the late Meishucunian (Cambrian) at Jinsha, Guizhou, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xinglian; ZHAO Yuanlong; WANG Yue; WANG Pingli

    2005-01-01

    Here we report discovery of a sponge body fossil Triticispongia sp. from the base of lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation at Jinsha, Guizhou. Stratigraphically, the fossil horizon is located below Ni-Mo ore layer with the Niutitang Biota above, and is equivalent to the late Meishucunian. The species is global in shape with skeletons composed of stauractins and monaxons. Triticispongia sp. reported here may be the earliest sponge body fossils of Cambrian, which provides new informationfor understanding early evolution and radiation of sponge animals.

  11. Finding fossils in new ways: an artificial neural network approach to predicting the location of productive fossil localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemone, Robert; Emerson, Charles; Conroy, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Chance and serendipity have long played a role in the location of productive fossil localities by vertebrate paleontologists and paleoanthropologists. We offer an alternative approach, informed by methods borrowed from the geographic information sciences and using recent advances in computer science, to more efficiently predict where fossil localities might be found. Our model uses an artificial neural network (ANN) that is trained to recognize the spectral characteristics of known productive localities and other land cover classes, such as forest, wetlands, and scrubland, within a study area based on the analysis of remotely sensed (RS) imagery. Using these spectral signatures, the model then classifies other pixels throughout the study area. The results of the neural network classification can be examined and further manipulated within a geographic information systems (GIS) software package. While we have developed and tested this model on fossil mammal localities in deposits of Paleocene and Eocene age in the Great Divide Basin of southwestern Wyoming, a similar analytical approach can be easily applied to fossil-bearing sedimentary deposits of any age in any part of the world. We suggest that new analytical tools and methods of the geographic sciences, including remote sensing and geographic information systems, are poised to greatly enrich paleoanthropological investigations, and that these new methods should be embraced by field workers in the search for, and geospatial analysis of, fossil primates and hominins.

  12. Dinosaur body temperatures determined from isotopic (¹³C-¹⁸O) ordering in fossil biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Tütken, Thomas; Martin, Taylor S; Tripati, Aradhna K; Fricke, Henry C; Connely, Melissa; Cifelli, Richard L; Eiler, John M

    2011-07-22

    The nature of the physiology and thermal regulation of the nonavian dinosaurs is the subject of debate. Previously, arguments have been made for both endothermic and ectothermic metabolisms on the basis of differing methodologies. We used clumped isotope thermometry to determine body temperatures from the fossilized teeth of large Jurassic sauropods. Our data indicate body temperatures of 36° to 38°C, which are similar to those of most modern mammals. This temperature range is 4° to 7°C lower than predicted by a model that showed scaling of dinosaur body temperature with mass, which could indicate that sauropods had mechanisms to prevent excessively high body temperatures being reached because of their gigantic size.

  13. Contemporaneous trace and body fossils from a late Pleistocene Lakebed in Victoria, Australia, allow assessment of bias in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camens, Aaron Bruce; Carey, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of vertebrate trace and body fossils within a single geological formation is rare and the probability of these parallel records being contemporaneous (i.e. on or near the same bedding plane) is extremely low. We report here a late Pleistocene locality from the Victorian Volcanic Plains in south-eastern Australia in which demonstrably contemporaneous, but independently accumulated vertebrate trace and body fossils occur. Bite marks from a variety of taxa are also present on the bones. This site provides a unique opportunity to examine the biases of these divergent fossil records (skeletal, footprints and bite marks) that sampled a single fauna. The skeletal record produced the most complete fauna, with the footprint record indicating a markedly different faunal composition with less diversity and the feeding traces suggesting the presence, amongst others, of a predator not represented by either the skeletal or footprint records. We found that the large extinct marsupial predator Thylacoleo was the only taxon apparently represented by all three records, suggesting that the behavioral characteristics of large carnivores may increase the likelihood of their presence being detected within a fossil fauna. In contrast, Diprotodon (the largest-ever marsupial) was represented only by trace fossils at this site and was absent from the site's skeletal record, despite its being a common and easily detected presence in late Pleistocene skeletal fossil faunas elsewhere in Australia. Small mammals absent from the footprint record for the site were represented by skeletal fossils and bite marks on bones.

  14. The fossils of Orsten-type preservation from Middle and Upper Cambrian in Hunan,China-- Three-dimensionally preserved soft- bodied fossils (Arthropods)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiping; Philip C. J Donoghue; LIU Zheng; LIU Jie; PENG Fan

    2005-01-01

    Exquisitely preserved three-dimensional soft- bodied fossils and typical Orsten-type preservation have been found from the strata of Middle and Late Cambrian in western Hunan, China. A preliminary description is provided for Hesslandona sp. (Phosphatocopida, Crustacea, Arthropoda) and Skara sp. (Skaracarida, Crustaceam, Arthropoda). The scientific significance of Orsten-type preservation and prospects for future work on these fossils from Hunan are outlined.

  15. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  16. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas eHeider; Adriaan eSpruyt; Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  17. Body Surface Area Prediction in Odorrana grahami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Jiongyu LIU; Qiang DAI; Jianping JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) was regarded as a more readily quantiifable parameter relative to body mass in the normalization of comparative biochemistry and physiology. The BSA prediction has attracted unceasing research back more than a century on animals, especially on humans and rats. Few studies in this area for anurans were reported, and the equation for body surface area (S) and body mass (W):S=9.9 W 0.56, which was concluded from toads of four species in 1969, was generally adopted to estimate the body surface areas for anurans until recent years. However, this equation was not applicable to Odorrana grahami. The relationship between body surface area and body mass for this species was established as:S=15.4 W 0.579. Our current results suggest estimation equations should be used cautiously across different species and body surface area predictions on more species need to be conducted.

  18. Implicit Beliefs about Ideal Body Image Predict Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas eHeider

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin. Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  19. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  20. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.

  1. Paleoredoc and pyritization of soft-bodied fossils in the Ordovician Frankfort Shale of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Una C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization by inves......Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization...

  2. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ(18)Ocalc and δ(13)Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ(18)Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in (18)O relative to (16)O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ(18)Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ(18)Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ(13)Ccalc and δ(18)Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ(13)Ccalc and high δ(18)Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  3. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  4. Sponge grade body fossil with cellular resolution dating 60 Myr before the Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zongjun; Zhu, Maoyan; Davidson, Eric H; Bottjer, David J; Zhao, Fangchen; Tafforeau, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An extraordinarily well preserved, 600-million-year (Myr)-old, three-dimensionally phosphatized fossil displaying multiple independent characters of modern adult sponges has been analyzed by SEM and synchrotron X-ray tomography. The fossilized animal (Eocyathispongia qiania gen. et sp. nov.) is slightly more than 1.2 mm wide and 1.1 mm tall, is composed of hundreds of thousands of cells, and has a gross structure consisting of three adjacent hollow tubes sharing a common base. The main tube is crowned with a large open funnel, and the others end in osculum-like openings to the exterior. The external surface is densely covered with flat tile-like cells closely resembling sponge pinacocytes, and this layer is punctuated with smaller pores. A dense patch of external structures that display the form of a lawn of sponge papillae has also survived. Within the main funnel, an area where features of the inner surface are preserved displays a regular pattern of uniform pits. Many of them are surrounded individually by distinct collars, mounted in a supporting reticulum. The possibility cannot be excluded that these pits are the remains of a field of choanocytes. The character set evinced by this specimen, ranging from general anatomy to cell type, uniquely indicates that this specimen is a fossil of probable poriferan affinity. So far, we have only this single specimen, and although its organized and complex cellular structure precludes any reasonable interpretation that its origin is abiogenic, confirmation that it is indeed a fossilized sponge will clearly require discovery of additional specimens.

  5. The celestial factor and the formula to explain or predict all extinctions of the fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elewa, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    In reality there are various kinds of explanations for each type of extinction. This paper introduces a new theory to explain and to estimate the size and frequency of all extinctions over the entire period of 600 my of the fossil record. The central point was the search for a common pattern and

  6. Surrogate gas prediction model as a proxy for Δ14C-based measurements of fossil fuel CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Kevin J.; Miller, John B.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Ben R.

    2016-06-01

    The measured 14C:12C isotopic ratio of atmospheric CO2 (and its associated derived Δ14C value) is an ideal tracer for determination of the fossil fuel derived CO2 enhancement contributing to any atmospheric CO2 measurement (Cff). Given enough such measurements, independent top-down estimation of U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions should be possible. However, the number of Δ14C measurements is presently constrained by cost, available sample volume, and availability of mass spectrometer measurement facilities. Δ14C is therefore measured in just a small fraction of samples obtained by flask air sampling networks around the world. Here we develop a projection pursuit regression (PPR) model to predict Cff as a function of multiple surrogate gases acquired within the NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN). The surrogates consist of measured enhancements of various anthropogenic trace gases, including CO, SF6, and halocarbon and hydrocarbon acquired in vertical airborne sampling profiles near Cape May, NJ and Portsmouth, NH from 2005 to 2010. Model performance for these sites is quantified based on predicted values corresponding to test data excluded from the model building process. Chi-square hypothesis test analysis indicates that these predictions and corresponding observations are consistent given our uncertainty budget which accounts for random effects and one particular systematic effect. However, quantification of the combined uncertainty of the prediction due to all relevant systematic effects is difficult because of the limited range of the observations and their relatively high fractional uncertainties at the sampling sites considered here. To account for the possibility of additional systematic effects, we incorporate another component of uncertainty into our budget. Expanding the number of Δ14C measurements in the NOAA GGGRN and building new PPR models at additional sites would improve our understanding of

  7. Surrogate gas prediction model as a proxy for Δ(14)C-based measurements of fossil fuel-CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Kevin J; Miller, John B; Montzka, Stephen A; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Ben R

    2016-06-27

    The measured (14)C:(12)C isotopic ratio of atmospheric CO2 (and its associated derived Δ(14)C value) is an ideal tracer for determination of the fossil fuel derived CO2 enhancement contributing to any atmospheric CO2 measurement (Cff ). Given enough such measurements, independent top-down estimation of US fossil fuel-CO2 emissions should be possible. However, the number of Δ(14)C measurements is presently constrained by cost, available sample volume, and availability of mass spectrometer measurement facilities. Δ(14)C is therefore measured in just a small fraction of samples obtained by ask air sampling networks around the world. Here, we develop a Projection Pursuit Regression (PPR) model to predict Cff as a function of multiple surrogate gases acquired within the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN). The surrogates consist of measured enhancements of various anthropogenic trace gases, including CO, SF6, and halo- and hydrocarbons acquired in vertical airborne sampling profiles near Cape May, NJ and Portsmouth, NH from 2005 through 2010. Model performance for these sites is quantified based on predicted values corresponding to test data excluded from the model building process. Chi-square hypothesis test analysis indicates that these predictions and corresponding observations are consistent given our uncertainty budget which accounts for random effects and one particular systematic effect. However, quantification of the combined uncertainty of the prediction due to all relevant systematic effects is difficult because of the limited range of the observations and their relatively high fractional uncertainties at the sampling sites considered here. To account for the possibility of additional systematic effects, we incorporate another component of uncertainty into our budget. Expanding the number of Δ(14)C measurements in the NOAA GGGRN and building new PPR models at additional sites would improve our understanding of uncertainties and

  8. Origin of the Eumetazoa: testing ecological predictions of molecular clocks against the Proterozoic fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular clocks have the potential to shed light on the timing of early metazoan divergences, but differing algorithms and calibration points yield conspicuously discordant results. We argue here that competing molecular clock hypotheses should be testable in the fossil record, on the principle that fundamentally new grades of animal organization will have ecosystem-wide impacts. Using a set of seven nuclear-encoded protein sequences, we demonstrate the paraphyly of Porifera and calculate sponge/eumetazoan and cnidarian/bilaterian divergence times by using both distance [minimum evolution (ME)] and maximum likelihood (ML) molecular clocks; ME brackets the appearance of Eumetazoa between 634 and 604 Ma, whereas ML suggests it was between 867 and 748 Ma. Significantly, the ME, but not the ML, estimate is coincident with a major regime change in the Proterozoic acritarch record, including: (i) disappearance of low-diversity, evolutionarily static, pre-Ediacaran acanthomorphs; (ii) radiation of the high-diversity, short-lived Doushantuo-Pertatataka microbiota; and (iii) an order-of-magnitude increase in evolutionary turnover rate. We interpret this turnover as a consequence of the novel ecological challenges accompanying the evolution of the eumetazoan nervous system and gut. Thus, the more readily preserved microfossil record provides positive evidence for the absence of pre-Ediacaran eumetazoans and strongly supports the veracity, and therefore more general application, of the ME molecular clock.

  9. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  10. Marquee Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2008-01-01

    Professors of an online graduate-level paleontology class developed the concept of marquee fossils--fossils that have one or more unique characteristics that capture the attention and direct observation of students. In the classroom, Marquee fossils integrate the geology, biology, and environmental science involved in the study of fossilized…

  11. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  12. Are the oldest 'fossils', fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative statistical study has been carried out on populations of modern algae, Precambrian algal microfossils, the 'organized elements' of the Orgueil carbonaceous meteorite, and the oldest microfossil-like objects now known (spheroidal bodies from the Fig Tree and Onverwacht Groups of the Swaziland Supergroup, South Africa). The distribution patterns exhibited by the more than 3000 m.y.-old Swaziland microstructures bear considerable resemblance to those of the abiotic 'organized elements' but differ rather markedly from those exhibited by younger, assuredly biogenic, populations. Based on these comparisons, it is concluded that the Swaziland spheroids could be, at least in part, of nonbiologic origin; these oldest known fossil-like microstructures should not be regarded as constituting firm evidence of Archean life.

  13. Turning maneuvers in sharks: Predicting body curvature from axial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2009-08-01

    Given the diversity of vertebral morphologies among fishes, it is tempting to propose causal links between axial morphology and body curvature. We propose that shape and size of the vertebrae, intervertebral joints, and the body will more accurately predict differences in body curvature during swimming rather than a single meristic such as total vertebral number alone. We examined the correlation between morphological features and maximum body curvature seen during routine turns in five species of shark: Triakis semifasciata, Heterodontus francisci, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Hemiscyllium ocellatum. We quantified overall body curvature using three different metrics. From a separate group of size-matched individuals, we measured 16 morphological features from precaudal vertebrae and the body. As predicted, a larger pool of morphological features yielded a more robust prediction of maximal body curvature than vertebral number alone. Stepwise linear regression showed that up to 11 features were significant predictors of the three measures of body curvature, yielding highly significant multiple regressions with r(2) values of 0.523, 0.537, and 0.584. The second moment of area of the centrum was always the best predictor, followed by either centrum length or transverse height. Ranking as the fifth most important variable in three different models, the body's total length, fineness ratio, and width were the most important non-vertebral morphologies. Without considering the effects of muscle activity, these correlations suggest a dominant role for the vertebral column in providing the passive mechanical properties of the body that control, in part, body curvature during swimming. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Fossil turbulence revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  15. Ediacara Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Now, a research team from Virginia Tech and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology has discovered uniquely well-preserved fossil forms from 550-million-year-old rocks of the Ediacaran Period. The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The discovery of these unusually preserved fossils reveals unprecedented…

  16. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  17. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  18. The stratigraphy of cretaceous mudstones in the eastern Fuegian Andes: new data from body and trace fossils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Olivero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy of Cretaceous marine mudstones in the Fuegian Andes, roughly equivalent to Charles Darwin's clay-slate formation, remains a still unsolved problem. Previous records of Albian, Turonian-Coniacian, and Santonian-Campanian bivalves are combined with new findings of the Late Albian inoceramid Inoceramus anglicus Woods, and the Maastrichtian ammonites Diplomoceras sp., Anagaudryceras sp., Maorites densicostatus (Kilian and Reboul, Maorites sp., and Pachydiscus (Neodesmoceras sp. to further constrain the Cretaceous stratigraphy of the eastern Fuegian Andes. In addition, new records of distinctive trace fossils and ichnofabric are meaningful for stratigraphic division and delineation of paleoenvironmental settings in these Cretaceous mudstones. The Lower Cretaceous ichnoassemblage of Chondrites targioni (Brongniart and Zoophycos isp. is consistent with the inferred slope-volcaniclastic apron settings of the Yahgan Formation; Nereites missouriensis (Weller reflects distal basin plain depositional settings for the Beauvoir Formation. In the Upper Cretaceous, the "Estratos de Buen Suceso" record the earliest extensively bioturbated horizons, reflecting prolonged well-oxygenated bottom conditions. In the Bahía Thetis Formation, organic-rich, channel margin or distal basin slaty mudstones record the last occurrence of inoceramid bivalves in the Austral Basin; the generalized absence of trace fossils is consistent with dysoxic bottom conditions. The thoroughly bioturbated Policarpo Formation, records a marked change in paleoceanographic conditions. The strong contrast in the intensity of bioturbation between the Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian Bahía Thetis Formation, almost devoid of trace fossils, and the highly bioturbated Maastrichtian-Danian Policarpo Formation reflects a change from dysoxic-anoxic to well ventilated conditions, probably associated with a cooling trend of bottom waters in the austral deep oceans.

  19. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  20. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets.

  1. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  2. MONDian three-body predictions for LISA Pathfinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevis, Neil; Magueijo, Joao [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Trenkel, Christian; Kemble, Steve, E-mail: n.bevis@imperial.ac.u, E-mail: magueijo@ic.ac.u, E-mail: Christian.Trenkel@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium Ltd, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-07

    In previous work it was shown that modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theories predict anomalously strong tidal stresses near the saddle points of the Newtonian gravitational potential. An analytical examination of the saddle between two bodies revealed a linear and a nonlinear solution, valid for the outer and inner regions. Here we present a numerical algorithm for solving the MOND equations. We check the code against the two-body analytical solutions and explore the region transitioning between them. We then develop a realistic model for the MONDian effects on the saddles of the Sun-Earth-Moon system (including further sources is straightforward). For the Sun-Earth saddle we find that the two-body results are almost unchanged, with corrections increasing from full to new Moon. In contrast, the Moon saddle is an intrinsically three-body problem, but we numerically find a recipe for adapting the two-body solution to this case, by means of a suitable rescaling and axis reorientation. We explore possible experimental scenarios for LISA Pathfinder and the prospect of a visit to the saddle(s) at the end of the mission. Given the chaotic nature of the orbits, awareness of the full range of the possibilities is crucial for a realistic prediction. We conclude that even with very conservative assumptions on the impact parameter, the accelerometers are abundantly sensitive to vindicate or rule out the theory.

  3. Approaches to bioremediation of fossil fuel contaminated soil: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological methods for combating pollutants generated within the fossil fuels ... metabolism of fossil fuel contaminants in soil and water bodies is presented. ... Keywords: Fossil fuels, coal, petroleum hydrocarbons, biodegradation, pollutants

  4. A new model of the formation of Pennsylvanian iron carbonate concretions hosting exceptional soft-bodied fossils in Mazon Creek, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotroneo, S; Schiffbauer, J D; McCoy, V E; Wortmann, U G; Darroch, S A F; Peng, Y; Laflamme, M

    2016-11-01

    Preservation of Pennsylvanian-aged (307 Ma) soft-bodied fossils from Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA, is attributed to the formation of siderite concretions, which encapsulate the remains of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine flora and fauna. The narrow range of positive δ(34) S values from pyrite in individual concretions suggests microenvironmentally limited ambient sulfate, which may have been rapidly exhausted by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Tissue of the decaying carcass was rapidly encased by early diagenetic pyrite and siderite produced within the sulfate reduction and methanogenic zones of the sediment, with continuation of the latter resulting in concretion cementation. Cross-sectional isotopic analyses (δ(13) C and δ(18) O) and mineralogical characterization of the concretions point to initiation of preservation in high porosity proto-concretions during the early phases of microbially induced decay. The proto-concretion was cemented prior to compaction of the sediments by siderite as a result of methanogenic production of (13) C-rich bicarbonate-which varies both between Essex and Braidwood concretions and between fossiliferous and unfossiliferous concretions. This work provides the first detailed geochemical study of the Mazon Creek siderite concretions and identifies the range of conditions allowing for exceptional soft-tissue fossil formation as seen at Mazon Creek.

  5. MONDian three-body predictions for LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bevis, Neil; Trenkel, Christian; Kemble, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In previous work it was shown that MOND theories predict anomalously strong tidal stresses near the saddle points of the Newtonian gravitational potential. An analytical examination of the saddle between two bodies revealed a linear and a non-linear solution, valid for the outer and inner regions. Here we present a numerical algorithm for solving the MOND equations. We check the code against the two-body analytical solutions and explore the region transitioning between them. We then develop a a realistic model for the MONDian effects on the saddles of the Sun-Earth-Moon system (including further sources is straightforward). For the Sun-Earth saddle we find that the two-body results are almost unchanged, with corrections increasing from full to new Moon. In contrast, the Moon saddle is an intrinsically three-body problem, but we numerically find a recipe for adapting the two-body solution to this case, by means of a suitable re-scaling and axis re-orientation. We explore possible experimental scenarios for LIS...

  6. Impact injury prediction by FE human body model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical simulations as powerful instruments are used in many areas such as traffic, medicine, sport, army etc. The simulations are often performed with models, which are based on the Finite Element Method. The great ability of FE deformable models of human bodies is to predict the injuries during accidents. Due to its modular implementation of thorax and abdomen FE models, human articulated rigid body model ROBBY, which was previously developed at the University of West Bohemia in cooperation with ESI Group (Engineering Simulation for Industry, can be used for this purpose. ROBBY model representing average adult man is still being improved to obtain more precise model of human body with the possibility to predict injuries during accidents. Recently, new generated thoracic model was embedded into ROBBY model and this was subsequently satisfactorily validated. In this study the updated ROBBY model was used and injury of head and thorax were investigated during frontal crashes simulated by virtue of two types of sled tests with various types of restraint system (shoulder belt, lap belt and airbag. The results of the simulation were compared with the experimental ones.

  7. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  8. Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

    2014-02-01

    Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds.

  9. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro......BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic...... or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated...... genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from...

  10. Body region dissatisfaction predicts attention to body regions on other women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Ferris, Tamara; Graham, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of "idealized" (i.e., very thin and attractive) women in the media has contributed to increasing rates of body dissatisfaction among women. However, it remains relatively unknown how women attend to these images: does dissatisfaction predict greater or lesser attention to these body regions on others? Fifty healthy women (mean age=21.8 years) viewed images of idealized and plus-size models; an eye-tracker recorded visual attention. Participants also completed measures of satisfaction for specific body regions, which were then used as predictors of visual attention to these regions on models. Consistent with an avoidance-type process, lower levels of satisfaction with the two regions of greatest reported concern (mid, lower torso) predicted less attention to these regions; greater satisfaction predicted more attention to these regions. While this visual attention bias may aid in preserving self-esteem when viewing idealized others, it may preclude the opportunity for comparisons that could improve self-esteem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of quantum many-body chaos in protactinium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Viatkina, A V; Flambaum, V V

    2016-01-01

    Energy level spectrum of protactinium atom (Pa, Z=91) is simulated with a CI calculation. Levels belonging to the separate manifolds of a given total angular momentum and parity $J^\\pi$ exhibit distinct properties of many-body quantum chaos. Moreover, an extremely strong enhancement of small perturbations takes place. As an example, effective three-electron interaction is investigated and found to play a significant role in the system. Chaotic properties of the eigenstates allow one to develop a statistical theory and predict probabilities of different processes in chaotic systems.

  12. Prediction of Core Body Temperature from Multiple Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Victoria L; Davey, Sarah; Griggs, Katy; Havenith, George

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24.2±5.1 years; 62.4±11.5kg; 169±3cm) volunteers completed six trials, each consisting of two 40-min periods of treadmill walking separated by a 20-min rest, wearing permeable or impermeable clothing, under neutral (25°C, 50%), moderate (35°C, 35%), and hot (40°C, 25%) conditions, with and without solar radiation (600W m(-2)). Participants were measured for heart rate (HR) (Polar, Finland), skin temperature (T s) at 11 sites, T is (Grant, Cambridge, UK), and breathing rate (f) (Hidalgo, Cambridge, UK). T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing. T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe (Grant, Cambridge, UK). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables (T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature, and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate) were the strongest on which to base the model. Using a bootstrap methodology to develop the equation, the best model in terms of practicality and validity included T is, T mc, HR, and 'work' (0 = rest; 1 = exercise), predicting T re with a standard error of the estimate of 0.27°C and adjusted r (2) of 0.86. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting individuals who reached 39°C was 97 and 85%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual

  13. Evolution of body size, vision, and biodiversity of coral-associated organisms: evidence from fossil crustaceans in cold-water coral and tropical coral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Jakobsen, Sten L; Lauridsen, Bodil W

    2016-06-16

    Modern cold-water coral and tropical coral environments harbor a highly diverse and ecologically important macrofauna of crustaceans that face elevated extinction risks due to reef decline. The effect of environmental conditions acting on decapod crustaceans comparing these two habitats is poorly understood today and in deep time. Here, we compare the biodiversity, eye socket height as a proxy for eye size, and body size of decapods in fossil cold-water and tropical reefs that formed prior to human disturbance. We show that decapod biodiversity is higher in fossil tropical reefs from The Netherlands, Italy, and Spain compared to that of the exceptionally well-preserved Paleocene (Danian) cold-water reef/mound ecosystem from Faxe (Denmark), where decapod diversity is highest in a more heterogeneous, mixed bryozoan-coral habitat instead of in coral and bryozoan-dominated facies. The relatively low diversity at Faxe was not influenced substantially by the preceding Cretaceous/Paleogene extinction event that is not apparent in the standing diversity of decapods in our analyses, or by sampling, preservation, and/or a latitudinal diversity gradient. Instead, the lower availability of food and fewer hiding places for decapods may explain this low diversity. Furthermore, decapods from Faxe are larger than those from tropical waters for half of the comparisons, which may be caused by a lower number of predators, the delayed maturity, and the increased life span of crustaceans in deeper, colder waters. Finally, deep-water specimens of the benthic crab Caloxanthus from Faxe exhibit a larger eye socket size compared to congeneric specimens from tropical reefs, suggesting that dim light conditions favored the evolution of relatively large eyes. The results suggest a strong habitat control on the biodiversity of crustaceans in coral-associated environments and that the diversity difference between deep, cold-water reefs and tropical reefs evolved at least ~63 million years ago

  14. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  15. The validity of predicted body fat percent from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Andreoli, A.; Borg, P.; Kukkonen-Harjula, K.; Lorenzo, de A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.; Testolin, G.; Vigano, R.; Vollaard, N.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To test and compare the validity of a body mass index (BMI)-based prediction equation and an impedance-based prediction equation for body fat percentage among various European population groups. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: The study was performed in five differ

  16. The accuracy of the body adiposity index for predicting body fat percentage in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. A scientific study of this novel method in athletic groups is warranted because of the possibility of it serving as an inexpensive field technique. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the BAI for predicting BF% in a group of collegiate female athletes by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion variable. Thirty college-aged female athletes (age = 20.0 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. For each participant, BF% was obtained with the BAI method and compared with DXA. The mean BF% was 27.1 ± 3.4 by the BAI and 26.7 ± 5.9 from DXA, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, the BAI did not provide a significant correlation with the DXA (r = 0.28, R2 = 0.08, p > 0.05) and resulted in a standard error of estimate = 5.78% and total error = 5.84%. Bland-Altman plot showed that the limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) between the DXA and BAI ranged between -10.2 and 11.8%, and there was a significant negative association between the difference and mean of the 2 methods (r = -0.52, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that BAI results in large individual errors when predicting BF% in female athletes and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method should not be used for predicting individual BF% in athletic women.

  17. Body composition and prediction equations using skinfold thickness for body fat percentage in Southern Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA. The prevalence of overweight in adolescents was 20.9%, and obesity 5.8%. Regression analysis through ordinary least square method (OLS) allowed obtainment of three equations with values of R2 = 0.935, 0.912 and 0.850, standard error estimated = 1.79, 1.78 and 1.87, and bias = 0.06, 0.20 and 0.05, respectively. the innovation of this study lies in presenting new regression equations for predicting body fat in Southern Brazilian adolescents based on a representative and heterogeneous sample from DXA.

  18. Predicting the decay time of solid body electric guitar tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paté, Arthur; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Fabre, Benoît

    2014-05-01

    Although it can be transformed by various electronic devices, the sound of the solid body electric guitar originates from, and is strongly linked with, the string vibration. The coupling of the string with the guitar alters its vibration and can lead to decay time inhomogeneities. This paper implements and justifies a framework for the study of decay times of electric guitar tones. Two damping mechanisms are theoretically and experimentally identified: the string intrinsic damping and the damping due to mechanical coupling with the neck of the guitar. The electromagnetic pickup is shown to not provide any additional damping to the string. The pickup is also shown to be far more sensitive to the out-of-plane polarization of the string. Finally, an accurate prediction of the decay time of electric guitar tones is made possible, whose only requirements are the knowledge of the isolated string dampings and the out-of-plane conductance at the neck of the guitar. This prediction can be of great help for instrument makers and manufacturers.

  19. The largest fossil rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000 kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2 Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

  20. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance.The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance.Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo and vapor permeability indexes (im were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert, hot/humid (jungle, and temperate environmental conditions.In nearly still air (0.4 m/s, IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA.Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance.

  1. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Behshid Garrusi; Saeide Garousi; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultura...

  2. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, a

  3. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, a

  4. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body,

  5. Prediction of body mass index in children from skinfold thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pinheiro Gordia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify which skinfold thicknesses best predict the Body Mass Index (BMI of children aged 6 to 10 years. The sample consisted of 188 schoolchildren (99 boys and 89 girls from the private Education System of the city of Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Anthropometric variables were measured: body mass and height (for computing BMI and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, oblique midaxillary, oblique suprailiac, vertical abdominal and medial calf. The relationships between skinfolds and BMI were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independence and mutual contribution of skinfolds to prediction of BMI, with p ResumoO objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar as dobras cutâneas que melhor predizem o Índice de Massa Corporal em crianças de 6 a 10 anos de idade. Participaram desta investigação 188 escolares da rede particular de ensino do município de Ponta Grossa, Paraná, sendo 99 meninos e 89 meninas. Foram realizadas avaliações antropométricas da massa corporal (MC, kg e estatura (EST, cm, para cálculo do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC, kg.m-2, e dobras cutâneas (DC, mm do bíceps, tríceps, subescapular, axilar oblíqua, supra-ilíaca oblíqua, abdominal vertical, panturrilha medial. A inter-relação entre as DC e o IMC foi quantificada através da correlação de Pearson. A regressão múltipla Stepwise foi usada para determinar a independência e contribuição coletiva das dobras cutâneas na predição do IMC, sendo p<0,05. Para os meninos, a DC abdominal (modelo 1 foi um forte preditor do IMC, explicando 72,3% da variância, ao passo que a adição da DC subescapular (modelo 2 pouco alterou a variância, passando para 73,7%. Para as meninas, os resultados indicaram que a DC supra-ilíaca foi responsável por 82% da variância no IMC (modelo1, e a adição da DC do tríceps (modelo 2 aumentou a proporção da variância na rela

  6. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes...

  7. Application of computational neural networks in predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hawary, F. [BH Engineering Systems & Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The ability to accurately predict the behavior of a dynamic system is of essential importance in monitoring and control of complex processes. In this regard recent advances in neural-net based system identification represent a significant step toward development and design of a new generation of control tools for increased system performance and reliability. The enabling functionality is the one of accurate representation of a model of a nonlinear and nonstationary dynamic system. This functionality provides valuable new opportunities including: (1) The ability to predict future system behavior on the basis of actual system observations, (2) On-line evaluation and display of system performance and design of early warning systems, and (3) Controller optimization for improved system performance. In this presentation, we discuss the issues involved in definition and design of learning control systems and their impact on power system control. Several numerical examples are provided for illustrative purpose.

  8. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  9. Body image and body change: Predictive factors in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD of age was 31.06 (10.24 years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  10. Seeing ghosts: negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Jansen, Anita; Martijn, Carolien

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, and of a neutral object, were followed by nonverbal social feedback (i.e., facial crowds with equal numbers of negative, positive, and neutral faces). Afterward, women estimated the percentage of negative, positive, and neutral social feedback that followed their own body, the control woman's body, and the neutral object. The findings provided evidence for a covariation bias: negative body evaluation predicted higher estimates of negative social feedback for women's own body, but not for the other stimuli. Additionally, the covariation bias was not explained by differences in how women interpreted the social feedback (the facial stimuli). Clinical implications of the covariation bias to body image are discussed.

  11. Comparative research on Cambrian Burgess Shale-type soft-bodied fossil biotas in South China%华南布尔吉斯页岩型软躯体化石生物群对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段艳红; 韩健; 张志飞; 刘建妮

    2012-01-01

    Aim To combing from the Burgess Shale-type fossil biotas in South China at the sight of horizon, biological composition and sedimentary environment. Methods Ten Burgess Shale-type soft-bodied fossil biotas in South China are investigated by comparing the geological settings, biological composition and their substrates. Results Except for the Yanjiahe biota, the other nine Cambrian Burgess Shale-type soft-bodied fossil biotas in South China represent a series of closely-related biological communities lived in muddy-sandy substrates which show gradually transitions in biological composition in time-space distributions. Conclusion The Burgess Shale-type fossil biota in South China should have a wider distribution during the Middle-Late Cambrian.%目的 梳理华南布尔吉斯页岩型软躯体化石生物群的产出层位、生物面貌和沉积环境.方法 对10个华南布尔吉斯页岩型软躯体化石生物群进行对比研究.结果 除了岩家河生物群之外的9个布尔吉斯页岩型生物群代表了一系列生活在泥砂质基底的、从时空分布上逐渐过渡的具有高度相关性的生物群落.结论 布尔吉斯页岩型化石生物群在中晚寒武世应该会有更大规模的分布.

  12. Stable isotopes of fossil teeth corroborate key general circulation model predictions for the Last Glacial Maximum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; McKay, Moriah

    2010-11-01

    Oxygen isotope data provide a key test of general circulation models (GCMs) for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in North America, which have otherwise proved difficult to validate. High δ18O pedogenic carbonates in central Wyoming have been interpreted to indicate increased summer precipitation sourced from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we show that tooth enamel δ18O of large mammals, which is strongly correlated with local water and precipitation δ18O, is lower during the LGM in Wyoming, not higher. Similar data from Texas, California, Florida and Arizona indicate higher δ18O values than in the Holocene, which is also predicted by GCMs. Tooth enamel data closely validate some recent models of atmospheric circulation and precipitation δ18O, including an increase in the proportion of winter precipitation for central North America, and summer precipitation in the southern US, but suggest aridity can bias pedogenic carbonate δ18O values significantly.

  13. Prediction of atmospheric δ13CO2 using fossil plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahren, A. Hope [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Arens, Nan Crystal [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY (United States); Harbeson, Stephanie A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-06-30

    To summarize the content: we presented the results of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the relationship between plant tissue δ13C and δ13CO2 values under varying environmental conditions, including differential pCO2 ranging from 1 to 3 times today’s levels. As predicted, plants grown under elevated pCO2 showed increased average biomass compared to controls grown at the same temperature. Across a very large range in δ13Ca (≈ 24 ‰) and pCO2 (≈ 740 ppmv) we observed a consistent correlation between δ13Ca and δ13Cp (p<0.001). We show an average isotopic depletion of -25.4 ‰ for above-ground tissue and -23.2 ‰ for below-ground tissue of Raphanus sativus L. relative to the composition of the atmosphere under which it formed. For both above- and below-ground tissue, grown at both ~23 °C and ~29 °C, correlation was strong and significant (r2 ≥ 0.98, p<0.001); variation in pCO2 level had little or no effect on this relationship.

  14. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  15. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  16. Prediction of forces and moments on finned bodies at high angle of attack in transonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, W. L.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes a theoretical method for the prediction of fin forces and moments on bodies at high angle of attack in subsonic and transonic flow. The body is assumed to be a circular cylinder with cruciform fins (or wings) of arbitrary planform. The body can have an arbitrary roll (or bank) angle, and each fin can have individual control deflection. The method combines a body vortex flow model and lifting surface theory to predict the normal force distribution over each fin surface. Extensive comparisons are made between theory and experiment for various planform fins. A description of the use of the computer program that implements the method is given.

  17. Predictions for water clusters from a first-principles two- and three-body force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Urszula; Cencek, Wojciech; Podeszwa, Rafał; van der Avoird, Ad; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-05-21

    A new rigid-monomer three-body potential has been developed for water by fitting it to more than 70 thousand trimer interaction energies computed ab initio using coupled-cluster methods and augmented triple-zeta-quality basis sets. This potential was used together with a modified form of a previously developed two-body potential and with a polarization model of four- and higher-body interactions to predict the energetics of the water trimer, hexamer, and 24-mer. Despite using the rigid-monomer approximation, these predictions agree better with flexible-monomer benchmarks than published results obtained with flexible-monomer force fields. An unexpected finding of our work is that simple polarization models predict four-body interactions to within a few percent, whereas for three-body interactions these models are known to have errors on the order of 50%.

  18. Predicting Correct Body Posture based on Theory of Planned Behavior in Iranian Operating Room Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BAHAREH ABEDI; RABIOLLAH FARMANBAR1; SAEED OMIDI; MAHDI JAHANGIR BLOURCHIAN

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of correct posture for preventing musculoskeletal disorders, the purpose of this study was to evaluate Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting correct Body Posture in operating room...

  19. The Fossile Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an inital pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form expr...

  20. The Fossil Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  1. Ink and Holes: Correlates and Predictive Associations of Body Modification among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined correlates and predictive associations of tattoos and body piercings among 1,462 Colorado students in grades 9 to 12. More boys (19%) than girls (17%) reported tattoos, but more girls (42%) than boys (16%) reported piercings (earlobes not included). Older students reported more body modification. Structural equation models showed that…

  2. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  3. Fossil Group Origins VII. Galaxy substructures in fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Aguerri, J A L; Boschin, W; Barrena, R; del Burgo, C; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Corsini, E M; D'Onghia, E; Kundert, A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R

    2016-01-01

    Fossil groups are expected to be the final product of galaxy merging within galaxy groups. In simulations, they are predicted to assemble their mass at high redshift. This early formation allows for the innermost $M^\\ast$ galaxies to merge into a massive central galaxy. Then, they are expected to maintain their fossil status because of the few interactions with the large-scale structure. In this context, the magnitude gap between the two brightest galaxies of the system is considered a good indicator of its dynamical status. As a consequence, the systems with the largest gaps should be dynamically relaxed. In order to examine the dynamical status of these systems, we systematically analyze, for the first time, the presence of galaxy substructures in a sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems with redshift $z \\le 0.25$. We apply a number of tests in order to investigate the substructure in fossil systems in the two-dimensional space of projected positions out to $R_{200}$. Moreover, for a subsam...

  4. Factors contributing to fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐菁

    2010-01-01

    As the most prominent feature of interlanguage, fossilization is a complex and essential topic in the field of SLA research. Various causes, in spite quantity of them are only theories, have been studied by different researchers from multiple points of view. Daiwei Dong(1990) has pointed out that virtually every inaccurate cause leads to language fossilization. This paper tries to conclude update causes of fossilization.

  5. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  6. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joyce M; Wang, Siqi; Greb, Christopher; Kostas, Vladimir; Knapp, Charles F; Zhang, Qingguang; Roemmele, Eric S; Stenger, Michael B; Randall, David C

    2017-01-01

    supine: lack of correlation between diastolic pressure and body size, resulted from the combination of positive SV correlation and negative TPR correlation with body size. The positive systolic pressure vs. body size relationship resulted from a positive SV vs. height relationship. In response to standing: the positive diastolic blood pressure vs. body size relationship resulted from the standing-induced, positive increase in TPR vs. body size relationship. The relationships between body weight or height with SV and TPR contribute new insight into mechanisms of BP regulation that may aid in the prediction of health in young adults by providing a more effective way to scale BP with body size.

  7. Prediction-Based Data Transmission for Energy Conservation in Wireless Body Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng; Yao, Lin; Sun, Weifeng; Li, Mingchu

    2009-01-01

    Wireless body sensors are becoming popular in healthcare applications. Since they are either worn or implanted into human body, these sensors must be very small in size and light in weight. The energy consequently becomes an extremely scarce resource, and energy conservation turns into a first class design issue for body sensor networks (BSNs). This paper deals with this issue by taking into account the unique characteristics of BSNs in contrast to conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for e.g. environment monitoring. A prediction-based data transmission approach suitable for BSNs is presented, which combines a dual prediction framework and a low-complexity prediction algorithm that takes advantage of PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control. Both the framework and the algorithm are generic, making the proposed approach widely applicable. The effectiveness of the approach is verified through simulations using real-world health monitoring datasets.

  8. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  9. Predicting Correct Body Posture based on Theory of Planned Behavior in Iranian Operating Room Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    BAHAREH ABEDI; RABIOLLAH FARMANBAR1; SAEED OMIDI; MAHDI JAHANGIR BLOURCHIAN

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of correct posture for preventing musculoskeletal disorders, the purpose of this study was to evaluate Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting correct Body Posture in operating room nurses.In this cross-sectional study, participants (n=100) were nurses from five hospitals located in northern Iran. Participants completed demographic data and theory of planned behavior construct Questionnaires. In addition, the researcher checked the Body Posture of nurses by Rapid Entire...

  10. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  11. A composite score combining waist circumference and body mass index more accurately predicts body fat percentage in 6-to 13-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Gut-Knabenhans, M.; Kusche-Ammann, R.S.; Molinari, L.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used to predict % body fat (BF) and classify degrees of pediatric adiposity. However, both measures have limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of WC and BMI would more accurately predict %BF than either

  12. Accuracy of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for predicting body composition in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Hanawa, Satoshi; Murakami, Haruka; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Tanimoto, Michiya; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy for predicting body composition using single-frequent segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) between pre- and postmenopausal women. A total f 559 Japanese women aged 30-88yr were divided into 4 groups by questionnaire: natural menopause, pathological menopause, regular menstruation, or irregular menstruation. The measurement values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used as a reference of the body composition. In terms of the results, regardless of the menopausal status, BIA slightly but significantly overestimated the percentage of body fat (standard error of estimate: 5.3%-6.7%) and the leg lean soft tissue mass (LSTM; 5.1%-6.1%), and underestimated the LSTM in the whole body (6.2%-7.6%) and arm (2.8%-3.7%). The absolute values of the predictive error for leg LSTM were significantly higher in postmenopausal groups than in the premenopausal ones. The corresponding values for the whole body and arm LSTM, and the percentage of body fat were higher in premenopausal groups than in postmenopausal ones. In conclusion, the predictive accuracy of BIA for postmenopausal women is not inferior to that for premenopausal ones, unless we target the leg LSTM.

  13. Investigation of the effects of human body stability on joint angles’ prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasha Zanoosi, A. A., E-mail: aliakbar.pasha@yahoo.com, E-mail: aliakbar.pasha@qiau.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Industrial & Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, D.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.; Feri, M. [Bu Ali-Sina University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtiha, A. Sh. [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Mechanics and Computational Mechanics (Germany); Fallahnejad, K. [Flinders University, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Loosing stability control in elderly or paralyzed has motivated researchers to study how a stability control system works and how to determine its state at every time instant. Studying the stability of a human body is not only an important problem from a scientific viewpoint, but also finally leads to new designs of prostheses and orthoses and rehabilitation methods. Computer modeling enables researchers to study and describe the reactions and propose a suitable and optimized motion pattern to strengthen the neuromuscular system and helps a human body maintain its stability. A perturbation as a tilting is exposed to an underfoot plate of a musculoskeletal model of the body to study the stability. The studied model of a human body included four links and three degrees of freedom with eight muscles in the sagittal plane. Lagrangian dynamics was used for deriving equations of motion and muscles were modeled using Hill’s model. Using experimental data of joint trajectories for a human body under tilting perturbation, forward dynamics has been applied to predict joint trajectories and muscle activation. This study investigated the effects of stability on predicting body joints’ motion. A new stability function for a human body, based on the zero moment point, has been employed in a forward dynamics procedure using a direct collocation method. A multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm has been proposed to employ stability as a robotic objective function along with muscle stresses as a biological objective function. The obtained results for joints’ motion were compared to experimental data. The results show that, for this type of perturbations, muscle stresses are in conflict with body stability. This means that more body stability requires more stresses in muscles and reverse. Results also show the effects of the stability objective function in better prediction of joint trajectories.

  14. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  15. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  16. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition.

  17. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  18. Trace fossils in coal-bearing sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1988-03-01

    In the past decade trace fossils have been recorded extensively from coal-bearing sediments, differing widely in facies, age and location. Westphalian or Stephanian 'coal-measures' in Britain, Europe and Eastern Canada contain an ichnofauna produced by invertebrates and/or vertebrates in upper delta plain sediments. This contrasts with the marine-related lower delta plain ichnofaunas known from Pennsylvanian rocks of the United States and Permian Gondwana 'coal-measures' of South Africa. Deltaic complexes of Middle Jurassic age in the North Sea basin and Upper Cretaceous age in North America contain marine trace fossils and dinosaur footprints in coastal coal- bearing facies. These case histories illustrate the importance of trace fossils both in facies analysis of coal-bearing sequences and in recording the presence of animals rarely known as body fossils in such clastic sediments. 80 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Philip C J; Purnell, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    Fossil organisms offer our only direct insight into how the distinctive body plans of extant organisms were assembled. However, realizing the potential evolutionary significance of fossils can be hampered by controversy over their interpretation. Here, as a guide to evaluating palaeontological debates, we outline the process and pitfalls of fossil interpretation. The physical remains of controversial fossils should be reconstructed before interpreting homologies, and choice of interpretative model should be explicit and justified. Extinct taxa lack characters diagnostic of extant clades because the characters had not yet evolved, because of secondary loss, or because they have rotted away. The latter, if not taken into account, will lead to the spurious assignment of fossils to basally branching clades. Conflicting interpretations of fossils can often be resolved by considering all the steps in the process of anatomical analysis and phylogenetic placement, although we must accept that some fossil organisms are simply too incompletely preserved for their evolutionary significance to be realized.

  20. How Accurate Are the Anthropometry Equations in in Iranian Military Men in Predicting Body Composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Zeynab; Faradjzadeh, Shahram; Sobhani, Vahid; Asgari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The body composition varies according to different life styles (i.e. intake calories and caloric expenditure). Therefore, it is wise to record military personnel’s body composition periodically and encourage those who abide to the regulations. Different methods have been introduced for body composition assessment: invasive and non-invasive. Amongst them, the Jackson and Pollock equation is most popular. Objectives: The recommended anthropometric prediction equations for assessing men’s body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) gold standard to develop a modified equation to assess body composition and obesity quantitatively among Iranian military men. Patients and Methods: A total of 101 military men aged 23 - 52 years old with a mean age of 35.5 years were recruited and evaluated in the present study (average height, 173.9 cm and weight, 81.5 kg). The body-fat percentages of subjects were assessed both with anthropometric assessment and DEXA scan. The data obtained from these two methods were then compared using multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean and standard deviation of body fat percentage of the DEXA assessment was 21.2 ± 4.3 and body fat percentage obtained from three Jackson and Pollock 3-, 4- and 7-site equations were 21.1 ± 5.8, 22.2 ± 6.0 and 20.9 ± 5.7, respectively. There was a strong correlation between these three equations and DEXA (R² = 0.98). Conclusions: The mean percentage of body fat obtained from the three equations of Jackson and Pollock was very close to that of body fat obtained from DEXA; however, we suggest using a modified Jackson-Pollock 3-site equation for volunteer military men because the 3-site equation analysis method is simpler and faster than other methods. PMID:26715964

  1. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    Complex interactions between carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism underlie the body's remarkable ability to adapt to a variety of diets. But any imbalances between the intake and utilization rates of these macronutrients will result in changes in body weight and composition. Here, I present the first computational model that simulates how diet perturbations result in adaptations of fuel selection and energy expenditure that predict body weight and composition changes in both obese and nonobese men and women. No model parameters were adjusted to fit these data other than the initial conditions for each subject group (e.g., initial body weight and body fat mass). The model provides the first realistic simulations of how diet perturbations result in adaptations of whole body energy expenditure, fuel selection, and various metabolic fluxes that ultimately give rise to body weight change. The validated model was used to estimate free-living energy intake during a long-term weight loss intervention, a variable that has never previously been measured accurately.

  2. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  4. Greater than predicted decrease in energy expenditure during exercise after body weight loss in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Eric; Imbeault, Pascal; St-Pierre, Sylvie; Alméras, Natalie; Mauriège, Pascale; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    This study was performed retrospectively to investigate whether exercise energy expenditure (EE) measured during a standardized treadmill protocol (4.5 km/h at 0% grade) falls below predicted values after body weight loss in obese men. A reference equation was established to predict net exercise EE in a control sample of 83 obese individuals (27 kg/m(2)hydrodensitometry. Net exercise EE, insulin, leptin, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine were measured after an overnight fast at baseline and 2-4 weeks after the end of the programme, when subjects were weight stable. Body weight was significantly reduced (-11%; P <0.01) at the end of the weight loss programme. At baseline, measured net exercise EE was similar to that predicted from the regression equation [19.6 and 19.8 kJ/min (4.69 and 4.74 kcal/min) respectively; not significant]. However, after the end of the intervention, measured net exercise EE was significantly below the predicted value [15.5 and 17.3 kJ/min (3.71 and 4.14 kcal/min) respectively; P <0.01]. The difference between the predicted and the measured fall in net exercise EE was significantly associated with changes in leptin concentration ( r =0.79, P <0.01), even after correction for changes in fat mass and insulin. These observations suggest that net exercise EE falls below predicted values after body weight loss. In addition, this greater than predicted decrease in net exercise EE was associated with changes in leptin.

  5. Prediction of body composition in anorexia nervosa: Results from a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; De Filippo, Emilia; Caldara, Annarita; Speranza, Enza; Scalfi, Luca; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-07-27

    The assessment of body composition is crucial in evaluating nutritional status in female subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) and improving their clinical management. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the accuracy of selected BIA (bioimpedance analysis) equations for fat-free mass (FFM) in female AN subjects and to formulate a specific equation for these subjects. Eighty-two restrictive female AN subjects (age 20.5 ± 3.7 yrs, BMI 15.7 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were studied. Body composition was determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and estimated by BIA using five different equations. Linear correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the association of FFM with selected variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to formulate specific equations to predict FFM in AN. All predictive equations underestimated FFM at the population level with a bias from -5.6 to -11.7%, while the percentage of accurate predictions varied from 12.2% to 35.4%. More interestingly, multiple regression analysis clearly indicates that, in addition to weight, ZI100 or RI also emerged as independent predictors of DXA-derived FFM, increasing the prediction power of the equation well above that observed with anthropometric characteristics only. This study shows that the selected predictive BIA equations considered exhibit an insufficient accuracy at the population and the individual level. Predictive formulas based on body weight plus BIA parameters such as RI and ZI100 offer a rather accurate prediction of FFM (with high R squared). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The accuracy of body mass prediction for elderly specimens: Implications for paleoanthropology and legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Tony; Lefèvre, Philippe; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Beauthier, Jean-Pol

    2016-10-01

    Different practices in paleoanthropology and legal medicine raise questions concerning the robustness of body mass (BM) prediction. Integrating personal identification from body mass estimation with skeleton is not a classic approach in legal medicine. The originality of our study is the use of an elderly sample in order to push prediction methods to their limits and to discuss about implications in paleoanthropology and legal medicine. The aim is to observe the accuracy of BM prediction in relation to the body mass index (BMI, index of classification) using five femoral head (FH) methods and one shaft (FSH) method. The sample is composed of 41 dry femurs obtained from dissection where age (c. 82 years) and gender are known, and weight (c. 59.5 kg) and height are measured upon admission to the body leg service. We show that the estimation of the mean BM of the elderly sample is not significantly different to the real mean BM when the appropriate formula is used for the femoral head diameter. In fact, the best prediction is obtained with the McHenry formula (1992), which was based on a sample with an equivalent average mass to that of our sample. In comparison, external shaft diameters, which are known to be more influenced by mechanical stimuli than femoral head diameters, yield less satisfactory results with the McHenry formula (1992) for shaft diameters. Based on all the methods used and the distinctive selected sample, overestimation (always observed with the different femoral head methods) can be restricted to 1.1%. The observed overestimation with the shaft method can be restricted to 7%. However, the estimation of individual BM is much less reliable. The BMI has a strong impact on the accuracy of individual BM prediction, and is unquestionably more reliable for individuals with normal BMI (9.6% vs 16.7% for the best prediction error). In this case, the FH method is also the better predictive method but not if we integrate the total sample (i.e., the FSH

  7. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B. [Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia). School of Resource Science and Management; Torrence, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Division of Anthropology

    1999-11-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO{sub 2}nH{sub 2}0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  8. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  9. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  10. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  11. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  12. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  13. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    , exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  14. Prediction of body composition of Iberian pigs by means bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, A; Mateos, A; Ovejero, I; Bote, C J López

    2006-01-01

    Twelve barrow Iberian pigs with an average weight at slaughter of 109.2kg were used to evaluate bioelectrical impedance procedures to predict the body composition of live pigs. Twelve hours before slaughter pigs were weighed, and a four-terminal body composition analyser (Model BIA-101, RJL Systems, Detroit, MI) was utilized to determine resistance (R(s) in Ω) and reactance (X(c) in Ω). The length values (L in cm) were measured between detector electrodes with a flexible steel tape. Twenty four hours after slaughter the left side of each carcass was separated using a scalpel into fat, lean, bone and skin. Multiple regression equations for estimating lean, fat, bone and skin amounts and lean, fat, bone and skin proportions with respect to slaughter weight were calculated. The live weight (LW) and L independent variables predicted 85.3% and 64.3% of the variability of the lean amount and lean proportion, respectively. The LW, X(c) and L variables accounted for 96% and 91.6% of the variation in fat quantity and fat proportion, respectively. The LW and R(s) accounted for 58.9% of the variation in bone amount, and the same variables predict 79.1% of the variability of bone percentage. The R(s) and L variables explained 68% of the variability of skin quantity and LW, R(s) and X(c) predicted 83.1% of the variation of skin proportion. Results from this experiment indicate that bioelectrical impedance may be of interest for body composition prediction of live Iberian pigs.

  15. Prediction of Android and Gynoid Body Adiposity via a Three-dimensional Stereovision Body Imaging System and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Stanforth, Philip R; Xu, Bugao

    2015-01-01

    Current methods for measuring regional body fat are expensive and inconvenient compared to the relative cost-effectiveness and ease of use of a stereovision body imaging (SBI) system. The primary goal of this research is to develop prediction models for android and gynoid fat by body measurements assessed via SBI and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subsequently, mathematical equations for prediction of total and regional (trunk, leg) body adiposity were established via parameters measured by SBI and DXA. A total of 121 participants were randomly assigned into primary and cross-validation groups. Body measurements were obtained via traditional anthropometrics, SBI, and DXA. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to develop mathematical equations by demographics and SBI assessed body measurements as independent variables and body adiposity (fat mass and percentage fat) as dependent variables. The validity of the prediction models was evaluated by a split sample method and Bland-Altman analysis. The R(2) of the prediction equations for fat mass and percentage body fat were 93.2% and 76.4% for android and 91.4% and 66.5% for gynoid, respectively. The limits of agreement for the fat mass and percentage fat were -0.06 ± 0.87 kg and -0.11% ± 1.97% for android and -0.04 ± 1.58 kg and -0.19% ± 4.27% for gynoid. Prediction values for fat mass and percentage fat were 94.6% and 88.9% for total body, 93.9% and 71.0% for trunk, and 92.4% and 64.1% for leg, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) SBI produces reliable parameters that can predict android and gynoid as well as total and regional (trunk, leg) fat mass.

  16. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however......, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica...

  17. Descriptors for predicting the lattice constant of body centered cubic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Takahashi, Lauren; Baran, Jakub D.; Tanaka, Yuzuru

    2017-05-01

    The prediction of the lattice constant of binary body centered cubic crystals is performed in terms of first principle calculations and machine learning. In particular, 1541 binary body centered cubic crystals are calculated using density functional theory. Results from first principle calculations, corresponding information from periodic table, and mathematically tailored data are stored as a dataset. Data mining reveals seven descriptors which are key to determining the lattice constant where the contribution of descriptors is also discussed and visualized. Support vector regression (SVR) technique is implemented to train the data where the predicted lattice constants have the mean score of 83.6% accuracy via cross-validation and maximum error of 4% when compared to experimentally determined lattice constants. In addition, trained SVR is successful in predicting material combinations from a desired lattice constant. Thus, a set of descriptors for determining the lattice constant is identified and can be used as a base descriptor for lattice constants of further complex crystals. This would allow for the acceleration of the search for lattice constants of desired atomic compositions as well as the prediction of new materials based on a specified lattice constant.

  18. Status update: maladaptive Facebook usage predicts increases in body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L; Joiner, Thomas E

    2013-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of online social evaluations and comparisons on body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. We tested the effects of maladaptive Facebook usage (defined as the tendency to seek negative social evaluations and/or engage in social comparisons via Facebook) on body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms in a sample of 232 college females followed for approximately 4 weeks. Results provided evidence that maladaptive Facebook usage significantly predicted increases in bulimic symptoms and episodes of over-eating approximately four weeks later. Body dissatisfaction was found to fully mediate the relationship between maladaptive Facebook usage and increases in over-eating episodes, whereas body dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between maladaptive Facebook usage and increases in bulimic symptoms more broadly. Limitations include the use of a novel measure of maladaptive Facebook usage due to the absence of an existing measure and a non-clinical sample. The results of this study suggest that reducing maladaptive Facebook usage may be a fruitful target for interventions aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trait-based prediction of extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, R Keller; Shaw, Casey; Humphries, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Small body size is generally correlated with r-selected life-history traits, including early maturation, short-generation times, and rapid growth rates, that result in high population turnover and a reduced risk of extinction. Unlike other classes of vertebrates, however, small freshwater fishes appear to have an equal or greater risk of extinction than large fishes. We explored whether particular traits explain the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List conservation status of small-bodied freshwater fishes from 4 temperate river basins: Murray-Darling, Australia; Danube, Europe; Mississippi-Missouri, North America; and the Rio Grande, North America. Twenty-three ecological and life-history traits were collated for all 171 freshwater fishes of ≤120 mm total length. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to assess which combination of the 23 traits best explained whether a species was threatened or not threatened. We used the best models to predict the probability of 29 unclassified species being listed as threatened. With and without controlling for phylogeny at the family level, small body size-among small-bodied species-was the most influential trait correlated with threatened species listings. The k-folds cross-validation demonstrated that body size and a random effect structure that included family predicted the threat status with an accuracy of 78% (SE 0.5). We identified 10 species likely to be threatened that are not listed as such on the IUCN Red List. Small body size is not a trait that provides universal resistance to extinction, particularly for vertebrates inhabiting environments affected by extreme habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesize that this is because small-bodied species have smaller home ranges, lower dispersal capabilities, and heightened ecological specialization relative to larger vertebrates. Trait data and further model development are needed to predict the IUCN conservation status of the over 11

  20. Prediction of Quantitative Traits Using Common Genetic Variants: Application to Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sunghwan; Choi, Sungkyoung; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Taesung

    2016-12-01

    With the success of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs), many candidate loci for complex human diseases have been reported in the GWAS catalog. Recently, many disease prediction models based on penalized regression or statistical learning methods were proposed using candidate causal variants from significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms of GWASs. However, there have been only a few systematic studies comparing existing methods. In this study, we first constructed risk prediction models, such as stepwise linear regression (SLR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Elastic-Net (EN), using a GWAS chip and GWAS catalog. We then compared the prediction accuracy by calculating the mean square error (MSE) value on data from the Korea Association Resource (KARE) with body mass index. Our results show that SLR provides a smaller MSE value than the other methods, while the numbers of selected variables in each model were similar.

  1. Prediction of Quantitative Traits Using Common Genetic Variants: Application to Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Bae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the success of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs, many candidate loci for complex human diseases have been reported in the GWAS catalog. Recently, many disease prediction models based on penalized regression or statistical learning methods were proposed using candidate causal variants from significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms of GWASs. However, there have been only a few systematic studies comparing existing methods. In this study, we first constructed risk prediction models, such as stepwise linear regression (SLR, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO, and Elastic-Net (EN, using a GWAS chip and GWAS catalog. We then compared the prediction accuracy by calculating the mean square error (MSE value on data from the Korea Association Resource (KARE with body mass index. Our results show that SLR provides a smaller MSE value than the other methods, while the numbers of selected variables in each model were similar.

  2. Prediction of Quantitative Traits Using Common Genetic Variants: Application to Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sunghwan; Choi, Sungkyoung; Kim, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    With the success of the genome-wide association studies (GWASs), many candidate loci for complex human diseases have been reported in the GWAS catalog. Recently, many disease prediction models based on penalized regression or statistical learning methods were proposed using candidate causal variants from significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms of GWASs. However, there have been only a few systematic studies comparing existing methods. In this study, we first constructed risk prediction models, such as stepwise linear regression (SLR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Elastic-Net (EN), using a GWAS chip and GWAS catalog. We then compared the prediction accuracy by calculating the mean square error (MSE) value on data from the Korea Association Resource (KARE) with body mass index. Our results show that SLR provides a smaller MSE value than the other methods, while the numbers of selected variables in each model were similar.

  3. First fossil chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrearty, Sally; Jablonski, Nina G

    2005-09-01

    There are thousands of fossils of hominins, but no fossil chimpanzee has yet been reported. The chimpanzee (Pan) is the closest living relative to humans. Chimpanzee populations today are confined to wooded West and central Africa, whereas most hominin fossil sites occur in the semi-arid East African Rift Valley. This situation has fuelled speculation regarding causes for the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages five to eight million years ago. Some investigators have invoked a shift from wooded to savannah vegetation in East Africa, driven by climate change, to explain the apparent separation between chimpanzee and human ancestral populations and the origin of the unique hominin locomotor adaptation, bipedalism. The Rift Valley itself functions as an obstacle to chimpanzee occupation in some scenarios. Here we report the first fossil chimpanzee. These fossils, from the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya, show that representatives of Pan were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene, where they were contemporary with an extinct species of Homo. Habitats suitable for both hominins and chimpanzees were clearly present there during this period, and the Rift Valley did not present an impenetrable barrier to chimpanzee occupation.

  4. What's next: Recruitment of a grounded predictive body model for planning a robot's actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte eSchilling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Even comparatively simple, reactive systems are able to control complex motor tasks, such as hexapod walking on unpredictable substrate. The capability of such a controller can be improved by introducing internal models of the body and of parts of the environment. Such internal models can be applied as inverse models, as forward models or to solve the problem of sensor fusion. Usually, separate models are used for these functions. Furthermore, separate models are used to solve different tasks. Here we concentrate on internal models of the body as the brain considers its own body the most important part of the world. The model proposed is formed by a recurrent neural network with the property of pattern completion. The model shows a hierarchical structure but nonetheless comprises a holistic system. One and the same model can be used as a forward model, as an inverse model, for sensor fusion, and, with a simple expansion, as a model to internally simulate (new behaviors to be used for prediction. The model embraces the geometrical constraints of a complex body with many redundant degrees of freedom, and allows finding geometrically possible solutions. To control behavior such as walking, climbing or reaching, this body model is complemented by a number of simple reactive procedures together forming a procedural memory. In this article, we illustrate the functioning of this network. To this end we present examples for solutions of the forward function and the inverse function, and explain how the complete network might be used for predictive purposes. The model is assumed to be innate, so learning the parameters of the model is not (yet considered.

  5. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  6. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  7. Climatic Inferences from Extant and Fossil Reptiles: Toward a Metabolic Paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The fossil record of Cenozoic reptiles represents an underutilized dataset for estimating paleoclimate. Maximum body sizes in poikilothermic taxa are ultimately limited by a critical minimum ambient temperature below which metabolism cannot be maintained for a given mass-specific metabolic rate, and the relationship between environmental temperature and body size in extant reptiles provides a model for inferring paleotemperatures from sizes of fossil taxa. Body size changes with latitude in modern reptiles, consistent with a model that predicts proportionality of size with temperature. The model is derived to calculate past temperatures by comparing body sizes in fossil reptiles with maximum sizes in extant reptiles at a given Mean Annual Temperatures (MAT), assuming similar ecologies and appropriate mass-specific metabolic rates for both modern and fossil taxa. Phylogenetic constraint minimizes such assumptions, and multi-taxon sampling increases the robustness of estimates for a given ecology or depositional environment. This metabolic paleothermometer was used to estimate past temperatures through the Cenozoic by comparing maximum body sizes of extant turtles, crocodilians, and snakes from aquatic environments at known mass- specific metabolic rates for modern MATs with Paleogene and Neogene herpetofaunas from North American and equatorial South America. Maximum body sizes of Paleogene equatorial snakes and turtles demonstrate high Neotropical MATs, and stratigraphic histories of sizes change in North American trionychid turtles reflect MAT changes during the Paleogene Thermal Maximum. Multi-taxon temperature estimates of the Neotropics during the late Miocene indicate high MATs equivalent to Paleogene values, and suggest that hot equatorial climates persisted during the beginning of the late Neogene global cooling event.

  8. Fossilization of feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul G.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    1995-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of feathers has revealed evidence that a bacterial glycocalyx (a network of exocellular polysaccharide fibers) played a role in promoting their fossilization in some cases. This mode of preservation has not been reported in other soft tissues. The majority of fossil feathers are preserved as carbonized traces. More rarely, bacteria on the surface are replicated by authigenic minerals (bacterial autolithification). The feathers of Archaeopteryx are preserved mainly by imprintation following early lithification of the substrate and decay of the feather. Lacustrine settings provide the most important taphonomic window for feather preservation. Preservation in terrestrial and normal-marine settings involves very different processes (in amber and in authigenically mineralized coprolites, respectively). Therefore, there may be a significant bias in the avian fossil record in favor of inland water habitats.

  9. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  10. Predictive factors for body weight loss and its impact on quality of life following gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Masazumi; Urushihara, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamada, Makoto; Lee, Sang-Woong; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Miki, Akira; Ikeda, Masami; Nakada, Koji

    2017-07-14

    To determine the predictive factors and impact of body weight loss on postgastrectomy quality of life (QOL). We applied the newly developed integrated questionnaire postgastrectomy syndrome assessment scale-45, which consists of 45 items including those from the Short Form-8 and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale instruments, in addition to 22 newly selected items. Between July 2009 and December 2010, completed questionnaires were received from 2520 patients with curative resection at 1 year or more after having undergone one of six types of gastrectomy for Stage I gastric cancer at one of 52 participating institutions. Of those, we analyzed 1777 eligible questionnaires from patients who underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y procedure (TGRY) or distal gastrectomy with Billroth-I (DGBI) or Roux-en-Y (DGRY) procedures. A total of 393, 475 and 909 patients underwent TGRY, DGRY, and DGBI, respectively. The mean age of patients was 62.1 ± 9.2 years. The mean time interval between surgery and retrieval of the questionnaires was 37.0 ± 26.8 mo. On multiple regression analysis, higher preoperative body mass index, total gastrectomy, and female sex, in that order, were independent predictors of greater body weight loss after gastrectomy. There was a significant difference in the degree of weight loss (P 25 kg/m(2)). Multiple linear regression analysis identified lower postoperative body mass index, rather than greater body weight loss postoperatively, as a certain factor for worse QOL (P weight after gastrectomy, the impact of body weight loss on QOL is unexpectedly small.

  11. Predicting Power Output of Upper Body using the OMNI-RES Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Tamayo, Ignacio Martín; González, Andrés; Robinson, Joseph E.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the optimal training zone for maximum power output. This was to be achieved through estimating mean bar velocity of the concentric phase of a bench press using a prediction equation. The values for the prediction equation would be obtained using OMNI–RES scale values of different loads of the bench press exercise. Sixty males (age 23.61 2.81 year; body height 176.29 6.73 cm; body mass 73.28 4.75 kg) voluntarily participated in the study and were tested using an incremental protocol on a Smith machine to determine one repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press exercise. A linear regression analysis produced a strong correlation (r = −0.94) between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and mean bar velocity (Velmean). The Pearson correlation analysis between real power output (PotReal) and estimated power (PotEst) showed a strong correlation coefficient of r = 0.77, significant at a level of p = 0.01. Therefore, the OMNI–RES scale can be used to predict Velmean in the bench press exercise to control the intensity of the exercise. The positive relationship between PotReal and PotEst allowed for the identification of a maximum power-training zone. PMID:25713677

  12. Novel equations to predict body fat percentage of Brazilian professional soccer players: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Novack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed classical and developed novel mathematical models to predict body fat percentage (%BF in professional soccer players from the South Brazilian region using skinfold thicknesses measurement. Skinfolds of thirty one male professional soccer players (age of 21.48 ± 3.38 years, body mass of 79.05 ± 9.48 kg and height of 181.97 ± 8.11 cm were introduced into eight mathematical models from the literature for the prediction of %BF; these results were then compared to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The classical equations were able to account from 65% to 79% of the variation of %BF in DXA. Statistical differences between most of the classical equations (seven of the eight classic equations and DXA were found, rendering their widespread use in this population useless. We developed three new equations for prediction of %BF with skinfolds from: axils, abdomen, thighs and calves. Theses equations accounted for 86.5% of the variation in %BF obtained with DXA.

  13. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  14. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating foss

  15. Fossil Dot Com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , and the transformation has moved 50% of us to live in cities, whereas a mere 3% dwelled in cities in 1800. However, this 200 year long fossil fuelled bubble is coming to an end, which affects societies around the world and the way we design products and services for these societies beyond imagination. With rich...

  16. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  17. Prediction of thermal environment via revision of PMV index with body temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yan; Liu Jiaping; Kubota Hideki

    2007-01-01

    PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) is a widely used index for evaluating the thermal environment. However, few studies have been conducted to take physiological values directly as evaluating indices. This paper assumes a linear relation between body temperature and both sweating rate and heat produced by shivering, and introduces the linear relation into the human heat balance equation to revise the classic PMV. And the assumption of linear relation is subsequently proved. The revised PMV possesses the same characteristic of dependent heat load as that of the classic one, and moreover it is convenient to be calculated.

  18. Prediction of quantum many-body chaos in the protactinium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatkina, A. V.; Kozlov, M. G.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The energy-level spectrum of the protactinium atom (Pa, Z =91 ) is simulated with a configuration interaction calculation. Levels belonging to the separate manifolds of a given total angular momentum and parity Jπ exhibit distinct properties of many-body quantum chaos. Moreover, an extremely strong enhancement of small perturbations takes place. As an example, effective three-electron interaction is investigated and found to play a significant role in the system. Chaotic properties of the eigenstates allow one to develop a statistical theory and predict probabilities of different processes in chaotic systems.

  19. Fossils, Genes and The Origin of Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, Neil (University of Chicago)

    2011-04-20

    A toolkit of experimental and comparative biology can be applied to understand the great transformations in the history of life. Expeditionary paleontology can be used to target key nodes of the tree of life for which new fossils can provide insights into major morphological transformations. These fossils often have intermediate conditions that allow extant creatures to be compared in new ways. The tools of developmental genetics can then be used to explore these new comparisons to understand the genetic basis for macroevolutionary change. These different approaches can be used to predict new discoveries and this is only possible because of the empirical content of the tree of life.

  20. Sonographic Prediction of Body Fat Volume (Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Cardiovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleymanzadeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate body composition represents impaired energy and nutrient intake and can be a risk factor for many diseases, especially for cardiovascular disease. Different methods have been suggested for the estimation of body fat volume and its distribution. However, they may be either expensive or hazardous for some groups of patients. Sonography is a very accessible technique, which may be used for the evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic prediction of body fat and its distribution in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.Methods: During a three-month period, we conducted sonographic evaluations for visceral and subcutaneous fat in 106 patients who were admitted to our hospital. The subcutaneous fat was measured at the para-umbilical region and visceral fat was measured in the right para-renal space. The results were compared with the data obtained from the body mass index(BMI and bioelectric impedance analysis.Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.8 years, and the mean BMI was26.48 ± 0.33. The mean values of fat percent and fat mass obtained by the electric-method were 31.07 ± 0.81% and 22.12 ± 0.68 kg, respectively. The respective mean values of subcutaneous and visceral fat obtained by sonography were 20.50±0.56 mm and 24.14 ± 0.58 mm. The correlationbetween BMI and subcutaneous fat was 0.85 (p value < 0.0001 and the correlation between BMI and visceral fat was0.46(p value < 0.0001.Conclusion: Sonography is a reliable and available method for the estimation of body fat and its distribution in cardiovascularpatients, in subcutaneous and visceral compartments.

  1. Body Composition Predicts Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neehar D; Zhang, Peng; Singal, Amit G; Derstine, Brian A; Krishnamurthy, Venkat; Barman, Pranab; Waljee, Akbar K; Su, Grace L

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is often uncertain. We aimed to utilize analytic morphomics, a high-throughput imaging analysis, to assess if body composition is predictive of post-TACE survival. We included patients from a single center (Ann Arbor VA) who had TACE as the primary treatment for HCC and had a pre-treatment CT scans. Univariate analysis and multivariate conditional inference tree analysis were utilized to identify the morphomic characteristics predictive of one-year survival. were validated in an external cohort (University of Michigan Health System) of HCC patients who underwent TACE as their primary treatment. In the 75 patients in the derivation cohort, median survival was 439 (IQR: 377-685) days from receipt of TACE, with 1-year survival of 61%. Visceral fat density (VFD) was the only morphomic factor predictive of overall and 1-year survival (phepatic decompensation after TACE (phepatic decompensation. VFD may serve as a radiographic biomarker in predicting TACE outcomes.

  2. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  3. Predicting individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: the role of body awareness, alexithymia, and assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Croon, Marcel A; van Balkom, Esther G A; Vermee, Jennifer B G

    2008-06-01

    Autonomy-connectedness is the capacity for being on one's own as well as for satisfactorily engaging in interpersonal relationships. Associations have been shown between autonomy-connectedness components (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and the capacity for managing new situations) and various indices of psychopathology. Both in a theoretical sense as well as for enhancing treatment and prevention, it is relevant to identify which factors most powerfully predict individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: body awareness, alexithymia, or assertiveness. The present study examined this question in a clinical sample of women who were diagnosed as having autonomy problems (N=52) and in a female nonclinical community sample (N=59). In line with expectations, assertiveness was a strong predictor of (all three components of) autonomy-connectedness, as was emotionalizing, one of the alexithymia-components, but the latter in an opposite direction than we had expected: the higher an individual's ability to emotionalize was, the less self-aware and capable to manage new situations that person was, and the more sensitive to others. Cognitive alexithymia contributed to self-awareness as well as to the capacity for managing new situations, and one of the components of body awareness appeared to predict capacity for managing new situations. Our results indicate that assertiveness training and the enhancement of emotion regulation are important elements of autonomy-connectedness targeted interventions. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to predict the body composition of pigs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, P V; Förster, M; Scholz, A M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to reliably analyze body composition of pigs in vivo. Therefore, the relation between areas of loin eye muscle and its back fat based on MRI images were used to predict body composition values measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). During the study, a total of 77 pigs were studied by MRI and DXA, with a BW ranging between 42 and 102 kg. The pigs originated from different extensive or conventional breeds or crossbreds such as Cerdo Iberico, Duroc, German Landrace, German Large White, Hampshire and Pietrain. A Siemens Magnetom Open was used for MRI in the thorax region between 13th and 14th vertebrae in order to measure the loin eye area (MRI-LA) and the above back fat area (MRI-FA) of both body sides, whereas a whole body scan was performed by DXA with a GE Lunar DPX-IQ in order to measure the amount and percentage of fat tissue (DXA-FM; DXA-%FM) and lean tissue mass (DXA-LM; DXA-%LM). A linear single regression analysis was performed to quantify the linear relationships between MRI- and DXA-derived traits. In addition, a stepwise regression procedure was carried out to calculate (multiple) regression equations between MRI and DXA variables (including BW). Single regression analyses showed high relationships between DXA-%FM and MRI-FA (R 2 = 0.89, √MSE = 2.39%), DXA-FM and MRI-FA (R 2 = 0.82, √MSE = 2757 g) and DXA-LM and MRI-LA (R 2 = 0.82, √MSE = 4018 g). Only DXA-%LM and MRI-LA did not show any relationship (R 2 = 0). As a result of the multiple regression analysis, DXA-LM and DXA-FM were both highly related to MRI-LA, MRI-FA and BW (R 2 = 0.96; √MSE = 1784 g, and R 2 = 0.95, √MSE = 1496 g). Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of MRI-derived images provides exact information about important 'carcass-traits' in pigs and may be used to reliably predict the body composition in vivo.

  5. Mother's body size and placental size predict coronary heart disease in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan G.; Kajantie, Eero; Thornburg, Kent L.; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims People whose birthweights were towards the lower end of the normal range are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. This is attributed to foetal programming through malnutrition, but the cause of the malnutrition is unknown. Methods and results We studied 6975 men born in Helsinki during 1934–44. Their size at birth was recorded. Babies who later developed coronary heart disease tended to have a low ponderal index (birthweight/length3). Three different placental phenotypes predicted the disease. In primiparous mothers who were short, having below median height, the hazard ratio for the disease was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.08–1.21, P< 0.0001) for each centimetre increase in the difference between the length and breadth of the placental surface. In tall mothers whose body mass index was above the median, the hazard ratio was 1.25 (1.10–1.42, P= 0.0007) per 40 cm2 decrease in the surface area. In tall mothers whose body mass index was below the median, the hazard ratio was 1.07 (1.02–1.13, P= 0.01) per 1% increase in the placental weight/birthweight ratio. Conclusions Three different combinations of maternal and placental size predicted coronary heart disease. The mother's body size determines the availability of nutrients and is linked to the development and function of the placenta, reflected in its shape and size. We speculate that variations in three processes of normal placental development lead to foetal malnutrition. The processes are (i) implantation and spiral artery invasion, (ii) growth of the chorionic surface, and (iii) compensatory expansion of the chorionic surface. PMID:21632601

  6. Where to Dig for Fossils: Combining Climate-Envelope, Taphonomy and Discovery Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Sebastián; Saltré, Frédérik; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Fordham, Damien A; Unkel, Ingmar; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-01-01

    Fossils represent invaluable data to reconstruct the past history of life, yet fossil-rich sites are often rare and difficult to find. The traditional fossil-hunting approach focuses on small areas and has not yet taken advantage of modelling techniques commonly used in ecology to account for an organism's past distributions. We propose a new method to assist finding fossils at continental scales based on modelling the past distribution of species, the geological suitability of fossil preservation and the likelihood of fossil discovery in the field, and apply it to several genera of Australian megafauna that went extinct in the Late Quaternary. Our models predicted higher fossil potentials for independent sites than for randomly selected locations (mean Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic = 0.66). We demonstrate the utility of accounting for the distribution history of fossil taxa when trying to find the most suitable areas to look for fossils. For some genera, the probability of finding fossils based on simple climate-envelope models was higher than the probability based on models incorporating current conditions associated with fossil preservation and discovery as predictors. However, combining the outputs from climate-envelope, preservation, and discovery models resulted in the most accurate predictions of potential fossil sites at a continental scale. We proposed potential areas to discover new fossils of Diprotodon, Zygomaturus, Protemnodon, Thylacoleo, and Genyornis, and provide guidelines on how to apply our approach to assist fossil hunting in other continents and geological settings.

  7. The Review of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄露

    2011-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is a common phenomenon in second language acquisition. This paper reyiews the important achievements in the study of interlanguage fossilization, analyzing its definition, types and causes. And then find some ways to re- duce the interference of interlanguage fossilization in second language learning.

  8. Leveraging knowledge from physiological data: on-body heat stress risk prediction with sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaura, Elena; Kemp, John; Brusey, James

    2013-12-01

    The paper demonstrates that wearable sensor systems, coupled with real-time on-body processing and actuation, can enhance safety for wearers of heavy protective equipment who are subjected to harsh thermal environments by reducing risk of Uncompensable Heat Stress (UHS). The work focuses on Explosive Ordnance Disposal operatives and shows that predictions of UHS risk can be performed in real-time with sufficient accuracy for real-world use. Furthermore, it is shown that the required sensory input for such algorithms can be obtained with wearable, non-intrusive sensors. Two algorithms, one based on Bayesian nets and another on decision trees, are presented for determining the heat stress risk, considering the mean skin temperature prediction as a proxy. The algorithms are trained on empirical data and have accuracies of 92.1±2.9% and 94.4±2.1%, respectively when tested using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. In applications such as Explosive Ordnance Disposal operative monitoring, such prediction algorithms can enable autonomous actuation of cooling systems and haptic alerts to minimize casualties.

  9. Machine Learning Predictions of Molecular Properties: Accurate Many-Body Potentials and Nonlocality in Chemical Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the “holy grail” of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. In addition, the same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies. PMID:26113956

  10. Microenvironment temperature prediction between body and seat interface using autoregressive data-driven model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Lin; Luo, Zhongming; Heusch, Andrew I; Cascioli, Vincenzo; McCarthy, Peter W

    2015-11-01

    There is a need to develop a greater understanding of temperature at the skin-seat interface during prolonged seating from the perspectives of both industrial design (comfort/discomfort) and medical care (skin ulcer formation). Here we test the concept of predicting temperature at the seat surface and skin interface during prolonged sitting (such as required from wheelchair users). As caregivers are usually busy, such a method would give them warning ahead of a problem. This paper describes a data-driven model capable of predicting thermal changes and thus having the potential to provide an early warning (15- to 25-min ahead prediction) of an impending temperature that may increase the risk for potential skin damages for those subject to enforced sitting and who have little or no sensory feedback from this area. Initially, the oscillations of the original signal are suppressed using the reconstruction strategy of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Consequentially, the autoregressive data-driven model can be used to predict future thermal trends based on a shorter period of acquisition, which reduces the possibility of introducing human errors and artefacts associated with longer duration "enforced" sitting by volunteers. In this study, the method had a maximum predictive error of <0.4 °C when used to predict the temperature at the seat and skin interface 15 min ahead, but required 45 min data prior to give this accuracy. Although the 45 min front loading of data appears large (in proportion to the 15 min prediction), a relative strength derives from the fact that the same algorithm could be used on the other 4 sitting datasets created by the same individual, suggesting that the period of 45 min required to train the algorithm is transferable to other data from the same individual. This approach might be developed (along with incorporation of other measures such as movement and humidity) into a system that can give caregivers prior warning to help avoid

  11. Can we predict ectotherm responses to climate change using thermal performance curves and body temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Brent J.; Marshall, Katie E.; Sewell, Mary A.;

    2016-01-01

    Thermal performance curves (TPCs), which quantify how an ectotherm's body temperature (T-b) affects its performance or fitness, are often used in an attempt to predict organismal responses to climate change. Here, we examine the key - but often biologically unreasonable - assumptions underlying...... this approach; for example, that physiology and thermal regimes are invariant over ontogeny, space and time, and also that TPCs are independent of previously experienced T-b. We show how a critical consideration of these assumptions can lead to biologically useful hypotheses and experimental designs....... For example, rather than assuming that TPCs are fixed during ontogeny, one can measure TPCs for each major life stage and incorporate these into stage-specific ecological models to reveal the life stage most likely to be vulnerable to climate change. Our overall goal is to explicitly examine the assumptions...

  12. CFD Predictions for Transonic Performance of the ERA Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Luckring, James M.; McMillin, S. Naomi; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Dino

    2016-01-01

    A computational study was performed for a Hybrid Wing Body configuration that was focused at transonic cruise performance conditions. In the absence of experimental data, two fully independent computational fluid dynamics analyses were conducted to add confidence to the estimated transonic performance predictions. The primary analysis was performed by Boeing with the structured overset-mesh code OVERFLOW. The secondary analysis was performed by NASA Langley Research Center with the unstructured-mesh code USM3D. Both analyses were performed at full-scale flight conditions and included three configurations customary to drag buildup and interference analysis: a powered complete configuration, the configuration with the nacelle/pylon removed, and the powered nacelle in isolation. The results in this paper are focused primarily on transonic performance up to cruise and through drag rise. Comparisons between the CFD results were very good despite some minor geometric differences in the two analyses.

  13. Proposed Experimental Test of Gall's Predicted Isochromatic Black Body Displacement Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Clarence A.

    2010-03-01

    The test of any Black Body Distribution function is how well it satisfies: Stefan-Boltzmann law ( I=σT^4) ; Wien's isothermal displacement law ( λmT=b) and the maximum isothermal emitted intensity condition ( IλmT^5) . Gall's function ( Iλ=σT^6b^2 λe^-λTb) satisfies these conditions exactly and unlike all previous candidates employs the original empirical constants ( σ,b) in its formulation. Distinct from Planck and all others, it predicts an isochromatic displacement law: λTm=6b, where Tm is the temperature of maximum emitted intensity for a given λ. The associated maximum isochromatic emitted intensity should satisfy ITmλ-5 . At wavelengths of 20, 25 and 29 μm, Tm is calculated to be 870, 696 and 600 K respectively. In this range ( Tmgoogle.com/site/purefieldphysics).

  14. Wandering in both mind and body: individual differences in mind wandering and inattention predict fidgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Jonathan S A; Seli, Paul; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that during periods of inattention or mind wandering, people tend to experience increased fidgeting. In four studies, we examined whether individual differences in the tendency to be inattentive and to mind wander in everyday life are related to the tendency to make spontaneous and involuntary movements (i.e., to fidget). To do so, we developed self-report measures of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering, as well as a self-report scale to index fidgeting. In addition, we used several existing self-report measures of inattentiveness, attentional control, and memory failures. Across our studies, a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that fidgeting was uniquely predicted by inattentiveness and spontaneous mind wandering but not by other related factors, including deliberate mind wandering, attentional control, and memory failures. As a result, we suggest that only spontaneously wandering thoughts are related to a wandering body.

  15. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance among 9- to 11-year-old Swedish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Dencker, M; Ward, L

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Predictive equations for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) among Scandinavian children are lacking. In the present study, equations for estimation of fat-free body mass (FFM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were developed and cross-validated from BIA using dual......-validation revealed a mean RMSE = 0.95 kg FFM and a mean RMSE = 0.96 kg LTM. Prediction of body composition from equations developed in previous literature was mixed when applied to the present cohort of children. CONCLUSIONS: FFM and LTM are predicted with sufficient accuracy at the population level. We recommend...... that the predictive equations developed in the present study are used in prepubescent European children aged 9-11 years only in order to minimize confounding of results because of possible differences in population samples....

  16. Reproductive rate and body size predict road impacts on mammal abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2011-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that mobile species should be more negatively affected by road mortality than less-mobile species because they interact with roads more often, and that species with lower reproductive rates and longer generation times should be more susceptible to road effects because they will be less able to rebound quickly from population declines. Taken together, these hypotheses suggest that, in general, larger species should be more affected by road networks than smaller species because larger species generally have lower reproductive rates and longer generation times and are more mobile than smaller species. We tested these hypotheses by estimating relative abundances of 17 mammal species across landscapes ranging in road density within eastern Ontario, Canada. For each of the 13 species for which detectability was not related to road density, we quantified the relationship between road density and relative abundance. We then tested three cross-species predictions: that the slope of the relationship between road density and abundance should become increasingly negative with (1) decreasing annual reproductive rate; (2) increasing home range area (an indicator of movement range); and (3) increasing body size. All three predictions were supported in univariate models, with R2 values of 0.68, 0.50, and 0.52 respectively. The best overall model based on AICc contained both reproductive rate (P = 0.008) and body size (P = 0.072) and explained 77% of the variation in the slope of the relationship between road density and abundance. Our results suggest that priority should be placed on mitigating road effects on large mammals with low reproductive rates.

  17. A model predicting fluindione dose requirement in elderly inpatients including genotypes, body weight, and amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Pautas, Eric; Duverlie, Charlotte; Berndt, Celia; Andro, Marion; Mahé, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Lacut, Karine; Le Gal, Grégoire; Peyron, Isabelle; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Siguret, Virginie

    2014-04-01

    Indandione VKAs have been widely used for decades, especially in Eastern Europe and France. Contrary to coumarin VKAs, the relative contribution of individual factors to the indandione-VKA response is poorly known. In the present multicentre study, we sought to develop and validate a model including genetic and non-genetic factors to predict the daily fluindione dose requirement in elderly patients in whom VKA dosing is challenging. We prospectively recorded clinical and therapeutic data in 230 Caucasian inpatients mean aged 85 ± 6 years, who had reached international normalized ratio stabilisation (range 2.0-3.0) on fluindione. In the derivation cohort (n=156), we analysed 13 polymorphisms in seven genes potentially involved in the pharmacological effect or vitamin-K cycle (VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1) and fluindione metabolism/transport (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1). We built a regression model incorporating non-genetic and genetic data and evaluated the model performances in a separate cohort (n=74).Body-weight, amiodarone intake, VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1 genotypes were retained in the final model, accounting for 31.5% of dose variability. None influence of CYP2C9 was observed. Our final model showed good performances: in 83.3% of the validation cohort patients, the dose was accurately predicted within 5 mg, i.e.the usual step used for adjusting fluindione dosage. In conclusion, in addition to body-weight and amiodarone-intake, pharmacogenetic factors (VKORC1, CYP4F2, ABCB1) related to the pharmacodynamic effect and transport of fluindione significantly influenced the dose requirement in elderly patients while CYP2C9 did not. Studies are required to know whether fluindione could be an alternative VKA in carriers of polymorphic CYP2C9 alleles, hypersensitive to coumarins.

  18. Quality control of 157 whole body adiposity prediction formulae in age and activity matched men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provyn, S; Scafoglieri, A; Tresignie, J; Bautmans, I; Reilly, T; Clarys, J P

    2011-09-01

    The physiological and clinical importance of body composition is part of public health, nutrition and Sports medicine. The most popular field method for estimating total body adiposity remains anthropometry separately or in formulae. The aim of this study was to verify the suitability of an absolute maximum out of more than 600 existing anthropometry equations estimating % adipose tissue (AT) in a cross validation with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and hydrodensitometry (HD) on 74 British male subjects (mean age 34.4±14.1) with different lifestyles corresponding to a maximum of populations the original formula was developed for. Pearson correlation coefficients, paired sample t-test and Bland and Altman plots where used for analyses. From the tested formulae, 19 correlated well (r≥0.70) and showed no significant difference (p>0.05) with BIA, 15 with DXA and only 12 with HD. The results show a better match of the predicted % AT by anthropometric equations with BIA then with DXA or HD. All results and conditions considered, this study suggest not to use HD nor anthropometric formulae to assess % AT in men for an individual estimation.

  19. Surplus Space Method:A New Numerical Model for Prediction of Shallow-seated Magmatic Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jun; HUANG Dinghua; WANG Qingfei; WAN Li; YAO Lingqing; GAO Bangfei; Liu Yan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data of field measurement and drilling in the Tongling area, a series of numerical simulations are carried out by using the "Surplus Space Method" (SSM), which is first put forward in this paper and applied to predict the shallow-seated magmatic bodies. The results of the numerical simulations show the existence and the 3-D shape of a conical magmatic structure at a depth of-1000 m beneath the center of the area: its top offsets southwards and bifurcates to several branches, while its lower part stretches northeastwards and contracts rapidly to a point at about -1000 m depth.This point is reckoned to be a "sink" of magma system, transferring ore materials and heat energy from the deep magma chamber to the sub-surface apophyses. The preliminary application of the SSM proves that it may be developed as a new detection means for determining the existence of shallow-seated magmatic bodies and analyzing their three-dimensional features.

  20. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  1. Contribution of Upper-Body Strength, Body Composition, and Maximal Oxygen Uptake to Predict Double Poling Power and Overall Performance in Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Sindre; Welde, Boye; Danielsen, Jørgen; van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-09-01

    Østerås, S, Welde, B, Danielsen, J, van den Tillaar, R, Ettema, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Contribution of upper-body strength, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake to predict double poling power and overall performance in female cross-country skiers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2557-2564, 2016-Maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) is regarded as the most performance-differentiating physiological measure in cross-country (XC) skiing. In addition, upper-body strength and lean mass have been associated with double poling (DP) power in XC skiers. In this study, we tested upper-body maximal strength, lean mass, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max's contributions to predict DP power production of different durations and the overall XC skiing performance level of elite female XC skiers. Thirteen skiers (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 64.9 ± 4.2 ml·kg·min) performed one 30-second and one 3-minute DP performance test using a ski ergometer. The International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking points determined their overall XC skiing performance. The skiers performed three 1-repetition maximal strength tests in poling-specific exercises that isolated the elbow extension, shoulder extension, and trunk flexion movements. Body composition was determined by a DXA scan, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was tested in an incremental running test. Multiple regressions were used to predict power production in the 30-second and 3-minute tests and FIS points. The 2 best predictions of 30-second DP power were lean upper-body mass and maximal upper-body strength (with the 3 strength tests normalized and pooled together as one variable) (R = 0.84 and 0.81, p skiing performance (R = 0.43 and 0.40, p ≤ 0.05). Although the importance of upper-body strength and lean mass to predict DP power production and the overall XC skiing performance declines with the performance duration in female XC skiers, the importance of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max shows an opposite relationship.

  2. Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age  =  20 ± 1 years, height  =  185.6 ± 6.5 cm, mass  =  103.1 ± 20.4 kg, DEXA%Fat  =  19.5 ± 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 • AHIP) + (0.097 • AUMB) + (0.089 • SFSUM) − 19.641; model 2, (0.193 • AHIP) + (0.133 • AUMB) + (0.371 • SFAB) − 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 • SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA

  3. Preschoolers’ Delay of Gratification Predicts Their Body Mass 30 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlam, Tanya R.; Wilson, Nicole L.; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether preschoolers’ performance on a delay of gratification task would predict their body mass index (BMI) 30 years later. Study design In the late 1960s/early 1970s, 4-year-olds from a university-affiliated preschool completed the classic delay of gratification task. As part of a longitudinal study, a subset (N = 164, 57% women) completed a follow-up approximately 30 years later and self-reported their height and weight. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression. Results Performance on the delay of gratification task accounted for a significant portion of variance in BMI (4%, p delayed gratification predicted a .2 point reduction in BMI in adulthood. Conclusions Delaying gratification longer at 4 years of age was associated with having a lower BMI three decades later. The study is, however, correlational, and it is therefore not possible to make causal inferences regarding the relation between delay duration and BMI. Identifying children with greater difficulty delaying gratification could help detect children at risk of becoming overweight or obese. Interventions that improve self-control in young children have been developed and might reduce children’s risk of becoming overweight while having positive effects on other outcomes important to society. PMID:22906511

  4. Preschoolers' delay of gratification predicts their body mass 30 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlam, Tanya R; Wilson, Nicole L; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether preschoolers' performance on a delay of gratification task would predict their body mass index (BMI) 30 years later. In the late 1960s/early 1970s, 4-year-olds from a university-affiliated preschool completed the classic delay of gratification task. As part of a longitudinal study, a subset (n = 164; 57% women) were followed up approximately 30 years later and self-reported their height and weight. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression. Performance on the delay of gratification task accounted for a significant portion of variance in BMI (4%; P delayed gratification predicted a 0.2-point reduction in BMI in adulthood. Longer delay of gratification at age 4 years was associated with a lower BMI 3 decades later. Because this study is correlational, it is not possible to make causal inferences regarding the relationship between delay duration and BMI. Identifying children with greater difficulty in delaying gratification could help detect children at risk of becoming overweight or obese. Interventions that improve self-control in young children have been developed and might reduce children's risk of becoming overweight and also have positive effects on other outcomes important to society. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalized Predictive Control of Dynamic Systems with Rigid-Body Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations to assess the effectiveness of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for active control of dynamic systems having rigid-body modes are presented. GPC is a linear, time-invariant, multi-input/multi-output predictive control method that uses an ARX model to characterize the system and to design the controller. Although the method can accommodate both embedded (implicit) and explicit feedforward paths for incorporation of disturbance effects, only the case of embedded feedforward in which the disturbances are assumed to be unknown is considered here. Results from numerical simulations using mathematical models of both a free-free three-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-dashpot system and the XV-15 tiltrotor research aircraft are presented. In regulation mode operation, which calls for zero system response in the presence of disturbances, the simulations showed reductions of nearly 100%. In tracking mode operations, where the system is commanded to follow a specified path, the GPC controllers produced the desired responses, even in the presence of disturbances.

  6. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  7. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A; Mrachko, Gregory T; Squires, Charles H

    2003-06-01

    Biotechnological techniques enabling the specific removal of sulfur from fossil fuels have been developed. In the past three years there have been important advances in the elucidation of the mechanisms of biodesulfurization; some of the most significant relate to the role of a flavin reductase, DszD, in the enzymology of desulfurization, and to the use of new tools that enable enzyme enhancement via DNA manipulation to influence both the rate and the substrate range of Dsz. Also, a clearer understanding of the unique desulfinase step in the pathway has begun to emerge.

  8. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  9. New burgess shale fossil sites reveal middle cambrian faunal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Briggs, D; Morris, S C

    1983-10-14

    Soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized Burgess shale fossils have been found at more than a dozen new localities in an area extending for 20 kilometers along the front of the Cathedral Escarpment in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation of the Canadian Rockies. Five different fossil assemblages from four stratigraphic levels have been recognized. These assemblages represent distinct penecontemporaneous marine communities that together make up a normal fore-reef faunal complex.

  10. Starting of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant, using predictive control based in a neuronal model; Arranque del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica, usando control predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Dominguez, Tonatiuh

    2004-09-15

    In this thesis work it is presented the design and implementation of a simulator of total scope of a predictive controller based in the neuronal model of the temperature in two stages of the heating of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant. An implemented control scheme is detailed, as well as the methodology for the identification of a neuronal model utilized for the control. Finally the results of the implementation in the simulator located at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are shown to be satisfactory. This control structure is not applied directly in closed circuit, but provides the value of the control actions to a human operator. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno e implementacion, en un simulador de alcance total, de un controlador predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal para el control de la temperatura en dos etapas del calentamiento del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica. Se detalla el esquema de control implementado, asi como la metodologia de identificacion de un modelo neuronal utilizado para la sintesis del control. Finalmente se muestran los resultados de la implementacion en el simulador que se encuentra en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); dichos resultados fueron satisfactorios. Esta estructura de control no se aplica directamente en lazo cerrado, sino que provee el valor de las acciones de control a un operador humano.

  11. PREDICTION OF LIVE BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS OF WEST AFRICAN LONG-LEGGED AND WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. BIRTEEB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of live weight of animals is so important in the livestock production and marketing practices that this study was undertaken to develop models for predicting the weight of sheep at market ages. Data comprising of the weight and linear body measurements were collected on the West African Long-Legged (WALL and the West African Dwarf (WAD sheep from Pong-Tamale and subjected to regression analyses. The results revealed that heart girth was the best predictor of liveweight, with prediction accuracies of 92.36% for two years old WALL sheep and 81.20% for one year old WAD sheep, while wither height was the second most important trait in liveweight prediction, in simple linear models. The quadratic models of the single-trait models also had heart girth as the best predictor of liveweight, recording 92.92% accuracy for one year old WALL sheep. Only two traits were mostly required for weight estimation in the multiple-trait models, and the best model was obtained from two years old WALL where heart girth and body length accounted for about 95.53% in prediction accuracy. The multiple-trait quadratic models were generally better in liveweight prediction compared to the respective linear models. Clearly, weight estimation was more accurate among the WALL than the WAD sheep, and also among the younger sheep regardless of the breed. The variations in the models suggest that breed and age of sheep had influence on the type of models required to predict their live body weight.

  12. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Valizade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and self esteem scales. Results: According to this research, there was meaningful correlation between social physical anxiety (r=-0.326, body image concern (r=0.466 and self-esteem (r=0.349 with eating disorders and these variables were explained the 0.27 variance in eating disorders. Conclusion: Results are corresponding with previous studies and have important implications in attention to the predicting variables of eating disorders in athletes’ women

  13. A field tool for prediction of body fat in Sri Lankan women: skinfold thickness equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; de Silva, Angela; de Lanerolle-Dias, Maduka; Atukorala, Sunethra; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2016-09-30

    Valid skinfold thickness (SFT) equations for the prediction of body fat are currently unavailable for South Asian women and would be a potentially robust field tool. Our aim was to assess the validity of existing SFT equations against deuterium ((2)H2O) dilution and, if invalid, to develop and validate an SFT equation for % fat mass (%FM) in Sri Lankan women. H2O dilution was used with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as the criterion method for the assessment of %FM in urban Sri Lankan women (30-45 years). This data was used to assess the validity of available SFT equations and to generate and validate a new SFT equation for the prediction of %FM against the criterion method. Women (n = 164) were divided into validation and cross-validation groups for the development and validation of the new equation. The level of agreement between the %FM calculated by the final derived prediction equation and the %FM obtained by (2)H2O dilution was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) and Bland Altman plots. Student's t test was used to assess over- or underestimation, and significance was set at p < 0.05. Existing equations significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated %FM compared with the (2)H2O dilution method. The final equation obtained was %FM = 19.621 + (0.237*weight) + (0.259*triceps). When compared with (2)H2O dilution, %FM by the equation was not significantly different. There was a significant (p < 0.001) correlation between %FM by the reference method and %FM by the equation. The limit of agreement by Bland Altman plot was narrow with a small mean positive bias. Existing SFT equations were not applicable to this population. The new equation derived was valid. We report a new SFT equation to predict %FM in women of South Asian ancestry suitable for field use.

  14. Relative deprivation: Measurement issues and predictive role for body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Lucio; Villaseñor, Adrián

    2017-09-21

    The study of how relative standing in the socioeconomic hierarchy affects health outcomes faces a number of challenges. Two critical issues are the choice of the indicator quantifying relative standard of living and the collinearity which typically arises when absolute standard of living is controlled for. We address these issues by taking into examination linear and concave measures of relative deprivation and by showing that collinearity can be lessened through manipulations of the measures' formulae. Importantly, we argue that the two issues are intertwined and should be jointly considered by researchers. We illustrate the points above using nationally representative data from Mexico (N = 44,214) and studying relative deprivation as a predictor of body image dissatisfaction - a growing public health concern whose effects go well beyond eating disorders. Controlling for several individual characteristics, binary and multinomial logit regressions indicate relative deprivation as a risk factor for body image dissatisfaction. By conducting subsample analyses and by introducing an interaction term between gender and relative deprivation, we show evidence of a gender-based heterogeneity in the role of relative deprivation - which predicts feeling smaller than desired for both females and males and feeling larger than desired for females but not for males. This heterogeneity is discussed in the light of the different social pressures females and males face for slenderness and muscularity. Our evidence enriches the literature on socioeconomic gradients in health, pointing to an additional domain in which a low position in the socioeconomic ladder translates into greater likelihood of developing health problems and adopting health-compromising behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  16. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  17. Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF) After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Analysis of Predictive Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Marcelo V.R. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Al-Omair, Ameen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Letourneau, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Korol, Renee [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Howard, Peter [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lochray, Fiona [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Costa, Leodante B. da [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Division of Neurosurgery and Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are increasingly observed after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of VCF after spine SBRT and identify clinical and dosimetric factors predictive for VCF. The analysis incorporated the recently described Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) criteria. Methods and Materials: The primary endpoint of this study was the development of a de novo VCF (ie, new endplate fracture or collapse deformity) or fracture progression based on an existing fracture at the site of treatment after SBRT. We retrospectively scored 167 spinal segments in 90 patients treated with spine SBRT according to each of the 6 SINS criteria. We also evaluated the presence of paraspinal extension, prior radiation, various dosimetric parameters including dose per fraction ({>=}20 Gy vs <20 Gy), age, and histology. Results: The median follow-up was 7.4 months. We identified 19 fractures (11%): 12 de novo fractures (63%) and 7 cases of fracture progression (37%). The mean time to fracture after SBRT was 3.3 months (range, 0.5-21.6 months). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that alignment (P=.0003), lytic lesions (P=.007), lung (P=.03) and hepatocellular (P<.0001) primary histologies, and dose per fraction of 20 Gy or greater (P=.004) were significant predictors of VCF. Conclusions: The presence of kyphotic/scoliotic deformity and the presence of lytic tumor were the only predictive factors of VCF based on the original 6 SINS criteria. We also report that patients with lung and hepatocellular tumors and treatment with SBRT of 20 Gy or greater in a single fraction are at a higher risk of VCF.

  18. Acoustic Prediction Methodology and Test Validation for an Efficient Low-Noise Hybrid Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ronald T. (Compiler)

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to: (1) Develop a hybrid wing body subsonic transport configuration with noise prediction methods to meet the circa 2007 NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) N+2 noise goal of -52 dB cum relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 (-42 dB cum re: Stage 4) while achieving a -25% fuel burned compared to current transports (re :B737/B767); (2) Develop improved noise prediction methods for ANOPP2 for use in predicting FAR 36 noise; (3) Design and fabricate a wind tunnel model for testing in the LaRC 14 x 22 ft low speed wind tunnel to validate noise predictions and determine low speed aero characteristics for an efficient low noise Hybrid Wing Body configuration. A medium wide body cargo freighter was selected to represent a logical need for an initial operational capability in the 2020 time frame. The Efficient Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body (ELNHWB) configuration N2A-EXTE was evolved meeting the circa 2007 NRA N+2 fuel burn and noise goals. The noise estimates were made using improvements in jet noise shielding and noise shielding prediction methods developed by UC Irvine and MIT. From this the Quiet Ultra Integrated Efficient Test Research Aircraft #1 (QUIET-R1) 5.8% wind tunnel model was designed and fabricated.

  19. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted...... by glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys...

  20. GFR prediction from cystatin C and creatinine in children: body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted...... by glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys...

  1. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted...... by glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys...

  2. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.

  3. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, C M; Hohenadel, M G; Krakoff, J; Votruba, S B

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. In 184 humans (73 females/111 males; age 34.5±8.8 years; percentage body fat: 31.6±8.1%), we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI, kg m(-2)), FM index (FMI, kg m(-2)); and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3-day vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL) and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMENs). FFMI was positively associated with CAL (Pintake (all PFood and macronutrient intake are predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.

  4. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  5. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the

  6. The first darter (Aves: Anhingidae) fossils from India (late Pliocene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Thomas; Patnaik, Rajeev; Krishan, Kewal; Singh, Bahadur; Ghosh, Abhik; Singla, Ankita; Kotla, Simran S

    2017-01-01

    New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia. These fossil specimens begin to fill in a significant geographic and temporal gap in the fossil record of this group that is largely known from other continents and other time periods. The presence of a darter and pelican (along with crabs, fish, turtles, and crocodilians) in the same fossil-bearing horizon strongly indicates the past presence of a substantial water body (large pond, lake, or river) in the interior of northern India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.

  7. Predicting lung maturity in preterm rupture of membranes via lamellar bodies count from a vaginal pool: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachum Zohar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amniocentesis is the accepted mode of attaining amniotic fluid to perform tests for fetal lung maturity. The purpose of this study was to validate a non-invasive fetal lung maturity test by counting lamellar bodies from a vaginal pool among women with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Methods In a prospective study, amniotic fluid specimens were collected from a vaginal pool from women after preterm premature rupture of membranes with gestational age between 27 and 36 completed weeks. Receiver operating characteristics curve was estimated to assess the threshold of lamellar bodies' count that may predict fetal lung maturity. Results Seventy-five specimens were collected of which 17 were between 32 to 34 weeks. A lamellar bodies' count of 28,000 or more predicted mature fetus 100% of the time (specificity among all women and also among women between 32 to 34 weeks. The sensitivity was 72% among all and 92% when gestational age was between 32 to 34 weeks. A count of 8,000 or less, predicted respiratory distress syndrome with a sensitivity of 98% among the whole group. Conclusion Counting of lamellar bodies in amniotic fluid from a vaginal pool may be used to predict fetal lung maturity.

  8. Prediction of Chest Wall Toxicity From Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephans, Kevin L., E-mail: stephak@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Robinson, Cliff G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To determine patient, tumor, and treatment factors related to the development of late chest wall toxicity after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: We reviewed a registry of 134 patients treated with lung SBRT to 60 Gy in 3 fractions who had greater than 1 year of clinical follow-up and no history of multiple treatments to the same lobe (n = 48). Patients were treated as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0236 without specific chest wall avoidance criteria. The chest wall was retrospectively contoured. Thirty-two lesions measured less than 3 cm, and sixteen measured 3 to 5 cm. The median planning target volume was 29 cm{sup 3}. Results: With a median follow-up of 18.8 months, 10 patients had late symptomatic chest wall toxicity (4 Grade 1 and 6 Grade 2) at a median of 8.8 months after SBRT. No patient characteristics (age, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, or body mass index) were predictive for toxicity, whereas there was a trend for continued smoking (p = 0.066; odds ratio [OR], 4.4). Greatest single tumor dimension (p = 0.047; OR, 2.63) and planning target volume (p = 0.040; OR, 1.04) were correlated with toxicity, whereas distance from tumor edge to chest wall and gross tumor volume did not reach statistical significance. Volumes of chest wall receiving 30 Gy (V30) through 70 Gy (V70) were all highly significant, although this correlation weakened for V65 and V70 and maximum chest wall point dose only trended to significance (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, tumor volume was no longer correlated with toxicity and only V30 through V60 remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Tumor size and chest wall dosimetry are correlated to late chest wall toxicity. Only chest wall V30 through V60 remained significant on multivariate analysis. Restricting V30 to 30 cm{sup 3} or less and V60 to 3 cm{sup 3} or less should result in a 10% to 15% risk of late chest wall toxicity or lower.

  9. Integrating fossils with molecular phylogenies improves inference of trait evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham J; Harmon, Luke J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Comparative biologists often attempt to draw inferences about tempo and mode in evolution by comparing the fit of evolutionary models to phylogenetic comparative data consisting of a molecular phylogeny with branch lengths and trait measurements from extant taxa. These kinds of approaches ignore historical evidence for evolutionary pattern and process contained in the fossil record. In this article, we show through simulation that incorporation of fossil information dramatically improves our ability to distinguish among models of quantitative trait evolution using comparative data. We further suggest a novel Bayesian approach that allows fossil information to be integrated even when explicit phylogenetic hypotheses are lacking for extinct representatives of extant clades. By applying this approach to a comparative dataset comprising body sizes for caniform carnivorans, we show that incorporation of fossil information not only improves ancestral state estimates relative to those derived from extant taxa alone, but also results in preference of a model of evolution with trend toward large body size over alternative models such as Brownian motion or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Our approach highlights the importance of considering fossil information when making macroevolutionary inference, and provides a way to integrate the kind of sparse fossil information that is available to most evolutionary biologists. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Optical flow based Kalman filter for body joint prediction and tracking using HOG-LBP matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Kendricks, Kimberley D.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a real-time novel framework for tracking specific joints in the human body on low resolution imagery using optical flow based Kalman tracker without the need of a depth sensor. Body joint tracking is necessary for a variety of surveillance based applications such as recognizing gait signatures of individuals, identifying the motion patterns associated with a particular action and the corresponding interactions with objects in the scene to classify a certain activity. The proposed framework consists of two stages; the initialization stage and the tracking stage. In the initialization stage, the joints to be tracked are either manually marked or automatically obtained from other joint detection algorithms in the first few frames within a window of interest and appropriate image descriptions of each joint are computed. We employ the use of a well-known image coding scheme known as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to represent the joint local region where this image coding removes the variance to non-uniform lighting conditions as well as enhances the underlying edges and corner. The image descriptions of the joint region would then include a histogram computed from the LBP-coded ROI and a HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients) descriptor to represent the edge information. Next the tracking stage can be divided into two phases: Optical flow based detection of joints in corresponding frames of the sequence and prediction /correction phases of Kalman tracker with respect to the joint coordinates. Lucas Kanade optical flow is used to locate the individual joints in consecutive frames of the video based on their location in the previous frame. But more often, mismatches can occur due to the rotation of the joint region and the rotation variance of the optical flow matching technique. The mismatch is then determined by comparing the joint region descriptors using Chi-squared metric between a pair of frames and depending on this statistic, either the prediction

  11. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  12. Impaired cross-talk between mesolimbic food reward processing and metabolic signaling predicts body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e. monetary and food related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m² over a normal (20 to 25 kg/m² and overweight (25 to 30 kg/m² BMI, to class I (30 to 35 kg/m² and class II (35 to 40 kg/m² obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging whilst performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn snack points or money coins which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the ventral striatum, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime. This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e. increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling.

  13. New record of a fossil haplotilapiine cichlid from Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie B. R. Penk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African freshwater cichlids (Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae are well known for their exceptionally great diversity and their capability of rapid speciation as well as diverse adaptations. The extant Pseudocrenilabrinae can be grouped into 27 tribes, with more than 2000 species harbored in the Great Lakes and surrounding water bodies of the East African Rift System. However, this unique diversity is not reflected in the fossil record because fossil cichlids were predominantly reported based on isolated teeth and bones. Moreover, the few articulated specimens that are known have not been analyzed sufficiently with regard to their systematic position due to lack of comparative material. Here we present a new extraordinarily well-preserved cichlid fish fossil from the Middle Miocene (c. 12.5 Ma Lagerstaette Kabchore, which was recovered during recent fieldwork in the Tugen Hills (Baringo County, Central Kenya Rift. Based on the evidence of tricuspid teeth, the Kabchore fossil can be assigned to the subclade of the Haplotilapiines within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. The multivariate analysis of a large meristic data set, derived from 1014 extant specimens (encompassing all main lineages of Haplotilapiines and usage of available osteological data suggest that this fossil is most likely related to one of the three haplotilapiine tribes Tilapiini, Haplochromini or Oreochromini. Moreover, the fossil specimen closely resembles the extinct cichlid Oreochromis martyni (Van Couvering, 1982, previously described as species of Sarotherodon from the Middle Miocene alkaline Kapkiamu Lake in the Tugen Hills. The analysis of the greatly preserved fossil fish specimen from Kabchore definitely supplements the fragmentary fossil record of Africa’s Cichlidae and will afford new insights into its evolutionary history. We also expect that this fossil will be useful as calibration point for new divergence-time estimates.

  14. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +{infinity}) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels

  15. Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; van Dongen, Bart E; Lockyer, Nick P; Bull, Ian D; Orr, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we use pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to assess the mode of preservation of fossil microstructures, confirmed as melanosomes based on the presence of melanin, preserved in frogs from the Late Miocene Libros biota (NE Spain). Our results reveal a high abundance of organosulfur compounds and non-sulfurized fatty acid methyl esters in both the fossil tissues and host sediment; chemical signatures in the fossil tissues are inconsistent with preservation of phaeomelanin. Our results reflect preservation via the diagenetic incorporation of sulfur, i.e. sulfurization (natural vulcanization), and other polymerization processes. Organosulfur compounds and/or elevated concentrations of sulfur have been reported from melanosomes preserved in various invertebrate and vertebrate fossils and depositional settings, suggesting that preservation through sulfurization is likely to be widespread. Future studies of sulfur-rich fossil melanosomes require that the geochemistry of the host sediment is tested for evidence of sulfurization in order to constrain interpretations of potential phaeomelanosomes and thus of original integumentary colour in fossils.

  16. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  17. Validation of a new formula for predicting body weight in a Mexican population with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Quiroz-Olguín

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body weight measurement is of critical importance when evaluating the nutritional status of patients entering a hospital. In some situations, such as the case of patients who are bedridden or in wheelchairs, these measurements cannot be obtained using standardized methods. We have designed and validated a formula for predicting body weight. Objectives: To design and validate a formula for predicting body weight using circumference-based equations. Methods: The following anthropometric measurements were taken for a sample of 76 patients: weight (kg, calf circumference, average arm circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, wrist circumference and demispan. All circumferences were taken in centimeters (cm, and gender and age were taken into account. This equation was validated in 85 individuals from a different population. The correlation with the new equation was analyzed and compared to a previously validated method. Results: The equation for weight prediction was the following: Weight = 0.524 (WC - 0.176 (age + 0.484 (HC + 0.613 (DS + 0.704 (CC + 2.75 (WrC - 3.330 (if female -140.87. The correlation coefficient was 0.96 for the total group of patients, 0.971 for men and 0.961 for women (p < 0.0001 for all measurements. Conclusion: The equation we developed is accurate and can be used to estimate body weight in overweight and/or obese patients with mobility problems, such as bedridden patients or patients in wheelchairs.

  18. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.

  19. Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Kerp, Hans; Taylor, Thomas N.; Moestrup, Øjvind; Taylor, Edith L.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth is limited by the imperfection of the fossil record. One reason for this imperfect record is that organisms without hard parts, such as bones, shells, and wood, have a very low potential to enter the fossil record. Occasionally, however, exceptional fossil deposits that preserve soft-bodied organisms provide a rare glimpse of the true biodiversity during past periods of Earth history. We here present an extraordinary find of a fossil ciliate that is encased inside the wall layer of a more than 200 Ma leech cocoon from Antarctica. The microfossil consists of a helically contractile stalk that attaches to a main body with a peristomial feeding apparatus and a large C-shaped macronucleus. It agrees in every aspect with the living bell animals, such as Vorticella. Vorticellids and similar peritrichs are vital constituents of aquatic ecosystems worldwide, but so far have lacked any fossil record. This discovery offers a glimpse of ancient soft-bodied protozoan biotas, and also highlights the potential of clitellate cocoons as microscopic "conservation traps" comparable to amber.

  20. Higher Facebook use predicts greater body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy: The role of self-comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S; Brown, A

    2016-09-01

    poor body image during pregnancy is a growing issue. Similarly, emerging evidence is suggesting that social media use may increase the risk of poor well-being e.g. depression, anxiety and body image concerns amongst users. Research has not examined how social media use may influence women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore the relationship between body image during pregnancy and Facebook use. a cross sectional self-report questionnaire. two hundred and sixty nine pregnant women. community groups and online forums. a self-report questionnaire exploring maternal body image, use of Facebook and how mothers perceived Facebook affected their body image. Descriptive statistics were used to explore body image perceptions. Partial correlations (controlling for maternal age, education, parity and gestation) were used to explore the association between Facebook use and body image during pregnancy. negative body image was common in the sample, increased with gestation and was unrelated to pre pregnancy weight. Mothers with a Facebook account had higher body image concerns than those without a Facebook account. Of those with an account, increased Facebook use was associated with increased body image dissatisfaction, particularly in terms of postnatal concerns for how their body would look with 56.5% reporting that they frequently compared their pregnant body to other pregnant women on the site. Facebook access was frequent with 85% of participants checking it at least once per day and the average participant spending over an hour per day on the site. although causality cannot be fully explained, Facebook use may increase mother's risk of poor body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy. Mothers with already poor body image may also be drawn to the site in order to make comparisons of their appearance. the potential impact of Facebook on increasing the risk of, or promoting existing poor body image is an important message for those working to

  1. Prediction of percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Singaporean and Beijing Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Jingzhong Wang,; Fu Po Lin,; Schmidt, G.

    2000-01-01

    Body composition was measured in 205 male and female Beijing Chinese and in 148 male and female Singaporean Chinese, age 34 (mean) (range 18-68) years and body mass index (BMI) 22.3 (15.9-38.5) kg/m 2. In Beijing Siri's two-compartment model based on densitometry was used as a reference technique an

  2. The first animals: ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most profound events in biospheric evolution was the emergence of animals, which is thought to have occurred some 600–650 Ma. Here we report on the discovery of phosphatised body fossils that we interpret as ancient sponge-like fossils and term them Otavia antiqua gen. et sp. nov. The fossils are found in Namibia in rocks that range in age between about 760 Ma and 550 Ma. This age places the advent of animals some 100 to 150 million years earlier than proposed, and prior to the extreme climatic changes and postulated stepwise increases in oxygen levels of Ediacaran time. These findings support the predictions based on genetic sequencing and inferences drawn from biomarkers that the first animals were sponges. Further, the deposition and burial of Otavia as sedimentary particles may have driven the large positive C-isotopic excursions and increases in oxygen levels that have been inferred for Neoproterozoic time.

  3. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Adaptation, plant evolution, and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Niklas, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of adaptation in determining patterns of evolution has become an important focus of debate in evolutionary biology. As it pertains to paleobotany, the issue is whether or not adaptive evolution mediated by natural selection is sufficient to explain the stratigraphic distributions of taxa and character states observed in the plant fossil record. One means of addressing this question is the functional evaluation of stratigraphic series of plant organs set in the context of paleoenvironmental change and temporal patterns of floral composition within environments. For certain organ systems, quantitative estimates of biophysical performance can be made on the basis of structures preserved in the fossil record. Performance estimates for plants separated in time or space can be compared directly. Implicit in different hypotheses of the forces that shape the evolutionary record (e.g. adaptation, mass extinction, rapid environmental change, chance) are predictions about stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental trends in the efficacy of functional performance. Existing data suggest that following the evolution of a significant structural innovation, adaptation for improved functional performance can be a major determinant of evolutionary changes in plants; however, there are structural and development limits to functional improvement, and once these are reached, the structure in question may no longer figure strongly in selection until and unless a new innovation evolves. The Silurian-Devonian paleobotanical record is consistent with the hypothesis that the succession of lowland floodplain dominants preserved in the fossil record of this interval was determined principally by the repeated evolution of new taxa that rose to ecological importance because of competitive advantages conferred by improved biophysical performance. This does not seem to be equally true for Carboniferous-Jurassic dominants of swamp and lowland floodplain environments. In these cases

  5. Body Composition Monitor Assessing Malnutrition in the Hemodialysis Population Independently Predicts Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Kissova, Viera; Majernikova, Maria; Straussova, Zuzana; Boldizsar, Jan

    Objective: Malnutrition is a known predictor of mortality in the general and hemodialysis populations. However, diagnosing malnutrition in dialysis patients remains problematic. Body composition monitoring (BCM) is currently used mainly for assessing overhydratation in hemodialysis patients, but it

  6. Flexible body dynamics in a local frame with explicitly predicted motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, A.; Krenk, Steen; Suzuki, A.

    2010-01-01

    by Cartesian coordinates and Euler angles or Euler parameters, respectively. The elastic degrees of freedom are expressed by, e.g. nodal coordinates in a finite element analysis, modal coordinates, etc. However, the choice of these variables as the generalized coordinates makes the resulting equations...... the body motions and regularly updating the local frame. First, the motion of the local frame is assumed to explicitly follow the associated moving body. Then, the equations of motion are derived in a set of generalized coordinates that express both rigid-body and elastic degrees of freedom in the local...... corrected by the obtained responses in the rigid-body motions so that the gap should remain within an imposed tolerance....

  7. Body Composition Monitor Assessing Malnutrition in the Hemodialysis Population Independently Predicts Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Kissova, Viera; Majernikova, Maria; Straussova, Zuzana; Boldizsar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition is a known predictor of mortality in the general and hemodialysis populations. However, diagnosing malnutrition in dialysis patients remains problematic. Body composition monitoring (BCM) is currently used mainly for assessing overhydratation in hemodialysis patients, but it

  8. Prediction of fish body's passive visco-elastic properties and related muscle mechanical performance in vivo during steady swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, YongLiang; Tong, BingGang

    2014-01-01

    For attaining the optimized locomotory performance of swimming fishes, both the passive visco-elastic properties of the fish body and the mechanical behavior of the active muscles should coordinate with the fish body's undulatory motion pattern. However, it is difficult to directly measure the visco-elastic constitutive relation and the muscular mechanical performance in vivo. In the present paper, a new approach based on the continuous beam model for steady swimming fish is proposed to predict the fish body's visco-elastic properties and the related muscle mechanical behavior in vivo. Given the lateral travelling-wave-like movement as the input condition, the required muscle force and the energy consumption are functions of the fish body's visco-elastic parameters, i.e. the Young's modulus E and the viscosity coefficient µ in the Kelvin model. After investigating the variations of the propagating speed of the required muscle force with the fish body's visco-elastic parameters, we analyze the impacts of the visco-elastic properties on the energy efficiencies, including the energy utilization ratios of each element of the kinematic chain in fish swimming and the overall efficiency. Under the constraints of reasonable wave speed of muscle activation and the physiological feasibility, the optimal design of the passive visco-elastic properties can be predicted aiming at maximizing the overall efficiency. The analysis is based on the small-amplitude steady swimming of the carangiform swimmer, with typical Reynolds number varying from 2.5×104 to 2.5×105, and the present results show that the non-dimensional Young's modulus is 112±34, and the non-dimensional viscosity coefficient is 13 approximately. In the present estimated ranges, the overall efficiency of the swimming fish is insensitive to the viscosity, and its magnitude is about 0.11±0.02, in the predicted range given by previous study.

  9. Physical activity predicts changes in body image during obesity treatment in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraça, Eliana V; Markland, David; Silva, Marlene N; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Vieira, Paulo N; Minderico, Cláudia S; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2012-08-01

    This study examined effects of a behavioral weight management intervention on body image (evaluative and investment dimensions) and explored the potential mediating role of structured and lifestyle physical activity (PA). The study was a longitudinal randomized controlled trial, including a 1-yr behavior change intervention and a 2-yr follow-up (225 women, 37.6 ± 7 yr, body mass index = 31.5 ± 4.1 kg·m). Statistical analyses comprised mixed-design ANOVAs with repeated measures, bivariate/partial correlations, and mediation analyses. Body image improved considerably in both groups, favoring the intervention group (small to moderate effect sizes: 0.03-0.05), but began to deteriorate from 12 to 24 months, especially in the intervention group. Consequently, at 24 months, between-group differences were small and did not reach significance. Yet, levels of body dissatisfaction and dysfunctional investment remained below initial values (for both groups). Results were similar for both body image dimensions. Structured PA (at 12 and 24 months) and lifestyle PA (at 24 months) were positively associated with (r > -0.25, P investment component (95% confidence interval of -1.88 to -0.27 for structured PA at 12 months, 95% confidence interval of -1.94 to -0.21 for lifestyle PA at 24 months). In general, change in evaluative body image was not mediated by exercise participation, seeming more dependent on weight change. These findings highlight the importance of PA as a contributing factor in the improvement of body image in overweight/obese women, mainly by reducing excessive salience of appearance to one's life and self. Lifestyle PA may also be a valid option, particularly in the long term. Exercise might provide a buffer against body image deterioration overtime, favoring lasting weight loss maintenance.

  10. Mathematical prediction of core body temperature from environment, activity, and clothing: The heat strain decision aid (HSDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Adam W; Blanchard, Laurie A; Friedl, Karl E; Cadarette, Bruce S; Hoyt, Reed W

    2017-02-01

    Physiological models provide useful summaries of complex interrelated regulatory functions. These can often be reduced to simple input requirements and simple predictions for pragmatic applications. This paper demonstrates this modeling efficiency by tracing the development of one such simple model, the Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA), originally developed to address Army needs. The HSDA, which derives from the Givoni-Goldman equilibrium body core temperature prediction model, uses 16 inputs from four elements: individual characteristics, physical activity, clothing biophysics, and environmental conditions. These inputs are used to mathematically predict core temperature (Tc) rise over time and can estimate water turnover from sweat loss. Based on a history of military applications such as derivation of training and mission planning tools, we conclude that the HSDA model is a robust integration of physiological rules that can guide a variety of useful predictions. The HSDA model is limited to generalized predictions of thermal strain and does not provide individualized predictions that could be obtained from physiological sensor data-driven predictive models. This fully transparent physiological model should be improved and extended with new findings and new challenging scenarios. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Lopes Rosado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the adequacy of predictive equations for estimation of energy expenditure (EE, compared with the EE using indirect calorimetry in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 92 obese adult women [26 Brazilian -G1- and 66 Spanish - G2- (aged 20-50]. Weight and height were evaluated during fasting for the calculation of body mass index and predictive equations. EE was evaluated using the open-circuit indirect calorimetry with respiratory hood. Results: In G1 and G2, it was found that the estimates obtained by Harris-Benedict, Shofield, FAO/WHO/ ONU and Henry & Rees did not differ from EE using indirect calorimetry, which presented higher values than the equations proposed by Owen, Mifflin-St Jeor and Oxford. For G1 and G2 the predictive equation closest to the value obtained by the indirect calorimetry was the FAO/WHO/ONU (7.9% and 0.46% underestimation, respectively, followed by Harris-Benedict (8.6% and 1.5% underestimation, respectively. Conclusion: The equations proposed by FAO/WHO/ ONU, Harris-Benedict, Shofield and Henry & Rees were adequate to estimate the EE in a sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight. The other equations underestimated the EE.

  12. Genetic parameters of dairy cow energy intake and body energy status predicted using mid-infrared spectrometry of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Berry, D P

    2015-02-01

    Energy balance (EB) and energy intake (EI) are heritable traits of economic importance. Despite this, neither trait is explicitly included in national dairy cow breeding goals due to a lack of routinely available data from which to compute reliable breeding values. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, which is performed during routine milk recording, is an accurate predictor of both EB and EI. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of EB and EI predicted using MIR spectrometry. Measured EI and EB were available for 1,102 Irish Holstein-Friesian cows based on actual feed intake and energy sink data. A subset of these data (1,270 test-day records) was used to develop equations to predict EI, EB, and daily change in body condition score (ΔBCS) and body weight (ΔBW) using the MIR spectrum with or without milk yield also as a predictor variable. Accuracy of cross-validation of the prediction equations was 0.75, 0.73, 0.77, and 0.70 for EI, EB, ΔBCS, and ΔBW, respectively. Prediction equations were applied to additional spectral data, yielding up to 94,653 records of MIR-predicted EI, EB, ΔBCS, and ΔBW available for variance component estimation. Variance components were estimated using repeatability animal linear mixed models. Heritabilities of MIR-predicted EI, EB, ΔBCS, and ΔBW were 0.20, 0.10, 0.07, and 0.06, respectively; heritability estimates of the respective measured traits were 0.35, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlation between measured and MIR-predicted EI was 0.84 and between measured and MIR-predicted EB was 0.54, indicating that selection based on MIR-predicted EI or EB would improve true EI or EB. Genetic and phenotypic associations between EI and both the milk production and body-change traits were generally in agreement, regardless of whether measured EI or MIR-predicted EI was considered. Higher-yielding animals of higher body weight had greater EI. Predicted EB was negatively genetically correlated

  13. Prediction of RBC aggregability and deformability by whole body bioimpedance measurements analyzed according to Hanai's mixture conductivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedancemetry (BIA) has been used to evaluate hemorheological parameters in vitro, and whole body impedance measurements are also correlated to some hemorheologic factors, due to their close relationship with determinants of electric properties of blood. In previous studies, we have determined a set of predictive equations for hematocrit, whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in both sedentary and trained individuals. Recent developments of the interpretation of BIA analysis based on Hanai's mixture conductivity theory allows a more interpretative analysis of the relationships between these electric measurements and body composition. Impedance can be analyzed in terms of resistance and resistivity of the whole body and even more, assuming some simplifications, resistance R and resistivity ρ of total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). In this study we thus investigated relationships between blood rheology and these calculations of R and ρ in a sample of 83 subjects (age: 9-64 yr; BMI: 17-44 kg/m(2)). BIA was performed with a multifrequency bioelectrical impedancemeter using low intensity at the following frequencies: 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kHz. Viscometric measurements were done with a falling ball viscometer. Hematocrit was measured with microcentrifuge. We found a new prediction of Quemada's viscometric index of RBC rigidity "k" which was positively correlated to the resistance of ECW (R(e)) and even more if it was related to this volume: k = 0.005809 R(e)/ECW + 1.1784 (r = 0.487; Bland-Altman mean difference: 0.0124; range: -0.00481 to 0.00296). A new finding was that red blood cells (RBC) aggregability, that in the previous studies was not related to whole body impedance, despite its in vitro measurability with such measurements, was correlated to extracellular resistance and resistivity. The Myrenne index "M" was negatively correlated to the resistivity of the extracellular fluid ρe and is predicted

  14. Validity and reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness in predicting body fat in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aandstad, Anders; Holtberget, Kristian; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies show that body composition is related to injury risk and physical performance in soldiers. Thus, valid methods for measuring body composition in military personnel are needed. The frequently used body mass index method is not a valid measure of body composition in soldiers, but reliability and validity of alternative field methods are less investigated in military personnel. Thus, we carried out test and retest of skinfold (SKF), single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA), and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements in 65 male and female soldiers. Several validated equations were used to predict percent body fat from these methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was also measured, and acted as the criterion method. Results showed that SF-BIA was the most reliable method in both genders. In women, SF-BIA was also the most valid method, whereas SKF or a combination of SKF and SF-BIA produced the highest validity in men. Reliability and validity varied substantially among the equations examined. The best methods and equations produced test-retest 95% limits of agreement below ±1% points, whereas the corresponding validity figures were ±3.5% points. Each investigator and practitioner must consider whether such measurement errors are acceptable for its specific use. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Variations in linear body measurements and establishing prediction equations for live weight of indigenous sheep populations of southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to describe variations in morphometrical traits and determine the usefulness of some linear body measurements in predicting body weight (BW of indigenous sheep populations reared in KmabataTembaro-Hadiya (KTH, Wolaita (WOL, Gamogofa (GAG, Gurage-Silti (GUS and Sidama-Gedeo (SIG zones of Southern Region of Ethiopia. Data were obtained from 2712 sheep that were drawn from 928 households. The BW and height at withers (HW in WOL and SIG ewes aged 1-2 years was significantly high compared to others. High chest girth (CG values were obtained from SIG, GAG, and GUS ewes. Ewes of SIG, WOL, KTH and GAG had significantly high body length (BL. Significantly high CG values were obtained from SIG and GAG ewes. Rams of WOL, KTH and GUS had significantly high BW, BL and HW. Body weight of KTH, WOL and GAG ewes aged 1 year and above 2 years and rams is better estimated using CG alone. However, the best predictor for KTH, WOL and GAG ewes aged 1-2 years old were CG, HW and BL. In conclusion, CG was the primary variable to explain most of the variations in BW and can be used as reliable predictor for studied sheep types. SIG and WOL sheep had a relatively large body frame and emphasis may be given for their improvement.

  16. Computer-aided prediction of xenobiotic metabolism in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezhentsev, V. M.; Tarasova, O. A.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Rudik, A. V.; Lagunin, A. A.; Filimonov, D. A.; Poroikov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The review describes the major databases containing information about the metabolism of xenobiotics, including data on drug metabolism, metabolic enzymes, schemes of biotransformation and the structures of some substrates and metabolites. Computational approaches used to predict the interaction of xenobiotics with metabolic enzymes, prediction of metabolic sites in the molecule, generation of structures of potential metabolites for subsequent evaluation of their properties are considered. The advantages and limitations of various computational methods for metabolism prediction and the prospects for their applications to improve the safety and efficacy of new drugs are discussed. Bibliography — 165 references.

  17. The Need for Regular Monitoring and Prediction of Ephemeral Water Bodies in SERVIR Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    With remote sensing and modeling techniques available today it is possible to regularly identify and monitor the presence of surface water globally, for a wide range of applications. Many of the available datasets and tools, however, do not adequately resolve small or ephemeral water bodies in a timely enough fashion to make local and subnational decisions about water resources management in developing regions. This presentation introduces a specific need focused on a basin in Senegal to develop a capability to identify and disseminate timely information on small and ephemeral water bodies, and we seek feedback on methods proposed to address this need.

  18. Predicting Rib Fracture Risk With Whole-Body Finite Element Models: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Probabilistic Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L.; Kent, Richard W.; Mroz, Krystoffer; Pipkorn, Bengt; Bostrom, Ola; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to develop a strain-based probabilistic method to predict rib fracture risk with whole-body finite element (FE) models, and to describe a method to combine the results with collision exposure information to predict injury risk and potential intervention effectiveness in the field. An age-adjusted ultimate strain distribution was used to estimate local rib fracture probabilities within an FE model. These local probabilities were combined to predict injury risk and severity within the whole ribcage. The ultimate strain distribution was developed from a literature dataset of 133 tests. Frontal collision simulations were performed with the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) model with four levels of delta-V and two restraints: a standard 3-point belt and a progressive 3.5–7 kN force-limited, pretensioned (FL+PT) belt. The results of three simulations (29 km/h standard, 48 km/h standard, and 48 km/h FL+PT) were compared to matched cadaver sled tests. The numbers of fractures predicted for the comparison cases were consistent with those observed experimentally. Combining these results with field exposure informantion (ΔV, NASS-CDS 1992–2002) suggests a 8.9% probability of incurring AIS3+ rib fractures for a 60 year-old restrained by a standard belt in a tow-away frontal collision with this restraint, vehicle, and occupant configuration, compared to 4.6% for the FL+PT belt. This is the first study to describe a probabilistic framework to predict rib fracture risk based on strains observed in human-body FE models. Using this analytical framework, future efforts may incorporate additional subject or collision factors for multi-variable probabilistic injury prediction. PMID:23169122

  19. Travels with the Fossil Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Peter J.

    2000-04-01

    Whether dodging bullets in West Africa, or rabid dogs in Pakistan, surviving yak-butter tea in Tibet, or eating raw fish in China, the life of a globe-trotting fossil hunter is often hazardous and always filled with surprises. Travels with the Fossil Hunters lets readers share the wonder, joys of discovery, and excitement of these intrepid scientists. Packed with more than 100 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume takes readers on twelve expeditions to remote parts of the world in search of diverse fossil remains, from those of dinosaurs to human ancestors. Each expedition by paleontologists from London's Natural History Museum reveals the problems and challenges of working in extreme conditions, from the deserts of the Sahara and Yemen to the frozen wastes of Antarctica, from the mountains of India to the forests of Latvia. Along the way they also describe the paleontology and geology of the countries they visit and the scientific reasons for their expeditions. With a foreword from Sir David Attenborough and an introduction from Richard Fortey, this fascinating book will appeal to amateur and professional fossil hunters alike and to readers interested in accounts of exotic locales. Peter Whybrow is a research scientist at the Natural History Museum, London. His research interests include Arabian Miocene vertebrates, paleoclimates, paleogeography, and biotic diversity. He is senior editor with A. Hill of Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1999).

  20. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in bod...

  1. Turbulence and diffusion fossil turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2000-01-01

    Fossil turbulence processes are central to turbulence, turbulent mixing, and turbulent diffusion in the ocean and atmosphere, in astrophysics and cosmology, and in most other natural flows. George Gamov suggested in 1954 that galaxies might be fossils of primordial turbulence produced by the Big Bang. John Woods showed that breaking internal waves on horizontal dye sheets in the interior of the stratified ocean form highly persistent remnants of these turbulent events, which he called fossil turbulence. The dark mixing paradox of the ocean refers to undetected mixing that must exist somewhere to explain why oceanic scalar fields like temperature and salinity are so well mixed, just as the dark matter paradox of galaxies refers to undetected matter that must exist to explain why rotating galaxies don't fly apart by centrifugal forces. Both paradoxes result from sampling techniques that fail to account for the extreme intermittency of random variables involved in self-similar, nonlinear, cascades over a wide ra...

  2. A Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    How old are the oldest stars? Using ESO's VLT, astronomers recently measured the age of a star located in our Galaxy. The star, a real fossil, is found to be 13.2 billion years old, not very far from the 13.7 billion years age of the Universe. The star, HE 1523-0901, was clearly born at the dawn of time. "Surprisingly, it is very hard to pin down the age of a star", the lead author of the paper reporting the results, Anna Frebel, explains. "This requires measuring very precisely the abundance of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium, a feat only the largest telescopes such as ESO's VLT can achieve." ESO PR Photo 23a/07 ESO PR Photo 23a/07 The 'Cosmic Clock' This technique is analogous to the carbon-14 dating method that has been so successful in archaeology over time spans of up to a few tens of thousands of years. In astronomy, however, this technique must obviously be applied to vastly longer timescales. For the method to work well, the right choice of radioactive isotope is critical. Unlike other, stable elements that formed at the same time, the abundance of a radioactive (unstable) isotope decreases all the time. The faster the decay, the less there will be left of the radioactive isotope after a certain time, so the greater will be the abundance difference when compared to a stable isotope, and the more accurate is the resulting age. Yet, for the clock to remain useful, the radioactive element must not decay too fast - there must still be enough left of it to allow an accurate measurement, even after several billion years. "Actual age measurements are restricted to the very rare objects that display huge amounts of the radioactive elements thorium or uranium," says Norbert Christlieb, co-author of the report. ESO PR Photo 23b/07 ESO PR Photo 23b/07 Uranium Line in the Spectrum of an Old Star Large amounts of these elements have been found in the star HE 1523-0901, an old, relatively bright star that was discovered within the Hamburg/ESO survey [1]. The

  3. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  4. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingrid; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) is located mainly intracellularly and constitutes an index of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim was to examine whether TBK and the TBK-to-FFM ratio (TBK/FFM) can be estimated from sex, age, weight, and height. A primary study group (164 males, 205 females) and a validation group (161 and 206), aged 37-61 yr, were randomly selected from the general population. TBK was determined by whole body counting, and FFM was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; FFM(DEXA)). The primary study group was used to construct sex-specific equations predicting TBK and TBK/FFM from age, weight, and height. The equations were used to estimate TBK and TBK/FFM in the validation group. The estimates were compared with measured values. TBK in different age ranges was predicted, with errors ranging from 5.0 to 6.8%; errors for TBK/FFM ranged from 2.7 to 4.8%, respectively. By adding FFM(DEXA) as a fourth predictor, the error of the TBK prediction decreased by approximately two percentage units. In conclusion, TBK and TBK/FFM can be meaningfully estimated from sex, age, weight, and height.

  5. Using PBPK guided “Body-on-a-Chip” Systems to Predict Mammalian Response to Drug and Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jong Hwan; Srinivasan, Balaji; Esch, Mandy Brigitte; McLamb, William T.; Bernabini, Catia; Shuler, Michael L.; Hickman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The continued development of in vitro systems that accurately emulate human response to drugs or chemical agents will impact drug development, our understanding of chemical toxicity, and enhance our ability to respond to threats from chemical or biological agents. A promising technology is to build microscale replicas of humans that capture essential elements of physiology, pharmacology and/or toxicology (microphysiological systems). Here, we review progress on systems for microscale models of mammalian systems that include two or more integrated cellular components. These systems are described as a “Body-on-a-Chip.”, and utilize the concept of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in the design. These microscale systems can also be used as model systems to predict whole-body responses to drugs as well as study the mechanism of action of drugs using PBPK analysis. In this review, we provide examples of various approaches to construct such systems with a focus on their physiological usefulness and various approaches to measure responses (e.g. chemical, electrical, or mechanical force and cellular viability and morphology). While the goal is to predict human response, other mammalian cell types can be utilized with the same principle to predict animal response. These systems will be evaluated on their potential to be physiologically accurate, to provide effective and efficient platform for analytics with accessibility to a wide range of users, for ease of incorporation of analytics, functional for weeks to months, and the ability to replicate previously observed human responses. PMID:24951471

  6. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  7. Excess Body Mass Index Loss at 3 Months: A Predictive Factor of Long-Term Result after Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Philouze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG is considered as successful if the percentage of Excess Body Mass Index Loss (% EBMIL remains constant over 50% with long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early % EBMIL was predictive of success after SG. Methods. This retrospective study included patients who had SG with two years of follow-up. Patients had follow-up appointments at 3 (M3, 6, 12, and 24 months (M24. Data as weight and Body Mass Index (BMI were collected systematically. We estimated the % EBMIL necessary to establish a correlation between M3 and M24 compared to % EBMIL speeds and calculated a limit value of % EBMIL predictive of success. Results. Data at operative time, M3, and M24 were available for 128 patients. Pearson test showed a correlation between % EBMIL at M3 and that at M24 (r=0.74;  p<0.0001. % EBMIL speed between surgery and M3 (p=0.0011 was significant but not between M3 and M24. A linear regression analysis proved that % EBMIL over 20.1% at M3 (p<0.0001 predicted a final % EBMIL over 50%. Conclusions. % EBMIL at M3 after SG is correlated with % EBMIL in the long term. % EBMIL speed was significant in the first 3 months. % EBMIL over 20.1% at M3 leads to the success of SG.

  8. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  9. Equations based on anthropometry to predict body fat measured by absorptiometry in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Vega López, A Valeria; Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma; Cázares Lara, L Joana; Medina Gómez, R Joab; Pérez-Salgado, Diana

    To develop and validate equations to estimate the percentage of body fat of children and adolescents from Mexico using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 601 children and adolescents from Mexico aged 5-19 years. The participants were randomly divided into the following two groups: the development sample (n=398) and the validation sample (n=203). The validity of previously published equations (e.g., Slaughter) was also assessed. The percentage of body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height, weight, waist and arm circumferences, skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, and calf), and elbow and bitrochanteric breadth. Linear regression models were estimated with the percentage of body fat as the dependent variable and the anthropometric measurements as the independent variables. Equations were created based on combinations of six to nine anthropometric variables and had coefficients of determination (r(2)) equal to or higher than 92.4% for boys and 85.8% for girls. In the validation sample, the developed equations had high r(2) values (≥85.6% in boys and ≥78.1% in girls) in all age groups, low standard errors (SE≤3.05% in boys and ≤3.52% in girls), and the intercepts were not different from the origin (p>0.050). Using the previously published equations, the coefficients of determination were lower, and/or the intercepts were different from the origin. The equations developed in this study can be used to assess the percentage of body fat of Mexican schoolchildren and adolescents, as they demonstrate greater validity and lower error compared with previously published equations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rocha Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1 and overweight group (G2. The percentage of body fat (% BF was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG (P=0.001, insulin, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5 was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5 and (9 was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5 was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

  11. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted...... by glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys......) aged 2-14 years. GFR was 14-147 mL/min/1.73m2. BCM was estimated using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Log-transformed data on BCM/CysC, serum creatinine (SCr), body-surface-area (BSA), height×BSA/SCr, CysC, weight, sex, age, height, serum urea and albumin were considered possible explanatory variables...

  12. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted...... by glomerular filtration followed by catabolization in the tubular cells. We hypothesized that production rate is proportional to body cell mass (BCM) and inferred GFR (mL/min) to be proportional to BCM/CysC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GFR was determined with 51Cr-EDTA-clearance in 131 children (52 girls, 79 boys......) aged 2-14 years (mean 8.8 years). GFR was 14-147 mL/min/1.73m2 (mean 97 mL/min/1.73m2). BCM was estimated using bioimpedance spectroscopy (Xitron Hydra 4200). Log-transformed data on BCM/CysC, serum creatinine (SCr), body-surface-area (BSA), height x BSA/SCr, serum CysC, weight, sex, age, height, serum...

  13. The impact of adjustment of a weight-height index (W/H2) for frame size on the prediction of body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rookus, M A; Burema, J; Deurenberg, P; Van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1985-09-01

    The impact of frame-size categories in weight-height tables was studied by comparing the efficiency of the body-mass index (weight/height2 (W/H2] and weight adjusted for body-height and a body-diameter, W/(H2Dp), in predicting body fatness. Body-weight, body-height, six body-diameters and four skinfold thicknesses were measured in ninety-five men and seventy women, aged between 23 and 35 years. Percentage of body fat was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley (1974). The inclusion of a body-diameter increased the explained variation of body fatness from 57% to 62% (knee) and 63% (shoulder) in men and from 63% to 69% (knee) in women. It can be concluded that in the present population the efficiency of the prediction of percentage of body fat was not improved markedly by the inclusion of a body-diameter in the body-mass index, thus giving no support for the inclusion of frame-size categories in weight-height tables.

  14. Ferritin and body mass index predict cardiac dysfunction in female adolescents with anorexia of the restrictive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docx, Martine K F; Weyler, Joost; Simons, Annik; Ramet, José; Mertens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    Decreased left ventricular mass index in anorexia nervosa is amply reported. The aim of this study is to identify non-burdensome predictors of reduced left yentricular mass/height (cLVM) in a cohort of adolescent restrictive anorexic girls. This is a retrospective study of all anorexic girls of the restrictive type referred to our tertiary eating disorder unit between September 2002 and December 2012, for somatic assessment of weig ht loss. All subjects fulfilled DMS-IV criteria, without a family history of cardiac or cardiovascular diseases. In all, 283 restrictive anorexic girls (age: 14.63 +/- 1.65 y; body mass index: 15.72 +/- 1.81 kg/m2) were included. Ferritin and body mass index were independent, statistically significant predictors of the corrected left ventricular mass (P anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type. Two factors predicted decreased cLVM in our population: ferritin and BMI.

  15. Usefulness of drain amylase, serum C-reactive protein levels and body temperature to predict postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Masahide; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Fujii, Yoshiro; Imamura, Naoya; Nagano, Motoaki; Ohuchida, Jiro

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a worrisome and life-threatening complication. Recently, early drain removal has been recommended as a means of preventing POPF. The present study sought to determine how to distinguish clinical POPF from non-clinical POPF in the early postoperative period after PD to aid in early drain removal. From March 2002 through December 2010, 176 patients underwent PD and were enrolled in this study to examine factors predictive of clinical POPF after PD. POPF was defined and classified according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery guideline, and grade B/C POPF was defined as clinical POPF. Grade A POPF occurred in 39 (22.2 %) patients, grade B in 19 (10.8 %) patients, and grade C in 11 (6.3 %) patients. Clinical POPF (grade B/C) occurred in 17.1 % of patients. Multivariate analysis revealed male gender and body mass index (BMI) ≥22.5 kg/m(2) to be the independent preoperative risk factors predictive of POPF. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the combination of drain amylase ≥750 IU/L, C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥20 mg/dL, and body temperature ≥37.5 °C on postoperative day 3 could effectively distinguish clinical POPF from non-clinical POPF. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84.6, 98.2, and 95.7 %, respectively. Male gender and BMI ≥22.5 were the independent preoperative predictive risk factors for POPF. We assume that when amylase is <750 IU/L, serum CRP is <20 mg/dL, and body temperature is <37.5 °C the drain can safely be removed, even if POPF is indicated.

  16. Body fat predicts an increase and limb muscle strength predicts a decrease in leptin in older adults over 2·6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Stannus, Oliver; Blizzard, Leigh; Ding, Changhai

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinaemia, which is associated with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine if body fat and muscle measures predict the natural increase in leptin over 2·6 years in older adults. A total of 190 subjects (50% females) aged between 50 and 79 years were selected to perform the serum measurements for leptin. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Fat and lean mass of the whole body and the trunk were acquired through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Leg muscle strength and handgrip strength were measured using dynamometry. In multivariable analyses, leg muscle strength was negatively associated with both baseline leptin (β: -0·05 μg/l per kg, 95% CI: -0·08, -0·02) and follow-up leptin (β: -0·04 μg/l per kg, 95% CI: -0·07, -0·01). BMI, and percentage total fat and trunk fat and their respective change per annum (cpa) were significantly and positively associated with leptin. Lean mass was negatively associated with baseline leptin. Gender-specific analyses produced similar associations between leg muscle strength, fat measures and follow-up leptin in males and females. Besides positive associations between body fat, trunk fat and leptin, we found that leg muscle strength was negatively associated with leptin after 2·6 years in a sample of older population. This suggests that interventions to maintain or increase muscle strength may have a protective effect on hyperleptinaemia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Body Composition and Energy Expenditure Predict Ad-Libitum Food and Macronutrient Intake in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Christopher M.; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. Methods In 184 humans (73F/111M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m2), FM index (FMI kg*m2;), and 24-hour e...

  18. Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, J. W.; Jablonski, D.; Erwin, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian explosion is named for the geologically sudden appearance of numerous metazoan body plans (many of living phyla) between about 530 and 520 million years ago, only 1.7% of the duration of the fossil record of animals. Earlier indications of metazoans are found in the Neoproterozic; minute trails suggesting bilaterian activity date from about 600 million years ago. Larger and more elaborate fossil burrows appear near 543 million years ago, the beginning of the Cambrian Period. Evidence of metazoan activity in both trace and body fossils then increased during the 13 million years leading to the explosion. All living phyla may have originated by the end of the explosion. Molecular divergences among lineages leading to phyla record speciation events that have been earlier than the origins of the new body plans, which can arise many tens of millions of years after an initial branching. Various attempts to date those branchings by using molecular clocks have disagreed widely. While the timing of the evolution of the developmental systems of living metazoan body plans is still uncertain, the distribution of Hox and other developmental control genes among metazoans indicates that an extensive patterning system was in place prior to the Cambrian. However, it is likely that much genomic repatterning occurred during the Early Cambrian, involving both key control genes and regulators within their downstream cascades, as novel body plans evolved.

  19. Fossil Polypodiaceae and their spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1991-01-01

    In this publication emphasis is laid on the modern definition of the family Polypodiaceae (Filicales), which is based on an extensive study of Recent material and which is much restricted with respect to older circumscriptions of the family as usually applied by palaeobotanists. Fossils of fems belo

  20. Equatorial spread F fossil plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Ossakow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of equatorial spread F (ESF fossil plumes, i.e., ESF plumes that have stopped rising, is examined using the NRL SAMI3/ESF three-dimensional simulation code. We find that fossil bubbles, plasma density depletions associated with fossil plumes, can persist as high-altitude equatorial depletions even while being "blown" by zonal winds. Corresponding airglow-proxy images of fossil plumes, plots of electron density versus longitude and latitude at a constant altitude of 288 km, are shown to partially "fill in" in most cases, beginning with the highest altitude field lines within the plume. Specifically, field lines upon which the E field has fallen entirely to zero are affected and only the low altitude (≤600 km portion if each field line fills in. This suggests that it should be possible to observe a bubble at high altitude on a field line for which the corresponding airglow image no longer shows a depletion. In all cases ESF plumes stop rising when the flux-tube-integrated ion mass density inside the upper edge of the bubble is equal to that of the nearby background, further supporting the result of Krall et al. (2010b.

  1. Fossil Polypodiaceae and their spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1991-01-01

    In this publication emphasis is laid on the modern definition of the family Polypodiaceae (Filicales), which is based on an extensive study of Recent material and which is much restricted with respect to older circumscriptions of the family as usually applied by palaeobotanists. Fossils of fems

  2. Improving large-scale groundwater models by considering fossil gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephan; Walther, Marc; Michelsen, Nils; Rausch, Randolf; Dirks, Heiko; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf; Kolditz, Olaf; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Due to limited availability of surface water, many arid to semi-arid countries rely on their groundwater resources. Despite the quasi-absence of present day replenishment, some of these groundwater bodies contain large amounts of water, which was recharged during pluvial periods of the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. These mostly fossil, non-renewable resources require different management schemes compared to those which are usually applied in renewable systems. Fossil groundwater is a finite resource and its withdrawal implies mining of aquifer storage reserves. Although they receive almost no recharge, some of them show notable hydraulic gradients and a flow towards their discharge areas, even without pumping. As a result, these systems have more discharge than recharge and hence are not in steady state, which makes their modelling, in particular the calibration, very challenging. In this study, we introduce a new calibration approach, composed of four steps: (i) estimating the fossil discharge component, (ii) determining the origin of fossil discharge, (iii) fitting the hydraulic conductivity with a pseudo steady-state model, and (iv) fitting the storage capacity with a transient model by reconstructing head drawdown induced by pumping activities. Finally, we test the relevance of our approach and evaluated the effect of considering or ignoring fossil gradients on aquifer parameterization for the Upper Mega Aquifer (UMA) on the Arabian Peninsula.

  3. Prediction of in vivo joint mechanics of an artificial knee implant using rigid multi-body dynamics with elastic contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenxian; Zhang, Xuan; Ardestani, Marzieh M; Wang, Ling; Liu, Yaxiong; Lian, Qin; He, Jiankang; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2014-06-01

    Lower extremity musculoskeletal computational models play an important role in predicting joint forces and muscle activation simultaneously and are valuable for investigating functional outcomes of the implants. However, current computational musculoskeletal models of total knee replacement rarely consider the bearing surface geometry of the implant. Therefore, these models lack detailed information about the contact loading and joint motion which are important factors for evaluating clinical performances. This study extended a rigid multi-body dynamics simulation of a lower extremity musculoskeletal model to incorporate an artificial knee joint, based upon a novel force-dependent kinematics method, and to characterize the in vivo joint contact mechanics during gait. The developed musculoskeletal total knee replacement model integrated the rigid skeleton multi-body dynamics and the flexible contact mechanics of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. The predicted contact forces and muscle activations are compared against those in vivo measurements obtained from a single patient with good agreements for the medial contact force (root-mean-square error = 215 N, ρ = 0.96) and lateral contact force (root-mean-square error = 179 N, ρ = 0.75). Moreover, the developed model also predicted the motion of the tibiofemoral joint in all degrees of freedom. This new model provides an important step toward the development of a realistic dynamic musculoskeletal total knee replacement model to predict in vivo knee joint motion and loading simultaneously. This could offer a better opportunity to establish a robust virtual modeling platform for future pre-clinical assessment of knee prosthesis designs, surgical procedures and post-operation rehabilitation.

  4. Predicting Power Output of Upper Body using the OMNI-RES Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Iker J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine the optimal training zone for maximum power output. This was to be achieved through estimating mean bar velocity of the concentric phase of a bench press using a prediction equation. The values for the prediction equation would be obtained using OMNI-RES scale values of different loads of the bench press exercise. Sixty males ( voluntarily participated in the study and were tested using an incremental protocol on a Smith machine to determine one repetition maximum (1RM in the bench press exercise. A linear regression analysis produced a strong correlation (r = -0.94 between rating of perceived exertion (RPE and mean bar velocity (Velmean. The Pearson correlation analysis between real power output (PotReal and estimated power (PotEst showed a strong correlation coefficient of r = 0.77, significant at a level of p = 0.01. Therefore, the OMNI-RES scale can be used to predict Velmean in the bench press exercise to control the intensity of the exercise. The positive relationship between PotReal and PotEst allowed for the identification of a maximum power-training zone.

  5. Fossil Energy: Drivers and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Julio

    2007-04-01

    Concerns about rapid economic growth, energy security, and global climate change have created a new landscape for fossil energy exploration, production, and utilization. Since 85% of primary energy supply comes from fossil fuels, and 85% of greenhouse gas emissions come from fossil fuel consumption, new and difficult technical and political challenges confront commercial, governmental, and public stakeholders. As such, concerns over climate change are explicitly weighed against security of international and domestic energy supplies, with economic premiums paid for either or both. Efficiency improvements, fuel conservation, and deployment of nuclear and renewable supplies will help both concerns, but are unlikely to offset growth in the coming decades. As such, new technologies and undertakings must both provide high quality fossil energy with minimal environmental impacts. The largest and most difficult of these undertakings is carbon management, wherein CO2 emissions are sequestered indefinitely at substantial incremental cost. Geological formations provide both high confidence and high capacity for CO2 storage, but present scientific and technical challenges. Oil and gas supply can be partially sustained and replaced through exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels such as tar-sands, methane hydrates, coal-to-liquids, and oil shales. These fuels provide enormous reserves that can be exploited at current costs, but generally require substantial energy to process. In most cases, the energy return on investment (EROI) is dropping, and unconventional fuels are generally more carbon intensive than conventional, presenting additional carbon management challenges. Ultimately, a large and sustained science and technology program akin to the Apollo project will be needed to address these concerns. Unfortunately, real funding in energy research has dropped dramatically (75%) in the past three decades, and novel designs in fission and fusion are not likely to provide any

  6. Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence in Oceans and Lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pak-Tao Leung; Carl H. Gibson

    2004-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-turbulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent

  7. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  8. Parameter Identification for a New Circuit Model Aimed to Predict Body Water Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE, A.-G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular and extracellular water volumes in the human body have been computed using a sequence of models starting with a linear first order RC circuit (Cole model and finishing with the De Lorenzo model. This last model employs a fractional order impedance whose parameters are identified using the frequency characteristics of the impedance module and phase, the latter being not unique. While the Cole model has a two octaves frequency validity range, the De Lorenzo model can be used for three decades. A new linear RC model, valid for a three decades frequency range, is proposed. This circuit can be viewed as an extension of the Cole model for a larger frequency interval, unlike similar models proposed by the same authors.

  9. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Heng; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2006-04-15

    Modeling air pollutant transport and dispersion in urban environments is especially challenging due to complex ground topography. In this study, we describe a large eddy simulation (LES) tool including a new dynamic subgrid closure and boundary treatment to model urban dispersion problems. The numerical model is developed, validated, and extended to a realistic urban layout. In such applications fairly coarse grids must be used in which each building can be represented using relatively few grid-points only. By carrying out LES of flow around a square cylinder and of flow over surface-mounted cubes, the coarsest resolution required to resolve the bluff body's cross section while still producing meaningful results is established. Specifically, we perform grid refinement studies showing that at least 6-8 grid points across the bluff body are required for reasonable results. The performance of several subgrid models is also compared. Although effects of the subgrid models on the mean flow are found to be small, dynamic Lagrangian models give a physically more realistic subgrid-scale (SGS) viscosity field. When scale-dependence is taken into consideration, these models lead to more realistic resolved fluctuating velocities and spectra. These results set the minimum grid resolution and subgrid model requirements needed to apply LES in simulations of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow and scalar transport over a realistic urban geometry. The results also illustrate the advantages of LES over traditional modeling approaches, particularly its ability to take into account the complex boundary details and the unsteady nature of atmospheric boundary layer flow. Thus LES can be used to evaluate probabilities of extreme events (such as probabilities of exceeding threshold pollutant concentrations). Some comments about computer resources required for LES are also included.

  10. Drag Prediction for the NASA CRM Wing-Body-Tail Using CFL3D and OVERFLOW on an Overset Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony J.; DeHaan, Mark A.; Vassberg, John C.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV), the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) wing-body and wing-body-tail configurations are analyzed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solvers CFL3D and OVERFLOW. Two families of structured, overset grids are built for DPW-IV. Grid Family 1 (GF1) consists of a coarse (7.2 million), medium (16.9 million), fine (56.5 million), and extra-fine (189.4 million) mesh. Grid Family 2 (GF2) is an extension of the first and includes a superfine (714.2 million) and an ultra-fine (2.4 billion) mesh. The medium grid anchors both families with an established build process for accurate cruise drag prediction studies. This base mesh is coarsened and enhanced to form a set of parametrically equivalent grids that increase in size by a factor of roughly 3.4 from one level to the next denser level. Both CFL3D and OVERFLOW are run on GF1 using a consistent numerical approach. Additional OVERFLOW runs are made to study effects of differencing scheme and turbulence model on GF1 and to obtain results for GF2. All CFD results are post-processed using Richardson extrapolation, and approximate grid-converged values of drag are compared. The medium grid is also used to compute a trimmed drag polar for both codes.

  11. Fossil birds of the Kibish Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine; Haile-Selassie, Y; Vignaud, P; Likius, A; Brunet, M

    2008-09-01

    The Kibish Formation has yielded a small collection of bird fossils, which are identified here as belonging to five species in four different families: Pelecanidae (pelicans), Anhingidae (darters), Ardeidae (herons) and Phasianidae (gamefowl). Two species of pelicans are identified: Pelecanus cf. P. onocrotalus, and P. aff. P. rufescens. The darter is referrable to Anhinga melanogaster. The heron is identifiable as Ardea sp., and the gamefowl as Numidinae indet. (guineafowl). Pelecanus cf. P. onocrotalus is represented by, among other remains, a well-preserved partial skull. Four of the birds are thus referrable to extant taxa that provide some paleoenvironmental clues for Member I of the Kibish Formation. The two species of pelican, the darter, and the heron indicate the presence of local freshwater bodies, a lake or a slow river, supporting resources of fish. The guineafowl is poorly informative ecologically, but probably excludes the notion that the local terrestrial landscape was treeless.

  12. Use of simple body measurements and allometry to predict the chemical growth and feed intake in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a practical procedure to estimate the chemical composition of pigs, their compositional growth and the expected feed intake from measurements of body weight (BW and backfat thickness (P2 serially performed in vivo. A farm data set provided information on 920 individuals including BW, measured at 71 ± 4 (t1, 126 ± 5 (t2 and 184 ± 5 (t3 days of age, of P2 at t2 and t3, and of voluntary daily feed intake (FI, recorded over the period from t2 to t3 by automated IVOG feeders. Body lipid mass was estimated as L= (9.17 + 0.70*P2 *BW/100 and the other chemical constituents were predicted from fat free empty body mass using Gompertz growth functions and allometry. Using individual changes of body composition from age t2 to t3, energy requirements for maintenance and growth and the corresponding predicted feed intakes (PFI were estimated. Measured FI were analysed for the effects of month, batch (within month, BWt2, P2t2, average metabolic weight, average daily gain and variation of P2 from t2 to t3. The same model was run again replacing the direct simple body measurements (BW and P2 with the estimated values of PFI as source of variation. Results. The Gompertz estimates of mature protein mass (Pm, relative growth rate parameter (B and lipid to protein ratio at maturity were 43.5 ± 5.8 kg, 0.0116 ± 0.0011 d-1 and 1.81 ± 0.30, respectively. The current protein mass averaged 18.5 + 1.6 kg and the daily retentions of protein and lipid were 177 ± 21 and 239 ± 62 g/d, respectively. FI and PFI averaged 2.824 ± 0.448 and 2.814 ± 0.393 kg/d, respectively. In the ANOVA of the FI data, the replacement of direct body measurements by PFI did not change the proportion of variance explained (83% and the RSD (0.199 g/d. The two sets of residual feed intake values obtained from the two ANOVA were highly correlated (RSD = 0.043 kg/d; R2= 0.961. Agreement between predicted and determined feed intakes provided a reasonable guarantee to the

  13. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  14. The eukaryotic fossil record in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N.

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic organisms are defining constituents of the Phanerozoic biosphere, but they also extend well back into the Proterozoic record, primarily in the form of microscopic body fossils. Criteria for identifying pre-Ediacaran eukaryotes include large cell size, morphologically complex cell walls and/or the recognition of diagnostically eukaryotic cell division patterns. The oldest unambiguous eukaryote currently on record is an acanthomorphic acritarch (Tappania) from the Palaeoproterozoic Semri Group of central India. Older candidate eukaryotes are difficult to distinguish from giant bacteria, prokaryotic colonies or diagenetic artefacts. In younger Meso- and Neoproterozoic strata, the challenge is to recognize particular grades and clades of eukaryotes, and to document their macro-evolutionary expression. Distinctive unicellular forms include mid-Neoproterozoic testate amoebae and phosphate biomineralizing 'scale-microfossils' comparable to an extant green alga. There is also a significant record of seaweeds, possible fungi and problematica from this interval, documenting multiple independent experiments in eukaryotic multicellularity. Taxonomically resolved forms include a bangiacean red alga and probable vaucheriacean chromalveolate algae from the late Mesoproterozoic, and populations of hydrodictyacean and siphonocladalean green algae of mid Neoproterozoic age. Despite this phylogenetic breadth, however, or arguments from molecular clocks, there is no convincing evidence for pre-Ediacaran metazoans or metaphytes. The conspicuously incomplete nature of the Proterozoic record makes it difficult to resolve larger-scale ecological and evolutionary patterns. Even so, both body fossils and biomarker data point to a pre-Ediacaran biosphere dominated overwhelming by prokaryotes. Contemporaneous eukaryotes appear to be limited to conspicuously shallow water environments, and exhibit fundamentally lower levels of morphological diversity and evolutionary turnover than

  15. Impact of body mass index on the predictive capacity of the COPD-6 device in the detection of airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira Gonçalves, Juan Marco; Pérez Méndez, Lina Inmaculada; Guzmán Sáenz, Cristina; Díaz Pérez, David; Viña Manrique, Pedro; Pedrero García, Arturo José

    2017-06-29

    The portable COPD-6 device has been validated as a screening tool for airflow obstruction through the quantification of the FEV1/FEV6 ratio. To date, however, the impact of body mass index (BMI) on its ability to predict airflow obstruction has not been evaluated. The aim of the study was to assess the predictive ability of COPD-6 to detect airflow obstruction based on the patient's BMI. A prospective and open cohort study in which 223 subjects who underwent conventional spirometry and COPD-6 were included. The area under the curve ROC (AUC) of FEV1/FEV6 was analysed in the detection of obstruction for all patients in addition to BMI (BMIBMI≥30kg/m(2)). Sensitivity and specificity, negative and positive predictive value as well as likelihood ratio were calculated to determine the cut-off point of COPD-6 FEV1/FEV6 ratio with greater predictive capacity. The COPD-6 allows ruling out airflow obstruction with AUC of the estimated ROC curve of 88% (95% CI 83-93). The cut-off point FEV1/FEV6 of 0.74-0.76 shows the best predictive capacity. However, this capacity is altered according to BMI with an increase in false positives in subjects with BMI≥30kg/ m(2) when using the same cut-off point for the whole sample. The choice of cut-off point FEV1/FEV6 for the detection of obstruction should be adjusted to the patient's BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The body adiposity index (BAI is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF% in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old. DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001. The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0, indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957. In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied.

  17. Predictive Validity of the Body Adiposity Index in Overweight and Obese Adults Using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a recent anthropometric measure proven to be valid in predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in some populations. However, the results have been inconsistent across populations. This study was designed to verify the validity of BAI in predicting BF% in a sample of overweight/obese adults, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 participants (54% women, mean age 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). DEXA was used as the “gold standard” to determine BF%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between BAI and BF%, as assessed by DEXA. A paired sample t-test was used to test differences in mean BF% obtained with BAI and DEXA methods. To evaluate the concordance between BF% as measured by DEXA and as estimated by BAI, we used Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman agreement analysis. The correlation between BF% obtained by DEXA and that estimated by BAI was r = 0.844, p < 0.001. Paired t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between methods (BAI = 33.3 ± 6.2 vs. DEXA 39.0 ± 6.1; p < 0.001). The bias of the BAI was −6.0 ± 3.0 BF% (95% CI = −12.0 to 1.0), indicating that the BAI method significantly underestimated the BF% compared to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was considered stronger (ρc = 0.923, 95% CI = 0.862 to 0.957). In obese adults, BAI presented low agreement with BF% measured by DEXA; therefore, BAI is not recommended for BF% prediction in this overweight/obese sample studied. PMID:27916871

  18. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  19. Alternative growth functions for predicting body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks: Lomolino equation and extreme value function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, A; Murawska, D; Golian, A; Mottaghitalab, M; Gitoee, A; Lopez, S; France, J

    2014-04-01

    In this study, 2 alternative growth functions, the Lomolino and the extreme value function (EVF), are introduced and their ability to predict body, carcass, and breast weight in ducks evaluated. A comparative study was carried out of these equations with standard growth functions: Gompertz, exponential, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten. Goodness of fit of the functions was evaluated using R(2), mean square error, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion, whereas bias factor, accuracy factor, Durbin-Watson statistic, and number of runs of sign were the criteria used for analysis of residuals. Results showed that predictive performance of all functions was acceptable, though the Richards and exponential equations failed to converge in a few cases for both male and female ducks. Based on goodness-of-fit statistics, the Richards, Gompertz, and EVF were the best equations whereas the worst fits to the data were obtained with the exponential. Analysis of residuals indicated that, for the different traits investigated, the least biased and the most accurate equations were the Gompertz, EVF, Richards, and generalized Michaelis-Menten, whereas the exponential was the most biased and least accurate. Based on the Durbin-Watson statistic, all models generally behaved well and only the exponential showed evidence of autocorrelation for all 3 traits investigated. Results showed that with all functions, estimated final weights of males were higher than females for the body, carcass, and breast weight profiles. The alternative functions introduced here have desirable advantages including flexibility and a low number of parameters. However, because this is probably the first study to apply these functions to predict growth patterns in poultry or other animals, further analysis of these new models is suggested.

  20. Looking at Fossils in New Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2005-01-01

    Existing fossils could be studied from a different prospective with the use of new methods of analysis for gathering more information. The new techniques of studying fossils binds the new and the old techniques and information and provides another way to look at fossils.

  1. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  2. Body Mass Index Predicts 24-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Levels in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Ghazi, Lama; Liu, Mingchun; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies indicate that hyperaldosteronism is found in 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. A small number of observational studies in normotensive and hypertensive patients suggest a correlation between aldosterone levels and obesity while others could not confirm these findings. The correlation between aldosterone levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with resistant hypertension has not been previously investigated. Our objective was to determine whether BMI is positively correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone in black and white patients. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a large diverse cohort (n=2170) with resistant hypertension. The relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, 24-hour urinary aldosterone, and BMI was investigated for the entire cohort, by sex and race (65.3% white, 40.3% men). We demonstrate that plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone:renin ratio were significantly correlated to BMI (Phypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funghetto SS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,2 Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa,3 Marina Morato Stival,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,4 Leonardo Costa Pereira,1 Marja Letícia Chaves Antunes,1 Luciano Ramos de Lima,1 Jonato Prestes,4 Ricardo Jacó Oliveira,1 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,2 Vinícius Carolino Souza,1,4 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski1 1University of Brasília (UnB, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia (UNICEUB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty Estácio de Sá of Vitória, ES, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Objective: To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI and percentage body fat (PBF for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women.Method: Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein.Results: Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05 and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL than did the overweight group (P≤0.05. According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005 proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003 and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0

  4. Genetically predicted body mass index and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in three large samples: Mendelian randomization analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Walter, Stefan; Kauwe, John S K; Saykin, Andrew J; Bennett, David A; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Glymour, M Maria

    2015-12-01

    Observational research shows that higher body mass index (BMI) increases Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. We applied genetic variants that predict BMI in Mendelian randomization analyses, an approach that is not biased by reverse causation or confounding, to evaluate whether higher BMI increases AD risk. We evaluated individual-level data from the AD Genetics Consortium (ADGC: 10,079 AD cases and 9613 controls), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: 8403 participants with algorithm-predicted dementia status), and published associations from the Genetic and Environmental Risk for AD consortium (GERAD1: 3177 AD cases and 7277 controls). No evidence from individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms or polygenic scores indicated BMI increased AD risk. Mendelian randomization effect estimates per BMI point (95% confidence intervals) were as follows: ADGC, odds ratio (OR) = 0.95 (0.90-1.01); HRS, OR = 1.00 (0.75-1.32); GERAD1, OR = 0.96 (0.87-1.07). One subscore (cellular processes not otherwise specified) unexpectedly predicted lower AD risk. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  6. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  7. Can body mass index help predict outcome in patients with bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Cynthia; van de Velde, Caroline; Růžičková, Martina; Slaney, Claire; Garnham, Julie; Hajek, Tomas; O’Donovan, Claire; Alda, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several studies have reported higher prevalence of obesity in patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). To study the relation of elevated body mass index (BMI) in patients with BD more closely, we investigated differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and medical characteristics with respect to BMI, with the hypothesis that BMI is related to prognosis and outcome. Methods We measured the BMI of 276 subjects of a tertiary care sample from the Maritime Bipolar Registry. Subjects were 16 to 83 years old, with psychiatric diagnoses of bipolar I disorder (n = 186), bipolar II disorder (n = 85), and BD not otherwise specified (n = 5). The registry included basic demographic data and details of the clinical presentation. We first examined the variables showing a significant association with BMI; subsequently, we modeled the relationship between BMI and psychiatric outcome using structural equation analysis. Results The prevalence of obesity in our sample was 39.1%. We found higher BMI in subjects with a chronic course (p < 0.001) and longer duration of illness (p = 0.02), lower scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (p = 0.02), and on disability (p = 0.002). Overweight patients had more frequent comorbid subthreshold social (p = 0.02) and generalized anxiety disorders (p = 0.05), diabetes mellitus type II (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p = 0.001). Subjects who achieved complete remission of symptoms on lithium showed significantly lower BMI (p = 0.01). Conclusions Our findings suggest that BMI is associated with the prognosis and outcome of BD. Whether this association is causal remains to be determined. PMID:19689507

  8. The influence of estimated body segment parameters on predicted joint kinetics during diplegic cerebral palsy gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Walsh, M; O'Sullivan, R; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2014-01-01

    Inverse Dynamic calculations are routinely used in joint moment and power estimates during gait with anthropometric data often taken from published sources. Many biomechanical analyses have highlighted the need to obtain subject-specific anthropometric data (e.g. Mass, Centre of Mass, Moments of Inertia) yet the types of imaging techniques required to achieve this are not always available in the clinical setting. Differences in anthropometric sets have been shown to affect the reactive force and moment calculations in normal subjects but the effect on a paediatric diplegic cerebral palsy group has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using different anthropometric sets on predicted sagittal plane moments during normal and diplegic cerebral palsy gait. Three published anthropometric sets were applied to the reactive force and moment calculations of 14 Cerebral Palsy and 14 Control subjects. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the different anthropometric sets but variability in the resulting sagittal plane moment calculations between sets was low (0.01-0.07 Nm/kg). In addition, the GDI-Kinetic, used as an outcome variable to assess whether differences were clinically meaningful, indicated no clinically meaningful difference between sets. The results suggest that the effects of using different anthropometric sets on the kinetic profiles of normal and diplegic cerebral palsy subjects are clinically insignificant.

  9. Predicting consideration of cosmetic surgery in a college population: a continuum of body image disturbance and the importance of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M; Lopez, Albertina; Wong, Lily; Northcross, Jasalynne; Anderson, Kristina R

    2011-06-01

    Elective cosmetic surgeries are increasing in the American population with reasons linked to body image disturbance and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Little research exists documenting the continuum of body image disturbance and its relationship to seeking surgery. The present research examined data from 544 participants, 55 of whom were diagnosable with BDD. Using assessments for body image disturbance, problematic coping strategies, and BDD symptomatology, results provided evidence for a continuum of body image distress. Logistic regression analysis supported the hypothesis that increased levels of body image disturbance and one type of problematic coping strategy (Appearance Fixing) predicted consideration of cosmetic surgery. Of participants diagnosable with BDD, those who considered cosmetic surgery showed more severe body image disturbance and problematic coping than those who did not consider surgery. These results have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Shahriar [School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia); CRC Mining, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia); Topal, Erkan [School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia); CRC Mining, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: e.topal@uq.edu.au

    2008-02-15

    Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables.

  11. "Predictability of body mass index for diabetes: Affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Davood

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS and body mass index (BMI, kg.m-2 are established independent risk factors in the development of diabetes; we prospectively examined their relative contributions and joint relationship with incident diabetes in a Middle Eastern cohort. Method participants of the ongoing Tehran lipid and glucose study are followed on a triennial basis. Among non-diabetic participants aged≥ 20 years at baseline (8,121 those with at least one follow-up examination (5,250 were included for the current study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate sex-specific adjusted odd ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of baseline BMI-MetS categories (normal weight without MetS as reference group for incident diabetes among 2186 men and 3064 women, aged ≥ 20 years, free of diabetes at baseline. Result During follow up (median 6.5 years; there were 369 incident diabetes (147 in men. In women without MetS, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and obese (BMI≥30 participants were 2.3 (1.2-4.3 and 2.2 (1.0-4.7, respectively. The corresponding ORs for men without MetS were 1.6 (0.9-2.9 and 3.6 (1.5-8.4 respectively. As compared to the normal-weight/without MetS, normal-weight women and men with MetS, had a multivariate-adjusted ORs for incident diabetes of 8.8 (3.7-21.2 and 3.1 (1.3-7.0, respectively. The corresponding ORs for overweight and obese women with MetS reached to 7.7 (4.0-14.9 and 12.6 (6.9-23.2 and for men reached to 3.4(2.0-5.8 and 5.7(3.9-9.9, respectively. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for MetS in normal weight individuals. Obesity increases diabetes risk in the absence of MetS, underscores the need for more stringent criteria to define healthy metabolic state among obese individuals. Weight reduction measures, thus, should be encouraged in conjunction with achieving metabolic targets not addressed by current definition of

  12. Prediction of Body Mass Index Using Concurrently Self-Reported or Previously Measured Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaohui; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Zeng, Donglin; French, Simone; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare alternative models for the imputation of BMIM (measured weight in kilograms/measured height in meters squared) in a longitudinal study. Methods We used data from 11,008 adults examined at wave III (2001–2002) and wave IV (2007–2008) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants were asked their height and weight before being measured. Equations to predict wave IV BMIM were developed in an 80% random subsample and evaluated in the remaining participants. The validity of models that included BMI constructed from previously measured height and weight (BMIPM) was compared to the validity of models that used BMI calculated from concurrently self-reported height and weight (BMISR). The usefulness of including demographics and perceived weight category in those models was also examined. Results The model that used BMISR, compared to BMIPM, as the only variable produced a larger R2 (0.913 vs. 0.693), a smaller root mean square error (2.07 vs. 3.90 kg/m2) and a lower bias between normal-weight participants and those with obesity (0.98 vs. 4.24 kg/m2). The performance of the model containing BMISR alone was not substantially improved by the addition of demographics, perceived weight category or BMIPM. Conclusions Our work is the first to show that concurrent self-reports of height and weight may be more useful than previously measured height and weight for imputation of missing BMIM when the time interval between measures is relatively long. Other time frames and alternatives to in-person collection of self-reported data need to be examined. PMID:27898706

  13. Body Mass Index, Modulated by Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope, Predicts ACL Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojicic, Katherine M.; Beaulieu, Melanie L.; Krieger, Daniel Imaizumi; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention strategies to prevent ACL injury rely on increasing knowledge of risk factors. While several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for ACL rupture have been identified, the interaction between them remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMI and several knee geometries as potential risk factors for ACL injury. We hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of an increased posterior tibial slope or middle cartilage slope would increase risk of ACL injury. We also hypothesized that an increased BMI in the presence of a decreased posterior meniscal height or meniscal bone angle would result in an increased risk of ACL injury. Methods: Sagittal knee MRI files from 76 ACL-injured and 42 non-injured subjects were gathered from the institution’s archive. The PTS, MCS, PMH, and MBA were measured using the circle method and compared with BMI from the subject demographic. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistical regression. Figure 1 details measurements made for each knee geometry. Results: Univariate analysis of PTS showed increases in PTS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.043, OR =1.12). Univariate analysis of MCS showed increases of MCS significantly increase the odds of ACL tear (p = 0.037, OR = 1.12). Multivariate analysis of PTS and BMI centered around the mean (PTS*cBMI) showed increases of PTS in combination with increases in cBMI significantly increases the odds of ACL rupture (p value = .050, OR = 1.03). Table 1 shows predicted increases in ACL injury risk for combinations of increases in PTS and BMI. Conclusion: An increase in BMI will increase the risk of ACL tear when an increase in lateral posterior tibial slope is present. An increase in lateral posterior tibial slope or lateral middle cartilage slope increases the risk of an ACL tear.

  14. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Reza Ahmadian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62% and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P<0.001. Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  15. Computed tomographic features predictive of local recurrence in patients with early stage lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Ridge, Carole A; Hayes, Sara; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Rimner, Andreas; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify computed tomography (CT) features of local recurrence (LR) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent SBRT for lung cancer from January 1st, 2006 to March 1st, 2011. Signs of LR recorded: opacity with new bulging margin, opacification of air bronchograms, enlarging pleural effusion, new or enlarging mass, and increased lung density at the treatment site. A new bulging margin at the treatment site was the only feature significantly associated with LR (P<.005). Most CT features classically associated with LR following conventional radiation therapy are unreliable for predicting LR following SBRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  17. Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity of People with Obesity and Prediction of Body Mass Index Using Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition affecting billions of people. Various neuroimaging methods including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to obtain information about obesity. We adopted a multi-modal approach combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to incorporate complementary information and thus better investigate the brains of non-healthy weight subjects. The objective of this study was to explore multi-modal neuroimaging and use it to predict a practical clinical score, body mass index (BMI. Connectivity analysis was applied to DTI and rs-fMRI. Significant regions and associated imaging features were identified based on group-wise differences between healthy weight and non-healthy weight subjects. Six DTI-driven connections and 10 rs-fMRI-driven connectivities were identified. DTI-driven connections better reflected group-wise differences than did rs-fMRI-driven connectivity. We predicted BMI values using multi-modal imaging features in a partial least-square regression framework (percent error 15.0%. Our study identified brain regions and imaging features that can adequately explain BMI. We identified potentially good imaging biomarker candidates for obesity-related diseases.

  18. Accurate X-Ray Spectral Predictions: An Advanced Self-Consistent-Field Approach Inspired by Many-Body Perturbation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yufeng; Vinson, John; Pemmaraju, Sri; Drisdell, Walter S.; Shirley, Eric L.; Prendergast, David

    2017-03-01

    Constrained-occupancy delta-self-consistent-field (Δ SCF ) methods and many-body perturbation theories (MBPT) are two strategies for obtaining electronic excitations from first principles. Using the two distinct approaches, we study the O 1 s core excitations that have become increasingly important for characterizing transition-metal oxides and understanding strong electronic correlation. The Δ SCF approach, in its current single-particle form, systematically underestimates the pre-edge intensity for chosen oxides, despite its success in weakly correlated systems. By contrast, the Bethe-Salpeter equation within MBPT predicts much better line shapes. This motivates one to reexamine the many-electron dynamics of x-ray excitations. We find that the single-particle Δ SCF approach can be rectified by explicitly calculating many-electron transition amplitudes, producing x-ray spectra in excellent agreement with experiments. This study paves the way to accurately predict x-ray near-edge spectral fingerprints for physics and materials science beyond the Bethe-Salpether equation.

  19. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Knowles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, waist-height ratio (WHtR, and visceral adiposity index (VAI were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG. For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS.

  20. The assessment of size in fossil felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O' Regan, H.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of body size in fossil vertebrates depend on establishing the relationships between body mass, overall length or some measure of stature and measurements taken on skeletal elements in living relatives or close proxies. However, most osteological collections lack information on body size for individual specimens, and published investigations usually fa11 back on summary data derived from the literature to plot against measurements taken directly on the skeletal material. The utility of such approaches beyond very general indications of size is open to question. In an effort to reduce these problems we attempt to establish some objective basis for using skeletal elements for the purpose of size estimation in the larger Felidae of the genus Panthera, using data for the jaguar, Panthera onca. We show that cranial length offers a good indication of overall size in the living animal, and that various other cranial dimensions correlate closely with that measurement, while individual teeth, despite their frequent occurrence in assemblages, show a looser relationship and therefore appear less useful for size estimations of fossil material than has been thought.Las estimaciones de la talla corporal en vertebrados fósiles depende de las relaciones establecidas entre el peso corporal, la longitud total o alguna medida de estatura tomada de los elementos esqueléticos de animales actuales emparentados o muy afines. Sin embargo, en muchas colecciones osteológicas falta información sobre la talla corporal de los ejemplares, de forma que las investigaciones publicadas usualmente recurren a datos sintetizados de la literatura que se relacionan con medidas tomadas directamente del material esquelético. La utilidad de estas aproximaciones más allá de indicaciones generales sobre la talla es discutible. En un esfuerzo de minimizar estos problemas intentamos establecer bases objetivas para el uso de los elementos esqueléticos con el propósito de

  1. Predictive factors of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in primary and metastatic lung tumors treated with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Pyo; Lee, Jeong Shim; Cho, Yeona; Chung, Seung Yeun; Lee, Jason Joon Bock; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Although stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is widely used therapeutic technique, predictive factors of radiation pneumonitis (RP) after SABR remain undefined. We aimed to investigate the predictive factors affecting RP in patients with primary or metastatic lung tumors who received SABR. From 2012 to 2015, we reviewed 59 patients with 72 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated with SABR, and performed analyses of clinical and dosimetric variables related to symptomatic RP. SABR was delivered as 45–60 Gy in 3–4 fractions, which were over 100 Gy in BED when the α/β value was assumed to be 10. Tumor volume and other various dose volume factors were analyzed using median value as a cutoff value. RP was graded per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. At the median follow-up period of 11 months, symptomatic RP was observed in 13 lesions (12 patients, 18.1%), including grade 2 RP in 11 lesions and grade 3 in 2 lesions. Patients with planning target volume (PTV) of ≤14.35 mL had significantly lower rates of symptomatic RP when compared to others (8.6% vs. 27%; p = 0.048). Rates of symptomatic RP in patients with internal gross tumor volume (iGTV) >4.21 mL were higher than with ≤4.21 mL (29.7% vs. 6.1%; p = 0.017). The incidence of symptomatic RP following treatment with SABR was acceptable with grade 2 RP being observed in most patients. iGTV over 4.21 mL and PTV of over 14.35 mL were significant predictive factors related to symptomatic RP.

  2. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  3. Latent methane in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.V. Ulyanova; G.P. Starikov; N.N. Kovriga [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2004-07-01

    It is established experimentally using 1H NMR wide line spectroscopy that methane can exist in coals not only in open or closed porosity and fracture systems but also in solid solutions in coal substance, in particular, under methane pressure 2 MPa or higher. Methane dissolved in coal minerals reversibly modifies their lattice parameters as determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. Co-existence of these methane forms in fossil coals causes multi-step desorption kinetics. It is shown experimentally that the long-term latent methane desorption is effected mainly by closed porosity, which in turn is determined by coal rank. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Prediction of extracellular water and total body water by multifrequency bio-electrical impedance in a Southeast Asian population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guricci, S.; Hatriyanti, Y.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Deurenberg, P.

    1999-01-01

    Three different adult Indonesian population groups living on Sumatra (Palembang), Java (Depok) and Sulawesi (Makale) participated in a study on body composition. Body weight, body height and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (1, 5, 50 and 100 kHz) were measured and in addition total body water

  5. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  6. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  7. Social Perspective on Fossilization of Interlanguage

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Hulin

    2013-01-01

    The paper is to investigate the role of social factors that influence the fossilization of learners’ interlanguage. In this context, "fossilization" refers to the stopping in the acquisition of a second language (L2) short of native-like proficiency(Towell and Hawkins, 1994). The paper begins with Wolfson’s (1989) overview of social settings that influence the fossilization of learners’ interlanguage and Ellis (2005) discussion of the impact of social factors on L2 proficiency evidenced with ...

  8. An AFM Observation on Fossil Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; YU Junping; FANG Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Fossil cytoplasm is a new research topic of interest in paleobotany. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new technology applied widely in physics and biology; however, it is rarely used in paleontology. Here we applied AFM for the first time to study fossil cytoplasm. The results indicate that the fossil cytoplasm is heterogeneous and full of ultrastructures, just like extant cytoplasm, and that the application of AFM, especially in combination with other techniques, can reveal the subcellular details of fossil plants with more confidence.

  9. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  10. Do maternal ratings of appetite in infants predict later Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire scores and body mass index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2010-02-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI.

  11. A computational feedforward model predicts categorization of masked emotional body language for longer, but not for shorter, latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Bernard M C; Schindler, Konrad; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-07-01

    Given the presence of massive feedback loops in brain networks, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of feedforward and feedback processing to the recognition of visual stimuli, in this case, of emotional body expressions. The aim of the work presented in this letter is to shed light on how well feedforward processing explains rapid categorization of this important class of stimuli. By means of parametric masking, it may be possible to control the contribution of feedback activity in human participants. A close comparison is presented between human recognition performance and the performance of a computational neural model that exclusively modeled feedforward processing and was engineered to fulfill the computational requirements of recognition. Results show that the longer the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), the closer the performance of the human participants was to the values predicted by the model, with an optimum at an SOA of 100 ms. At short SOA latencies, human performance deteriorated, but the categorization of the emotional expressions was still above baseline. The data suggest that, although theoretically, feedback arising from inferotemporal cortex is likely to be blocked when the SOA is 100 ms, human participants still seem to rely on more local visual feedback processing to equal the model's performance.

  12. Influences of heterogeneous native contact energy and many-body interactions on the prediction of protein folding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuqing; Ouyang, Yanhua; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-16

    Since single-point mutant perturbation has been used to probe protein folding mechanisms in experiments, the ϕ-value has become a critical parameter to infer the transition state (TS) for two-state proteins. Experimentally, large scale analysis has shown a nearly single uniform ϕ-value with normally distributed error from 24 different proteins; moreover, in zero stability conditions, the intrinsic variable ϕ(0) is around 0.36. To explore how and to what extent theoretical models can capture experimental phenomena, we here use structure-based explicit chain coarse-grained models to investigate the influence of single-point mutant perturbation on protein folding for single domain two-state proteins. Our results indicate that uniform, additive contact energetic interactions cannot predict experimental Brønsted plots well. Those points deviate largely from the main data sets in Brønsted plots, are mostly hydrophobic, and are located in N- and C-terminal contacting regions. Heterogenous contact energy, which is dependent on sequence separation, can narrow the point dispersion in a Brønsted plot. Moreover, we demonstrate that combining many-body interactions with heterogeneous native contact energy can present mean ϕ-values consistent with experimental findings, with a comparable distributed error. This indicates that for more accurate elucidation of protein folding mechanisms by residue-level structure-based models, these elements should be considered.

  13. Psychological Impact of Predictive Genetic Testing in VCP Inclusion Body Myopathy, Paget Disease of Bone and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampalli, Abhilasha; Khare, Manaswitha; Kubrussi, Georgette; Wencel, Marie; Tanaja, Jasmin; Donkervoort, Sandra; Osann, Kathryn; Simon, Mariella; Wallace, Douglas; Smith, Charles; M McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Kimonis, Virginia

    2015-10-01

    Inclusion Body Myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and Fronto-temporal Dementia, also known as multisystem proteinopathy is an autosomal dominant, late onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in Valosin containing protein (VCP) gene. This study aimed to assess uptake and decision making for predictive genetic testing and the impact on psychological well-being. Individuals who had participated in the gene discovery study with a 50 % a priori risk of inheriting VCP disease were sent a letter of invitation offering genetic counseling and testing and were also invited to participate in this psychosocial study. A total of 102 individuals received an invitation and 33 individuals participated in genetic counseling and testing (32.3 %) with 29 completing baseline questionnaires. Twenty completed the follow-up post-test Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire including 13 of the 18 who had tested positive. Mean risk perception at baseline was 50.1 %. Reasons for testing included planning for the future, relieving uncertainty, informing children and satisfying curiosity. At baseline, one quarter of the participants had high levels of anxiety. However, scores were normal one year following testing. In this small cohort, one third of individuals at 50 % risk chose pre-symptomatic testing. Although one quarter of those choosing testing had high anxiety at baseline, this was not evident at follow-up.

  14. Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2013-01-14

    Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0·033) higher than measured TGV by 6 % on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0·043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0·5 % BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1·9 to 2·9 % BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.

  15. The cosmic web and microwave background fossilize the first turbulent combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Keeler, R. Norris

    2016-10-01

    Collisional fluid mechanics theory predicts a turbulent hot big bang at Planck conditions from large, negative, turbulence stresses below the Fortov-Kerr limit (Big bang turbulence fossilized when quarks formed, extracting the mass energy of the universe by extreme negative viscous stresses of inflation, expanding to length scales larger than the horizon scale ct. Viscous-gravitational structure formation by fragmentation was triggered at big bang fossil vorticity turbulence vortex lines during the plasma epoch, as observed by the Planck space telescope. A cosmic web of protogalaxies, protogalaxyclusters, and protogalaxysuperclusters that formed in turbulent boundary layers of the spinning voids are hereby identified as expanding turbulence fossils that falsify CDMHC cosmology.

  16. Paleoradiology. Imaging mummies and fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhem, Rethy K. [Western Ontario Univ. London Health Sciences Centre, ON (Canada). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Brothwell, Don R. [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeology

    2008-07-01

    This is an important work on a topic of huge interest to archaeologists and related scientists, since the use of imaging techniques in the field has been expanding rapidly in recent decades. Paleoradiology involves the use of X-rays and advanced medical imaging modalities to evaluate ancient human and animal skeletons as well as biological materials from archaeological sites. Paleoradiological studies have been performed on mummies, skeletal remains and fossils to determine their sex and age at death. Diagnostic paleoradiology is the use of X-ray studies to detect ancient diseases. The broad range of themes and imaging techniques in this volume reflects four decades of research undertaken by Don Brothwell in the fields of anthropology, human paleopathology, and zooarchaeology, combined with two decades of skeletal radiology experience during which Rethy Chhem read over 150,000 skeletal X-ray and CT studies. (orig.)

  17. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over‐estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over‐estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye‐movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over‐estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over‐estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over‐estimate body size. Results Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Discussion Since the over‐estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over‐estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over‐estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507–518). PMID:26996142

  18. Evolution in fossil lineages: paleontology and The Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene

    2010-12-01

    Of all of the sources of evidence for evolution by natural selection, perhaps the most problematic for Darwin was the geological record of organic change. In response to the absence of species-level transformations in the fossil record, Darwin argued that the fossil record was too incomplete, too biased, and too poorly known to provide strong evidence against his theory. Here, this view of the fossil record is evaluated in light of 150 years of subsequent paleontological research. Although Darwin's assessment of the completeness and resolution of fossiliferous rocks was in several ways astute, today the fossil record is much better explored, documented, and understood than it was in 1859. In particular, a reasonably large set of studies tracing evolutionary trajectories within species can now be brought to bear on Darwin's expectation of gradual change driven by natural selection. An unusually high-resolution sequence of stickleback-bearing strata records the transformation of this lineage via natural selection. This adaptive trajectory is qualitatively consistent with Darwin's prediction, but it occurred much more rapidly than he would have guessed: almost all of the directional change was completed within 1,000 generations. In most geological sequences, this change would be too rapid to resolve. The accumulated fossil record at more typical paleontological scales (10(4)-10(6) years) reveals evolutionary changes that are rarely directional and net rates of change that are perhaps surprisingly slow, two findings that are in agreement with the punctuated-equilibrium model. Finally, Darwin's view of the broader history of life is reviewed briefly, with a focus on competition-mediated extinction and recent paleontological and phylogenetic attempts to assess diversity dependence in evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Concurrent validity of the non-exercise based VO2max prediction equation using percentage body fat as a variable in asian Indian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is highly dependent upon body composition of an individual and body composition varies with ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to check the concurrent validity of the non-exercise prediction equation developed by Jackson and colleagues (1990) using percentage body fat as a variable in Asian Indian adults. Methods One hundred twenty college-aged participants (60 male, 60 female, mean age 22.02 ± 2.29 yrs) successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) on a motorized treadmill to assess VO2max. VO2max was then estimated by the non-exercise prediction equation developed by Jackson and colleagues (1990) using percentage body fat. Percentage body fat was calculated by three different models (Sandhu et al’s fat mass equation, Durnin-womersley’s 4 site percentage body fat and Jackson & Pollock’s 4 site percentage body fat) and was used in the above equation. The results of VO2max obtained using “gold standard” treadmill methods were then compared with the three results of VO2max obtained by Jackson et al’s equation (using three different models to calculate percentage body fat) and it was determined which equation is best suited to determine percentage body fat and in turn VO2 max for Indian population. Results Jackson et al’s prediction equation overpredicts VO2max in Asian Indian subjects who have a lower VO2max (33.41 ± 14.39 ml/kg/min) than those reported in other age matched populations. percentage body fats calculated by the three equations were significantly different and the correlation coefficient (r) between VO2max calculated by Jackson and colleagues (1990) using Sandhu et al’s equation for percentage body fat with VO2 max calculated using treadmill (gold standard) (r = .817) was found slightly more significantly correlated than the other two equations and was not statistically different from the measured value. Conclusions This study proves that VO2max equation using

  20. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  1. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved Carbonifer

  2. Accuracy of Prediction Equations to Assess Percentage of Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Compared to Air Displacement Plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Ara, I.; Moreno, L. A.; Casajus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12…

  3. The growth of different body length dimensions is not predictive for the peak growth velocity of sitting height in the individual child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Gerver, W. J. M.; Kingma, Idsart; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Verkerke, Gijsvertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the differences in timing of the peak growth velocity (PGV) between sitting height, total body height, subischial leg length, and foot length can be used to predict whether the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is before or past hi

  4. High Temperature as a Mechanism for Plant Cytoplasm Preservation in Fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    Because the cytoplasm of a plant normally degrades after the death of the plant, finding cytoplasm in a plant body after a prolonged period of time, especially in fossil plants, is unexpected.Recent work on several 100-Myr-old plant fossils from Kansas, USA indicates, however, that cells and their contents can be preserved. Most of the cells in these fossil plants appear to be in a state of plasmolysis, and these fossil cells bear a strong resemblance to laboratory-baked cells of extant plant tissues. Based on a comparison with extant material plus biophysical and biochemical analyses of the cytoplasm degrading process, a new hypothesis for cytoplasm preservation in nature is proposed: high temperature, a concomitant of commonly seen wildfires, may preserve cytoplasm in fossil plants. This hypothesis implies that fossilized cytoplasm should be rather common and an appropriate substance for research, unlike previously thought. Research on fossil cytoplasm closely integrates paleobotany with biochemistry, biophysics, as well as fire ecology, and invites inputs from these fields to paleobotany to interpret these provocative findings.

  5. Non-integumentary melanosomes can bias reconstructions of the colours of fossil vertebrate skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Kaye, Jonathan; Benton, Mike; Orr, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The soft tissues of many fossil vertebrates preserve melanosomes - micron-scale organelles used to inform on original integumentary coloration and the evolution of visual signalling strategies through time. In extant vertebrates, however, melanosomes also occur in internal tissues, and hence melanosomes preserved in fossils may not derive solely from the integument. Here, by analyzing the internal tissues of extant and fossil frogs, we show that non-integumentary melanosomes are extremely abundant; they are usually localised to the torso in fossils but can also occur in the limbs, presumably due to dispersal during decay. Melanosomes from the body outlines of fossils cannot, therefore, reliably inform on integumentary coloration. Crucially, non-integumentary and integumentary melanosomes differ in geometry in both fossil and modern frogs and, in fossils, occur as discrete layers. Analysis of melanosome geometry, distribution and size-specific layering is required to differentiate integumentary from non-integumentary melanosomes and is essential to any attempt to reconstruct the original colours of vertebrate skin.

  6. During rapid weight loss in obese children, reductions in TSH predict improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of changes in body weight or fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Jung, Andreas; Murer, Stefanie B; Wildhaber, Johannes; Wildhaber-Brooks, Joanne; Knöpfli, Bruno H; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    Although serum TSH is often elevated in obesity and may be linked to disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism, the clinical relevance of these relationships remains unclear. Subjects were obese children and adolescents (n=206; mean age 14 yr) undergoing rapid weight and fat loss in a standardized, multidisciplinary, 2-month, in-patient weight loss program. This was a prospective study that determined thyroid function, glucose and lipid parameters, leptin, anthropometric measures, and body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, 52% of children had TSH concentrations in the high normal range (>2.5 mU/liter), but TSH was not correlated with body weight, body mass index sd scores, lean body mass, or body fat percentage. At baseline, independent of adiposity, TSH significantly correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.013), fasting insulin (P=0.010), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) (P=0.004), and leptin (P=0.006). During the intervention, mean body fat, TSH, HOMA, and fasting insulin decreased by 21, 11, 53, and 54%, respectively. Change (Δ) in TSH did not correlate with Δbody weight or Δbody composition, but ΔTSH significantly correlated with, Δfasting insulin and ΔHOMA, independent of Δbody weight or Δbody composition (Pweight or fat. During weight loss, independent of changes in body weight or composition, decreases in elevated serum TSH predict decreases in fasting insulin and HOMA. These findings suggest interventions that target high TSH concentrations during weight loss in obese subjects may improve insulin sensitivity.

  7. Swimming fundamentals: turning performance of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) is predicted by body shape and postural reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Turns are essential maneuvers that sharks employ when foraging, feeding, and migrating. How well any individual performs in turning is determined, in part, by the static form and postural reconfiguration of its body. Since the importance of postural reconfiguration in determining turning performance is not well understood, our goal was to examine how body form and posture correlate with turning performance in juvenile leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata. From videos of sharks turning laterally in yaw, performance was measured as turning radius, turning angle, angular speed of the head, and translational speed of the body along its path. Body form variables included the body's length, mass, width, second moment of area, and mass moment of inertia. Postural variables included body-bending coefficient, body flexion at different longitudinal positions, and lag time between body flexion and turning of the center of rotation. Using step-wise linear regression followed by multiple regression, each performance variable was regressed onto three pools of independent variables: (i) all form variables alone, (ii) all postural variables alone, and (iii) a combination of all form and postural variables. From these correlations, it appears that turning performance may be controlled primarily by the magnitude and timing of the flexion of the body. In other words, sharks alter how they turn by changing the pattern in which they bend their bodies; the body acts as a dynamically reconfiguring rudder.

  8. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  9. Recursive Partitioning Analysis Index Is Predictive for Overall Survival in Patients Undergoing Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Spinal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Woody, Neil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Soeder, Sherry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Rybicki, Lisa A. [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Djemil, Toufik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To generate a prognostic index using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) for patients undergoing spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (sSBRT) for spinal metastases (sMet). Methods and Materials: From an institutional review board-approved database, 174 patients were treated for sMet with sSBRT between February 2006 and August 2009. Median dose was 14 Gy (range, 8-24 Gy), typically in a single fraction (range, 1-5). Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to detect any correlation between survival and histology. Histologies were divided into favorable (breast and prostate), radioresistant (renal cell, melanoma and sarcoma), and other (all other histologies). RPA was performed to identify any association of the following variables with overall survival (OS) following sSBRT: histology, gender, age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), control of primary, extraosseous metastases, time from primary diagnosis (TPD), dose of sSBRT ({<=}14 Gy vs. >14 Gy), extent of spine disease (epidural only, bone and epidural, bone only), upfront or salvage treatment, presence of paraspinal extension, and previous surgery. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 months. Median OS time from sSBRT was 10.7 months. Median OS intervals for favorable histologies were 14 months, 11.2 months for radioresistant histologies, and 7.3 months for other histologies (p = 0.02). RPA analysis resulted in three classes (p < 0.0001). Class 1 was defined as TPD of >30 months and KPS of >70; Class 2 was TPD of >30 months and KPS of {<=}70 or a TPD of {<=}30 months and age <70 years old; Class 3 was TPD of {<=}30 months and age {>=}70 years old. Median OS was 21.1 months for Class 1 (n = 59), 8.7 months for Class 2 (n = 104), and 2.4 months for Class 3 (n = 11). Conclusion: sSBRT patients treated for sMet have a wide variability in OS. We developed an RPA classification system that is predictive of OS. While many patients are treated for palliation of pain or to avoid symptomatic progression, this

  10. Optimization-based human motion prediction using an inverse-inverse dynamics technique implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark

    2012-01-01

    derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. The technique is demonstrated on a human model pedaling a bicycle. We use a physiology-based cost function expressing the mean square of all muscle activities over the cycle to predict a realistic motion pattern. Posture and motion prediction......This paper presents an optimization-based human movement prediction using the AnyBody modeling system (AMS). It is explained how AMS can enables prediction of a realistic human movement by means of a computationally efficient optimization-based algorithm. The human motion predicted in AMS is based......, the parameters of these functions are optimized to produce an optimum posture or movement according to a user-defined cost function and constraints. The cost function and the constraints are typically express performance, comfort, injury risk, fatigue, muscle load, joint forces and other physiological properties...

  11. Self-organized criticality, evolution and the fossil extinction record

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, M E J

    1996-01-01

    Statistical analysis indicates that the fossil extinction record is compatible with a distribution of extinction events whose frequency is related to their size by a power law with an exponent close to two. This result is in agreement with predictions based on self-organized critical models of extinction, and might well be taken as evidence of critical behaviour in terrestrial evolution. We argue however that there is a much simpler explanation for the appearance of a power law in terms of extinctions caused by stresses (either biotic or abiotic) to which species are subjected by their environment. We give an explicit model of this process and discuss its properties and implications for the interpretation of the fossil record.

  12. Prediction equations for body-fat percentage in Indian infants and young children using skinfold thickness and mid-arm circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bandana; Bose, Kaushik; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mahalanabis, Dilip

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop prediction equations for fat-mass percentage in infants in India based on skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and age. Skinfold thicknesses and mid-arm circumference of 46 apparently-healthy infants (27 girls and 19 boys), aged 6-24 months, from among the urban poor attending a well baby clinic of a hospital in Kolkata were measured. Their body-fat percentage was measured using the D2O dilution technique as the reference method. Equations for body-fat percentage were developed using a stepwise forward regression model using skinfold thicknesses, mid-arm circumference, and age as independent variables, and the body-fat percentage was derived by D2O dilution as the dependent variable. The new prediction equations are: body-fat percentage = -69.26+5.76xB-0.33xT2+5.40xM+0.01xA2 for girls and body-fat percentage = -8.75+3.73xB+2.57xS for boys, where B=biceps skinfold thickness, T=triceps skinfold thickness, and S=suprailiac skinfold thickness all in mm, M=mid-arm circumference in cm, and A=age in month. Using the D2O dilution technique, the means (SD) of the calculated body-fat percentage were 17.11 (7.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.62) for boys and, using the new prediction equations, these were 17.11 (6.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.02) for boys. The mean of the differences of paired values in body-fat percentage was zero. The mean (SD) of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage derived by the D2O technique and the new equations, applied on an independent sample of 23 infants (11 girls and 12 boys) were -0.93 (6.56) for girls and 1.14 (2.43) for boys; the 95% confidence limits of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage were -2.03 to +3.89 for girls and -0.26 to +2.54 for boys. Given that the trajectories of growth during infancy and childhood are a major risk factor for a group of diseases in adulthood, including coronary heart disease and diabetes, these predictive equations should be useful

  13. The Mass Assembly of Fossil Groups of Galaxies in the Millennium Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dariush, Ali; Ponman, Trevor J; Pearce, Frazer; Raychaudhury, Somak; Hartley, Will

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium Simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observation, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3-4% of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshift, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being a...

  14. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  15. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Penney

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiders (Araneae are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant. Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa were compiled from current taxonomic catalogues. Data for extant taxa showed a steady linear increase of approximately 500 new species per year over the last decade, reflecting a rather constant research activity in this area by a large number of scientists, which can be expected to continue. The results for fossil species were very different, with peaks of new species descriptions followed by long troughs, indicating minimal new published research activity for most years. This pattern is indicative of short bursts of research by a limited number of authors. Given the frequent discovery of new fossil deposits containing spiders, a wealth of new material coming to light from previously worked deposits, and the application of new imaging techniques in palaeoarachnology that allow us to extract additional data from historical specimens, e.g. X-ray computed tomography, it is important not only to ensure a sustained research activity on fossil spiders (and other arachnids through training and enthusing the next generation of palaeoarachnologists, but preferably to promote increased research and expertise in this field.

  16. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alexei J.; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth–death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the ‘morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences

  17. Body dissatisfaction among pre-adolescent girls is predicted by their involvement in aesthetic sports and by personal characteristics of their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, C; Battagliese, G; Lucidi, F; Frost, R O

    2012-06-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that the dissatisfaction with one's body is widely present in the general population even at very early ages, and that it is predictive of future eating disorders. The family seem particularly influent for the development of body dissatisfaction while sports practice is associated to a higher prevalence of disordered eating. However the role of sports practice in the development of body dissatisfaction is still under debate and only few studies have evaluated together the influences of family and sport practice on body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed at evaluating both the singular and conjoint role of the type of sport and maternal influences in young female children. The sport influence was assessed comparing aesthetic and non-aesthetic disciplines; the mother's influence was evaluated considering her personal characteristics and her desire to have a thinner child. Results evidence that children involved in aesthetic sports, although thinner than those involved in non-aesthetic sports, report higher desire to be much thinner and have mothers who pressure them toward a greater thinness. Furthermore, children's body dissatisfaction in the sport groups is predicted by maternal characteristic like her habit to restrict her own eating and her perfectionism.

  18. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B

    2014-01-01

    -validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years...

  19. Visuospatial integration and human evolution: the fossil evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Lozano, Marina; Lorenzo, Carlos

    2016-06-20

    Visuospatial integration concerns the ability to coordinate the inner and outer environments, namely the central nervous system and the outer spatial elements, through the interface of the body. This integration is essential for every basic human activity, from locomotion and grasping to speech or tooling. Visuospatial integration is even more fundamental when dealing with theories on extended mind, embodiment, and material engagement. According to the hypotheses on extended cognition, the nervous system, the body and the external objects work as a single integrated unit, and what we call "mind" is the process resulting from such interaction. Because of the relevance of culture and material culture in humans, important changes in such processes were probably crucial for the evolution of Homo sapiens. Much information in this sense can be supplied by considering issues in neuroarchaeology and cognitive sciences. Nonetheless, fossils and their anatomy can also provide evidence according to changes involving physical and body aspects. In this article, we review three sources of morphological information concerning visuospatial management and fossils: evolutionary neuroanatomy, manipulative behaviors, and hand evolution.

  20. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  1. Mean Expected Error in Prediction of Total Body Water: A True Accuracy Comparison between Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Single Frequency Regression Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Fernando; Abtahi, Shirin; Abtahi, Farhad; Ellegård, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Ward, Leigh C

    2015-01-01

    For several decades electrical bioimpedance (EBI) has been used to assess body fluid distribution and body composition. Despite the development of several different approaches for assessing total body water (TBW), it remains uncertain whether bioimpedance spectroscopic (BIS) approaches are more accurate than single frequency regression equations. The main objective of this study was to answer this question by calculating the expected accuracy of a single measurement for different EBI methods. The results of this study showed that all methods produced similarly high correlation and concordance coefficients, indicating good accuracy as a method. Even the limits of agreement produced from the Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the performance of single frequency, Sun's prediction equations, at population level was close to the performance of both BIS methods; however, when comparing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error value between the single frequency prediction equations and the BIS methods, a significant difference was obtained, indicating slightly better accuracy for the BIS methods. Despite the higher accuracy of BIS methods over 50 kHz prediction equations at both population and individual level, the magnitude of the improvement was small. Such slight improvement in accuracy of BIS methods is suggested insufficient to warrant their clinical use where the most accurate predictions of TBW are required, for example, when assessing over-fluidic status on dialysis. To reach expected errors below 4-5%, novel and individualized approaches must be developed to improve the accuracy of bioimpedance-based methods for the advent of innovative personalized health monitoring applications.

  2. The body-size structure of macrobenthos changes predictably along gradients of hydrodynamic stress and organic enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, Serena; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Lettmann, Karsten Alexander; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wolff, Joerg-Olaf; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Body size is related to an extensive number of species traits and ecological processes and has therefore been suggested as an effective metric to assess community changes and ecosystem's state. However, the applicability of body size as an ecological indicator in benthic environments has been hinder

  3. Comparison of Biophysical Characteristics and Predicted Thermophysiological Responses of Three Prototype Body Armor Systems Versus Baseline U.S. Army Body Armor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    thermo-physiology; heat stress; protective clothing Modern day dismounted military are commonly required to perform high physical work at high...functional characteristics of equipment and clothing carried and worn by the individual Soldiers. The work outlined in this report provides: 1) a...armor systems, and 3) mathematical predictions of maximal work times in three different environmental conditions. This work provides a cost

  4. Anthropometric variables accurately predict dual energy x-ray absorptiometric-derived body composition and can be used to screen for diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yavari

    Full Text Available The current world-wide epidemic of obesity has stimulated interest in developing simple screening methods to identify individuals with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 or metabolic syndrome (MS. Prior work utilizing body composition obtained by sophisticated technology has shown that the ratio of abdominal fat to total fat is a good predictor for DM2 or MS. The goals of this study were to determine how well simple anthropometric variables predict the fat mass distribution as determined by dual energy x-ray absorptometry (DXA, and whether these are useful to screen for DM2 or MS within a population. To accomplish this, the body composition of 341 females spanning a wide range of body mass indices and with a 23% prevalence of DM2 and MS was determined using DXA. Stepwise linear regression models incorporating age, weight, height, waistline, and hipline predicted DXA body composition (i.e., fat mass, trunk fat, fat free mass, and total mass with good accuracy. Using body composition as independent variables, nominal logistic regression was then performed to estimate the probability of DM2. The results show good discrimination with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC having an area under the curve (AUC of 0.78. The anthropometrically-derived body composition equations derived from the full DXA study group were then applied to a group of 1153 female patients selected from a general endocrinology practice. Similar to the smaller study group, the ROC from logistical regression using body composition had an AUC of 0.81 for the detection of DM2. These results are superior to screening based on questionnaires and compare favorably with published data derived from invasive testing, e.g., hemoglobin A1c. This anthropometric approach offers promise for the development of simple, inexpensive, non-invasive screening to identify individuals with metabolic dysfunction within large populations.

  5. A Model to Predict the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis Based on Serum Level of Amylase and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Arthi; Stevens, Tyler; Papachristou, Georgios I; Muddana, Venkata; Bhatt, Amit; Lee, Peter Junwoo; Holmes, Jordan; Lopez, Rocio; Whitcomb, David C; Parsi, Mansour A

    2015-08-01

    Most patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) develop mild disease, but up to 20% develop severe disease. Many clinicians monitor serum levels of amylase and lipase in an attempt to predict the disease course, but this strategy has not been recommended by practice guidelines. We performed a retrospective analysis to determine whether the percentage changes in amylase and lipase were associated with the severity of disease that developed in patients with AP. We analyzed data collected from 182 consecutive patients with AP (21 with severe AP) admitted to the Cleveland Clinic from January 2008 through May 2010 (discover cohort). The association between 11 different factors and the severity of AP were assessed by univariable analysis; multivariable models were explored through stepwise selection regression. The percentage change in the serum level of amylase was calculated as follows: ([amylase day 1 - amylase day 2]/amylase day 1) × 100. The percentage change in amylase and body mass index (BMI) were combined to generate a z-score (z = -5.9 + [0.14 × BMI] + [0.01 × percentage change in amylase]), which was converted into a probability distribution called the change in amylase and BMI (CAB) score. The CAB score was validated using the AP database at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (140 patients, 35 with severe AP); we calculated p-scores for each patient and estimated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values. Univariable analysis identified the percentage change in the serum level of amylase and other factors to be associated significantly with the severity of AP (P = .017). The CAB score was best at identifying patients who developed severe AP, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve value of 0.79 in the discovery cohort (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.87) and 0.731 in the validation cohort (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.84). We developed a model to identify patients most likely to develop severe AP

  6. Ecomorphology of radii in Canidae: Application to fragmentary fossils from Plio-Pleistocene hominin assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meloro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary long bone material from fossil Carnivora is rarely considered to support palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Here, we use morphometry of the radius in extant carnivorans of the dog family (Canidae to reconstruct the palaeobiology of extinct canids from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (Bed I and II and Koobi Fora, Kenya. We use radius morphometrics to predict adaptation to prey size and introduce a new method for quantifying canid habitat adaptations based on the geographic distributions of the extant species sampled. Linear Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA and cluster neighbour-joining algorithms are employed to investigate radial morphometrics as described by 29 linear measurements. Results of our analyses suggest that a phylogenetic signal is present in radial morphometrics, even if it does not allow us to accurately discriminate among genera. A binary prey size categorisation of “small-medium” versus “large” prey can be more accurately predicted than a habitat categorisation scheme (Open, Mixed, Closed. The East African fossil specimens examined show morphometric affinities with the golden jackal (Canis aureus and coyote (Canis latrans and are likely attributable to the genus Canis. Fragmentary fossil specimens from Olduvai Gorge are predicted as habitat generalists (Open for Bed I and Mixed for Bed II adapted for hunting small-medium prey, whereas the specimen from Koobi Fora was predicted as inhabiting mixed habitats and adapted for killing large prey. This study supports the inclusion of fossil Canidae in palaeoecological analyses attempting to clarify the palaeoenvironment of early hominin fossil sites.

  7. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  8. Fossil energy program. Progress report, July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L. E.

    1980-10-01

    This report - the seventy-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process and program analysis, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, fossil energy applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international assessment of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology, and PFBC systems analysis.

  9. Biodiversity Risks from Fossil Fuel Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. Butt; H. L. Beyer; J. R. Bennett; D. Biggs; R. Maggini; M. Mills; A. R. Renwick; L. M. Seabrook; H. P. Possingham

    2013-01-01

    .... Although fossil fuel (FF) extraction has traditionally been seen as a temporary and spatially limited perturbation to ecosystems , even local or limited biodiversity loss can have large cascade effects on ecosystem function and productivity...

  10. Exceptional preservation and the fossil record of tetrapod integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Chad M; Hudson, Leah; Watts, Taylor; Garza, Hector; Clarke, Julia A

    2017-09-13

    The fossil record of exceptionally preserved soft tissues in Konservat-Lagerstätten provides rare yet significant insight into past behaviours and ecologies. Such deposits are known to occur in bursts rather than evenly through time, but reasons for this pattern and implications for the origins of novel structures remain unclear. Previous assessments of these records focused on marine environments preserving chemically heterogeneous tissues from across animals. Here, we investigate the preservation of skin and keratinous integumentary structures in land-dwelling vertebrates (tetrapods) through time, and in distinct terrestrial and marine depositional environments. We also evaluate previously proposed biotic and abiotic controls on the distribution of 143 tetrapod Konservat-Lagerstätten from the Permian to the Pleistocene in a multivariate framework. Gap analyses taking into account sampling intensity and distribution indicate that feathers probably evolved close to their first appearance in the fossil record. By contrast, hair and archosaur filaments are weakly sampled (five times less common than feathers), and their origins may significantly pre-date earliest known occurrences in the fossil record. This work suggests that among-integument variation in preservation can bias the reconstructed first origins of integumentary novelties and has implications for predicting where, and in what depositional environments, to expect further discoveries of exquisitely preserved tetrapod integument. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  12. Primate diversification inferred from phylogenies and fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2017-09-14

    Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: 1) diversification rates increased through time; 2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene. Consistent with the first hypothesis, analyses of phylogenies consistently supported increasing speciation rates and negligible extinction rates. In contrast, fossils showed that while speciation rates increased, speciation and extinction rates tended to be nearly equal, resulting in zero net diversification. Partially supporting the second hypothesis, the fossil data recorded a clear pattern of diversity decline in the Oligocene, although diversification rates were near zero. The phylogeny supported increased extinction ∼34 Ma, but also elevated extinction ∼10 Ma, coinciding with diversity declines in some fossil clades. The results demonstrated that estimates of speciation and extinction ignoring fossils are insufficient to infer diversification and information on extinct lineages should be incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The shadow price of fossil groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Reinhard, Stijn; de Bruijn, Jens A.; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    The expansion of irrigated agriculture into areas with limited precipitation and surface water during the growing season has greatly increased the use of fossil groundwater (Wada et al., 2012). As a result, the depletion rate of fossil groundwater resources has shown an increasing rate during the last decades (Wada et al, 2010; Konikow, 2011; Wada et al., 2012; De Graaf et al. 2015; Ritchy et al., 2015). Although water pricing has been used extensively to stimulate efficient application of water to create maximum value (e.g. Medellín-Azuara et al., 2012; Rinaudo et al., 2012; Dinar et al., 2015), it does not preclude the use of non-renewable water resources. Here, we use a global hydrological model and historical crop production and price data to assess the shadow price of non-renewable or fossil groundwater applied to major crops in countries that use large quantities of fossil groundwater. Our results show that shadow prices for many crops are very low, indicating economically inefficient or even wasteful use of fossil groundwater resources. Using India as an example, we show that small changes in the crop mix could lead to large reductions in fossil groundwater use or alternatively, create additional financial means to invest in water saving technologies. Our study thus provides a hydro-economic basis to further the sustainable use of finite groundwater resources.

  14. Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Liping; Tong Weiwei; Tong Guanghui; Liu Yong; Qin Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) are used to predict the risk of obesity related diseases. However, it has not been examined whether these four indicators can detect the clustering of metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. Methods There are 772 Chinese subjects in the present study. Metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and gl...

  15. Experimental analysis of decay biases in the fossil record of lobopodians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan; Gabbott, Sarah; Purnell, Mark

    2016-04-01

    If fossils are to realize their full potential in reconstructing the tree of life we must understand how our view of ancient organisms is obscured by taphonomic filters of decay and preservation. In most cases, processes of decay will leave behind either nothing or only the most decay resistant body parts, and even in those rare instances where soft tissues are fossilized we cannot assume that the resulting fossil, however exquisite, represents a faithful anatomical representation of the animal as it was in life.Recent experiments have shown that the biases introduced by decay can be far from random; in chordates, for example, the most phylogenetically informative characters are also the most decay-prone, resulting in 'stemward slippage'. But how widespread is this phenomenon, and are there other non-random biases linked to decay? Intuitively, we make assumptions about the likelihood of different kinds of characters to survive and be preserved, with knock-on effects for anatomical and phylogenetic interpretations. To what extent are these assumptions valid? We combine our understanding of the fossil record of lobopodians with insights from decay experiments of modern onychophorans (velvet worms) to test these assumptions. Our analysis demonstrates that taphonomically informed tests of character interpretations have the potential to improve phylogenetic resolution. This approach is widely applicable to the fossil record - allowing us to ground-truth some of the assumptions involved in describing exceptionally preserved fossil material.

  16. Discovery of fossil lamprey larva from the Lower Cretaceous reveals its three-phased life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mee-mann; Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Zhang, Jiangyong

    2014-10-28

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving jawless vertebrate groups and one of a few vertebrate groups with the best exemplified metamorphosis during their life cycle, which consists of a long-lasting larval stage, a peculiar metamorphosis, and a relatively short adulthood with a markedly different anatomy. Although the fossil records have revealed that many general features of extant lamprey adults were already formed by the Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), little is known about the life cycle of the fossil lampreys because of the lack of fossilized lamprey larvae or transformers. Here we report the first to our knowledge discovery of exceptionally preserved premetamorphic and metamorphosing larvae of the fossil lamprey Mesomyzon mengae from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossil ammocoetes look surprisingly modern in having an eel-like body with tiny eyes, oral hood and lower lip, anteriorly positioned branchial region, and a continuous dorsal skin fin fold and in sharing a similar feeding habit, as judged from the detritus left in the gut. In contrast, the larger metamorphosing individuals have slightly enlarged eyes relative to large otic capsules, thickened oral hood or pointed snout, and discernable radials but still anteriorly extended branchial area and lack a suctorial oral disk, which characterize the early stages of the metamorphosis of extant lampreys. Our discovery not only documents the larval conditions of fossil lampreys but also indicates the three-phased life cycle in lampreys emerged essentially in their present mode no later than the Early Cretaceous.

  17. Mediating effects of parent-child relationships and body image in the prediction of internalizing symptoms in urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Smith, Sydney; Bostick, Sarah; Grant, Kathryn E

    2014-04-01

    Youth are faced with many stressful interpersonal, contextual, and identify development related challenges that contribute to the increased risk of negative outcomes during adolescence. The current study examined two important factors related to youth's development and well-being: parent-child attachment and negative body image. Specifically, the current study examined body image as one mechanism responsible for the effect that mother and father attachment has on internalizing symptoms in a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth. Additionally, differences across gender and ethnic/racial groups were examined. Participants included 140 (71 % female) ages 10-16 at baseline recruited from urban public schools in Chicago with high percentages of low-income students. The current sample was ethnically diverse (41 % African American, 30 % Latino, 16 % European American, 6 % Biracial, 6 % Asian, and 1 % other). Participants completed measures of their relationships with their mothers and fathers, negative body image, and internalizing symptoms across two periods of time separated by approximately 1 year. Results showed that body image mediated the relation between both mother and father attachment and internalizing symptoms. These results were further moderated by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. For African American participants, mother attachment was related to internalizing symptoms through negative body image while for Latinos, paternal attachment was related to internalizing symptoms through negative body image. Although maternal attachment had direct effects on internalizing symptoms for Latinos, negative body image did not mediate this relationship. These results support an integrative model in which interpersonal risk lays the foundation for the development of cognitive risk, which in turn leads to internalizing symptoms for urban youth.

  18. NMR potentials for studying physical processes in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Anatolii D; Ul' yanova, Ekaterina V; Vasilenko, Tat' yana A [Institute of Mining Processes Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2005-11-30

    High-resolution, pulsed, and wide-line NMR studies of fossil coals are reviewed. Coal substance conversion due to outbursts is discussed. Results on water and methane interactions with coal substance, which provide insight into the dynamic characteristics of boundary water, the location of methane in coal structure, and water and methane's hazard implications for coal beds (gas- or geodynamic phenomena) are presented; these are shown to have potential for predicting and preventing life threatening situations. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  19. A Brief Analysis of Oral Fossilization of English Major Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-xia

    2014-01-01

    This paper on the basis of former studies and researches has analyzed fossilization particularly oral fossilization. Further more, this paper has analyzed the reasons of fossilization and at the same time put forward some tentative solutions to reduce or avoid fossilization. Hope that this paper can offer some help for both the second language learners and teachers.

  20. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  1. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS......: Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...

  2. Numerical Prediction of Wave Patterns Due to Motion of 3D Bodies by Kelvin-Havelock Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the numerical evaluation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of submerged and surface piercing moving bodies. Generally, two main classes of potential methods are used for hydrodynamic characteristic analysis of steady moving bodies which are Rankine and Kelvin-Havelock singularity distribution. In this paper, the Kelvin- Havelock sources are used for simulating the moving bodies and then free surface wave patterns are obtained. Numerical evaluation of potential distribution of a Kelvin-Havelock source is completely presented and discussed. Numerical results are calculated and presented for a 2D cylinder, single source, two parallel moving source, sphere, ellipsoid and standard Wigley hull in different situation that show acceptable agreement with results of other literatures or experiments.

  3. Comparing primate crania: The importance of fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, John G; Gilbert, Christopher C; Baden, Andrea L

    2016-10-01

    Extant primate crania represent a small subset of primate crania that have existed. The main objective here is to examine how the inclusion of fossil crania changes our understanding of primate cranial diversity relative to analyses of extant primates. We hypothesize that fossil taxa will change the major axes of cranial shape, occupy new areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity of major primate clades, and fill in notable gaps separating major primate taxa/clades. Eighteen 3D landmarks were collected on 157 extant and fossil crania representing 90 genera. Data were subjected to a Generalized Procrustes Analysis then principal components analysis. Relative diversity between clades was assessed using an F-statistic. Fossil taxa do not significantly alter major axes of cranial shape, but they do occupy unique areas of morphospace, change the relative diversity between clades, and fill in notable gaps in primate cranial evolution. Strepsirrhines remain significantly less diverse than anthropoids. Fossil hominins fill the gap in cranial morphospace between extant great apes and modern humans. The morphospace outlined by living primates largely includes that occupied by fossil taxa, suggesting that the cranial diversity of living primates generally encompasses the total diversity that has evolved in this Order. The evolution of the anthropoid cranium was a significant event allowing anthropoids to achieve significantly greater cranial diversity compared to strepsirrhines. Fossil taxa fill in notable gaps within and between clades, highlighting their transitional nature and eliminating the appearance of large morphological distances between extant taxa, particularly in the case of extant hominids. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantitative magnetic resonance analysis and a morphometric predictive model reveal lean body mass changes in migrating Nearctic-Neotropical passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Most studies of lean mass dynamics in free-living passerine birds have focused on Old World species at geographical barriers where they are challenged to make the longest non-stop flight of their migration. We examined lean mass variation in New World passerines in an area where the distribution of stopover habitat does not require flights to exceed more than a few hours and most migrants stop flying well before fat stores near exhaustion. We used either quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) analysis or a morphometric model to measure or estimate, respectively, the fat and lean body mass of migrants during stopovers in New York, USA. With these data, we examined (1) variance in total body mass explained by lean body mass, (2) hourly rates of fat and lean body mass change in single-capture birds, and (3) net changes in fat and lean mass in recaptured birds. Lean mass contributed to 50% of the variation in total body mass among white-throated sparrows Zonotrichia albicollis and hermit thrushes Catharus guttatus. Lean mass of refueling gray catbirds Dumetella carolinensis and white-throated sparrows, respectively, increased 1.123 and 0.320 g h(-1). Lean mass of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapillus accounted for an estimated 33-40% of hourly gains in total body mass. On average 35% of the total mass gained among recaptured birds was lean mass. Substantial changes in passerine lean mass are not limited to times when birds are forced to make long, non-stop flights across barriers. Protein usage during migration is common across broad taxonomic groups, migration systems, and migration strategies.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Local Control Prediction Using Different Biophysical Models for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Tian Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The consistency for predicting local control (LC data using biophysical models for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT treatment of lung cancer is unclear. This study aims to compare the results calculated from different models using the treatment planning data. Materials and Methods. Treatment plans were designed for 17 patients diagnosed with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using 5 different fraction schemes. The Martel model, Ohri model, and the Tai model were used to predict the 2-year LC value. The Gucken model, Santiago model, and the Tai model were employed to estimate the 3-year LC data. Results. We found that the employed models resulted in completely different LC prediction except for the Gucken and the Santiago models which exhibited quite similar 3-year LC data. The predicted 2-year and 3-year LC values in different models were not only associated with the dose normalization but also associated with the employed fraction schemes. The greatest difference predicted by different models was up to 15.0%. Conclusions. Our results show that different biophysical models influence the LC prediction and the difference is not only correlated to the dose normalization but also correlated to the employed fraction schemes.

  6. A comprehensive database of quality-rated fossil ages for Sahul’s Quaternary vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Brook, Barry W.; Saltré, Frédérik; Alroy, John; Beeton, Nicholas; Bird, Michael I.; Cooper, Alan; Gillespie, Richard; Jacobs, Zenobia; Johnson, Christopher N.; Miller, Gifford H.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Roberts, Richard G.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2016-07-01

    The study of palaeo-chronologies using fossil data provides evidence for past ecological and evolutionary processes, and is therefore useful for predicting patterns and impacts of future environmental change. However, the robustness of inferences made from fossil ages relies heavily on both the quantity and quality of available data. We compiled Quaternary non-human vertebrate fossil ages from Sahul published up to 2013. This, the FosSahul database, includes 9,302 fossil records from 363 deposits, for a total of 478 species within 215 genera, of which 27 are from extinct and extant megafaunal species (2,559 records). We also provide a rating of reliability of individual absolute age based on the dating protocols and association between the dated materials and the fossil remains. Our proposed rating system identified 2,422 records with high-quality ages (i.e., a reduction of 74%). There are many applications of the database, including disentangling the confounding influences of hypothetical extinction drivers, better spatial distribution estimates of species relative to palaeo-climates, and potentially identifying new areas for fossil discovery.

  7. Lineage diversity and size disparity in Musteloidea: testing patterns of adaptive radiation using molecular and fossil-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chris J; Slater, Graham J; Mehta, Rita S

    2017-05-04

    Adaptive radiation is hypothesized to be a primary mechanism that drives the remarkable species diversity and morphological disparity across the Tree of Life. Tests for adaptive radiation in extant taxa are traditionally estimated from calibrated molecular phylogenies with little input from extinct taxa. With 85 putative species in 33 genera and over 400 described extinct species, the carnivoran superfamily Musteloidea is a prime candidate to investigate patterns of adaptive radiation using both extant- and fossil-based macroevolutionary methods. The species diversity and equally impressive ecological and phenotypic diversity found across Musteloidea is often attributed to 2 adaptive radiations coinciding with 2 major climate events, the Eocene-Oligocene transition and the Mid-Miocene Climate Transition. Here, we compiled a novel time-scaled phylogeny for 88% of extant musteloids and used it as a framework for testing the predictions of adaptive radiation hypotheses with respect to rates of lineage diversification and phenotypic evolution. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence for rapid bursts of lineage diversification at the origin of Musteloidea, and further analyses of lineage diversification rates using molecular and fossil-based methods did not find associations between rates of lineage diversification and the Eocene-Oligocene transition or Mid-Miocene Climate Transition as previously hypothesized. Rather, we found support for decoupled diversification dynamics driven by increased clade carrying capacity in the branches leading to a subclade of elongate mustelids. Supporting decoupled diversification dynamics between the subclade of elongate mustelids and the ancestral musteloid regime is our finding of increased rates of body length evolution, but not body mass evolution, within the decoupled mustelid subclade. The lack of correspondence in rates of body mass and length evolution suggest that phenotypic evolutionary rates under a single

  8. (18)F-FDG PET during stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung tumours cannot predict outcome : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Pruim, Jan; Ubbels, Jan F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Widder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been used to assess metabolic response several months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, whether a metabolic response can be observed already during treatment and thus ca

  9. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  10. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  11. Mean Expected Error in Prediction of Total Body Water: A True Accuracy Comparison between Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Single Frequency Regression Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seoane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades electrical bioimpedance (EBI has been used to assess body fluid distribution and body composition. Despite the development of several different approaches for assessing total body water (TBW, it remains uncertain whether bioimpedance spectroscopic (BIS approaches are more accurate than single frequency regression equations. The main objective of this study was to answer this question by calculating the expected accuracy of a single measurement for different EBI methods. The results of this study showed that all methods produced similarly high correlation and concordance coefficients, indicating good accuracy as a method. Even the limits of agreement produced from the Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the performance of single frequency, Sun’s prediction equations, at population level was close to the performance of both BIS methods; however, when comparing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error value between the single frequency prediction equations and the BIS methods, a significant difference was obtained, indicating slightly better accuracy for the BIS methods. Despite the higher accuracy of BIS methods over 50 kHz prediction equations at both population and individual level, the magnitude of the improvement was small. Such slight improvement in accuracy of BIS methods is suggested insufficient to warrant their clinical use where the most accurate predictions of TBW are required, for example, when assessing over-fluidic status on dialysis. To reach expected errors below 4-5%, novel and individualized approaches must be developed to improve the accuracy of bioimpedance-based methods for the advent of innovative personalized health monitoring applications.

  12. Macroevolutionary developmental biology: Embryos, fossils, and phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-10-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental biology is broadly focused on identifying the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying morphological diversity. Connecting the genotype with the phenotype means that evo-devo research often considers a wide range of evidence, from genetics and morphology to fossils. In this commentary, we provide an overview and framework for integrating fossil ontogenetic data with developmental data using phylogenetic comparative methods to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. We survey the vertebrate fossil record of preserved embryos and discuss how phylogenetic comparative methods can integrate data from developmental genetics and paleontology. Fossil embryos provide limited, yet critical, developmental data from deep time. They help constrain when developmental innovations first appeared during the history of life and also reveal the order in which related morphologies evolved. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful statistical approach that allows evo-devo researchers to infer the presence of nonpreserved developmental traits in fossil species and to detect discordant evolutionary patterns and processes across levels of biological organization.

  13. Fossil fuels in a trillion tonne world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Vivian; Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Tett, Simon F. B.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The useful energy services and energy density value of fossil carbon fuels could be retained for longer timescales into the future if their combustion is balanced by CO2 recapture and storage. We assess the global balance between fossil carbon supply and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores. A hierarchy of value for extraction-to-storage pairings is proposed, which is augmented by classification of CO2 containment as temporary (100,000 yr). Using temporary stores is inefficient and defers an intergenerational problem. Permanent storage capacity is adequate to technically match current fossil fuel reserves. However, rates of storage creation cannot balance current and expected rates of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 consequences. Extraction of conventional natural gas is uniquely holistic because it creates the capacity to re-inject an equivalent tonnage of carbon for storage into the same reservoir and can re-use gas-extraction infrastructure for storage. By contrast, balancing the extraction of coal, oil, biomass and unconventional fossil fuels requires the engineering and validation of additional carbon storage. Such storage is, so far, unproven in sufficiency.

  14. Wing shape of four new bee fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) provides insights to bee evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Nel, André; Engel, Michael S; De Meulemeester, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Bees (Anthophila) are one of the major groups of angiosperm-pollinating insects and accordingly are widely studied in both basic and applied research, for which it is essential to have a clear understanding of their phylogeny, and evolutionary history. Direct evidence of bee evolutionary history has been hindered by a dearth of available fossils needed to determine the timing and tempo of their diversification, as well as episodes of extinction. Here we describe four new compression fossils of bees from three different deposits (Miocene of la Cerdanya, Spain; Oligocene of Céreste, France; and Eocene of the Green River Formation, U.S.A.). We assess the similarity of the forewing shape of the new fossils with extant and fossil taxa using geometric morphometrics analyses. Predictive discriminant analyses show that three fossils share similar forewing shapes with the Apidae [one of uncertain tribal placement and perhaps near Euglossini, one definitive bumble bee (Bombini), and one digger bee (Anthophorini)], while one fossil is more similar to the Andrenidae. The corbiculate fossils are described as Euglossopteryx biesmeijeri De Meulemeester, Michez, & Engel, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Euglossopteryx Dehon & Engel, n. gen.) and Bombus cerdanyensis Dehon, De Meulemeester, & Engel, sp. nov. They provide new information on the distribution and timing of particular corbiculate groups, most notably the extension into North America of possible Eocene-Oligocene cooling-induced extinctions. Protohabropoda pauli De Meulemeester & Michez, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Protohabropoda Dehon & Engel, n. gen.) reinforces previous hypotheses of anthophorine evolution in terms of ecological shifts by the Oligocene from tropical to mesic or xeric habitats. Lastly, a new fossil of the Andreninae, Andrena antoinei Michez & De Meulemeester, sp. nov., further documents the presence of the today widespread genus Andrena Fabricius in the Late Oligocene of France.

  15. Wing shape of four new bee fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila provides insights to bee evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Dehon

    Full Text Available Bees (Anthophila are one of the major groups of angiosperm-pollinating insects and accordingly are widely studied in both basic and applied research, for which it is essential to have a clear understanding of their phylogeny, and evolutionary history. Direct evidence of bee evolutionary history has been hindered by a dearth of available fossils needed to determine the timing and tempo of their diversification, as well as episodes of extinction. Here we describe four new compression fossils of bees from three different deposits (Miocene of la Cerdanya, Spain; Oligocene of Céreste, France; and Eocene of the Green River Formation, U.S.A.. We assess the similarity of the forewing shape of the new fossils with extant and fossil taxa using geometric morphometrics analyses. Predictive discriminant analyses show that three fossils share similar forewing shapes with the Apidae [one of uncertain tribal placement and perhaps near Euglossini, one definitive bumble bee (Bombini, and one digger bee (Anthophorini], while one fossil is more similar to the Andrenidae. The corbiculate fossils are described as Euglossopteryx biesmeijeri De Meulemeester, Michez, & Engel, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Euglossopteryx Dehon & Engel, n. gen. and Bombus cerdanyensis Dehon, De Meulemeester, & Engel, sp. nov. They provide new information on the distribution and timing of particular corbiculate groups, most notably the extension into North America of possible Eocene-Oligocene cooling-induced extinctions. Protohabropoda pauli De Meulemeester & Michez, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Protohabropoda Dehon & Engel, n. gen. reinforces previous hypotheses of anthophorine evolution in terms of ecological shifts by the Oligocene from tropical to mesic or xeric habitats. Lastly, a new fossil of the Andreninae, Andrena antoinei Michez & De Meulemeester, sp. nov., further documents the presence of the today widespread genus Andrena Fabricius in the Late Oligocene of France.

  16. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Christina L

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  17. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Belanger

    Full Text Available Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  18. Comparison of regional fat mass measurement by whole body DXA scans and anthropometric measures to predict insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Petersen, Maria Houborg; Ravn, Pernille; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance. Measures of regional obesity may be used to predict insulin resistance. In the present study we compared fat distribution in patients with PCOS vs. controls and established the best measure of fat mass to predict insulin resistance in patients with PCOS. The study was cross-sectional in an academic tertiary-care medical center with 167 premenopausal women with PCOS and 110 controls matched for ethnicity, BMI and age. Total and regional fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist) and fasting metabolic analyses [insulin, glucose, lipids, Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index] were determined. Trial registration numbers: NCT00451568, NCT00145340. Women with PCOS had higher central fat mass (waist, waist-hip ratio, and upper/lower fat ratio) compared with controls. In bivariate associations, the strongest associations were found between HOMA-IR and the fat mass measures trunk fat (r = 0.59), waist (r = 0.57) and BMI (r = 0.56), all p resistance was gained by whole body DXA scan. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. On The Nature of Fossil Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, F; De la Rosa, I G; Sorrentino, G; Gal, R R; Kohl-Moreira, J L

    2009-01-01

    We present a new sample of 25 fossil groups (FGs) at z < 0.1, along with a control sample of seventeen bright ellipticals located in non-fossil systems. Both the global properties of FGs (e.g. X-ray luminosity) as well as the photometric properties (i.e. isophotal shape parameter, a4) and spectroscopic parameters (e.g. the alpha-enhancement) of their first-ranked ellipticals are consistent with those of the control sample. This result favors a scenario where FGs are not a distinct class of systems, but rather a common phase in the life of galaxy groups. We also find no evidence for an evolutionary sequence explaining the formation of galaxies in fossil systems through the merging of galaxies in compact groups.

  20. Recent synchronous radiation of a living fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingum, N S; Marshall, C R; Quental, T B; Rai, H S; Little, D P; Mathews, S

    2011-11-11

    Modern survivors of previously more diverse lineages are regarded as living fossils, particularly when characterized by morphological stasis. Cycads are often cited as a classic example, reaching their greatest diversity during the Jurassic-Cretaceous (199.6 to 65.5 million years ago) then dwindling to their present diversity of ~300 species as flowering plants rose to dominance. Using fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies, we show that cycads underwent a near synchronous global rediversification beginning in the late Miocene, followed by a slowdown toward the Recent. Although the cycad lineage is ancient, our timetrees indicate that living cycad species are not much older than ~12 million years. These data reject the hypothesized role of dinosaurs in generating extant diversity and the designation of today's cycad species as living fossils.

  1. Prediction of long-term metabolic effects of olanzapine and risperidone treatment from baseline body mass index in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William Victor; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Jayathilake, Karuna; Meltzer, Herbert Yale

    2011-09-30

    Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and early (1 month) BMI increases were tested as predictors of 6- and 12-month increases in glucose and lipid measures in 82 olanzapine (OLZ)- and 78 risperidone (RIS)-treated patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who participated in a 12-month randomized, prospective metabolic effects study. Baseline BMI predicted greater fasting glucose and HgbA1c levels at 12 months for both treatments. Early BMI change predicted fasting glucose levels at 6 months, but not HgbA1c or BMI, at either time point. For patients who received no concomitant mood stabilizers, early BMI change predicted 12 month HgbA1c values in the OLZ group, and 6- (but not 12-) month fasting glucose and HgbA1c values in the RIS group. Neither baseline BMI nor early BMI change consistently predicted increases in lipids with either drug. OLZ-treated patients with normal baseline BMI had greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-cholesterol than those who were overweight or obese. In conclusion, higher baseline BMI predicted adverse glycemic changes after 12 months with OLZ and RIS. Individuals with normal baseline BMI may be most susceptible to OLZ-induced hyperlipidosis. Frequency of metabolic screening should be independent of baseline BMI or rapid increases in BMI.

  2. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  3. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies.

  4. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (temperature (D0-MBT rectal cancer.

  5. The accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting body composition in college-age female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Olson, Michele S; Williford, Henry N; Lizana, Suheil N; Russell, Angela R

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimating body composition in college-age female athletes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion measure. Forty National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics college female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. For each participant, total body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained via BIA and DEXA. The mean BF% and FFM values obtained by BIA were compared with the criterion DEXA measure. The DEXA strongly correlated to the BIA for BF% (r = 0.74, R2 = 0.55, SEE = 3.60, and p < 0.01) and FFM (r = 0.84, R2 = 0.71, SEE = 2.45, p < 0.01). However, when compared with the DEXA, the mean values for BIA were significantly lower for BF% (DEXA = 27.6 ± 5.3%, BIA = 22.5 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01) and higher for FFM (DEXA = 47.2 ± 4.5 kg, BIA = 50.6 ± 4.6 kg, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that hand-to-hand BIA significantly underestimates BF% and overestimated FFM in college-age female athletes when compared with the criterion DEXA. Practitioners should use caution when analyzing body composition with hand-held BIA in a population of athletic women.

  6. Extant-only comparative methods fail to recover the disparity preserved in the bird fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S

    2015-09-01

    Most extant species are in clades with poor fossil records, and recent studies of comparative methods show they have low power to infer even highly simplified models of trait evolution without fossil data. Birds are a well-studied radiation, yet their early evolutionary patterns are still contentious. The fossil record suggests that birds underwent a rapid ecological radiation after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, and several smaller, subsequent radiations. This hypothesized series of repeated radiations from fossil data is difficult to test using extant data alone. By uniting morphological and phylogenetic data on 604 extant genera of birds with morphological data on 58 species of extinct birds from 50 million years ago, the "halfway point" of avian evolution, I have been able to test how well extant-only methods predict the diversity of fossil forms. All extant-only methods underestimate the disparity, although the ratio of within- to between-clade disparity does suggest high early rates. The failure of standard models to predict high early disparity suggests that recent radiations are obscuring deep time patterns in the evolution of birds. Metrics from different models can be used in conjunction to provide more valuable insights than simply finding the model with the highest relative fit. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Microbial Fossils Detected in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, B. E.; Allen, C.; Longazo, T.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data indicate regions with significant levels of hematite (_Fe2O3). Fe-oxides, like hematite, can form as aqueous mineral precipitates and as such may preserve microscopic fossils or other biosignatures. Several potential terrestrial analogues to martian hematite like hydrothermal vents have preserved microfossils. Microbial fossilization in Fe-oxides is often a function of biomineralization. For example, goethite (FeO2H) encrustation of fungal mycelia from the mid-Tertiary preserved fungal morphologies such that their genera could be determined.

  8. Insect diversity in the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, C. C.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.

  9. Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recently,a Chinese-German science fieldwork investigation team,composed of staff from the SinoGerman Paleontology and Geography Joint Lab and the Xinjiang Geological Work Station,announced that they discovered a batch of dinosaur footprint fossils in the dessert 20 kilometers to the east of Shanshan County in the Turpan Basin,Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.These fossils spread around an area of 100 square meters and scientists believed that these footprints were left behind by carnivore dinosaurs.This major discovery has been published in Global Geology,an English journal published by the NorthEast Asia Geology Center.

  10. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  11. Increased Hatha yoga experience predicts lower body mass index and reduced medication use in women over 45 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Moliver

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: A long-term yoga practice was associated with little or no obesity in a non-probability sample of women over 45 years. Relationships showed a dose-response effect, with increased yoga experience predicting lower BMI and reduced medication use.

  12. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  13. SU-E-T-106: Development of a Collision Prediction Algorithm for Determining Problematic Geometry for SBRT Treatments Using a Stereotactic Body Frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagar, M; Friesen, S; Mannarino, E [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Hacker, F [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Collision between the gantry and the couch or patient during Radiotherapy is not a common concern for conventional RT (static fields or arc). With the increase in the application of stereotactic planning techniques to the body, collisions have become a greater concern. Non-coplanar beam geometry is desirable in stereotatic treatments in order to achieve sharp gradients and a high conformality. Non-coplanar geometry is less intuitive in the body and often requires an iterative process of planning and dry runs to guarantee deliverability. Methods: Purpose written software was developed in order to predict the likelihood of collision between the head of the gantry and the couch, patient or stereotatic body frame. Using the DICOM plan and structures set, exported by the treatment planning system, this software is able to predict the possibility of a collision. Given the plan's isocenter, treatment geometry and exterior contours, the software is able to determine if a particular beam/arc is clinically deliverable or if collision is imminent. Results: The software was tested on real world treatment plans with untreatable beam geometry. Both static non-coplanar and VMAT plans were tested. Of these, the collision prediction software could identify all as having potentially problematic geometry. Re-plans of the same cases were also tested and validated as deliverable. Conclusion: This software is capable of giving good initial indication of deliverability for treatment plans that utilize complex geometry (SBRT) or have lateral isocenters. This software is not intended to replace the standard pre-treatment QA dry run. The effectiveness is limited to those portions of the patient and immobilization devices that have been included in the simulation CT and contoured in the planning system. It will however aid the planner in reducing the iterations required to create complex treatment geometries necessary to achieve ideal conformality and organ sparing.

  14. Lipodystrophy and inflammation predict later grip strength in HIV-infected men: the MACS Body Composition substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Keith W; Li, Xiuhong; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Abraham, Alison G; Dobs, Adrian S; Margolick, Joseph B; Palella, Frank J; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Witt, Mallory D; Brown, Todd T

    2013-08-01

    Body fat changes in HIV-infected persons are associated with increased systemic inflammation and increased mortality. It is unknown whether lipodystrophy is also associated with declines in physical function. Between 2001 and 2003, 33 HIV-infected men with evidence of lipodystrophy (LIPO⁺), 23 HIV-infected men without lipodystrophy (LIPO⁻), and 33 seronegative men were recruited from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) for the Body Composition substudy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was assessed by quantitative computed tomography. Lean body mass (LBM) and extremity fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Insulin resistance was estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α receptors I and II (sTNFRI and sTNFRII), and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were quantified from archived serum samples. These measurements were correlated with grip strength measured in 2007 using linear regression. At the substudy visit, the LIPO⁺ group had higher HOMA, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, and IL-6 levels than the LIPO⁻ group. In 2007, the LIPO⁺ group had lower median grip strength than the LIPO⁻ group (34.4 vs. 42.7 kg, p=0.002). Multivariable analysis of HIV⁺ men showed older age, lower LBM, higher sTNFRII concentrations, and LIPO⁺ status [adjusted mean difference -4.9 kg (p=0.045)] at the substudy visit were independently associated with lower subsequent grip strength. Inflammation, lower LBM, and lipodystrophy in HIV-infected men were associated with lower subsequent grip strength. These findings suggest that inflammation may contribute to declines in functional performance, independent of age.

  15. In Pursuit of Improving Airburst and Ground Damage Predictions: Recent Advances in Multi-Body Aerodynamic Testing and Computational Tools Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gulhan, Ali; Aftosmis, Michael; Brock, Joseph; Mathias, Donovan; Need, Dominic; Rodriguez, David; Seltner, Patrick; Stern, Eric; Wiles, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    An airburst from a large asteroid during entry can cause significant ground damage. The damage depends on the energy and the altitude of airburst. Breakup of asteroids into fragments and their lateral spread have been observed. Modeling the underlying physics of fragmented bodies interacting at hypersonic speeds and the spread of fragments is needed for a true predictive capability. Current models use heuristic arguments and assumptions such as pancaking or point source explosive energy release at pre-determined altitude or an assumed fragmentation spread rate to predict airburst damage. A multi-year collaboration between German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA has been established to develop validated computational tools to address the above challenge.

  16. Inflation Fossils in Cosmic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    The agreement of the predictions of inflation with increasingly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data is remarkable. The notion that such a simple early-Universe scenario, based on still-mysterious ultra-high-energy physics, can explain such a wealth of precise data is simply amazing. An active ongoing program of research is afoot to seek the CMB polarization signatures of inflationary gravitational waves and measure the primordial bispectrum in order to learn about inflation. Still, there is far more that can be done to probe inflationary physics, and no stone should be left unturned in this quest. Here we propose a multi-component program of theoretical research that includes model building, new CMB/LSS tests, a potentially powerful new survey strategy, and the investigation of a new observational avenue for large-scale structure. We propose to broaden the circle of ideas to empirically probe inflation. To begin, the hemispherical power asymmetry seen in WMAP and Planck is truly striking. While it may simply be an unusual statistical fluke, a more tantalizing possibility is that it is a remnant of the pre-inflationary Universe. We propose to develop and study several physical models for this asymmetry and work out other testable predictions of these models. Only by pursuing other signatures of whatever new physics may be responsible for this asymmetry will we be able to infer if it is truly a window to new physics. We also plan to develop departures from statistical isotropy (SI) as a test of inflationary models. We have recently shown that single-field slow-roll inflation generically predicts a quadrupolar departure from SI in primordial perturbations, albeit a very small one. The power quadrupole is expected, however, to be significantly larger in more general inflationary models. We propose to calculate these power quadrupoles so that new constraints to the power quadrupole from CMB and LSS data can be applied to test

  17. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, S.; G. Banos; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O’Neill, B.; O’Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  18. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) Predicts Negative Alterations in Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity in Chronic HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirunsawanya, Kamonkiat; Belyea, Loni; Shikuma, Cecilia; Watanabe, Richard; Kohorn, Lindsay; Shiramizu, Bruce; Mitchell, Brooks; Souza, Scott A; Keating, Sheila; Norris, Philip J; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa; Chow, Dominic

    2017-03-21

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), a key negative regulator of fibrinolysis, has been investigated to be a potential predictor of the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Because chronically stable HIV-infected individuals frequently develop abnormal glucose metabolism including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, we postulated PAI-1 could be one of multifactorial pathogenic roles in the development of insulin resistance among chronic HIV-infected individuals. From our longitudinal cohort study, we selectively recruited chronically stable HIV-infected individuals without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at baseline (N = 62) to analyze the correlation of baseline inflammatory cytokines including PAI-1 and whole body insulin sensitivity with two-year follow-up, as measured by Matsuda Index. We found a negative correlation between baseline PAI-1 and Matsuda Index (r = -.435 , p = .001) and a negative correlation with PAI-1 at baseline and Matsuda Index at two years (r = -.377 , p = .005). In a linear regression model that included age, total body fat mass percentage, serum amyloid A and family history of diabetes mellitus, PAI-1 still remained significantly associated with Matsuda Index at two-year follow-up (β = -.397, p = .002). Our longitudinal study suggests PAI-1 is an independent predictor of insulin resistance among chronic HIV-infected individuals.

  19. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  20. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. On the fossil record of the Gekkota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan D; Bauer, Aaron M; Snively, Eric D

    2014-03-01

    Gekkota is often interpreted as sister to all remaining squamates, exclusive of dibamids, or as sister to Autarchoglossa. It is the only diverse lineage of primarily nocturnal lizards and includes some of the smallest amniotes. The skeleton of geckos has often been interpreted as paedomorphic and/or "primitive" but these lizards also display a wide range of structural specializations of the postcranium, including modifications associated with both scansorial locomotion and limb reduction. Although the concept of "Gekkota" has been variously applied by different authors, we here apply a rigorous apomorphy based definition, recent advances in gekkotan morphology and phylogenetics, and diverse comparative material to provide a comprehensive assessment of 28 known pre-Quaternary geckos, updating the last such review, published three decades ago. Fossils evaluated include both sedimentary fossils and amber-embedded specimens. Known Cretaceous geckos are exclusively Asian and exhibit character combinations not seen in any living forms. Cenozoic gekkotans derive from sites around the world, although Europe is especially well represented. Paleogene geckos are largely known from disarticulated remains and show similarities to Sphaerodactylidae and Diplodactylidae, although resemblances may be plesiomorphic in some cases. Many Neogene gekkotans are referable to living families or even genera, but their geographic occurrences are often extralimital to those of modern groups, as is consistent with paleoclimatic conditions. The phylogenetic placement of fossil gekkotans has important repercusions for timetree calibration, but at present only a small number of fossils can be confidently assigned to even family level groupings, limiting their utility in this regard.

  2. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  3. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  4. Fossil Hunting: Intracluster Stars in Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eric; Bridge, Carrie; Desai, Vandana; Kenney, Jeffrey; Krick, Jessica; Surace, Jason; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    In dense clusters, galaxy interactions and mergers play a significant role in galaxy evolution. During these interactions, tidal forces can lead to the ejection of stars from their parent galaxies; these stars are a fossil record of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution. We propose to map the intr

  5. Reciprocal evolution of the cerebellum and neocortex in fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne H

    2005-03-08

    Human brain evolution involved both neurological reorganization and an increase in overall brain volume relative to body mass. It is generally difficult to draw functional inferences about the timing and nature of brain reorganization, given that superficial brain morphology recorded on fossil endocasts is functionally ambiguous. However, the cerebellum, housed in the clearly delineated posterior cranial fossa, is functionally and ontologically discrete. The cerebellum is reciprocally connected to each of 14 neocortical regions important to human cognitive evolution. Cerebellar volume varies significantly relative to overall brain volume among mammalian orders, as well as within the primate order. There is also significant diachronic variation among fossil human taxa. In the australopithecines and early members of the genus Homo, the cerebral hemispheres were large in proportion to the cerebellum, compared with other hominoids. This trend continued in Middle and Late Pleistocene humans, including Neandertals and Cro-Magnon 1, who have the largest cerebral hemispheres relative to cerebellum volume of any primates, including earlier and Holocene humans. In recent humans, however, the pattern is reversed; the cerebellum is larger with respect to the rest of the brain (and, conversely, the cerebral hemispheres are smaller with respect to the cerebellum) than in Late Pleistocene humans. The cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres appear to have evolved reciprocally. Cerebellar development in Holocene humans may have provided greater computational efficiency for coping with an increasingly complex cultural and conceptual environment.

  6. Population, Fossil Fuels and Armageddon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2001-03-01

    A well documented report of the somber findings of the specialists has established the growing world climate instability and related increases in weather related disasters since 1990 (Bette Hileman, Chem Eng News 16-28, Aug 9, '99). Their projections over the next century imply that ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange involves deep mixing and long times. However, the Magnetic Coupling Model predicts a self-sustaining warming mode, based on net flux of CO2 from the top 100m of ocean surface to the atmosphere on decade time scales. Such a catastrophic greenhouse runaway to a new equilibrium climate is not precluded theoretically, could end the possibility of human intervention in global warming and sea level rise, and may have already started. It could initiate a melt of global ice inventory which can rapidly raise sea level 6 m. The recent decade's rate of pCO2 climb, over 1.5 ppmv/year, increasing exponentially, is more than twice the average rate from 1900 to 1950, but only half the 2.9 increase from 1997 to 1998. [Ely Proc. IEEE Conf. Oceans '89, 1: 277-284, 1989; NASA Conf. Pub. 2098, A, 25-26, 1979; Eos, Dec 98; Proc. Solar 1979 NW, DOE Conf. 79-0845, (Supplement 38-43), 1979].

  7. Evidence of organic structures in Ediacara-type fossils and associated microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2001-12-01

    Ediacara-type fossils represent a group of soft-bodied organisms, mainly known from imprints in Proterozoic coarse-grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Circular compressions of Beltanelliformis brunsae and remains related to Ediacara-type fossils, such as Cucullus fraudulentus, and Mucuplagum primitivum are reported here in an organic mode of preservation from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo and Liulaobei Formations of China. They can be interpreted as prokaryotic colonies. A charnid fossil with circular attachment disc and stalk, but torn-off frond, is documented in a three-dimensional and partly organic mode of preservation from the Neoproterozoic Ust-Pinega Formation (White Sea coast, Russia). According to their morphology and structure, the Charniidae are not regarded by us as pennatulaceans. Modern Myxobacteria illustrate that macroscopic size, complexity, and even compartmentalization can also be developed by prokaryotic colonies. Part of the Ediacara-type fossils may therefore represent prokaryotic colonies or symbiotic organisms involving prokaryotes. Finally, direct evidence indicates that biofilms with associated prokaryotic sheaths, preserved in both organic and pyritic fashion, form the wrinkled surfaces (“elephant skin”) that were preferentially colonized by Ediacara-type fossils. This finding supports previous interpretations, based on comparative morphological and sedimentological approaches, that ancient wrinkle structures were microbial mats.

  8. 3D microstructural architecture of muscle attachments in extant and fossil vertebrates revealed by synchrotron microtomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Firm attachments binding muscles to skeleton are crucial mechanical components of the vertebrate body. These attachments (entheses are complex three-dimensional structures, containing distinctive arrangements of cells and fibre systems embedded in the bone, which can be modified during ontogeny. Until recently it has only been possible to obtain 2D surface and thin section images of entheses, leaving their 3D histology largely unstudied except by extrapolation from 2D data. Entheses are frequently preserved in fossil bones, but sectioning is inappropriate for rare or unique fossil material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the first non-destructive 3D investigation, by propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRµCT, of enthesis histology in extant and fossil vertebrates. We are able to identify entheses in the humerus of the salamander Desmognathus from the organization of bone-cell lacunae and extrinsic fibres. Statistical analysis of the lacunae differentiates types of attachments, and the orientation of the fibres, reflect the approximate alignment of the muscle. Similar histological structures, including ontogenetically related pattern changes, are perfectly preserved in two 380 million year old fossil vertebrates, the placoderm Compagopiscis croucheri and the sarcopterygian fish Eusthenopteron foordi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are able to determine the position of entheses in fossil vertebrates, the approximate orientation of the attached muscles, and aspects of their ontogenetic histories, from PPC-SRµCT data. Sub-micron microtomography thus provides a powerful tool for studying the structure, development, evolution and palaeobiology of muscle attachments.

  9. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  10. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  11. Computational prediction of body-centered cubic carbon in an all-s p3 six-member ring configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Zhen; Lian, Chao-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Xu, Li-Fang; Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-06-01

    Recent shock compression experiments produced clear evidence of a new carbon phase, but a full structural identification has remained elusive. Here we establish by ab initio calculations a body-centered cubic carbon phase in I a 3 ¯d (Oh10) symmetry, which contains twelve atoms in its primitive cell, thus termed BC12, and comprises all-s p3 six-membered rings. This structural configuration places BC12 carbon in the same bonding type as cubic diamond, and its stability is verified by phonon mode analysis. Simulated x-ray diffraction patterns provide an excellent match to the previously unexplained distinct diffraction peak found in shock compression experiments. Electronic band and density of states calculations reveal that BC12 is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of ˜2.97 eV . These results provide a solid foundation for further exploration of this new carbon allotrope.

  12. The taphonomy of unmineralised Palaeozoic fossils preserved as siliciclastic moulds and casts, and their utility in assessing the interaction between environmental change and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGabhann, Breandán; Schiffbauer, James; Hagadorn, James; Van Roy, Peter; Lynch, Edward; Morrsion, Liam; Murray, John

    2015-04-01

    The enhanced preservation potential of biomineralised tissues in fossil organisms is a key factor in their utility in the investigation of palaeoenvironmental change on fossil ecosystems. By contrast, the considerably lower preservation potential of entirely unmineralised organisms severely reduces the utility of their temporal and spatial distribution in such analyses. However, understanding the taphonomic processes which lead to the preservation of such soft-bodied fossils may be an under-appreciated source of information, particularly in the case of specimens preserved as moulds and casts in coarser siliciclastic sediments. This information potential is well demonstrated by fossil eldonids, a Cambrian to Devonian clade of unmineralised asymmetrical discoidal basal or stem deuterostomes, with an apparently conservative biology and no clear palaeoenvironmental or biogeographical controls on their distribution. We investigated the taphonomic processes involved in the preservation of fossil eldonids as moulds and casts on bedding surfaces and within event beds from sandstones of the Ordovician Tafilalt lagerstätte in south-eastern Morocco, and from siltstones of the Devonian West Falls Group of New York, USA. Laser Raman microspectroscopy, SEM BSE imaging and EDS elemental mapping of fossil specimens reveals that moulded biological surfaces are coated by a fossil surface veneer primarily consisting of mixed iron oxides and oxyhydroxides (including pseudomorphs after pyrite), and aluminosilicate clay minerals. Moreover, comparison to fossil eldonids preserved as carbonaceous compressions in the Burgess Shale reveals that the biological structures preserved in the Tafilalt and New York specimens - the dorsal surface and a coiled sac containing the digestive tract - represent only specific portions of the anatomy of the complete animal. We suggest that the preserved remains were the only parts of these eldonid organisms composed primarily of complex organic

  13. Skeletal Muscle Depletion Predicts the Prognosis of Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Undergoing Palliative Chemotherapy, Independent of Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younak Choi

    Full Text Available Body composition has emerged as a prognostic factor in cancer patients. We investigated whether sarcopenia at diagnosis and loss of skeletal muscle during palliative chemotherapy were associated with survival in patients with pancreatic cancer.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients receiving palliative chemotherapy between 2003 and 2010. The cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle at L3 by computed tomography was analyzed with Rapidia 3D software. We defined sarcopenia as a skeletal muscle index (SMI< 42.2 cm2/m2 (male and < 33.9 cm2/m2 (female using ROC curve.Among 484 patients, 103 (21.3% patients were sarcopenic at diagnosis. Decrease in SMI during chemotherapy was observed in 156 (60.9% male and 65 (40.6% female patients. Decrease in body mass index (BMI was observed in 149 patients (37.3%, with no gender difference. By multivariate analysis, sarcopenia (P< 0.001, decreasedBMI and SMI during chemotherapy (P = 0.002, P = 0.004, respectively were poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS. While the OS of male patients was affected with sarcopenia (P< 0.001 and decreased SMI (P = 0.001, the OS of female patients was influenced with overweight at diagnosis (P = 0.006, decreased BMI (P = 0.032 and decreased SMI (P = 0.014. Particularly, while the change of BMI during chemotherapy did not have impact on OS within the patients with maintained SMI (P = 0.750, decrease in SMI was associated with poor OS within the patients with maintained BMI (HR 1.502; P = 0.002.Sarcopenia at diagnosis and depletion of skeletal muscle, independent of BMI change, during chemotherapy were poor prognostic factors in advanced pancreatic cancer.

  14. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Koppert, Linetta B; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perez, Jose I A; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10-8) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10-8). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10-7). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p BMI was associated with reduced breast

  15. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  16. The First Observation on Plant Cell Fossils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; CUI Jinzhong

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, paleontologists have been focusing on hard parts of organisms during different geological periods while soft parts are rarely reported. Well-preserved plant cells, if found in fossils, are treated only as a rarity. Recent progress in research on fossil cytoplasm indicates that plant cytoplasm not only has excellent ultrastructures preserved but also may be a quite commonly seen fossil in strata. However, up to now there is no report of plant cell fossils in China yet. Here plant cell fossils are reported from Huolinhe Coal Mine (the early Cretaceous), Inner Mongolia, China. The presence of plant cytoplasm fossils in two cones on the same specimen not only provides further support for the recently proposed hypothesis on plant cytoplasm fossilization but also marks the first record of plant cytoplasm fossils in China, which suggests a great research potential in this new area.

  17. [Raman spectra of fossil dinosaurs from different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qun; Wang, Yi-lin

    2007-12-01

    Raman microscopic spectra in the higher wave number region were obtained from 7 fossil dinosaurs specimens from different regions. The specimens of fossil dinosaurs are different parts of bone. The Raman spectra of fossil dinosaurs indicate the high similarity among peak positions of different fossil dinosaurs; but important differences exist in the spectral peak figures. In the wave number region of 1000-1800 cm(-1) the Raman spectra of the same bone part fossils from different regions are very similar, example similarities between spectra of Lufeing backbone head and Yua nmou backbone head; Lufeng limb bone and Wuding limb bone. There are relations between the same bone part spectra of different fossil dinosaurs. The characteristic does not relate to regions. Raman spectra of fossil dinosaurs cannot be used to distinguish fossil source, although the part of bone can be used as an indicator to narrow the range of possible geographical origins.

  18. First known fossil bird tracks on San Salvador island, Bahamas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, A.J; Whitten, M.J

    2015-01-01

    ...) are the first known vertebrate trace fossils on this well-studied island. The trace fossils, preserved as bedding-plane impressions in an oolitic-bioclastic grainstone, match the size and form of tracks made by modern gulls...

  19. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be

  20. Estimating thumb-index finger precision grip and manipulation potential in extant and fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feix, Thomas; Kivell, Tracy L; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-05-06

    Primates, and particularly humans, are characterized by superior manual dexterity compared with other mammals. However, drawing the biomechanical link between hand morphology/behaviour and functional capabilities in non-human primates and fossil taxa has been challenging. We present a kinematic model of thumb-index precision grip and manipulative movement based on bony hand morphology in a broad sample of extant primates and fossil hominins. The model reveals that both joint mobility and digit proportions (scaled to hand size) are critical for determining precision grip and manipulation potential, but that having either a long thumb or great joint mobility alone does not necessarily yield high precision manipulation. The results suggest even the oldest available fossil hominins may have shared comparable precision grip manipulation with modern humans. In particular, the predicted human-like precision manipulation of Australopithecus afarensis, approximately one million years before the first stone tools, supports controversial archaeological evidence of tool-use in this taxon.

  1. Assessing the completeness of the fossil record using brachiopod Lazarus taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearty, W.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lazarus taxa, organisms that disappear from the fossil record only to reappear later, provide a unique opportunity to assess the completeness of the fossil record. In this study, we apply logistic regression to quantify the associations of body size, geographic extent, and species diversity with the probability of being a Lazarus genus using the Phanerozoic fossil record of brachiopods. We find that both the geographic range and species diversity of a genus are inversely associated with the probability of being a Lazarus taxon in the preceding or succeeding stage. In contrast, body size exhibits little association with the probability of becoming a Lazarus taxon. A model including species diversity and geographic extent as predictors performs best among all combinations examined, whereas a model including only shell size as a predictor performs the worst - even worse than a model that assumes Lazarus taxa are randomly drawn from all available genera. These findings suggest that geographic range and species richness data can be used to improve estimates of extensions on the observed fossil ranges of genera and, thereby, better correct for sampling effects in estimates of taxonomic diversity change through the Phanerozoic.

  2. Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic-guided "body-on-a-chip" systems to predict mammalian response to drug and chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jong Hwan; Srinivasan, Balaji; Esch, Mandy Brigitte; McLamb, William T; Bernabini, Catia; Shuler, Michael L; Hickman, James J

    2014-09-01

    The continued development of in vitro systems that accurately emulate human response to drugs or chemical agents will impact drug development, our understanding of chemical toxicity, and enhance our ability to respond to threats from chemical or biological agents. A promising technology is to build microscale replicas of humans that capture essential elements of physiology, pharmacology, and/or toxicology (microphysiological systems). Here, we review progress on systems for microscale models of mammalian systems that include two or more integrated cellular components. These systems are described as a "body-on-a-chip", and utilize the concept of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in the design. These microscale systems can also be used as model systems to predict whole-body responses to drugs as well as study the mechanism of action of drugs using PBPK analysis. In this review, we provide examples of various approaches to construct such systems with a focus on their physiological usefulness and various approaches to measure responses (e.g. chemical, electrical, or mechanical force and cellular viability and morphology). While the goal is to predict human response, other mammalian cell types can be utilized with the same principle to predict animal response. These systems will be evaluated on their potential to be physiologically accurate, to provide effective and efficient platform for analytics with accessibility to a wide range of users, for ease of incorporation of analytics, functional for weeks to months, and the ability to replicate previously observed human responses. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  3. Clustering Fossil from Primordial Gravitational Waves in Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Emami, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Inflationary models can correlate small-scale density perturbations with the long-wavelength gravitational waves (GW) in the form of the Tensor-Scalar-Scalar (TSS) bispectrum. This correlation affects the mass-distribution in the Universe and leads to the off-diagonal correlations of the density field modes in the form of the quadrupole anisotropy. Interestingly, this effect survives even after the tensor mode decays when it re-enters the horizon, known as the fossil effect. As a result, the off-diagonal correlation function between different Fourier modes of the density fluctuations can be thought as a way to probe the large-scale GW and the mechanism of inflation behind the fossil effect. Models of single field slow roll inflation generically predict a very small quadrupole anisotropy in TSS while in models of multiple fields inflation this effect can be observable. Therefore this large scale quadrupole anisotropy can be thought as a spectroscopy for different inflationary models. In addition, in models of ...

  4. Body weight, not insulin sensitivity or secretion, may predict spontaneous weight changes in nondiabetic and prediabetic subjects: the RISC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelos, Eleni; Muscelli, Elza; Natali, Andrea; Balkau, Beverley; Mingrone, Geltrude; Piatti, Piermarco; Konrad, Thomas; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have found that high insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain; this association has not been confirmed. Our aim was to systematically analyze metabolic predictors of spontaneous weight changes. In 561 women and 467 men from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort (mean age 44 years, BMI range 19-44 kg/m(2), 9% impaired glucose tolerance) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by a euglycemic clamp) and β-cell function (by modeling of the C-peptide response to oral glucose and by acute insulin response to intravenous glucose). Insulin sensitivity was similar in weight gainers (top 20% of the distribution of BMI changes), weight losers (bottom 20%), and weight stable subjects across quartiles of baseline BMI. By multiple logistic or linear regression analyses controlling for center, age, sex, and baseline BMI, neither insulin sensitivity nor any β-cell function parameter showed an independent association with weight gain; this was true in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and whether subjects progressed to dysglycemia or not. Baseline BMI was significantly higher in gainers (26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) and losers (26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) than in weight stable subjects (24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), Pweight) was a positive, independent predictor of both weight gain and weight loss (odds ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-1.97]) in men and (1.67 [1.28-2.12]) in women. In men only, better insulin sensitivity was an additional independent predictor of weight loss. Neither insulin sensitivity nor insulin secretion predicts spontaneous weight gain. Individuals who have attained a higher weight are prone to either gaining or losing weight regardless of their glucose tolerance. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, LC; Barham, LS; Ditchfield, P.; Elton, S; Harcourt-Smith, WH; Dawkins, P

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a large collection of Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa rift valley, Zambia. Stone Age artefacts have been recovered from stratified fluvial contexts, but no in situ fossil fauna have yet been recovered. We report on 500 fossil specimens collected from the surface of point bars exposed seasonally along the banks of the main Luangwa river channel. We used non-destructive x-ray fluorescence analysis of the fossils' chemical signatures to determine whether they derive...

  6. Unlocking the early fossil record of the arthropod central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Ma, Xiaoya; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Extant panarthropods (euarthropods, onychophorans and tardigrades) are hallmarked by stunning morphological and taxonomic diversity, but their central nervous systems (CNS) are relatively conserved. The timing of divergences of the ground pattern CNS organization of the major panarthropod clades has been poorly constrained because of a scarcity of data from their early fossil record. Although the CNS has been documented in three-dimensional detail in insects from Cenozoic ambers, it is widely assumed that these tissues are too prone to decay to withstand other styles of fossilization or geologically older preservation. However, Cambrian Burgess Shale-type compressions have emerged as sources of fossilized brains and nerve cords. CNS in these Cambrian fossils are preserved as carbon films or as iron oxides/hydroxides after pyrite in association with carbon. Experiments with carcasses compacted in fine-grained sediment depict preservation of neural tissue for a more prolonged temporal window than anticipated by decay experiments in other media. CNS and compound eye characters in exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossils predict divergences of the mandibulate and chelicerate ground patterns by Cambrian Stage 3 (ca 518 Ma), a dating that is compatible with molecular estimates for these splits. PMID:26554038

  7. Unlocking the early fossil record of the arthropod central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgecombe, Gregory D; Ma, Xiaoya; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2015-12-19

    Extant panarthropods (euarthropods, onychophorans and tardigrades) are hallmarked by stunning morphological and taxonomic diversity, but their central nervous systems (CNS) are relatively conserved. The timing of divergences of the ground pattern CNS organization of the major panarthropod clades has been poorly constrained because of a scarcity of data from their early fossil record. Although the CNS has been documented in three-dimensional detail in insects from Cenozoic ambers, it is widely assumed that these tissues are too prone to decay to withstand other styles of fossilization or geologically older preservation. However, Cambrian Burgess Shale-type compressions have emerged as sources of fossilized brains and nerve cords. CNS in these Cambrian fossils are preserved as carbon films or as iron oxides/hydroxides after pyrite in association with carbon. Experiments with carcasses compacted in fine-grained sediment depict preservation of neural tissue for a more prolonged temporal window than anticipated by decay experiments in other media. CNS and compound eye characters in exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossils predict divergences of the mandibulate and chelicerate ground patterns by Cambrian Stage 3 (ca 518 Ma), a dating that is compatible with molecular estimates for these splits.

  8. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    Full Text Available The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile. Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth, the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward

  9. Enamel ultrastructure in fossil cetaceans (Cetacea: Archaeoceti and Odontoceti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Kieser, Jules A; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The transition from terrestrial ancestry to a fully pelagic life profoundly altered the body systems of cetaceans, with extreme morphological changes in the skull and feeding apparatus. The Oligocene Epoch was a crucial time in the evolution of cetaceans when the ancestors of modern whales and dolphins (Neoceti) underwent major diversification, but details of dental structure and evolution are poorly known for the archaeocete-neocete transition. We report the morphology of teeth and ultrastructure of enamel in archaeocetes, and fossil platanistoids and delphinoids, ranging from late Oligocene (Waitaki Valley, New Zealand) to Pliocene (Caldera, Chile). Teeth were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned in cross and longitudinal planes, polished, etched, and coated with gold palladium for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. SEM images showed that in archaeocetes, squalodontids and Prosqualodon (taxa with heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont teeth), the inner enamel was organized in Hunter-Schreger bands (HSB) with an outer layer of radial enamel. This is a common pattern in most large-bodied mammals and it is regarded as a biomechanical adaptation related to food processing and crack resistance. Fossil Otekaikea sp. and delphinoids, which were polydont and homodont, showed a simpler structure, with inner radial and outer prismless enamel. Radial enamel is regarded as more wear-resistant and has been retained in several mammalian taxa in which opposing tooth surfaces slide over each other. These observations suggest that the transition from a heterodont and nonpolydont/limited polydont dentition in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to homodont and polydont teeth in crownward odontocetes, was also linked to a marked simplification in the enamel Schmelzmuster. These patterns probably reflect functional shifts in food processing from shear-and-mastication in archaeocetes and early odontocetes, to pierce-and-grasp occlusion in crownward odontocetes, with

  10. Prediction of osteoconductive activity of modified potassium fluorrichterite glass-ceramics by immersion in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Shashwat; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Takadama, Hiroaki; Kokubo, Tadashi; Miller, Cheryl A; Mirsaneh, Mehdi; Reaney, Ian M; Brook, Ian; van Noort, Richard; Hatton, Paul V

    2010-11-01

    Potassium fluorrichterite (KNaCaMg(5)Si(8)O(22)F(2)) glass-ceramics were modified by either increasing the concentration of calcium (GC5) or by the addition of P(2)O(5) (GP2). The stoichiometric composition (GST), GC5 and GP2 were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) along with 45S5-type bioglass as a control. After immersion, surface analyses were performed using thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier-transform infrared (reflection) spectroscopy (FT-IR). All compositions showed the formation of a calcium phosphate rich surface layer in SBF; GST, GP2 and the bioglass control within 7 days of immersion and GC5 after 14 days. It was concluded that all compositions were likely to be osteoconductive in vivo, with GP2 providing the best performance in terms of the combination of rapid formation of the surface layer and superior mechanical properties. This glass-ceramic system has potential as a load bearing bioceramic for fabrication of medical devices intended for skeletal tissue repair.

  11. Waist-to-height ratio is more predictive of years of life lost than body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ashwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare the effect of central obesity (measured by waist-to-height ratio, WHtR and total obesity (measured by body mass index, BMI on life expectancy expressed as years of life lost (YLL, using data on British adults.A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to data from the prospective Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS and the cross sectional Health Survey for England (HSE. The number of years of life lost (YLL at three ages (30, 50, 70 years was found by comparing the life expectancies of obese lives with those of lives at optimum levels of BMI and WHtR.Mortality risk associated with BMI in the British HALS survey was similar to that found in US studies. However, WHtR was a better predictor of mortality risk. For the first time, YLL have been quantified for different values of WHtR. This has been done for both sexes separately and for three representative ages.This study supports the simple message "Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height". The use of WHtR in public health screening, with appropriate action, could help add years to life.

  12. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bunin, Nancy [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Oncology Division, BMT Section, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  13. The fossil trade: paying a price for human origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Fossils have been traded for centuries. Over the past two hundred years the market has developed into an organised enterprise with fossils serving multiple functions as scientific objects of study, collectors’ items and investments. Finding fossils, digging them up or purchasing them, transporting...

  14. Probe into the Internal Mechanism of Interlanguage Fossilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Interlanguage fossilization is normal for second language acquisition. It is also a hotspot for studies on theory of foreign language acquisition. Many reasons cause the interlanguage fossilization. This paper probes into the internal mechanism of interlanguage fossilization from five aspects, namely the physiological aspect, the psychological…

  15. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-04-29

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  16. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  17. Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlig, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Spranger, Joachim; Osterhoff, Martin; Kroke, Anja; Fisher, Eva; Bergmann, Manuela M; Ristow, Michael; Hoffmann, Kurt; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2004-04-01

    Increased levels of IL-6 add further risk to the impact of obesity in respect to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A C-174G polymorphism within the IL-6 promoter region was shown to influence transcription rate of IL-6. We made use of a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort of 27,548 individuals, selecting 188 T2DM cases and 376 controls to investigate this polymorphism in respect to development of T2DM. This polymorphism was found to modify the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and IL-6 by showing a much stronger increase of IL-6 at increased BMI for CC genotypes compared with GG genotypes. Interestingly, C-174G polymorphism was found to be an effect modifier for the impact of BMI regarding T2DM. Whereas BMI greater than or equal to 28 kg/m(2) increased the risk of T2DM 3.44-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34- to 8.24-fold] for GG genotypes and 2.94-fold (95% CI, 1.56- to 5.56-fold) for GC genotypes, we found a 17.68-fold (95% CI, 3.57- to 87.66-fold) increase in risk for CC genotypes. In conclusion, obese individuals with BMI greater than or equal to 28 kg/m(2) carrying the CC genotype showed a more than 5-fold increased risk of developing T2DM compared with the remaining genotypes and, hence, might profit most from weight reduction.

  18. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  19. Danmarks Største Fossiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger

    2008-01-01

    For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram.......For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram....

  20. Cassini State Transitions with a Fossil Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Isamu; Tuttle Keane, James

    2016-10-01

    The Moon has experienced large obliquity variations during Cassini state transitions which greatly impact tidal heating, and the long-term stability of polar volatiles. It has been known for centuries that the lunar rotational and tidal bulges are much larger than expected. The South Pole-Aitken basin can explain a large fraction of the excess deformation. Accounting for the contribution of this basin (and other large basins), the remaining excess deformation arises due to a fossil figure established when the Moon orbited much closer to Earth than it does today. Previous studies assume that the present, excess deformation is entirely preserved throughout Cassini state transitions. This ignores basin contributions to the excess deformation, and requires an interior with infinite rigidity. We consider Cassini state transition models that take into account basin contributions to the excess deformation, and the effect of finite rigidity on the fossil figure.

  1. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  2. Fossil Biodiversity: Red Noise Plus Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, A L; Melott, Adrian L.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the Fourier power spectrum as well as the Hurst exponent of extinction, origination, and total biodiversity in the marine fossil record, using a recently improved geologic timescale. We find all of them strongly inconsistent with past claims of self-similarity as well as inconsistent with random walk behavior. Instead, they are dominated by low-frequency power, with approximate f^-2 power over one decade in frequency. The spectrum turns over at about 10^5 y, lending plausibility to connections with galactic dynamics. Even in the background of this low-frequency dominance, a previously noted 62 My biodiversity cycle stands out with better than 99% confidence above the noise level, accounting for about 35% of the total variance in the fossil biodiversity record.

  3. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  5. Forming limit prediction using a self-consistent crystal plasticity framework: a case study for body-centered cubic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngung; Pham, Minh-Son; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Foecke, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    A rate-dependent self-consistent crystal plasticity model was incorporated with the Marciniak-Kuczyński model in order to study the effects of anisotropy on the forming limits of BCC materials. The computational speed of the model was improved by a factor of 24 when running the simulations for several strain paths in parallel. This speed-up enabled a comprehensive investigation of the forming limits of various BCC textures, such as γ , σ , α , η and ɛ fibers and a uniform (random) texture. These simulations demonstrate that the crystallographic texture has significant (both positive and negative) effects on the resulting forming limit diagrams. For example, the γ fiber texture, which is often sought through thermo-mechanical processing due to a high r-value, had the highest forming limit in the balanced biaxial strain path but the lowest forming limit under the plane strain path among the textures under consideration. A systematic investigation based on the results produced by the current model, referred to as ‘VPSC-FLD’, suggests that the r-value does not serve as a good measure of forming limit strain. However, model predictions show a degree of correlation between the r-value and the forming limit stress.

  6. Future Fossil Fuel Alternative; DME (A review)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdener, Hülya; Arinan, Ayca; Orman, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The world energy consumption is steadily growing with the industrial improvements of the developing countries and the readily available fossil fuel reserves lack in fulfilling this energy requirement. The depletion of the easily achievable reserves; gives rise to the concept of oil production from oil shale and tar sands. However, the high cost and the operational difficulties stand as the major drawbacks in front of these technologies. Along with these circumstances, and the environmental co...

  7. The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Knecht, Brian J; Hegna, Thomas A

    2017-04-21

    Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK. Using X-ray microtomography, our principal aim was to resolve details of the limbs and mouthparts which would allow us to test whether this fossil belongs in the extant, relict family Paracharontidae; represented today by a single, blind species Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921. Tomography reveals several novel and significant character states for G. anglicus; most notably in the chelicerae, pedipalps and walking legs. These allowed it to be scored into a phylogenetic analysis together with the recently described Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from the Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) Cambay amber, and Kronocharon prendinii Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber. We recovered relationships of the form ((Graeophonus (Paracharonopsis + Paracharon)) + (Charinus (Stygophrynus (Kronocharon (Charon (Musicodamon + Paraphrynus)))))). This tree largely reflects Peter Weygoldt's 1996 classification with its basic split into Paleoamblypygi and Euamblypygi lineages; we were able to score several of his characters for the first time in fossils. Our analysis draws into question the monophyly of the family Charontidae. Our data suggest that Graeophonus is a crown group amblypygid, and falls within a monophyletic Paleoamblypgi clade, but outside the family Paracharontidae (= Paracharonopsis + Paracharon). Our results also suggest a new placement for the Burmese amber genus Kronocharon, a node further down from its original position. Overall, we offer a

  8. Metabolic syndrome predicts vascular changes in whole body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with long standing diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findeisen Hannes M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diabetic patients have an increased rate of cardio-vascular events, there is considerable heterogeneity with respect to cardiovascular risk, requiring new approaches to individual cardiovascular risk factor assessment. In this study we used whole body-MR-angiography (WB-MRA to assess the degree of atherosclerosis in patients with long-standing diabetes and to determine the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS and atherosclerotic burden. Methods Long standing (≥10 years type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients (n = 59; 31 males; 63.3 ± 1.7 years were examined by WB-MRA. Based on the findings in each vessel, we developed an overall score representing the patient's vascular atherosclerotic burden (MRI-score. The score's association with components of the MetS was assessed. Results The median MRI-score was 1.18 [range: 1.00-2.41] and MetS was present in 58% of the cohort (type 2 diabetics: 73%; type 1 diabetics: 26%. Age (p = 0.0002, HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.016, hypertension (p = 0.0008, nephropathy (p = 0.0093, CHD (p = 0.001 and MetS (p = 0.0011 were significantly associated with the score. Adjusted for age and sex, the score was significantly (p = 0.02 higher in diabetics with MetS (1.450 [1.328-1.572] compared to those without MetS (1.108 [0.966-1.50]. The number of MetS components was associated with a linear increase in the MRI-score (increase in score: 0.09/MetS component; r2 = 0.24, p = 0.038. Finally, using an established risk algorithm, we found a significant association between MRI-score and 10-year risk for CHD, fatal CHD and stroke. Conclusion In this high-risk diabetic population, WB-MRA revealed large heterogeneity in the degree of systemic atherosclerosis. Presence and number of traits of the MetS are associated with the extent of atherosclerotic burden. These results support the perspective that diabetic patients are a heterogeneous population with increased but varying prevalence of atherosclerosis

  9. The Properties of Fossil Groups of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenthaler, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations as well as optical and X-ray observations over the last few years have shown that poor groups of galaxies can evolve to what is called a fossil group. Dynamical friction as the driving process leads to the coalescence of individual galaxies in ordinary poor groups leaving behind nothing more than a central, massive elliptical galaxy supposed to contain the merger history of the whole group. Due to merging timescales for less-massive galaxies and gas cooling timescales of the X-ray intragroup medium exceeding a Hubble time, a surrounding faint-galaxy population having survived this galactic cannibalism as well as an extended X-ray halo similar to that found in ordinary groups, is expected. Recent studies suggest that fossil groups are very abundant and could be the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. However, only a few objects are known to the literature. This article aims to summarize the results of observational fossil group research...

  10. Fossil harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones from Bitterfeld amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dunlop

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi and Eupnoi are described from Bitterfeld amber, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The exact age of this amber has been in dispute, but recent work suggests it is youngest Palaeogene (Oligocene: Chattian. Histricostoma tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Caddo dentipalpus (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854 and Leiobunum longipes Menge, 1854 – all of which are also known from Eocene Baltic amber – are reported from Bitterfeld amber for the first time. They support the idea that both ambers sampled a similar terrestrial arthropod fauna: irrespective of any difference in age. Mitostoma gruberi sp. n. and Amilenus deltshevi sp. n. are described as new. One fossil is, in our opinion, morphologically indistinguishable from the extant species Lacinius erinaceus Staręga, 1966 from the Caucuses, and is tentatively assigned to this taxon. The Bitterfeld material thus includes the first fossil record of the extant genera Amilenus Martens, 1969 and Lacinius Thorell, 1876 respectively.

  11. Body mass index and other anthropometric parameters in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: physiopathological significance and predictive value in the immunochemotherapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Camus, Vincent; Tilly, Hervé; Salles, Gilles; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 30-40% of newly diagnosed cases. Obesity is a well-defined risk factor for DLBCL. However, the impact of body mass index (BMI) on DLBCL prognosis is controversial. Recent studies suggest that skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia) or loss of fat mass can be detected by computed tomography (CT) images and is useful for predicting the clinical outcome in several types of cancer including DLBCL. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the differences in DLBCL outcome according to BMI or weight that include tolerance to treatment, inflammatory background and chemotherapy or rituximab metabolism. In this review, we summarize the available literature, addressing the impact and physiopathological relevance of simple anthropometric tools including BMI and tissue distribution measurements. We also discuss their relationship with other nutritional parameters and their potential role in the management of patients with DLBCL.

  12. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Astrup, Arne; Skovgaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI...... in comparison to body %FM by DXA scanning, and whether there is a time-stable individual relation between the %FM and the BMI in patients scanned several times. We aimed to develop a formula where, based on a single DXA scan, %FM could be predicted following a change in weight, and a patient-specific BMI...

  13. Fossil Groups Origins III. Characterization of the sample and observational properties of fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Girardi, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Boschin, W; Aguerri, J A L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Corsini, E M; del Burgo, C; D'Onghia, E; Herrera-Ruiz, N; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Bailon, E Jimenez; Muñoz, M Lozada; Napolitano, N; Vilchez, J M

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Fossil systems are group- or cluster-sized objects whose luminosity is dominated by a very massive central galaxy. In the current cold dark matter scenario, these objects formed hierarchically at an early epoch of the Universe and then slowly evolved until present day. That is the reason why they are called {\\it fossils}. We started an extensive observational program to characterize a sample of 34 fossil group candidates spanning a broad range of physical properties. Deep $r-$band images were taken for each candidate and optical spectroscopic observations were obtained for $\\sim$ 1200 galaxies. This new dataset was completed with SDSS DR7 archival data to obtain robust cluster membership and global properties of each fossil group candidate. For each system, we recomputed the magnitude gaps between the two brightest galaxies ($\\Delta m_{12}$) and the first and fourth ranked galaxies ($\\Delta m_{14}$) within 0.5 $R_{{\\rm 200}}$. We consider fossil systems those with $\\Delta m_{12} \\ge 2$ mag or $\\Del...

  14. Chest wall volume receiving >30 Gy predicts risk of severe pain and/or rib fracture after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Neal E; Cai, Jing; Biedermann, Gregory B; Yang, Wensha; Benedict, Stanley H; Sheng, Ke; Schefter, Tracey E; Kavanagh, Brian D; Larner, James M

    2010-03-01

    To identify the dose-volume parameters that predict the risk of chest wall (CW) pain and/or rib fracture after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy. From a combined, larger multi-institution experience, 60 consecutive patients treated with three to five fractions of stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary or metastatic peripheral lung lesions were reviewed. CW pain was assessed using the Common Toxicity Criteria for pain. Peripheral lung lesions were defined as those located within 2.5 cm of the CW. A minimal point dose of 20 Gy to the CW was required. The CW volume receiving >or=20, >or=30, >or=40, >or=50, and >or=60 Gy was determined and related to the risk of CW toxicity. Of the 60 patients, 17 experienced Grade 3 CW pain and five rib fractures. The median interval to the onset of severe pain and/or fracture was 7.1 months. The risk of CW toxicity was fitted to the median effective concentration dose-response model. The CW volume receiving 30 Gy best predicted the risk of severe CW pain and/or rib fracture (R(2) = 0.9552). A volume threshold of 30 cm(3) was observed before severe pain and/or rib fracture was reported. A 30% risk of developing severe CW toxicity correlated with a CW volume of 35 cm(3) receiving 30 Gy. The development of CW toxicity is clinically relevant, and the CW should be considered an organ at risk in treatment planning. The CW volume receiving 30 Gy in three to five fractions should be limited to <30 cm(3), if possible, to reduce the risk of toxicity without compromising tumor coverage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  16. Serum creatinine improves body mass index survival prediction in hemodialysis patients: a 1-year prospective cohort analysis from the ARNOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Gaudry, Xavier; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Jean, Guillaume; Genet, Leslie; Lataillade, Dominique; Legrand, Eric; Kuentz, Francois; Trolliet, Pierre; Fouque, Denis

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to better characterize the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and lean body mass (LBM) as assessed by serum creatinine (SCr) and mortality. The data were collected from a prospective prevalent cohort in maintenance hemodialysis patients. The study was carried out in 25 dialysis units in Rhônes Alpes area (France and Switzerland). A total of 1,205 patients were followed up for 1-year, starting July 1, 2005. Mortality as well as clinical and biological routine parameters were recorded. Kaplan-Meier, Cox model, Log rank test were used for the statistical analysis. We found that SCr was a strong predictor of mortality (P 23 (P < .001). BMI should not be used by itself but in conjunction with SCr as a surrogate of LBM to improve its morbid-mortality predictive power. LBM should also be taken into account in further survival studies carried out in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Object-Oriented Approach to Extracting Productive Fossil Localities from Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Emerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most vertebrate fossils are rare and difficult to find and although paleontologists and paleoanthropologists use geological maps to identify potential fossil-bearing deposits, the process of locating fossiliferous localities often involves a great deal of luck. One way to reduce the role of serendipity is to develop predictive models that increase the likelihood of locating fossils by identifying combinations of geological, geospatial, and spectral features that are common to productive localities. We applied GEographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA of high resolution QuickBird and medium resolution images from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI along with GIS data such as slope and surface geology layers to identify potentially productive Eocene vertebrate fossil localities in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the image objects that represent a highly productive locality (WMU-VP-222 were used to extract similar image objects in the area covered by the high resolution imagery and throughout the basin using the Landsat imagery. During the 2013 summer field season, twenty-six locations that would not have been spotted from the road in a traditional ground survey were visited. Fourteen of the eighteen localities that were fossiliferous were identified by the predictive model. In 2014, the GEOBIA techniques were applied to Landsat 8 imagery of the entire basin, correctly identifying six new productive localities in a previously unsurveyed part of the basin.

  18. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers progress made during the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, the DOE Fossil Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development. The Fossil, Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Topics include: alloys, ceramics and composite research and development; corrosion and erosion research; environmental analysis and information systems; coal conversion development; mild gasification product characterization; coal combustion research; strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling; and coal structure and chemistry.

  19. Fossil nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan region; Fossile Nickellaterit-Lagerstaetten auf dem Balkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masurenko, Christian [European Nickel PLC, London (United Kingdom); Radosevic, Branislav [Advanced Systems, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-11-15

    Philippines and the fossil or rock laterites of the Balkan and Turkey which developed in the Mesozoic. The mineralogy of these deposits varies a lot and it is not easy to predict whether a certain ore type leaches well. Often the fossil laterites have faster leach cycles than recent laterites though being lower in nickel grades. The content of clay as well as the silicification can have a negative influence on the leaching process. Dr. Richard Herrington and his team of experts of the Natural History Museum in London are currently investigating the leaching characteristics of various ores compared with their mineralogy. For the next years ENickel's ambitions are the improvement of the leaching and precipitation process and the raise of nickel content in the final products. This will have a positive impact on the energy balance sheet and certainly improves the environmental influences of the nickel processing industry. Another challenge will be the sustainable development in the mining industry. This requires an active involvement of the community and incorporation of the environment in the active mining operation and also in the rehabilitation of mining areas during the mine closure phase. Therefore ENickel builds internal and external committees, starting already during feasibility studies, who carry out environmental impact assessments and basement studies and mine closure programs together with the local community. Today the mining industry needs to apply the highest environmental standards to achieve environmentally friendly operations, but also must inform openly, and incorporate communities as much as possible in the process of the development of ore deposits. (orig.)

  20. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. Combination of body mass index and oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 in prognosis prediction of patients with squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long; Jiang, Shanshan; Lin, Yongbin; Yang, Han; Zhao, Zerui; Xie, Zehua; Lin, Yaobin; Long, Hao

    2015-09-08

    Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), represents enormous challenges in continuously achieving treatment improvements. Besides cancer, obesity is becoming ever more prevalent. Obesity is increasingly acknowledged as a major risk factor for several types of common cancers. Significant mechanisms overlap in the pathobiology of obesity and tumorigenesis. One of these mechanisms involves oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), as a link between obesity and cancer. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) has been widely used in exploiting the role of obesity on a series of diseases, including cancer. Significantly, squamous NSCLC revealed to be divergent clinical and molecular phenotypes compared with non-squamous NSCLC. Consequently, OLR1 immunostaining score and BMI were assessed by Fisher's linear discriminant analysis to discriminate if progression-free survival (PFS) would exceed 2 years. In addition, the final model was utilized to calculate the discriminant score in each study participant. Finally, 131 patients with squamous NCSLC were eligible for analysis. And a prediction model was established for PFS based on these 2 markers and validated in a second set of squamous NCSLC patients. The model offers a novel tool for survival prediction and could establish a framework for future individualized therapy for patients with squamous NCSLC.

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET during stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung tumours cannot predict outcome: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Ubbels, Jan F.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Widder, Joachim [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Pruim, Jan [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Groen, Harry J.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pulmonology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has been used to assess metabolic response several months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, whether a metabolic response can be observed already during treatment and thus can be used to predict treatment outcome is undetermined. Ten medically inoperable patients with FDG PET-positive lung tumours were included. SBRT consisted of three fractions of 20 Gy delivered at the 80% isodose at days 1, 6 and 11. FDG PET was performed before, on day 6 immediately prior to administration of the second fraction of SBRT and 12 weeks after completion of SBRT. Tumour metabolism was assessed semi-quantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and SUV{sub 70%}. After the first fraction, median SUV{sub max} increased from 6.7 to 8.1 (p = 0.07) and median SUV{sub 70%} increased from 5.7 to 7.1 (p = 0.05). At 12 weeks, both median SUV{sub max} and median SUV{sub 70%} decreased by 63% to 3.1 (p = 0.008) and to 2.5 (p = 0.008), respectively. SUV increased during treatment, possibly due to radiation-induced inflammation. Therefore, it is unlikely that {sup 18}F-FDG PET during SBRT will predict treatment success. (orig.)

  3. A preliminary report on the newly found Tianyuan Cave,a Late Pleistocene human fossil site near Zhoukoudian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Haowen; SHANG Hong; ZHANG Shuangquan; CHEN Fuyou

    2004-01-01

    The Tianyuan Cave is the only human fossil-bearing site containing rich mammalian fossils found in the last decades near Zhoukoudian. Up to now more than 34 specimens of the human body have been recovered, and the mammalian fossils can be put into 29 species. Cervids dominate the fauna, and carnivores are very rare. Based on the primary examination, the human fossils can be attributed to the species Homo sapiens. All the mammalian fossils, except one between tooth of Crocuta belong to the species that still exist today. But some of them are the first records in fossil form north of the Yellow River, such as Arctonyx and Capricornis. Based on the mammalian fauna study, it seems that the Tianyuan Cave can be correlated with the Upper Cave. Sixty-three percent of the species of the mammalian fauna from the Tianyuan Cave are also present in the Upper Cave. The characters of the deposits also share some similarities between the Tianyuan Cave and the Upper Cave; both of them are mainly composed of breccia without cement. The dating using the U-series method on deer tooth samples indicates that the geological age of the new site is around 25 thousand years B.P. This is the first discovery of human sites outside the core area of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian, which throws new light onto this world famous site complex.

  4. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-03-01

    Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082-2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses.

  5. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors.We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482. We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively.In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.75, p = 3.32 × 10-10. The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31-0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10-8 and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10-8. This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10-7. Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in association with breast cancer risk at p < 0.05; for 16 of them, the

  6. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G.; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E.; Kabisch, Maria; Knight, Julia A.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E.; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; McLean, Catriona; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Perkins, Barbara; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S.; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. Methods We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls from the Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE) Project. Because most studies measured BMI after cancer diagnosis, we could not conduct a parallel analysis to adequately evaluate the association of measured BMI with breast cancer risk prospectively. Results In the BCAC data, genetically predicted BMI was found to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR]  =  0.65 per 5 kg/m2 increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.75, p = 3.32 × 10−10). The associations were similar for both premenopausal (OR   =   0.44, 95% CI:0.31–0.62, p  =  9.91 × 10−8) and postmenopausal breast cancer (OR  =  0.57, 95% CI: 0.46–0.71, p  =  1.88 × 10−8). This association was replicated in the data from the DRIVE consortium (OR  =  0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.84, p   =   1.64 × 10−7). Single marker analyses identified 17 of the 84 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in association with breast cancer risk at p

  7. Combining electronic structure and many-body theory with large databases: A method for predicting the nature of 4 f states in Ce compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herper, H. C.; Ahmed, T.; Wills, J. M.; Di Marco, I.; Björkman, T.; Iuşan, D.; Balatsky, A. V.; Eriksson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Recent progress in materials informatics has opened up the possibility of a new approach to accessing properties of materials in which one assays the aggregate properties of a large set of materials within the same class in addition to a detailed investigation of each compound in that class. Here we present a large scale investigation of electronic properties and correlated magnetism in Ce-based compounds accompanied by a systematic study of the electronic structure and 4 f -hybridization function of a large body of Ce compounds. We systematically study the electronic structure and 4 f -hybridization function of a large body of Ce compounds with the goal of elucidating the nature of the 4 f states and their interrelation with the measured Kondo energy in these compounds. The hybridization function has been analyzed for more than 350 data sets (being part of the IMS database) of cubic Ce compounds using electronic structure theory that relies on a full-potential approach. We demonstrate that the strength of the hybridization function, evaluated in this way, allows us to draw precise conclusions about the degree of localization of the 4 f states in these compounds. The theoretical results are entirely consistent with all experimental information, relevant to the degree of 4 f localization for all investigated materials. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis of the electronic structure and the hybridization function allows us to make precise statements about Kondo correlations in these systems. The calculated hybridization functions, together with the corresponding density of states, reproduce the expected exponential behavior of the observed Kondo temperatures and prove a consistent trend in real materials. This trend allows us to predict which systems may be correctly identified as Kondo systems. A strong anticorrelation between the size of the hybridization function and the volume of the systems has been observed. The information entropy for this set of systems is

  8. Whole-body metabolic tumour volume of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT improves the prediction of prognosis in small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong-Ryool; Chong, Ari; Min, Jung-Joon; Song, Ho-Chun; Bom, Hee-Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji-Hyoung [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Chul [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Hwasun-gun (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated whether the whole-body metabolic tumour volume (WBMTV) measured by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can improve the prediction of prognosis in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We reviewed 106 consecutive patients (mean age 67 years, range 42-89 years, limited stage 45 patients, extensive stage 61 patients) with pathologically proven SCLC who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT. WBMTV and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) were measured in all malignant lesions. The Cox proportional hazards model was used with age, sex, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), treatment, stage, SUV{sub max} and WBMTV to predict overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Subgroup analysis was performed using WBMTV combined with conventional staging and tumour node metastasis (TNM) staging. The uni- and multivariate analyses showed that both stage and WBMTV were independent prognostic factors for death and progression. Patients with high WBMTV were associated with poor prognosis compared with patients with low WBMTV [hazard ratio = 2.11 (95% confidence interval 1.31-3.39) for death (p = 0.002) and 1.80 (95% confidence interval 1.16-2.80) for progression (p = 0.009)]. Incorporation of conventional staging and WBMTV could classify four subgroups with different prognoses (log-rank test, p < 0.001). Incorporation of TNM staging and WBMTV could classify six subgroups with different prognoses (log-rank test, p < 0.001). WBMTV is an independent predictor for progression and death in patients with SCLC. Incorporation of WBMTV with TNM staging can provide a more detailed prediction of prognosis than WBMTV with conventional staging as well as tumour staging alone. (orig.)

  9. Abstracts: Eighth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    Abstracts are presented for about 40 papers. The Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials program is an integrated materials research activity of the fossil energy coal program, whose objective is to conduct R and D for all advanced coal conversion and utilization technologies. The program is aimed at understanding materials behavior in coal system environments and the development of new materials for improving plant operations and reliability. A generic approach is used for addressing multiple coal technologies; for example, the hot-gas particulate filter development is applicable to pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle, coal combustion, and indirectly fired combined-cycle systems.

  10. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 4: Energy from fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The conversion of fossil-fired power plants now burning oil or gas to burn coal is discussed along with the relaxation of air quality standards and the development of coal gasification processes to insure a continued supply of gas from coal. The location of oil fields, refining areas, natural gas fields, and pipelines in the U.S. is shown. The technologies of modern fossil-fired boilers and gas turbines are defined along with the new technologies of fluid-bed boilers and MHD generators.

  11. New insights into non-avian dinosaur reproduction and their evolutionary and ecological implications: linking fossil evidence to allometries of extant close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass) for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises) of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs) for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondyluscarinatus, all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods) or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa). Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN). Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod) for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs). Our results provide new (testable) hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently documented

  12. New insights into non-avian dinosaur reproduction and their evolutionary and ecological implications: linking fossil evidence to allometries of extant close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondyluscarinatus, all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa. Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN. Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs. Our results provide new (testable hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently

  13. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  14. A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Wirth, Stefan; Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S; Withers, Philip J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-06-23

    High-resolution phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) reveals the phoretic deutonymph of a fossil astigmatid mite (Acariformes: Astigmata) attached to a spider's carapace (Araneae: Dysderidae) in Eocene (44-49 Myr ago) Baltic amber. Details of appendages and a sucker plate were resolved, and the resulting three-dimensional model demonstrates the potential of tomography to recover morphological characters of systematic significance from even the tiniest amber inclusions without the need for a synchrotron. Astigmatids have an extremely sparse palaeontological record. We confirm one of the few convincing fossils, potentially the oldest record of Histiostomatidae. At 176 µm long, we believe this to be the smallest arthropod in amber to be CT-scanned as a complete body fossil, extending the boundaries for what can be recovered using this technique. We also demonstrate a minimum age for the evolution of phoretic behaviour among their deutonymphs, an ecological trait used by extant species to disperse into favourable environments. The occurrence of the fossil on a spider is noteworthy, as modern histiostomatids tend to favour other arthropods as carriers.

  15. Divergence Times and the Evolutionary Radiation of New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates: An Analysis of Fossil and Molecular Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ivan Perez

    Full Text Available The estimation of phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among a group of organisms is a fundamental first step toward understanding its biological diversification. The time of the most recent or last common ancestor (LCA of extant platyrrhines is one of the most controversial among scholars of primate evolution. Here we use two molecular based approaches to date the initial divergence of the platyrrhine clade, Bayesian estimations under a relaxed-clock model and substitution rate plus generation time and body size, employing the fossil record and genome datasets. We also explore the robustness of our estimations with respect to changes in topology, fossil constraints and substitution rate, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the platyrrhine radiation. Our results suggest that fossil constraints, topology and substitution rate have an important influence on our divergence time estimates. Bayesian estimates using conservative but realistic fossil constraints suggest that the LCA of extant platyrrhines existed at ca. 29 Ma, with the 95% confidence limit for the node ranging from 27-31 Ma. The LCA of extant platyrrhine monkeys based on substitution rate corrected by generation time and body size was established between 21-29 Ma. The estimates based on the two approaches used in this study recalibrate the ages of the major platyrrhine clades and corroborate the hypothesis that they constitute very old lineages. These results can help reconcile several controversial points concerning the affinities of key early Miocene fossils that have arisen among paleontologists and molecular systematists. However, they cannot resolve the controversy of whether these fossil species truly belong to the extant lineages or to a stem platyrrhine clade. That question can only be resolved by morphology. Finally, we show that the use of different approaches and well supported fossil information gives a more robust divergence time

  16. The fossil record of evolution: Analysis of extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that events in space have had direct effects on Earth history and on the history of life on Earth. Nowhere is this more evident than in mass extinction. The biosphere has undergone repeated devastation caused by relatively short-lived environmental stress, with species kill rates up to 80 and 95%. For five of the mass extinctions, geochemical or other evidence was reported suggesting large body impact as the cause of the environmental stress producing the extinctions. It was argued on statistical ground that the major extinction events are uniformly periodic in geological time. If it is true that large body impact is a principal cause of mass extinctions and if the periodicity is real, than a cosmic driving mechanism is inescapable. Paleontological data sets were developed which detail the ranges in geological time of about 4,000 families and 25,000 genera of fossil marine organisms. Analyses to date have concentrated on the most recent 250 million years. Associated with these studies are analyses of other aspects of Earth history which may have signatures indicative of extraterrestrial effects.

  17. Comparing amber fossil assemblages across the Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, David; Langan, A Mark

    2006-06-22

    To justify faunistic comparisons of ambers that differ botanically, geographically and by age, we need to determine that resins sampled uniformly. Our pluralistic approach, analysing size distributions of 671 fossilized spider species from different behavioural guilds, demonstrates that ecological information about the communities of two well-studied ambers is retained. Several lines of evidence show that greater structural complexity of Baltic compared to Dominican amber trees explains the presence of larger web-spinners. No size differences occur in active hunters. Consequently, we demonstrate for the first time that resins were trapping organisms uniformly and that comparisons of amber palaeoecosystem structure across deep time are possible.

  18. Central heating: fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-05-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for fossil-fuel-fired steam boilers, hot-water generators, and thermal fluid generators currently available from manufacturers. Advanced-technology fluidized-bed boilers also are covered. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiencies, turndown capacity, and pollution requirements. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of both field-erected and packaged units. The information compiled in this evaluation will assist in the process of selecting energy-conversion units required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  19. Future requirements for fossil power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spliethoff H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing installation of technologies to convert renewable energy into power influences the operation of conventional power plants. New requirements on the technology, on the operation and on the economic have to be considered for already running and future power plants. Currently, first experiences with such a production and market situation are available. Technologies are discussed to store power and to reduce CO2 emissions. New compensation models are necessary to enable economic operation of fossil power plants in base load. This article gives a short review about available technologies and future challenges.

  20. Fossil Diatoms in a New Carbonaceous Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, J.; Wallis, D. H.; Samaranayake, Anil

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery for the first time of diatom frustules in a carbonaceous meteorite that fell in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka on 29 December 2012. Contamination is excluded by the circumstance that the elemental abundances within the structures match closely with those of the surrounding matrix. There is also evidence of structures morphologically similar to red rain cells that may have contributed to the episode of red rain that followed within days of the meteorite fall. The new data on "fossil" diatoms provide strong evidence to support the theory of cometary panspermia.

  1. Recent developments in biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Feng, Jinhui; Yu, Bo; Li, Fuli; Ma, Cuiqing

    2009-01-01

    The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

  2. Can 3-D models explain the observed fractions of fossil and non-fossil carbon in and near Mexico City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fCNF, which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fCM due to the elevated 14C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fCM and the available source information. The fCNF contained in PM1 total carbon (fCNFTC ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 at the downtown location (T0, and from 0.50 to 0.86 at the suburban site T1. Substantially lower values (i.e. 0.24–0.49 were found for PM10 filters at T0 by an independent set of measurements, which are inconsistent with the modeled and known differences between the size ranges, suggesting higher than expected uncertainties in the measurement techniques of 14C. An increase in the non-fossil organic carbon (OC fraction (fCNFOC by 0.10–0.15 was observed for both sets of filters during periods with enhanced wildfire activity in comparison to periods when fires were suppressed by rain, which is consistent with the wildfire impacts estimated with other methods. Model results show that the relatively high fraction of non-fossil carbon found in Mexico City seems to arise from the combination of regional biogenic SOA, biomass burning OA, as well as non-fossil urban OA. Similar spatial and temporal variations for fCNFOC are predicted between the urban vs. suburban sites, and high

  3. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-07-01

    Pines comprise one of the largest coniferous genera, are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and have an abundant fossil record. Distributions of fossils have been used to derive a three-step hypothesis of early pine evolution, which postulates a Mesozoic origin for the genus, east-west expansions across Laurasia, and retraction into Eocene refugia. Here, we present phylogenetic tests of this hypothesis using chloroplast sequence data from four loci for 83 pine species. We used the fossil-based hypothesis to derive null expectations concerning monophyly of taxonomic groups, dates of cladogenesis, and patterns of diversification. Phylogenetic analyses using several algorithms subsequently provided rigorous tests of these expectations. Our inferred phylogenies illustrated broad congruence with taxonomic groups, but highlighted consistent problems within subgenus Strobus. Estimated minimum dates of divergence derived from relaxed clock methods were largely consistent with the fossil record and yielded a date for the ingroup node of Pinus of 128+/-4 mya, depending upon the calibration used for subgenus Pinus. Ancestral area reconstructions showed Pinus to have most likely originated in Eurasia. Major clades differed in biogeographic patterns, but were consistent with the fossil-based hypothesis. We found weak support, however, for a change in diversification rate in the Eocene as interpretations of fossil distributions would have predicted.

  4. Earth's early fossil record: Why not look for similar fossils on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awramik, Stanley M.

    1989-01-01

    The oldest evidence of life on Earth is discussed with attention being given to the structure and formation of stromatolites and microfossils. Fossilization of microbes in calcium carbonate or chert media is discussed. In searching for fossil remains on Mars, some lessons learned from the study of Earth's earliest fossil record can be applied. Certain sedimentary rock types and sedimentary rock configurations should be targeted for investigation and returned by the Martian rover and ultimately by human explorers. Domical, columnar to wavy laminated stratiform sedimentary rocks that resemble stromatolites should be actively sought. Limestone, other carbonates, and chert are the favored lithology. Being macroscopic, stromatolites might be recognized by an intelligent unmanned rover. In addition, black, waxy chert with conchoidal fracture should be sought. Chert is by far the preferred lithology for the preservation of microbes and chemical fossils. Even under optimal geological conditions (little or no metamorphism or tectonic alteration, excellent outcrops, and good black chert) and using experienced field biogeologists, the chances of finding well preserved microbial remains in chert are very low.

  5. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: generic structures of the FOSSIL2 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. In Volume I, an overview of the basic structures, assumptions, and behavior of the FOSSIL2 model is presented so that the reader can understand the results of various policy tests. The discussion covers the three major building blocks, or generic structures, used to construct the model: supply/demand balance; finance and capital formation; and energy production. These structures reflect the components and interactions of the major processes within each energy industry that directly affect the dynamics of fuel supply, demand, and price within the energy system as a whole.

  6. A Partial Skeleton of the Fossil Great Ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Feu and the Mosaic Evolution of Crown-Hominoid Positional Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    David M Alba; Sergio Almécija; Isaac Casanovas-Vilar; Josep M Méndez; Salvador Moyà-Solà

    2012-01-01

    The extinct dryopithecine Hispanopithecus (Primates: Hominidae), from the Late Miocene of Europe, is the oldest fossil great ape displaying an orthograde body plan coupled with unambiguous suspensory adaptations. On the basis of hand morphology, Hispanopithecus laietanus has been considered to primitively retain adaptations to above-branch quadrupedalism-thus displaying a locomotor repertoire unknown among extant or fossil hominoids, which has been considered unlikely by some researchers. Her...

  7. Simple equations to predict concentric lower-body muscle power in older adults using the 30-second chair-rise test: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley N Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wesley N Smith1, Gianluca Del Rossi1, Jessica B Adams1, KZ Abderlarahman2, Shihab A Asfour2, Bernard A Roos1,3,4,5, Joseph F Signorile1,31Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences,2Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 3Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Bruce W Carter Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 5Stein Gerontological Institute, Miami Jewish Health Systems, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Although muscle power is an important factor affecting independence in older adults, there is no inexpensive or convenient test to quantify power in this population. Therefore, this pilot study examined whether regression equations for evaluating muscle power in older adults could be derived from a simple chair-rise test. We collected data from a 30-second chair-rise test performed by fourteen older adults (76 ± 7.19 years. Average (AP and peak (PP power values were computed using data from force-platform and high-speed motion analyses. Using each participant’s body mass and the number of chair rises performed during the first 20 seconds of the 30-second trial, we developed multivariate linear regression equations to predict AP and PP. The values computed using these equations showed a significant linear correlation with the values derived from our force-platform and high-speed motion analyses (AP: R = 0.89; PP: R = 0.90; P < 0.01. Our results indicate that lower-body muscle power in fit older adults can be accurately evaluated using the data from the initial 20 seconds of a simple 30-second chair-rise test, which requires no special equipment, preparation, or setting.Keywords: instrumental activity of daily living, clinical test, elderly, chair-stand test, leg power

  8. Use pattern of pesticides and their predicted mobility into shallow groundwater and surface water bodies of paddy lands in Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinna, Piyal; Priyantha, Namal; Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Yatigammana, Sudharma K

    2017-01-02

    Pesticides applied on agricultural lands reach groundwater by leaching, and move to offsite water bodies by direct runoff, erosion and spray drift. Therefore, an assessment of the mobility of pesticides in water resources is important to safeguard such resources. Mobility of pesticides on agricultural lands of Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka has not been reported to date. In this context, the mobility potential of 32 pesticides on surface water and groundwater was assessed by widely used pesticide risk indicators, such as Attenuation Factor (AF) index and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) with some modifications. Four surface water bodies having greater than 20% land use of the catchment under agriculture, and shallow groundwater table at 3.0 m depth were selected for the risk assessment. According to AF, carbofuran, quinclorac and thiamethoxam are three most leachable pesticides having AF values 1.44 × 10(-2), 1.87 × 10(-3) and 5.70 × 10(-4), respectively. Using PIRI, offsite movement of pesticides by direct runoff was found to be greater than with the erosion of soil particles for the study area. Carbofuran and quinclorac are most mobile pesticides by direct runoff with runoff fractions of 0.01 and 0.08, respectively, at the studied area. Thiamethoxam and novaluron are the most mobile pesticides by erosion with erosion factions of 1.02 × 10(-4) and 1.05 × 10(-4), respectively. Expected pesticide residue levels in both surface and groundwater were predicted to remain below the USEPA health advisory levels, except for carbofuran, indicating that pesticide pollution is unlikely to exceed the available health guidelines in the Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

  9. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, David; Eby, Michael; Brovkin, Victor; Ridgwell, Andy; Cao, Long; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Caldeira, Ken; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Munhoven, Guy; Montenegro, Alvaro; Tokos, Kathy

    2009-05-01

    CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere on timescales of a few centuries. However, a sizeable fraction of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere, awaiting a return to the solid earth by much slower weathering processes and deposition of CaCO3. Common measures of the atmospheric lifetime of CO2, including the e-folding time scale, disregard the long tail. Its neglect in the calculation of global warming potentials leads many to underestimate the longevity of anthropogenic global warming. Here, we review the past literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial results from a model intercomparison project on this topic. The models agree that 20-35% of the CO2 remains in the atmosphere after equilibration with the ocean (2-20 centuries). Neutralization by CaCO3 draws the airborne fraction down further on timescales of 3 to 7 kyr.

  10. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Cladistics and the hominid fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, E

    1990-09-01

    Cladistic methodology has become common in phylogenetic analyses of the hominid fossil record. Even though it has correctly placed emphasis on morphology for the primary determination of affinities between groups and on explicit statements regarding traits and methods employed in making phylogenetic assessments, cladistics nonetheless has limitations when applied to the hominid fossil record. These include 1) the uncritical assumption of parsimony, 2) uncertainties in the identification of homoplasies, 3) difficulties in the appropriate delimitation of samples for analysis, 4) failure to account for normal patterns of variation, 5) methodological problems with the appropriate identification of morphological traits involving issues of biological relevance, intercorrelation, primary versus secondary characters, and the use of continuous variables, 6) issues of polarity identification, and 7) problems in hypothesis testing. While cladistics has focused attention on alternative phylogenetic reconstructions in hominid paleontology and on explicit statements regarding their morphological and methodological underpinnings, its biological limitations are too abundant for it to be more than a heuristic device for the preliminary ordering of complex human paleontological and neonatological data.

  12. A Study of Interlanguage Fossilization in College Students' English writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹

    2014-01-01

    English writing is the college students’synthetical application about the knowledge of English. English writing, how-ever, is the weak segment of the college students' English learning all the time. Based on the researches home and abroad, the pa-per makes an implicational study on interlanguage fossilization in English writing of Chinese college students. Though probing the causes of fossilization in English writing, the paper proposes some measures to reduce the fossilization. In the chapter one, the paper introduces simply the interlanguage fossilization. In the chapter two, the paper analyzes college students English writing and get the causal factors of fossilization:unfavorite learning motivation of students, ineffective feedback to errors, interference of the mother tongue. Then , at the last chapter, the paper put up some measures to overcome and avoid the fossilization in college stu-dents' English writing:promoting students' motivation, providing right feedback, avoiding mother tongue interference.

  13. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  14. Sustainability of fossil fuels and alternative energies for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1989-01-01

    Reserves and production of fossil fuels in Turkey are discussed, as well as projections of production rates to the year 2010. Sustainability of fossil-fuel production has been estimated on the basis of presently known data. Fossil fuels will have a very limited lifetime. Bitumens, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind power, biomass, and nuclear energy are appropriate alternative technologies. The potentials of these alternatives are given and recommendations made to enhance their contributions. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. The First Galaxies and the Likely Discovery of Their Fossils in the Local Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ricotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower bound for the mass of a galaxy is unknown, as are the typical luminosity of the smallest galaxies and their numbers. The answers depend on the extent to which star formation in the first population of small mass halos may be suppressed by radiative feedback loops. If early populations of dwarf galaxies did form in significant number before reionization, their “fossils” should be found today in the Local Group. This paper reviews our ongoing efforts to simulate and identify fossil dwarfs in the Local Group. It is widely believed that reionization stopped star formation in fossil dwarfs. However, here we dispute this idea and discuss a physical mechanism whereby recent episodes of star formation would be produced in some fossil dwarfs that, hence, may characterized by a bimodal star formation history. The same mechanism could turn dark halos that failed to form stars before reionization into gas-rich “dark galaxies”. We believe that current observational data supports the thesis that a fraction of the new ultra-faint dwarfs discovered in the Local Group are fossil dwarfs and we predict the existence of a population of ultra-faint dwarfs with lower surface brightness than currently observed.

  16. Hierarchical random walks in trace fossils and the origin of optimal search behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Reynolds, Andrew M; Humphries, Nicolas E; Southall, Emily J; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Metcalfe, Brett; Twitchett, Richard J

    2014-07-29

    Efficient searching is crucial for timely location of food and other resources. Recent studies show that diverse living animals use a theoretically optimal scale-free random search for sparse resources known as a Lévy walk, but little is known of the origins and evolution of foraging behavior and the search strategies of extinct organisms. Here, using simulations of self-avoiding trace fossil trails, we show that randomly introduced strophotaxis (U-turns)--initiated by obstructions such as self-trail avoidance or innate cueing--leads to random looping patterns with clustering across increasing scales that is consistent with the presence of Lévy walks. This predicts that optimal Lévy searches may emerge from simple behaviors observed in fossil trails. We then analyzed fossilized trails of benthic marine organisms by using a novel path analysis technique and find the first evidence, to our knowledge, of Lévy-like search strategies in extinct animals. Our results show that simple search behaviors of extinct animals in heterogeneous environments give rise to hierarchically nested Brownian walk clusters that converge to optimal Lévy patterns. Primary productivity collapse and large-scale food scarcity characterizing mass extinctions evident in the fossil record may have triggered adaptation of optimal Lévy-like searches. The findings suggest that Lévy-like behavior has been used by foragers since at least the Eocene but may have a more ancient origin, which might explain recent widespread observations of such patterns among modern taxa.

  17. Insulin resistance and inflammation predict kinetic body weight changes in response to dietary weight loss and maintenance in overweight and obese subjects by using a Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Chun; Wuillemin, Pierre-Henri; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Gougis, Sophie; Fellahi, Soraya; Darakhshan, Froogh; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Doré, Joël; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine; Rizkalla, Salwa

    2013-12-01

    The ability to identify obese subjects who will lose weight in response to energy restriction is an important strategy in obesity treatment. We aimed to identify obese subjects who would lose weight and maintain weight loss through 6 wk of energy restriction and 6 wk of weight maintenance. Fifty obese or overweight subjects underwent a 6-wk energy-restricted, high-protein diet followed by another 6 wk of weight maintenance. Network modeling by using combined biological, gut microbiota, and environmental factors was performed to identify predictors of weight trajectories. On the basis of body weight trajectories, 3 subject clusters were identified. Clusters A and B lost more weight during energy restriction. During the stabilization phase, cluster A continued to lose weight, whereas cluster B remained stable. Cluster C lost less and rapidly regained weight during the stabilization period. At baseline, cluster C had the highest plasma insulin, interleukin (IL)-6, adipose tissue inflammation (HAM56+ cells), and Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococcus numbers in fecal samples. Weight regain after energy restriction correlated positively with insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: r = 0.5, P = 0.0002) and inflammatory markers (IL-6; r = 0.43, P = 0.002) at baseline. The Bayesian network identified plasma insulin, IL-6, leukocyte number, and adipose tissue (HAM56) at baseline as predictors that were sufficient to characterize the 3 clusters. The prediction accuracy reached 75.5%. The resistance to weight loss and proneness to weight regain could be predicted by the combination of high plasma insulin and inflammatory markers before dietary intervention.

  18. The risk of thrombo-embolic events is increased in patients with germ-cell tumours and can be predicted by serum lactate dehydrogenase and body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, A-C; Fléchon, A; Laplanche, A; Nouyrigat, E; Droz, J-P; Théodore, C; Fizazi, K

    2005-10-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of thrombo-embolic events (TEE) in patients with germ-cell tumours (GCT) who receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, to compare this risk to that of a matched control group of non-GCT cancer patients, and to identify risk factors of TEE. The rate of TEE during the 6 months following the initiation of chemotherapy was assessed in 100 consecutive patients with GCT and in 100 controls with various neoplasms who were matched on sex and age, and who received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy during the same period of time at Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. Data were subsequently tested on a validation group of 77 GCT patients treated in Lyon, France. A total of 19 patients (19%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 13-28) and six patients (6%) (95% CI: 3-13) had a TEE in the GCT group and the non-GCT control group, respectively (relative risk (RR): 3.4; P1.9 m2) (RR: 5 (1.8-13.9)) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (RR: 6.4 (2.3-18.2)). Patients with no risk factor (n=26) and those with at least one risk factor (n=71) had a probability of having a TEE of 4% (95% CI: 1-19) and 26% (95% CI: 17-37), respectively. In the GCT validation set, 10 (13%) patients had a TEE; patients with no risk factor and those with at least one risk factor had a probability of having a TEE of 0 and 17% (95% CI: 10-29), respectively. Patients with GCT are at a higher risk for TEE than patients with non-GCT cancer while on cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This risk can be accurately predicted by serum LDH and body surface area. This predictive index may help to study prospectively the impact of thromboprophylaxis in GCT patients.

  19. Using machine learning to predict radiation pneumonitis in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gilmer; Solberg, Timothy D.; Heskel, Marina; Ungar, Lyle; Simone, Charles B., II

    2016-08-01

    To develop a patient-specific ‘big data’ clinical decision tool to predict pneumonitis in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). 61 features were recorded for 201 consecutive patients with stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT, in whom 8 (4.0%) developed radiation pneumonitis. Pneumonitis thresholds were found for each feature individually using decision stumps. The performance of three different algorithms (Decision Trees, Random Forests, RUSBoost) was evaluated. Learning curves were developed and the training error analyzed and compared to the testing error in order to evaluate the factors needed to obtain a cross-validated error smaller than 0.1. These included the addition of new features, increasing the complexity of the algorithm and enlarging the sample size and number of events. In the univariate analysis, the most important feature selected was the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO adj%). On multivariate analysis, the three most important features selected were the dose to 15 cc of the heart, dose to 4 cc of the trachea or bronchus, and race. Higher accuracy could be achieved if the RUSBoost algorithm was used with regularization. To predict radiation pneumonitis within an error smaller than 10%, we estimate that a sample size of 800 patients is required. Clinically relevant thresholds that put patients at risk of developing radiation pneumonitis were determined in a cohort of 201 stage I NSCLC patients treated with SBRT. The consistency of these thresholds can provide radiation oncologists with an estimate of their reliability and may inform treatment planning and patient counseling. The accuracy of the classification is limited by the number of patients in the study and not by the features gathered or the complexity of the algorithm.

  20. Increasing body mass index predicts increasing difficulty, failure rate, and time to discovery of failure of epidural anesthesia in laboring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Ayse O; Riess, Matthias L; Ellinas, Elizabeth H

    2017-02-01

    Obese parturients both greatly benefit from neuraxial techniques, and may represent a technical challenge to obstetric anesthesiologists. Several studies address the topic of obesity and neuraxial analgesia in general, but few offer well described definitions or rates of "difficulty" and "failure" of labor epidural analgesia. Providing those definitions, we hypothesized that increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative outcomes in both categories and increased time needed for epidural placement. Single center retrospective chart review. Labor and Delivery Unit of an inner city academic teaching hospital. 2485 parturients, ASA status 2 to 4, receiving labor epidural analgesia for anticipated vaginal delivery. None. We reviewed quality assurance and anesthesia records over a 12-month period. "Failure" was defined as either inadequate analgesia or a positive test dose, requiring replacement, and/or when the anesthesia record stated they failed. "Difficulty" was defined as six or more needle redirections or a note indicating difficulty in the anesthesia record. Overall epidural failure and difficulty rates were 4.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Patients with a BMI of 30kg/m(2) or higher had a higher chance of both failure and difficulty with two and almost three fold increases, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that failure was best predicted by BMI and less provider training while difficulty was best predicted by BMI. Additionally, increased BMI was associated with increased time of discovery of epidural catheter failure. Obesity is associated with increasing technical difficulty and failure of neuraxial analgesia for labor. Practitioners should consider allotting extra time for obese parturients in order to manage potential problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in body condition of hibernating bats support the thrifty female hypothesis and predict consequences for populations with white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A Jonasson

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is a new disease of bats that has devastated populations in eastern North America. Infection with the fungus, Geomyces destructans, is thought to increase the time bats spend out of torpor during hibernation, leading to starvation. Little is known about hibernation in healthy, free-ranging bats and more data are needed to help predict consequences of WNS. Trade-offs presumably exist between the energetic benefits and physiological/ecological costs of torpor, leading to the prediction that the relative importance of spring energy reserves should affect an individual's use of torpor and depletion of energy reserves during winter. Myotis lucifugus mate during fall and winter but females do not become pregnant until after spring emergence. Thus, female reproductive success depends on spring fat reserves while male reproductive success does not. Consequently, females should be "thrifty" in their use of fat compared to males. We measured body condition index (BCI; mass/forearm length of 432 M. lucifugus in Manitoba, Canada during the winter of 2009/2010. Bats were captured during the fall mating period (n = 200, early hibernation (n = 125, and late hibernation (n = 128. Adult females entered hibernation with greater fat reserves and consumed those reserves more slowly than adult males and young of the year. Consequently, adult females may be more likely than males or young of the year to survive the disruption of energy balance associated with WNS, although surviving females may not have sufficient reserves to support reproduction.

  2. NO{sub x} emission indices of subsonic wide-bodied jet aircraft at cruise altitude: In situ measurements and predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, P.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baughcum, S.L. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1996-10-01

    In situ measurements of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} volume mixing ratios have been carried out in the near field exhaust plumes of seven subsonic wide-bodied jet aircraft using the DLR research aircraft `Falcon`. For three additional aircraft only NO and CO{sub 2} was measured. Plume ages of 50 s to 150 s have been covered, with maximum observed exhaust gas enhancements of 319 ppbv and 51 ppmv for {Delta}[NO{sub x}] and {Delta}[CO{sub 2}], respectively, relative to ambient values. These measurements are used to derive NO{sub x} emission indices for seven of the individual aircraft/engine combinations. The NO{sub x} emission indices derived range from 12.3 g/kg to 30.4 g/kg. They are compared with predicted emission index values, calculated for the same aircraft engine and the actual conditions using two newly developed fuel flow correlation methods. The calculated emission indices were mostly within or close to the error limits of the measured values. On average, the predictions from both methods were 12% lower than the measured values, with an observed maximum deviation of 25%. The ratio {gamma}=[NO{sub 2}]/[NO{sub x}] found during the present measurements ranged from 0.06 to 0.11 for five daytime cases and was around 0.22 for two nighttime cases. By use of a simple box model of the plume chemistry and dilution these data were used to estimate the initial value {gamma}{sub 0} present at the engine exit plane. {gamma}{sub 0} values between 0 and 0.15 were found. These where applied to estimate the corresponding NO{sub 2} for the three cases where only NO was measured. (orig.)

  3. Investigating the cores of fossil systems with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Sanders, J S; Schellenberger, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cores of fossil galaxy groups and clusters (`fossil systems') using archival Chandra data for a sample of 17 fossil systems. We determined the cool-core fraction for fossils via three observable diagnostics, the central cooling time, cuspiness, and concentration parameter. We quantified the dynamical state of the fossils by the X-ray peak/brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the X-ray peak/emission weighted centre separations. We studied the X-ray emission coincident with the BCG to detect the presence of potential thermal coronae. A deprojection analysis was performed for z < 0.05 fossils to obtain cooling time and entropy profiles, and to resolve subtle temperature structures. We investigated the Lx-T relation for fossils from the 400d catalogue to see if the scaling relation deviates from that of other groups. Most fossils are identified as cool-core objects via at least two cool-core diagnostics. All fossils have their dominant elliptical galaxy within 50 kpc of the X-ray peak, and mo...

  4. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.

  5. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubcik, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Jandacka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.jandacka@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Kolkova, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [Research centre, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  6. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels