WorldWideScience

Sample records for fossil agn jets

  1. Fossil shell emission in dying radio loud AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, M.; Ito, H.; Kawakatu, N.; Orienti, M.; Nagai, H.; Wajima, K.; Itoh, R.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate shell emission associated with dying radio loud AGNs. First, based on our recent work by Ito et al. (2015), we describe the dynamical and spectral evolution of shells after stopping the jet energy injection. We find that the shell emission overwhelms that of the radio lobes soon after stopping the jet energy injection because fresh electrons are continuously supplied into the shell via the forward shock, while the radio lobes rapidly fade out without jet energy injection. We find that such fossil shells can be a new class of target sources for SKA telescope. Next, we apply the model to the nearby radio source 3C84. Then, we find that the fossil shell emission in 3C84 is less luminous in the radio band while it is bright in the TeV γ-ray band and can be detectable by CTA. Data from STELLA

  2. AGN feedback compared: jets versus radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielo, Salvatore; Bieri, Rebekka; Volonteri, Marta; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-06-01

    Feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is often divided into quasar and radio mode, powered by radiation or radio jets, respectively. Both are fundamental in galaxy evolution, especially in late-type galaxies, as shown by cosmological simulations and observations of jet-ISM (interstellar medium) interactions in these systems. We compare AGN feedback by radiation and by collimated jets through a suite of simulations, in which a central AGN interacts with a clumpy, fractal galactic disc. We test AGNs of 1043 and 1046 erg s-1, considering jets perpendicular or parallel to the disc. Mechanical jets drive the more powerful outflows, exhibiting stronger mass and momentum coupling with the dense gas, while radiation heats and rarefies the gas more. Radiation and perpendicular jets evolve to be quite similar in outflow properties and effect on the cold ISM, while inclined jets interact more efficiently with all the disc gas, removing the densest 20 {per cent} in 20 Myr, and thereby reducing the amount of cold gas available for star formation. All simulations show small-scale inflows of 0.01-0.1 M⊙ yr-1, which can easily reach down to the Bondi radius of the central supermassive black hole (especially for radiation and perpendicular jets), implying that AGNs modulate their own duty cycle in a feedback/feeding cycle.

  3. AGN Feedback Compared: Jets versus Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielo, Salvatore; Bieri, Rebekka; Volonteri, Marta; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-03-01

    Feedback by Active Galactic Nuclei is often divided into quasar and radio mode, powered by radiation or radio jets, respectively. Both are fundamental in galaxy evolution, especially in late-type galaxies, as shown by cosmological simulations and observations of jet-ISM interactions in these systems. We compare AGN feedback by radiation and by collimated jets through a suite of simulations, in which a central AGN interacts with a clumpy, fractal galactic disc. We test AGN of 1043 and 1046 erg/s, considering jets perpendicular or parallel to the disc. Mechanical jets drive the more powerful outflows, exhibiting stronger mass and momentum coupling with the dense gas, while radiation heats and rarifies the gas more. Radiation and perpendicular jets evolve to be quite similar in outflow properties and effect on the cold ISM, while inclined jets interact more efficiently with all the disc gas, removing the densest 20% in 20 Myr, and thereby reducing the amount of cold gas available for star formation. All simulations show small-scale inflows of 0.01 - 0.1 M⊙/yr, which can easily reach down to the Bondi radius of the central supermassive black hole (especially for radiation and perpendicular jets), implying that AGN modulate their own duty cycle in a feedback/feeding cycle.

  4. Studying AGN Jets At Extreme Angular Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    RadioAstron is a 10m antenna orbiting on the Russian Speckt-R spacecraft, launched in 2011. Performing radio interferometry with a global array of ground telescopes, it is providing record angular resolution. The Key Science Project on AGN polarization is exploiting it to study in great detail the configuration of magnetic fields in AGN jets, and understand their formation and collimation. To date, the project has already achieved the highest angular resolution image ever obtained in Astronomy, and detected brightness temperatures exceeding the ones predicted by theory of AGN.

  5. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  6. The jet of the Low Luminosity AGN of M81

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we summarize our main results of a big campaign of global VLBI observations of the AGN in M81 (M81* phase-referenced to the radio supernova SN 1993J. Thanks to the precise multi-epoch and multi-frequency astrometry, we have determined the normalized core-shift of the relativistic jet of M81* and estimated both the magnetic field and the particle density at the jet base. We have also found evidence of jet precession in M81* coming from the systematic time evolution of the jet orientation correlated with changes in the overall flux density.

  7. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Pushkarev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  8. Stochastic particle acceleration by plasma waves in AGN jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Colgate, S.A.; Miller, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The free energy stored in the stressed magnetic fields in AGN jets could be dissipated via generating turbulent plasma waves. The authors review several key wave-particle resonant interactions and point out the importance of a broad wave spectrum. Under several idealized assumptions, they show that the transit-time damping process can accelerate electrons to TeV energies in an AGN jet environment, and present a preliminary calculation on the evolution of plasma wave, electron, and photon distributions. The authors especially emphasize several open questions on particle acceleration by waves, and argue that a plausible scenario is to energize electrons out of the thermal background via transit-time damping and further accelerate them by the parallel propagating right-handed waves

  9. Polarization and Structure of Relativistic Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, M

    2004-01-01

    mildly relativistic jets, when a counter jet can be seen, the polarization of the counter jet is preferentially orthogonal to the axis, unless the jet is strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field in its rest frame. (6) For resolved jets, the polarization pattern is not symmetric with respect to jet axis. Under certain conditions, this can be used to deduce the direction of the spin of the central object (black hole or disk), whether it is aligned or anti-aligned with the jet axis. (7) In resolved ''cylindrical shell'' type jets, the central parts of the jet are polarized along the axis, while the outer parts are polarized orthogonal to it, in accordance with observations. We conclude that large-scale magnetic fields can explain the salient polarization properties of parsec-scale AGN jets. Since the typical degrees of polarization are (le) 15%, the emitting parts of the jets must have comparable rest-frame toroidal and poloidal fields. In this case, most relativistic jets are strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field component in the observer's frame, B φ /B z ∼ Λ. We also discuss the possibility that relativistic AGN jets may be electromagnetically (Poynting flux) dominated. In this case, dissipation of the toroidal magnetic field (and not fluid shocks) may be responsible for particle acceleration

  10. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L 1.4GHz > 10 23 W Hz –1 ) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  11. An Orientation-Based Unification of Young Jetted AGN: The Case of 3C 286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF), Merate (Italy); Foschini, Luigi; Caccianiga, Alessandro [Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF), Merate (Italy); Ciroi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Congiu, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF), Merate (Italy); Cracco, Valentina; Frezzato, Michele; La Mura, Giovanni; Rafanelli, Piero, E-mail: marco.berton@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2017-07-25

    In recent years, the old paradigm according to which only high-mass black holes can launch powerful relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) has begun to crumble. The discovery of γ-rays coming from narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), usually considered young and growing AGN harboring a central black hole with mass typically lower than 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, indicated that also these low-mass AGN can produce powerful relativistic jets. The search for parent population of γ-ray emitting NLS1s revealed their connection with compact steep-spectrum sources (CSS). In this proceeding we present a review of the current knowledge of these sources, we present the new important case of 3C 286, classified here for the fist time as NLS1, and we finally provide a tentative orientation based unification of NLS1s and CSS sources.

  12. An Orientation-Based Unification of Young Jetted AGN: The Case of 3C 286

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, Marco; Foschini, Luigi; Caccianiga, Alessandro; Ciroi, Stefano; Congiu, Enrico; Cracco, Valentina; Frezzato, Michele; La Mura, Giovanni; Rafanelli, Piero

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the old paradigm according to which only high-mass black holes can launch powerful relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) has begun to crumble. The discovery of γ-rays coming from narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), usually considered young and growing AGN harboring a central black hole with mass typically lower than 10 8 M ⊙ , indicated that also these low-mass AGN can produce powerful relativistic jets. The search for parent population of γ-ray emitting NLS1s revealed their connection with compact steep-spectrum sources (CSS). In this proceeding we present a review of the current knowledge of these sources, we present the new important case of 3C 286, classified here for the fist time as NLS1, and we finally provide a tentative orientation based unification of NLS1s and CSS sources.

  13. The Origin and Structure of the Magnetic Fields and Currents of AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gabuzda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews observational evidence obtained to date about the overall structure of the magnetic fields in the jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. Because they are sensitive to the line-of-sight magnetic-field component, Faraday rotation observations of AGN jets provide an effective tool for searching for toroidal jet magnetic fields, whose line-of-sight component changes systematically across the jet. Transverse Faraday rotation measure (RM gradients providing direct evidence for helical/toroidal magnetic fields have been reliably detected in nearly 40 AGN on parsec scales. Helical magnetic fields are believed to form due to the combined action of the rotation of the central black hole and accretion disk, and these observations demonstrate that at least some of this helical field survives to distances well beyond the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI core. Observations of reversals in the direction of the transverse RM gradients in a number of AGN provide evidence for a“return”magnetic field forming a nested helical-field structure with oppositely directed azimuthal components in the inner and outer regions of the helical magnetic field. The collected data now provide firm evidence for a predominance of inward jet currents on parsec scales and outward currents on scales greater than a few tens of parsecs. This suggests a global pattern of magnetic fields and currents with an inward current near the jet axis and an outward current farther from the jet axis, with these currents closing in the accretion disk and far out in the radio lobes, forming a self-consistent set of fields and currents together with the implied nested helical-field structure.

  14. RELATIVISTIC DOPPLER BEAMING AND MISALIGNMENTS IN AGN JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Radio maps of active galactic nuclei often show linear features, called jets, on both parsec and kiloparsec scales. These jets supposedly possess relativistic motion and are oriented close to the line of sight of the observer, and accordingly the relativistic Doppler beaming makes them look much brighter than they really are in their respective rest frames. The flux boosting due to the relativistic beaming is a very sensitive function of the jet orientation angle, as seen by the observer. Sometimes, large bends are seen in these jets, with misalignments being 90° or more, which might imply a change in the orientation angle that should cause a large change in the relativistic beaming factor. Hence, if relativistic beaming does play an important role in these jets such large bends should usually show high contrast in the brightness of the jets before and after the bend. It needs to be kept in mind that sometimes a small intrinsic change in the jet angle might appear as a much larger misalignment due to the effects of geometrical projection, especially when seen close to the line of sight. What really matters are the initial and final orientation angles of the jet with respect to the observer’s line of sight. Taking the geometrical projection effects properly into account, we calculate the consequences of the presumed relativistic beaming and demonstrate that there ought to be large brightness ratios in jets before and after the observed misalignments.

  15. Relativistic Doppler Beaming and Misalignments in AGN Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-08-01

    Radio maps of active galactic nuclei often show linear features, called jets, on both parsec and kiloparsec scales. These jets supposedly possess relativistic motion and are oriented close to the line of sight of the observer, and accordingly the relativistic Doppler beaming makes them look much brighter than they really are in their respective rest frames. The flux boosting due to the relativistic beaming is a very sensitive function of the jet orientation angle, as seen by the observer. Sometimes, large bends are seen in these jets, with misalignments being 90° or more, which might imply a change in the orientation angle that should cause a large change in the relativistic beaming factor. Hence, if relativistic beaming does play an important role in these jets such large bends should usually show high contrast in the brightness of the jets before and after the bend. It needs to be kept in mind that sometimes a small intrinsic change in the jet angle might appear as a much larger misalignment due to the effects of geometrical projection, especially when seen close to the line of sight. What really matters are the initial and final orientation angles of the jet with respect to the observer’s line of sight. Taking the geometrical projection effects properly into account, we calculate the consequences of the presumed relativistic beaming and demonstrate that there ought to be large brightness ratios in jets before and after the observed misalignments.

  16. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  17. CAUSE AND EFFECT OF FEEDBACK: MULTIPHASE GAS IN CLUSTER CORES HEATED BY AGN JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sharma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multiwavelength data indicate that the X-ray-emitting plasma in the cores of galaxy clusters is not cooling catastrophically. To a large extent, cooling is offset by heating due to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) via jets. The cool-core clusters, with cooler/denser plasmas, show multiphase gas and signs of some cooling in their cores. These observations suggest that the cool core is locally thermally unstable while maintaining global thermal equilibrium. Using high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations we study the formation of multiphase gas in cluster cores heated by collimated bipolar AGN jets. Our key conclusion is that spatially extended multiphase filaments form only when the instantaneous ratio of the thermal instability and free-fall timescales (t TI /t ff ) falls below a critical threshold of ≈10. When this happens, dense cold gas decouples from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) phase and generates inhomogeneous and spatially extended Hα filaments. These cold gas clumps and filaments 'rain' down onto the central regions of the core, forming a cold rotating torus and in part feeding the supermassive black hole. Consequently, the self-regulated feedback enhances AGN heating and the core returns to a higher entropy level with t TI /t ff > 10. Eventually, the core reaches quasi-stable global thermal equilibrium, and cold filaments condense out of the hot ICM whenever t TI /t ff ∼< 10. This occurs despite the fact that the energy from AGN jets is supplied to the core in a highly anisotropic fashion. The effective spatial redistribution of heat is enabled in part by the turbulent motions in the wake of freely falling cold filaments. Increased AGN activity can locally reverse the cold gas flow, launching cold filamentary gas away from the cluster center. Our criterion for the condensation of spatially extended cold gas is in agreement with observations and previous idealized simulations.

  18. Baldwin Effect and Additional BLR Component in AGN with Superluminal Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patiño-Álvarez, Víctor M.; Torrealba, Janet; Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Cruz-González, Irene [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Arshakian, Tigran [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Köln (Germany); Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Byurakan (Armenia); Isaac Newton Institute of Chile in Estern Europe and Eurasia, Armenian Branch, Santiago (Chile); León-Tavares, Jonathan [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Popović, Luka, E-mail: chavushyanv@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-06-02

    We study the Baldwin Effect (BE) in 96 core-jet blazars with optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data from a radio-loud AGN sample obtained from the MOJAVE 2 cm survey. A statistical analysis is presented of the equivalent widths (W{sub λ}) of emission lines Hβ λ4861, Mg II λ2798, C IV λ1549, and continuum luminosities at 5100 Å, 3000 Å, and 1350 Å. The BE is found statistically significant (with confidence level c.l.≥ 95%) in Hβ and C IV emission lines, while for Mg II the trend is slightly less significant (c.l. = 94.5%). The slopes of the BE in the studied samples for Hβ and Mg II are found steeper and with statistically significant difference than those of a comparison radio-quiet sample. We present simulations of the expected BE slopes produced by the contribution to the total continuum of the non-thermal boosted emission from the relativistic jet, and by variability of the continuum components. We find that the slopes of the BE between radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN should not be different, under the assumption that the broad line is only being emitted by the canonical broad line region around the black hole. We discuss that the BE slope steepening in radio AGN is due to a jet associated broad-line region.

  19. Baldwin Effect and Additional BLR Component in AGN with Superluminal Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Patiño Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the Baldwin Effect (BE in 96 core-jet blazars with optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data from a radio-loud AGN sample obtained from the MOJAVE 2cm survey. A statistical analysis is presented of the equivalent widths W_lambda of emission lines H beta 4861, Mg II 2798, C IV 1549, and continuum luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 angstroms. The BE is found statistically significant (with confidence level c.l. > 95% in H beta and C IV emission lines, while for Mg II the trend is slightly less significant (c.l. = 94.5%. The slopes of the BE in the studied samples for H beta and Mg II are found steeper and with statistically significant difference than those of a comparison radio-quiet sample. We present simulations of the expected BE slopes produced by the contribution to the total continuum of the non-thermal boosted emission from the relativistic jet, and by variability of the continuum components. We find that the slopes of the BE between radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN should not be different, under the assumption that the broad line is only being emitted by the canonical broad line region around the black hole. We discuss that the BE slope steepening in radio AGN is due to a jet associated broad-line region.

  20. Faraday rotation measures in 20 AGN jets at parsec scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Evgeniya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present multi wavelength parsec-scale Faraday rotation measure properties of twenty active galactic nuclei, observed with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneously at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz in the full polarization mode. For the observed sources we construct Faraday rotation measure and Faraday-corrected linear polarization maps. Direction of electrical field in the optically thick core regions confirms bimodal distribution. No significant changes of a Faraday rotation measure transverse to the jet direction are found in any of the observed sources. We propose a new magnetic field spatial geometry reconstruction method based on core shift measurements. This technique is applied to the quasar 1004+141. Results indicate an existence of a large scale poloidal magnetic field in the jet of 1004+141.

  1. Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Loud AGN: New Constraints on Jet-Disk Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita

    There is strong observational and theoretical evidence that outflows/jets are coupled to accretion disks in black hole accreting systems, from Galactic to extragalactic sizes. While in radio-quiet AGN there is ample evidence for the presence of Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) from the presence of blue-shifted absorption features in their 4-10~keV spectra, sub-relativistic winds are expected on theoretical basis in radio-loud AGN but have not been observed until now. Our recent Suzaku observations of 5 bright Broad- Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs, the radio-loud counterparts of Seyferts) has started to change this picture. We found strong evidence for UFOs in 3 out of 5 BLRGs, with ionization parameters, column densities, and velocities of the absorber similar to Seyferts. Moreover, the outflows in BLRGs are likely to be energetically very significant: from the Suzaku data of the three sources, outflow masses similar to the accretion masses and kinetic energies of the wind similar to the X-ray luminosity and radio power of the jet are inferred. Clearly, UFOs in radio-loud AGN represent a new key ingredient to understand their central engines and in particular, the jet-disk linkage. Our discovery of UFOs in a handful of BLRGs raises the questions of how common disk winds are in radio-loud AGN, what the absorber physical and dynamical characteristics are, and what is the outflow role in broader picture of galaxy-black hole connection for radio sources, i.e., for large-scale feedback models. To address these and other issues, we propose to use archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra to search for Ultra-Fast Outflows in a large number of radio sources. Over a period of two years, we will conduct a systematic, uniform analysis of the archival X-ray data, building on our extensive experience with a similar previous project for Seyferts, and using robust analysis and statistical methodologies. As an important side product, we will also obtain accurate, self- consistent measurements

  2. 18–22 cm VLBA Observational Evidence for Toroidal B-Field Components in Six AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Motter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of relativistic jets in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN is related to accretion onto their central supermassive black holes, and magnetic (B fields are believed to play a central role in launching, collimating, and accelerating the jet streams from very compact regions out to kiloparsec scales. We present results of Faraday rotation studies based on Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA data obtained at 18–22 cm for six well known AGN (OJ 287, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, 3C 345, BL Lac, and 3C 454.3, which probe projected distances out to tens of parsecs from the observed cores. We have identified statistically significant, monotonic, transverse Faraday rotation gradients across the jets of all but one of these sources, indicating the presence of toroidal B fields, which may be one component of helical B fields associated with these AGN jets.

  3. Jet launching radius in low-power radio-loud AGNs in advection-dominated accretion flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong; Newman, William; Edge, Brinkley

    2018-06-01

    Using our theory for the production of relativistic outflows, we estimate the jet launching radius and the inferred mass accretion rate for 52 low-power radio-loud AGNs based on the observed jet powers. Our analysis indicates that (1) a significant fraction of the accreted energy is required to convert the accreted mass to relativistic energy particles for the production of the jets near the event horizon, (2) the jet's launching radius moves radially towards the horizon as the mass accretion rate or jet's power increases, and (3) no jet/outflow formation is possible beyond 44 gravitational radii.

  4. Cause and Effect of Feedback: Multiphase Gas in Cluster Cores Heated by AGN Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, M.; Ruszkowski, M.; Sharma, P.

    2012-02-01

    Multiwavelength data indicate that the X-ray-emitting plasma in the cores of galaxy clusters is not cooling catastrophically. To a large extent, cooling is offset by heating due to active galactic nuclei (AGNs) via jets. The cool-core clusters, with cooler/denser plasmas, show multiphase gas and signs of some cooling in their cores. These observations suggest that the cool core is locally thermally unstable while maintaining global thermal equilibrium. Using high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations we study the formation of multiphase gas in cluster cores heated by collimated bipolar AGN jets. Our key conclusion is that spatially extended multiphase filaments form only when the instantaneous ratio of the thermal instability and free-fall timescales (t TI/t ff) falls below a critical threshold of ≈10. When this happens, dense cold gas decouples from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) phase and generates inhomogeneous and spatially extended Hα filaments. These cold gas clumps and filaments "rain" down onto the central regions of the core, forming a cold rotating torus and in part feeding the supermassive black hole. Consequently, the self-regulated feedback enhances AGN heating and the core returns to a higher entropy level with t TI/t ff > 10. Eventually, the core reaches quasi-stable global thermal equilibrium, and cold filaments condense out of the hot ICM whenever t TI/t ff fashion. The effective spatial redistribution of heat is enabled in part by the turbulent motions in the wake of freely falling cold filaments. Increased AGN activity can locally reverse the cold gas flow, launching cold filamentary gas away from the cluster center. Our criterion for the condensation of spatially extended cold gas is in agreement with observations and previous idealized simulations.

  5. Parsec-Scale Kinematic and Polarization Properties of MOJAVE AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parsec-scale kinematics and statistical polarization properties of 200 AGN jets based on 15 GHz VLBA data obtained between 1994 Aug 31 and 2011 May 1. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12 to 16 year interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ~ 0.5° to ~ 2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5 to 12 y, however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section, and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. The moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features, are slow (< 0.1 mas per y, are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying that the features have a range of Lorentz factor and/or pattern speed. Very slow pattern speed features are

  6. Helical Magnetic Fields in AGN Jets Y. J. Chen1,2,∗ , G.-Y. Zhao1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We establish a simple model to describe the helical mag- netic fields in AGN jets projected on the sky plane and the line-of-sight. This kind of profile has been detected in the polarimetric VLBI observa- tion of many blazar objects, suggesting the existence of helical magnetic fields in these sources. Key words.

  7. Particle content, radio-galaxy morphology, and jet power: all radio-loud AGN are not equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing and future radio surveys aim to trace the evolution of black hole growth and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) throughout cosmic time; however, there remain major uncertainties in translating radio luminosity functions into a reliable assessment of the energy input as a function of galaxy and/or dark matter halo mass. A crucial and long-standing problem is the composition of the radio-lobe plasma that traces AGN jet activity. In this paper, we carry out a systematic comparison of the plasma conditions in Fanaroff & Riley class I and II radio galaxies to demonstrate conclusively that their internal composition is systematically different. This difference is best explained by the presence of an energetically dominant proton population in the FRI, but not the FRII radio galaxies. We show that, as expected from this systematic difference in particle content, radio morphology also affects the jet-power/radio-luminosity relationship, with FRII radio galaxies having a significantly lower ratio of jet power to radio luminosity than the FRI cluster radio sources used to derive jet-power scaling relations via X-ray cavity measurements. Finally, we also demonstrate conclusively that lobe composition is unconnected to accretion mode (optical excitation class): the internal conditions of low- and high-excitation FRII radio lobes are indistinguishable. We conclude that inferences of population-wide AGN impact require careful assessment of the contribution of different jet subclasses, particularly given the increased diversity of jet evolutionary states expected to be present in deep, low-frequency radio surveys such as the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio-loud AGN with relativistic jets (Olguin-Iglesias+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin-Iglesias, A.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Anorve, C.; Valdes, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2017-11-01

    The sample of sources analysed in this work is a sub-sample of variable radio-loud AGN monitored at 7mm (S7mm>1Jy) with the Aalto University Metsahovi Radio Observatory, in Finland (http://metsahovi.aalto.fi/en/) since the last 30 years (Terasranta et al., 1992A&AS...94..121T; Teraesranta et al., 1998, Cat. J/A+AS/132/305; Leon-Tavares et al., 2011A&A...532A.146L; Nieppola et al., 2011, Cat. J/A+A/535/A69). According to the AGN unification scheme (Antonucci, 1993ARA&A..31..473A; Urry & Padovani, 1995PASP..107..803U), FSRQ and BL Lacs are those AGN whose relativistic jets point towards the Earth. Observations were made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at La Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Canarias, Spain. They were conducted between 2011 May 09 and September 15 using the near-infrared Camera (NOTCam)3 on the NOT. NOTcam field of view is 4'x4' with a pixel scale of 0.234-arcsec/pixel designed to be used in the range from 0.8 to 2.5um in the bands J, H and K. (1 data file).

  9. Neutron model for the formation of AGN jets with Cetral Radio Gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, there has been an attempt to explain the formation of jets in some radio sources with gaps at their centers using the neutron “production-to-decay” process. The jet-light-up point is taken to coincide with the end of the lifetime of the neutrons. Calculated intrinsic opening angles for the jets of the selected Active ...

  10. and Jet Power/Emission in AGNs Zhongzu Wu1,∗ , Minfeng Gu2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Neutral hydrogen (HI) 21-cm absorption has been detected against very powerful radio jets. In this paper, based on Gupta's sample. (Gupta et al. 2006), we present our preliminary study of the correlations between the HI column density N(HI) and the jet power, N(HI) versus the low frequency luminosity at 408 MHz, ...

  11. Particle Acceleration in Mildly Relativistic Shearing Flows: The Interplay of Systematic and Stochastic Effects, and the Origin of the Extended High-energy Emission in AGN Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Rieger, F. M.; Aharonian, F. A., E-mail: ruoyu@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: aharon@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    The origin of the extended X-ray emission in the large-scale jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) poses challenges to conventional models of acceleration and emission. Although electron synchrotron radiation is considered the most feasible radiation mechanism, the formation of the continuous large-scale X-ray structure remains an open issue. As astrophysical jets are expected to exhibit some turbulence and shearing motion, we here investigate the potential of shearing flows to facilitate an extended acceleration of particles and evaluate its impact on the resultant particle distribution. Our treatment incorporates systematic shear and stochastic second-order Fermi effects. We show that for typical parameters applicable to large-scale AGN jets, stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration, which always accompanies shear particle acceleration, can play an important role in facilitating the whole process of particle energization. We study the time-dependent evolution of the resultant particle distribution in the presence of second-order Fermi acceleration, shear acceleration, and synchrotron losses using a simple Fokker–Planck approach and provide illustrations for the possible emergence of a complex (multicomponent) particle energy distribution with different spectral branches. We present examples for typical parameters applicable to large-scale AGN jets, indicating the relevance of the underlying processes for understanding the extended X-ray emission and the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays.

  12. MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with VLBA Experiments. VIII. Faraday Rotation in Parsec-scale AGN Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas

    2012-10-01

    We report observations of Faraday rotation measures for a sample of 191 extragalactic radio jets observed within the MOJAVE program. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in 2006 at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec-scale Faraday rotation measures in 149 sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects. The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets. Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. We detect significant transverse rotation measure gradients in four sources (0923+392, 1226+023, 2230+114, and 2251+158). In 1226+023 the rotation measure is for the first time seen to change sign from positive to negative over the transverse cuts, which supports the presence of a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation. By comparing fractional polarization changes in jet components between the four frequency bands to depolarization models, we find that an external purely random Faraday screen viewed through only a few lines of sight can explain most of our polarization observations, but in some sources, such as 1226+023 and 2251+158, internal

  13. MOJAVE: MONITORING OF JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH VLBA EXPERIMENTS. VIII. FARADAY ROTATION IN PARSEC-SCALE AGN JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of Faraday rotation measures for a sample of 191 extragalactic radio jets observed within the MOJAVE program. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in 2006 at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec-scale Faraday rotation measures in 149 sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects. The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets. Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. We detect significant transverse rotation measure gradients in four sources (0923+392, 1226+023, 2230+114, and 2251+158). In 1226+023 the rotation measure is for the first time seen to change sign from positive to negative over the transverse cuts, which supports the presence of a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation. By comparing fractional polarization changes in jet components between the four frequency bands to depolarization models, we find that an external purely random Faraday screen viewed through only a few lines of sight can explain most of our polarization observations, but in some sources, such as 1226+023 and 2251+158, internal

  14. Faraday rotation in jets of AGN: the case of 3C 120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, José L; Roca-Sogorb, Mar; Agudo, Iván; Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G

    2012-01-01

    The source of Faraday rotation in the jet of the radio galaxy 3C 120 is analyzed through Very Long Baseline Array observations carried out between 1999 and 2007 at 15, 22 and 43 GHz. Uncorrelated changes in the linear polarization of the underlying jet emission and the Faraday rotation screen indicate that the emitting jet and the source of Faraday rotation are not closely connected physically and have different configurations for the magnetic field and/or kinematical properties. Furthermore, the existence of a region of enhanced rotation measure whose properties remain constant over three years requires a localized source of Faraday rotation, favoring a model in which a significant fraction of the rotation measure originates in foreground clouds.

  15. Feedback by AGN Jets and Wide-angle Winds on a Galactic Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the differences in mechanical feedback from radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei on the host galaxy, we perform 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations of wide-angle, radio-quiet winds with different inclinations on a single, massive, gas-rich disk galaxy at a redshift of 2–3. We compare our results to hydrodynamic simulations of the same galaxy but with a jet. The jet has an inclination of 0° (perpendicular to the galactic plane), and the winds have inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90°. We analyze the impact on the host’s gas, star formation, and circumgalactic medium. We find that jet feedback is energy-driven and wind feedback is momentum-driven. In all the simulations, the jet or wind creates a cavity mostly devoid of dense gas in the nuclear region where star formation is then quenched, but we find strong positive feedback in all the simulations at radii greater than 3 kpc. All four simulations have similar SFRs and stellar velocities with large radial and vertical components. However, the wind at an inclination of 90° creates the highest density regions through ram pressure and generates the highest rates of star formation due to its ongoing strong interaction with the dense gas of the galactic plane. With increased wind inclination, we find greater asymmetry in gas distribution and resulting star formation. Our model generates an expanding ring of triggered star formation with typical velocities of the order of 1/3 of the circular velocity, superimposed on the older stellar population. This should result in a potentially detectable blue asymmetry in stellar absorption features at kiloparsec scales.

  16. GLAST and AGN Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Luis C.

    2006-04-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope) is an instrument under construction to study the gamma-ray sky in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV with special interest in the previously unexplored region between a few GeV and a few hundred GeV. Among the high energy gamma-ray sources in the sky, the Blazar-class of AGNs are distinguished because of their brightness and very short term variability. GLAST's improved sensitivity with respect to previous missions will increase the number of known AGN gamma-ray sources from about 100 to thousands, with redshifts up to z>4. Science returns with GLAST include: examination of the blazar sequence model, test of leptonic and hadronic models for particle acceleration, physics of relativistic jets, and evolution of Blazar AGNs population with cosmic time. Special consideration will be given to the possibility of using the large size of the GLAST Blazar catalog to distinguish intrinsic spectra of AGNs from the redshift dependent effects of attenuation by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). A measured attenuation as a function of AGN redshift would constitute and effective and unique probe to the optical-UV EBL.

  17. Probing the innermost regions of AGN jets and their magnetic fields with RadioAstron. II. Observations of 3C 273 at minimum activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, G.; Gómez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-García, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.

    2017-08-01

    Context. RadioAstron is a 10 m orbiting radio telescope mounted on the Spektr-R satellite, launched in 2011, performing Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) observations supported by a global ground array of radio telescopes. With an apogee of 350 000 km, it is offering for the first time the possibility to perform μas-resolution imaging in the cm-band. Aims: The RadioAstron active galactic nuclei (AGN) polarization Key Science Project (KSP) aims at exploiting the unprecedented angular resolution provided by RadioAstron to study jet launching/collimation and magnetic-field configuration in AGN jets. The targets of our KSP are some of the most powerful blazars in the sky. Methods: We present observations at 22 GHz of 3C 273, performed in 2014, designed to reach a maximum baseline of approximately nine Earth diameters. Reaching an angular resolution of 0.3 mas, we study a particularly low-activity state of the source, and estimate the nuclear region brightness temperature, comparing with the extreme one detected one year before during the RadioAstron early science period. We also make use of the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR survey data, at 43 GHz, to study the kinematics of the jet in a 1.5-yr time window. Results: We find that the nuclear brightness temperature is two orders of magnitude lower than the exceptionally high value detected in 2013 with RadioAstron at the same frequency (1.4 × 1013 K, source-frame), and even one order of magnitude lower than the equipartition value. The kinematics analysis at 43 GHz shows that a new component was ejected 2 months after the 2013 epoch, visible also in our 22 GHz map presented here. Consequently this was located upstream of the core during the brightness temperature peak. Fermi-LAT observations for the period 2010-2014 do not show any γ-ray flare in conjunction with the passage of the new component by the core at 43 GHz. Conclusions: These observations confirm that the previously detected extreme brightness temperature in

  18. AN X-RAY VIEW OF THE JET CYCLE IN THE RADIO-LOUD AGN 3C120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Miller, Eric D.; Nowak, Michael A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo F.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Brenneman, Laura W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fabian, Andrew C., E-mail: alohfink@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of the central engine in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C120 using a multi-epoch analysis of a deep XMM-Newton observation and two deep Suzaku pointings (in 2012). In order to place our spectral data into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we monitor the source in the UV/X-ray bands, and in the radio band. We find three statistically acceptable spectral models: a disk-reflection model, a jet model, and a jet+disk model. Despite being good descriptions of the data, the disk-reflection model violates the radio constraints on the inclination, and the jet model has a fine-tuning problem, requiring a jet contribution exceeding that expected. Thus, we argue for a composite jet+disk model. Within the context of this model, we verify the basic predictions of the jet-cycle paradigm, finding a truncated/refilling disk during the Suzaku observations and a complete disk extending down to the innermost stable circular orbit during the XMM-Newton observation. The idea of a refilling disk is further supported by the detection of the ejection of a new jet knot approximately one month after the Suzaku pointings. We also discover a step-like event in one of the Suzaku pointings in which the soft band lags the hard band. We suggest that we are witnessing the propagation of a disturbance from the disk into the jet on a timescale set by the magnetic field.

  19. HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS PRODUCED IN THE ACCRETION DISKS BY NEUTRONS FROM NUCLEI DISINTEGRATED IN THE AGN JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarek, W., E-mail: bednar@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Astrophysics, The University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, ul. Pomorska 149/153 (Poland)

    2016-12-20

    We investigate the consequences of acceleration of nuclei in jets of active galaxies not far from the surface of an accretion disk. The nuclei can be accelerated in the re-connection regions in the jet and/or at the jet boundary, between the relativistic jet and its cocoon. It is shown that the relativistic nuclei can efficiently fragment onto specific nucleons in collisions with the disk radiation. Neutrons, directed toward the accretion disk, take a significant part of energy from the relativistic nuclei. These neutrons develop a cascade in the dense accretion disk. We calculate the neutrino spectra produced in such a hadronic cascade within the accretion disk. We propose that the neutrinos produced in such a scenario, from the whole population of super-massive black holes in active galaxies, can explain the extragalactic neutrino background recently measured by the IceCube neutrino detector, provided that a 5% fraction of galaxies have an active galactic nucleus and a few percent of neutrons reach the accretion disk. We predict that the neutrino signals in the present neutrino detectors, produced in terms of such a model, will not be detectable even from the nearby radio galaxies similar to M87.

  20. COST meeting - Polarization and AGN II - Abstracts and slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, M.; Rouan, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Lopez Rodriguez, E.; Braibant, L.; Pasetto, A.; Matt, G.; Afanasiev, V.; Lira, P.; Hutsemekers, D.; Sluse, D.; Marin, F.; Tamborra, F.; Yankova, K.; Laing, R.; Lico, R.; Agudo, I.; Hovatta, T.; Jermak, H.; Chen, X.; Myserlis, I.; Cellone, S.A.; Chidiac, C.; Chakraborty, N.; Bozhilov, V.

    2016-01-01

    This meeting is the 2. COST workshop on Polarization and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Accreting supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lasting sources in the universe. Emitting over ten orders of magnitude in photon energy or more, the radiation of AGN encodes information about a multitude of astrophysical processes: accretion, thermal and non-thermal radiative transfer, acceleration of outflows and jets, shock physics, special and general relativity. Observationally, AGN appear as numerous types and polarization studies have played a key role in establishing the idea of a unifying AGN geometry. The topics covered at the meeting include the following: 1) Polarimetry of AGN from the radio to gamma-rays; 2) Tools for modeling and data analysis of AGN polarization; 3) Polarization due to magnetic fields and dust in AGN; 4) Polarization of AGN inflows, outflows and jets; 5) Spectropolarimetry and polarization variability of AGN; and 6) From Sgr A* to the most luminous quasars: what can polarimetry do for AGN (super-)unification? This document is made up of the abstracts and slides of the presentations

  1. Observational Signatures Of Agn Feedback Across Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika

    2017-06-01

    While many compelling models of AGN feedback exist, there is no clear data-driven picture of how winds are launched, how they propagate through the galaxy and what impact they have on the galactic gas. Recent work suggests that AGN luminosity plays an important role. The following described projects focus on understanding the power, reach and impact of feedback processes exerted by AGN of different power. I first describe recent efforts in our group of relating feedback signatures in powerful quasars to the specific star formation rate in their host galaxies, where our results are consistent with the AGN having a `negative' impact through feedback on the galaxies' star formation history. Feedback signatures seem to be best observable in gas-rich galaxies where the coupling of the AGN-driven wind to the gas is strongest, in agreement with recent simulations. But how and where does this quenching happen? Is it accomplished through the mechanical action of jets or through nuclear winds driven by radiation pressure? Finally, I show that AGN signatures and AGN-driven winds can be easily hidden and not be apparent in the integrated spectrum of a galaxy hosting a low/intermediate-luminosity AGN. Using data from the new SDSS-IV MaNGA survey, we have developed a new AGN selection algorithm tailored to IFU data and we are uncovering a much more nuanced picture of AGN activity allowing us to discover AGN signatures at large distances from the galaxy center. This implies that large IFU surveys, such as the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey, might uncover many previously unknown AGN and feedback signatures related to them. Outflows and feedback from low- and intermediate-luminosity AGN might have been underestimated in the past but can potentially significantly contribute to the AGN/host-galaxy self-regulation.

  2. The Many Routes to AGN Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganti, Raffaella, E-mail: morganti@astron.nl [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-11-29

    The energy released by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the form of radiation, winds, or radio plasma jets, is known to impact on the surrounding interstellar medium. The result of these processes, known as AGN (negative) feedback, is suggested to prevent gas, in and around galaxies, from cooling, and to remove, or at least redistribute, gas by driving massive and fast outflows, hence playing a key role in galaxy evolution. Given its importance, a large effort is devoted by the astronomical community to trace the effects of AGN on the surrounding gaseous medium and to quantify their impact for different types of AGN. This review briefly summarizes some of the recent observational results obtained in different wavebands, tracing different phases of the gas. I also summarize the new insights they have brought, and the constraints they provide to numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. The recent addition of deep observations of cold gas and, in particular, of cold molecular gas, has brought some interesting surprises and has expanded our understanding of AGN and AGN feedback.

  3. The many routes to AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    2017-11-01

    The energy released by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the form of radiation, winds or radio plasma jets, is known to impact on the surrounding interstellar medium. The result of these processes, known as AGN (negative) feedback, is suggested to prevent gas, in and around galaxies, from cooling, and to remove, or at least redistribute, gas by driving massive and fast outflows, hence playing a key role in galaxy evolution. Given its importance, a large effort is devoted by the astronomical community to trace the effects of AGN on the surrounding gaseous medium and to quantify their impact for different types of AGN. This review briefly summarizes some of the recent observational results obtained in different wavebands, tracing different phases of the gas. I also summarise new insights they have brought, and the constraints they provide to numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. The recent addition of deep observations of cold gas and, in particular, of cold molecular gas, has brought some interesting surprises and has expanded our understanding of AGN and AGN feedback.

  4. Satellites of radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into agn triggering and feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail: cjpace@indiana.edu, E-mail: salims@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Department of Astronomy, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best and Heckman from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members, and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17σ significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via tidal effects or may otherwise enhance the intensity or duration of the radio-emitting phase. Furthermore, we find that the incidence of radio AGNs among potential hosts (massive ellipticals) is similar for field galaxies and for non-BCG cluster members, suggesting that AGN fueling depends primarily on conditions in the host halo rather than the parent, cluster halo. Regarding feedback, we find that radio AGNs, either high or low excitation, have no detectable effect on star formation in their satellites, as neither induced star formation nor star formation quenching is present in more than ∼1% of radio AGN.

  5. Satellites of radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into agn triggering and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best and Heckman from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members, and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17σ significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via tidal effects or may otherwise enhance the intensity or duration of the radio-emitting phase. Furthermore, we find that the incidence of radio AGNs among potential hosts (massive ellipticals) is similar for field galaxies and for non-BCG cluster members, suggesting that AGN fueling depends primarily on conditions in the host halo rather than the parent, cluster halo. Regarding feedback, we find that radio AGNs, either high or low excitation, have no detectable effect on star formation in their satellites, as neither induced star formation nor star formation quenching is present in more than ∼1% of radio AGN.

  6. Can CMB Surveys Help the AGN Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Partridge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary projects to measure anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB are now detecting hundreds to thousands of extragalactic radio sources, most of them blazars. As a member of a group of CMB scientists involved in the construction of catalogues of such sources and their analysis, I wish to point out the potential value of CMB surveys to studies of AGN jets and their polarization. Current CMB projects, for instance, reach mJy sensitivity, offer wide sky coverage, are “blind” and generally of uniform sensitivity across the sky (hence useful statistically, make essentially simultaneous multi-frequency observations at frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz, routinely offer repeated observations of sources with interesting cadences and now generally provide polarization measurements. The aim here is not to analyze in any depth the AGN science already derived from such projects, but rather to heighten awareness of their promise for the AGN community.

  7. Probing the Innermost Regions of AGN Jets and Their Magnetic Fields with RadioAstron. I. Imaging BL Lacertae at 21 Microarcsecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José L.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Bruni, Gabriele; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Bach, Uwe; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Anderson, James M.; Galindo, Pablo; Kardashev, Nikolay S.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first polarimetric space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging observations at 22 GHz. BL Lacertae was observed in 2013 November 10 with the RadioAstron space VLBI mission, including a ground array of 15 radio telescopes. The instrumental polarization of the space radio telescope is found to be less than 9%, demonstrating the polarimetric imaging capabilities of RadioAstron at 22 GHz. Ground-space fringes were obtained up to a projected baseline distance of 7.9 Earth diameters in length, allowing us to image the jet in BL Lacertae with a maximum angular resolution of 21 μas, the highest achieved to date. We find evidence for emission upstream of the radio core, which may correspond to a recollimation shock at about 40 μas from the jet apex, in a pattern that includes other recollimation shocks at approximately 100 and 250 μas from the jet apex. Polarized emission is detected in two components within the innermost 0.5 mas from the core, as well as in some knots 3 mas downstream. Faraday rotation analysis, obtained from combining RadioAstron 22 GHz and ground-based 15 and 43 GHz images, shows a gradient in rotation measure and Faraday-corrected polarization vector as a function of position angle with respect to the core, suggesting that the jet in BL Lacertae is threaded by a helical magnetic field. The intrinsic de-boosted brightness temperature in the unresolved core exceeds 3× {10}12 K, suggesting, at the very least, departure from equipartition of energy between the magnetic field and radiating particles.

  8. Imaging AGN Feedback in NGC 3393 with CHEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Alessandro; Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2016-04-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission-line Region Survey (CHEERS) is the 'ultimate' resolution X-ray imaging survey of nearby far-IR selected AGN. By comparing deep Chandra observations with complementary HST and radio data, we investigate the morphology of the extended narrow-line region on scales of <100 pc. We present new results on the gas surrounding the compton-thick AGN NGC 3393. The luminous extended narrow-line X-ray emission from this gas allows us to study the role and extent of AGN feedback as sub-kpc jets interact with the surrounding ISM.

  9. Average Heating Rate of Hot Atmospheres in Distant Galaxy Clusters by Radio AGN: Evidence for Continuous AGN Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cheng-Jiun; McNamara, B.; Nulsen, P.; Schaffer, R.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray observations of nearby clusters and galaxies have shown that energetic feedback from AGN is heating hot atmospheres and is probably the principal agent that is offsetting cooling flows. Here we examine AGN heating in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within the central 250 kpc that is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. We find no significant correlation between radio power, hence jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in redshift range 0.1 -- 0.6. The detection frequency of radio AGN is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in 400SD, but cannot rule out the presence of weak cooling flows. The average jet power of central radio AGN is approximately 2 10^{44} erg/s. The jet power corresponds to an average heating of approximately 0.2 keV/particle for gas within R_500. Assuming the current AGN heating rate remained constant out to redshifts of about 2, these figures would rise by a factor of two. Our results show that the integrated energy injected from radio AGN outbursts in clusters is statistically significant compared to the excess entropy in hot atmospheres that is required for the breaking of self-similarity in cluster scaling relations. It is not clear that central AGN in 400SD clusters are maintained by a self-regulated feedback loop at the base of a cooling flow. However, they may play a significant role in preventing the development of strong cooling flows at early epochs.

  10. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  11. AGN Feedback and Its Quenching Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.combes@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, College de France, PSL, Sorbonne University UPMC, Paris (France)

    2017-09-21

    In the last decade, observations have accumulated on gas outflows in galaxies, and in particular massive molecular ones. The mass outflow rate is estimated between 1 and 5 times the star formation rate. For the highest maximal velocities, they are driven by AGN; these outflows are therefore a clear way to moderate or suppress star formation. Some of the most convincing examples at low redshift come from the radio mode, when the radio jets are inclined toward the galaxy plane, or expand in the hot intra-cluster medium, in cool core clusters. However, AGN feedback can also be positive in many occasions, and the net effect is difficult to evaluate. The quenching efficiency is discussed in view of recent observations.

  12. Studies of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudo, I.; Bottcher, M.; Falcke, H.; Georganopoulos, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gomez, J.L.; Gurvits, L.; Laing, R.; Lister, M.; Marti, J.M.; Meyer, E.T.; Mizuno, Y.; O'Sullivan, S.; Padovani, P.; Paragi, Z.; Perucho, M.; Schleicher, D.; Stawarz, L.; Vlahakis, N.; Wardle, J.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli &

  13. AGN Science with AGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Paolo

    2009-05-01

    AGIS, a proposed future gamma-ray telescope consisting of a square km array of 50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, will provide a powerful new view of the high energy universe. The combination of its increased sensitivity (a factor 10 over current observatories), increased survey capabilities, and a low energy threshold (<30 GeV) that allows observations at energies not subject to absorption on extragalactic background light will result in a dramatic increase in the number of AGN accessible at high energies. The overall number of ``TeV blazar" AGN, those detected by current ground-based observatories, should increase by a factor 30 or more with a corresponding increase in the number of these that can be monitored at high statistical significance to test emission models rigorously. More excitingly, AGIS may also begin to pick up entirely new classes of AGN such as radio galaxies with X-ray emitting hotspots at large distances from the central engine, providing further insight into the outflows from AGN. The low AGIS threshold energy will also allow significant source overlap with objects detected by the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space observatory at lower, GeV energies. AGIS will significantly improve on the localization and variability monitoring of the Fermi sources it sees.

  14. Fossil Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean; McLaughlin, Cheryl; MacFadden, Bruce; Jacobbe, Elizabeth; Poole, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many young learners are fascinated with fossils, particularly charismatic forms such as dinosaurs and giant sharks. Fossils provide tangible, objective evidence of life that lived millions of years ago. They also provide a timescale of evolution not typically appreciated by young learners. Fossils and the science of paleontology can, therefore,…

  15. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which are rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting narrow beams of radiation. Images of ... rized into starburst galaxies and AGN powered by SMBHs. The ..... swer lies in the relativistic motion of the jets which boosts the flux density of .... radio cores, detection of ... to as synchrotron self-Compton or SSC, or those of the cosmic.

  16. Pair-Matching of Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozieł-Wierzbowska, Dorota [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Stasińska, Grażyna [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paris Diderot, Meudon (France); Vale Asari, Natalia [Departamento de Física–CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Sikora, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland); Goettems, Elisa [Departamento de Física–CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Wójtowicz, Anna, E-mail: dorota.koziel@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-11-07

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are known to cover an extremely broad range of radio luminosities and the spread of their radio-loudness is very large at any value of the Eddington ratio. This implies very diverse jet production efficiencies which can result from the spread of the black hole spins and magnetic fluxes. Magnetic fluxes can be developed stochastically in the innermost zones of accretion discs, or can be advected to the central regions prior to the AGN phase. In the latter case there could be systematic differences between the properties of galaxies hosting radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) AGNs. In the former case the differences should be negligible for objects having the same Eddington ratio. To study the problem we decided to conduct a comparison study of host galaxy properties of RL and RQ AGNs. In this study we selected type II AGNs from SDSS spectroscopic catalogs. Our RL AGN sample consists of the AGNs appearing in the Best and Heckman (2012) catalog of radio galaxies. To compare RL and RQ galaxies that have the same AGN parameters we matched the galaxies in black hole mass, Eddington ratio and redshift. We compared several properties of the host galaxies in these two groups of objects like galaxy mass, color, concentration index, line widths, morphological type and interaction signatures. We found that in the studied group RL AGNs are preferentially hosted by elliptical galaxies while RQ ones are hosted by galaxies of later type. We also found that the fraction of interacting galaxies is the same in both groups of AGNs. These results suggest that the magnetic flux in RL AGNs is advected to the nucleus prior to the AGN phase.

  17. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatma, V. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Williams, W. L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J. H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J. J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Tasse, C.

    2018-04-01

    Only a small fraction of observed active galactic nuclei (AGN) display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Very Large Array, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indices (-1.5≤slant α ^{1400}_{150}≤slant -0.5), confirming that the lobes of some remnants may possess flat spectra at low frequencies just as active sources do. We suggest that, even with the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR, our sample may still only contain the youngest of the remnant population.

  18. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  19. Fossil Crinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Hans; Ausich, William I.; Brett, Carlton E.; Simms, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Crinoids have graced the oceans for more than 500 million years. Among the most attractive fossils, crinoids had a key role in the ecology of marine communities through much of the fossil record, and their remains are prominent rock forming constituents of many limestones. This is the first comprehensive volume to bring together their form and function, classification, evolutionary history, occurrence, preservation and ecology. The main part of the book is devoted to assemblages of intact fossil crinoids, which are described in their geological setting in twenty-three chapters ranging from the Ordovician to the Tertiary. The final chapter deals with living sea lilies and feather stars. The volume is exquisitely illustrated with abundant photographs and line drawings of crinoids from sites around the world. This authoritative account recreates a fascinating picture of fossil crinoids for paleontologists, geologists, evolutionary and marine biologists, ecologists and amateur fossil collectors.

  20. The importance of jet bending in gamma-ray AGNs—revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, P. J. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tingay, S. J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that γ-ray-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have a greater tendency for jet bending than γ-ray-loud AGNs, revisiting the analysis of Tingay et al. We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGNs along with γ-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between γ-ray-loud and γ-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for γ-ray detection in AGNs.

  1. Fermi-LAT observation of nonblazar AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, N.; Baghmanyan, V.; Zargaryan, D.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) has recently detected γ-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that do not show clear evidence for optical blazar characteristics or have jets pointing away from the observer (nonblazar AGNs). These are interesting γ-ray emitters providing an alternative approach to studying high energy emission processes. Aims: This paper investigates the spectral and temporal properties of γ-ray emission from nonblazar AGNs using the recent Fermi-LAT observational data. Methods: The data collected by Fermi-LAT during 2008-2015, from the observations of 26 nonblazar AGNs, including 11 Fanaroff-Riley Type I (FRI) and ten FRII radio galaxies and steep spectrum radio quasars (SSRQs) and five narrow line seyfert 1s (NLSy1s) are analysed using the new PASS 8 event selection and instrument response function. Possible spectral changes above GeV energies are investigated with a detailed spectral analysis. Light curves generated with normal and adaptive time bins are used to study the γ-ray flux variability. Results: Non-blazar AGNs have a γ-ray photon index in the range of 1.84-2.86 and a flux varying from a few times 10-9 photon cm-2 s-1 to 10-7 photon cm-2 s-1. Over long time periods, the power law provides an adequate description of the γ-ray spectra of almost all sources. Significant curvature is observed in the γ-ray spectra of NGC 1275, NGC 6251, SBS 0846 + 513, and PMN J0948 + 0022 and their spectra are better described by log parabola or by the power law with exponential cut-off models. The γ-ray spectra of PKS 0625-25 and 3C 380 show a possible deviation from a simple power-law shape, indicating a spectral cut-off around the observed photon energy of Ecut = 131.2 ± 88.04 GeV and Ecut = 55.57 ± 50.74 GeV, respectively. Our analysis confirms the previous finding of an unusual spectral turnover in the γ-ray spectrum of Cen A: the photon index changes from Γ = 2.75 ± 0.02 to 2.31 ± 0.1 at 2.35 ± 0.08 GeV. In the

  2. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  3. Fueling the AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, F.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are fueled from material (gas or stars) that are in general far away from the gravitational influence of the central black hole, the engine thought to be responsible for their activity. The required material has a lot of angular momentum that, a priori, is quite difficult to evacuate. The various dynamical mechanisms that may play a role in this game are reviewed, including m = 2 perturbations (bars and spirals), m = 1 perturbations (spirals, warps, lopsidedness), and tidal interactions between galaxies and mergers. In the latest stages of the merger, a binary black hole could be formed, and its influence on the dynamics and fueling is discussed. Starbursts are often associated with AGN, and the nature of their particular connection, and their role in the nuclear fueling is described. Evolution of the fueling efficiency with redshift is addressed.

  4. A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (active galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  5. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University and Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation); Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Straße 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Urry, C. Megan [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schirmer, Mischa, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-02-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q {sub ion} derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q {sub ion} values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10{sup 4} yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and

  6. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter; Lintott, Chris J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F.; Urry, C. Megan; Pancoast, Anna; Schirmer, Mischa

    2017-01-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q ion derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q ion values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10 4 yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and loops of emission

  7. AGN Outflow Shocks on Bonnor–Ebert Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Rahman, Mubdi [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bieri, Rebekka [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris VI, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2017-04-20

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and subsequent jet cocoons and outflow bubbles can have a significant impact on star formation in the host galaxy. To investigate feedback physics on small scales, we perform hydrodynamic simulations of realistically fast AGN winds striking Bonnor–Ebert spheres and examine gravitational collapse and ablation. We test AGN wind velocities ranging from 300 to 3000 km s{sup −1} and wind densities ranging from 0.5 to 10 m {sub p} cm{sup −3}. We include heating and cooling of low- and high-temperature gas, self-gravity, and spatially correlated perturbations in the shock, with a maximum resolution of 0.01 pc. We find that the ram pressure is the most important factor that determines the fate of the cloud. High ram pressure winds increase fragmentation and decrease the star formation rate, but they also cause star formation to occur on a much shorter timescale and with increased velocities of the newly formed stars. We find a threshold ram pressure of ∼2 × 10{sup −8} dyn cm{sup −2} above which stars are not formed because the resulting clumps have internal velocities large enough to prevent collapse. Our results indicate that simultaneous positive and negative feedback will be possible in a single galaxy, as AGN wind parameters will vary with location within a galaxy.

  8. AGN Clustering in the BAT Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Meredith; Cappelluti, Nico; Urry, Meg; Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We characterize the environments of local growing supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGN in the Swift-BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.012MASS galaxies, we constrain the halo occupation distribution (HOD) of the full sample with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as in bins of obscuration with matched luminosity distributions. In doing so, we find that AGN tend to reside in galaxy groups, agreeing with previous studies of AGN throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift. We also find evidence that obscured AGN tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGN.

  9. Constraints on Particles and Fields from Full Stokes Observations of AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Homan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined polarization imaging of radio jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN in circular and linear polarization, also known as full Stokes imaging, has the potential to constrain both the magnetic field structure and particle properties of jets. Although only a small fraction of the emission when detected, typically less than a few tenths of a percent but up to as much as a couple of percent in the strongest resolved sources, circular polarization directly probes the magnetic field and particles within the jet itself and is not expected to be modified by external screens. A key to using full Stokes observations to constrain jet properties is obtaining a better understanding of the emission of circular polarization, including its variability and spectrum. We discuss what we have learned so far from parsec scale monitoring observations in the MOJAVE program and from multi-frequency observations of selected AGN.

  10. Discovery of 21 New Changing-look AGNs: Study on Evolution of AGNs and AGN Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Xuebing; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Shangguan, Jinyi; Yao, Su; Wang, Bingquan; Joshi, Ravi; Green, Richard F.; Wang, Feige; Feng, Xiaotong; Fu, Yuming; Yang, Jinyi; Liu, Yuanqi

    2018-01-01

    The rare case of changing-look (CL) AGNs, with the appearance or disappearance of broad Balmer emission lines within a few years, challenges our understanding of the AGN unified model. We present a sample of 21 new CL AGNs at 0.08 Survey Explorer (WISE), were detected in 15 CL AGNs during the transition. The optical and mid-infrared variability is not consistent with the scenario of variable obscuration in 10 CL AGNs at higher than 3σ confidence level. We confirm a bluer-when-brighter trend in the optical. However, the mid-infrared colors W1‑W2 become redder when the objects become brighter in the W1 band, possibly due to a stronger hot dust contribution in the W2 band when the AGN activity becomes stronger. The physical mechanism of type transition is important for understanding the evolution of AGNs. The rare CL AGNs provide exceptional cases for the black hole and host stellar velocity dispersion relation studies at higher redshift. The faint state spectrum can be used to obtain the host stellar velocity dispersion without contamination from AGN component, and the bright state spectrum can be used to calculate the black hole mass with broad Balmer emission lines. The images at the non-AGN phase of CL AGNs are useful for studies of AGN host galaxies avoiding contamination from the luminous central engines.

  11. Optical Time-Domain and Radio Imaging Analyses of the Dynamic Hearts of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Krista Lynne

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most extreme objects in the universe: galaxies with a central supermassive black hole feeding on gas from a hot accretion disk. Despite their potential as powerful tools to study topics ranging from relativity to cosmology, they remain quite mysterious. In the first portion of this thesis, we explore how an AGN may influence the formation of stars in its host galaxy. Using high-resolution 22 GHz radio imaging of an X-ray selected sample of radio-quiet AGN, we find that the far-infrared radio correlation for normal star forming galaxies remains valid within a few hundred parsecs of the central engine. Because the core flux is often spatially isolated from star formation, we can also determine that the radio emission in radio-quiet AGN is consistent with both coronal and disk-jet coupling models. Finally, we find that AGN with jet-like radio morphologies have suppressed star formation, possibly indicating ongoing feedback. The second portion of this thesis uses optical AGN light curves to study the physics of accretion. The Kepler spacecraft produces groundbreaking light curves, but its fixed field of view only contained a handful of known AGN. We conduct an X-ray survey of this field, yielding 93 unique X-ray sources identified by optical follow-up spectroscopy as a mixture of AGN and stars. For the AGN, we spectroscopically measure black hole masses and accretion rates. We then analyze a sample of 22 Kepler AGN light curves. We develop a customized pipeline for AGN science with Kepler, a necessary step since the initial data was optimized for the unique goal of exoplanet detection. The light curves display an astonishing variety of behaviors in a new regime of optical variability inaccessible with previous facilities. We find power spectral slopes inconsistent with the damped random walk model, characteristic variability timescales, correlations of variability properties with physical parameters, and bimodal flux

  12. Heavily Obscured AGN with SIMBOL-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceca, R. Della; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.

    2009-01-01

    By comparing an optically selected sample of narrow lines AGN with an X-ray selected sample of AGN we have recently derived an estimate of the intrinsic (i.e. before absorption) 2-10 keV luminosity function (XLF) of Compton Thick AGNs. We will use this XLF to derive the number of Compton Thick AGN that will be found in the SIMBOL-X survey(s).

  13. Heavily Obscured AGN with SIMBOL-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, R.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.

    2009-05-01

    By comparing an optically selected sample of narrow lines AGN with an X-ray selected sample of AGN we have recently derived an estimate of the intrinsic (i.e. before absorption) 2-10 keV luminosity function (XLF) of Compton Thick AGNs. We will use this XLF to derive the number of Compton Thick AGN that will be found in the SIMBOL-X survey(s).

  14. Beyond Hydrodynamic Modeling of AGN Heating in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen

    Clusters of galaxies hold a unique position in hierarchical structure formation - they are both powerful cosmological probes and excellent astrophysical laboratories. Accurate modeling of the cluster properties is crucial for reducing systematic uncertainties in cluster cosmology. However, theoretical modeling of the intracluster medium (ICM) has long suffered from the "cooling-flow problem" - clusters with short central times or cool cores (CCs) are predicted to host massive inflows of gas that are not observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is by far the most promising heating mechanism to counteract radiative cooling. Recent hydrodynamic simulations have made remarkable progress reproducing properties of the CCs. However, there remain two major questions that cannot be probed using purely hydrodynamic models: (1) what are the roles of cosmic rays (CRs)? (2) how is the existing picture altered when the ICM is modeled as weakly collisional plasma? We propose to move beyond limitations of pure hydrodynamics and progress toward a complete understanding of how AGN jet-inflated bubbles interact with their surroundings and provide heat to the ICM. Our objectives include: (1) understand how CR-dominated bubbles heat the ICM; (2) understand bubble evolution and sound-wave dissipation in the ICM with different assumptions of plasma properties, e.g., collisionality of the ICM, with or without anisotropic transport processes; (3) Develop a subgrid model of AGN heating that can be adopted in cosmological simulations based on state-of-the-art isolated simulations. We will use a combination of analytical calculations and idealized simulations to advance our understanding of each individual physical process. We will then perform the first three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of self-regulated AGN feedback with relevant CR and anisotropic transport processes in order to quantify the amount and distribution of heating from the AGN. Our

  15. Multi-Frequency Databases for AGN Investigation—Results and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Mura, Giovanni [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Berton, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Astronomical Observatory of Brera, National Institute for Astrophysics, Milan (Italy); Chen, Sina; Ciroi, Stefano [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Congiu, Enrico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, Padua (Italy); Astronomical Observatory of Brera, National Institute for Astrophysics, Milan (Italy); Cracco, Valentina; Frezzato, Michele; Rafanelli, Piero, E-mail: giovanni.lamura@unipd.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, Padua (Italy)

    2017-10-17

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by emission of radiation over more than 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. Therefore, the execution of extensive surveys of the sky, with different types of detectors, is providing the attractive possibility to identify and to investigate the properties of AGNs on very large statistical samples. Thanks to the large spectroscopic surveys that allow detailed investigation of many of these sources, we have the opportunity to place new constraints on the nature and evolution of AGNs and to investigate their relations with the host systems. In this contribution we present the results that can be obtained by using a new interactive catalog that we developed to investigate the range of AGN spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We present simple SED models based on data collected in the catalog and discuss their relations with optical spectra obtained by follow up observations. We compare our findings with the expectations based on the AGN Unification Model, and we discuss the perspectives of multi-wavelength approaches to address AGN related processes such as black hole accretion and acceleration of relativistic jets.

  16. Flickering AGN can explain the strong circumgalactic O VI observed by COS-Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Segers, Marijke; Schaye, Joop; Richings, Alexander J.; Crain, Robert A.

    2018-03-01

    Proximity zone fossils (PZFs) are ionization signatures around recently active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where metal species in the circumgalactic medium remain overionized after the AGNs have shut off due to their long recombination time scales. We explore cosmological zoom hydrodynamic simulations, using the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) model paired with a non-equilibrium ionization and cooling module including time-variable AGN radiation to model PZFs around star-forming disc galaxies in the z ˜ 0.2 Universe. Previous simulations typically underestimated the O VI content of galactic haloes, but we show that plausible PZF models increase O VI column densities by 2 - 3 × to achieve the levels observed around COS-Halos star-forming galaxies out to 150 kpc. Models with AGN bolometric luminosities ≳ 1043.6erg s- 1, duty cycle fractions ≲ 10 per cent, and AGN lifetimes ≲ 106 yr are the most promising, because their supermassive black holes grow at the cosmologically expected rate and they mostly appear as inactive AGN, consistent with COS-Halos. The central requirement is that the typical star-forming galaxy hosted an active AGN within a time-scale comparable to the recombination time of a high metal ion, which for circumgalactic O VI is ≈107 yr. H I, by contrast, returns to equilibrium much more rapidly due to its low neutral fraction and does not show a significant PZF effect. O VI absorption features originating from PZFs appear narrow, indicating photoionization, and are often well aligned with lower metal ion species. PZFs are highly likely to affect the physical interpretation of circumgalactic high ionization metal lines if, as expected, normal galaxies host flickering AGN.

  17. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon [CEOU-Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Trichas, Markos [Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom); Goto, Tomo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Malkan, Matt [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3-714 UCLA, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ruiz, Angel [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, 411 007 Pune (India); Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seong Jin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, K.; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Yoshino-dai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hanami, Hitoshi [Physics Section, Faculty of Humanities, Iwate University, Ueda 3 chome, 18-34 Morioka, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan); Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J., E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (AGN component and that of star formation in the host galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. In contrast, for narrow redshift and AGN luminosity ranges, we find that increasing radio luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star formation rate. The most radio-loud AGNs are found to lie on the main sequence of star formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, we potentially see such a two-sided feedback process in the same sample. We discuss the possible suppression of star formation, but not total quenching, in systems with strong radio jets, that supports the maintenance nature of feedback from radio AGN jets.

  18. RADIO PROPERTIES OF THE BAT AGNs: THE FIR–RADIO RELATION, THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE, AND THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Vogel, Stuart; Shimizu, Thomas T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Miller, Neal, E-mail: klsmith@astro.umd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Stevenson University, Stevenson, MD 21117 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We conducted 22 GHz 1″ JVLA imaging of 70 radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Swift -BAT survey. We find radio cores in all but three objects. The radio morphologies of the sample fall into three groups: compact and core-dominated, extended, and jet-like. We spatially decompose each image into core flux and extended flux, and compare the extended radio emission with that predicted from previous Herschel observations using the canonical FIR–radio relation. After removing the AGN contribution to the FIR and radio flux densities, we find that the relation holds remarkably well despite the potentially different star formation physics in the circumnuclear environment. We also compare our core radio flux densities with predictions of coronal models and scale-invariant jet models for the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet AGNs, and find general consistency with both models. However, we find that the L {sub R}/ L {sub X} relation does not distinguish between star formation and non-relativistic AGN-driven outflows as the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet AGNs. Finally, we examine where objects with different radio morphologies fall in relation to the main sequence (MS) of star formation, and conclude that those AGNs that fall below the MS, as X-ray selected AGNs have been found to do, have core-dominated or jet-like 22 GHz morphologies.

  19. `Zwicky's Nonet': a compact merging ensemble of nine galaxies and 4C 35.06, a peculiar radio galaxy with dancing radio jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, K. G.; Bagchi, Joydeep; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Jacob, Joe; Patil, M. K.; Kumar, P. Sunil; Pandge, Mahadev; Dabhade, Pratik; Gaikwad, Madhuri; Dhurde, Samir; Abraham, Sheelu; Vivek, M.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    We report the results of our radio, optical and infrared studies of a peculiar radio source 4C 35.06, an extended radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the centre of galaxy cluster Abell 407 (z = 0.047). The central region of this cluster hosts a remarkably tight ensemble of nine galaxies, the spectra of which resemble those of passive red ellipticals, embedded within a diffuse stellar halo of ˜1 arcmin size. This system (named 'Zwicky's Nonet') provides unique and compelling evidence for a multiple-nucleus cD galaxy precursor. Multifrequency radio observations of 4C 35.06 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610, 235 and 150 MHz reveal a system of 400-kpc scale helically twisted and kinked radio jets and outer diffuse lobes. The outer extremities of jets contain extremely steep-spectrum (spectral index -1.7 to -2.5) relic/fossil radio plasma with a spectral age of a few ×(107-108) yr. Such ultra-steep spectrum relic radio lobes without definitive hotspots are rare and they provide an opportunity to understand the life cycle of relativistic jets and physics of black hole mergers in dense environments. We interpret our observations of this radio source in the context of growth of its central black hole, triggering of its AGN activity and jet precession, all possibly caused by galaxy mergers in this dense galactic system. A slow conical precession of the jet axis due to gravitational perturbation between interacting black holes is invoked to explain the unusual jet morphology.

  20. Non-thermal AGN models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, D.L.

    1986-12-01

    The infrared, optical and x-ray continua from radio quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are explained by a compact non-thermal source surrounding a thermal ultraviolet emitter, presumably the accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The ultraviolet source is observed as the ''big blue bump.'' The flat (..cap alpha.. approx. = .7) hard x-ray spectrum results from the scattering of thermal ultraviolet photons by the flat, low energy end of an electron distribution ''broken'' by Compton losses; the infrared through soft x-ray continuum is the synchrotron radiation of the steep, high energy end of the electron distribution. Quantitative fits to specific AGN result in models which satisfy the variability constraints but require electron (re)acceleration throughout the source. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  1. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zpast studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.

  2. What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars? Xinwu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is ...

  3. What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present ...

  4. STRUCTURAL TRANSITION IN THE NGC 6251 JET: AN INTERPLAY WITH THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE AND ITS HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chih-Yin; Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori; Pu, Hung-Yi; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Wen-Ping, E-mail: cytseng@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-20

    The structure of the NGC 6251 jet on the milliarcsecond scale is investigated using images taken with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We detect a structural transition of the jet from a parabolic to a conical shape at a distance of (1–2) × 10{sup 5} times the Schwarzschild radius from the central engine, which is close to the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also examine the jet pressure profiles with the synchrotron minimum energy assumption to discuss the physical origin of the structural transition. The NGC 6251 jet, together with the M87 jet, suggests a fundamental process of structural transition in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Collimated AGN jets are characterized by their external galactic medium, showing that AGN jets interplay with the SMBH and its host galaxy.

  5. Search for neutrinos from TANAMI observed AGN using Fermi lightcurves wit ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehn, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are promising candidates for hadronic acceleration. The combination of radio, gamma ray and neutrino data should give information on their properties, especially concerning the sources of the high-energetic cosmic rays. Assuming a temporal correlation of gamma and neutrino emission in AGN the background of neutrino telescopes can be reduced using gamma ray lightcurves. Thereby the sensitivity for discovering cosmic neutrino sources is enhanced. In the present work a stacked search for a group of AGN with the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean is presented. The selection of AGN is based on the source sample of TANAMI, a multiwavelength observation program (radio to gamma rays) of extragalactic jets southerly of -30 declination. In the analysis lightcurves of the gamma satellite Fermi are used. In an unbinned maximum likelihood approach the test statistic in the background only case and in the signal and background case is determined. For the investigated 10% of data of ANTARES within the measurement time between 01.09.2008 and 30.07.2012 no significant excess is observed. So on the total flux of the AGN of the stacked search an upper limit can be set.

  6. Protostellar Jets in Context

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganos, Kanaris; Stute, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Conference Protostellar Jets in Context held by the JETSET Marie Curie Research Training Network in July 2008. This meeting not only served to showcase some of the network's achievements but was also a platform to hear from, discuss and debate the recent findings of world-class astrophysicists in the field of protostellar jet research. Jets from young stars are of course not an isolated astrophysical phenomenon. It is known that objects as diverse as young brown dwarfs, planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars, micro-quasars, AGN, and gamma-ray bursters produce jets. Thus in a series of talks, protostellar jets were put in context by comparing them with their often much larger brethren and also by considering the ubiquitous accretion disks that seem to be necessary for their formation. With this spectrum of contributions on observations and the theory of astrophysical jets and accretion disks, this book serves as a comprehensive reference work for researchers and students...

  7. AGN feedback in action? - outflows and star formation in type 2 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Hak

    2017-01-01

    We present the statistical constraints on the ionized gas outflows and their connection to star formation, using a large sample of ~110,000 AGNs and star-forming galaxies at z dispersion of star forming galaxies can be entirely accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. Second, the distribution in the [OIII] velocity - velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven. Third, the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [OIII] profile. Interestingly, we find that the specific star formation of non-outflow AGNs is much lower than that of strong outflow AGNs, while the star formation rate of strong outflow AGNs is comparable to that of star forming galaxies. We interpret this trend as a delayed AGN feedback as it takes dynamical time for the outflows to suppress star formation in galactic scales.

  8. Whitby Jet Jewels in the Victorian Age

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça de Carvalho, Luís; Fernandes, Francisca Maria; Nunes, Maria de Fatima; Brigola, João

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. During the middle nineteenth century, jet obtained from Whitby (England) was sought after due to its dark black color and hardness. This fossilized plant material was used in mourning jewelry, and Whitby hard jet was regarded among the best for carving and bead making. Jet fashion was connected with Queen Victoria, whose long mourning period lasted for almost forty years.

  9. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Tremblay, G.; Davis, T.; Busch, G.; McElroy, R.; Neumann, J.; Urrutia, T.; Krumpe, M.; Scharwächter, J.; Powell, M.; Perez-Torres, M.; The CARS Team

    2017-09-01

    The role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the evolution of galaxies remains a mystery. The energy released by these accreting supermassive black holes can vastly exceed the entire binding energy of their host galaxies, yet it remains unclear how this energy is dissipated throughout the galaxy, and how that might couple to the galaxy's evolution. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is a multi-wavelength survey of a representative sample of luminous Type I AGN at redshifts 0.01 connection. These AGN are more luminous than very nearby AGN but are still close enough for spatially resolved mapping at sub-kpc scales with various state- of-the art facilities and instruments, such as VLT-MUSE, ALMA, JVLA, Chandra, SOFIA, and many more. In this article we showcase the power of CARS with examples of a multi-phase AGN outflow, diverse views on star formation activity and a unique changing-look AGN. CARS will provide an essential low-redshift reference sample for ongoing and forthcoming AGN surveys at high redshift.

  10. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  11. DISCOVERY OF A PSEUDOBULGE GALAXY LAUNCHING POWERFUL RELATIVISTIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: jarkot@utu.fi [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  12. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  13. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  14. The Fossile Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an inital pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form expr...

  15. The Fossil Episode

    OpenAIRE

    John Hassler; Hans-Werner Sinn

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  16. GAS OUTFLOWS IN SEYFERT GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION VERSUS AGN FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melioli, C.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal, E-mail: claudio.melioli@iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br [Department of Astronomy (IAG-USP), University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-20

    Large-scale, weakly collimated outflows are very common in galaxies with large infrared luminosities. In complex systems in particular, where intense star formation (SF) coexists with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), it is not clear yet from observations whether the SF, the AGN, or both are driving these outflows. Accreting supermassive black holes are expected to influence their host galaxies through kinetic and radiative feedback processes, but in a Seyfert galaxy, where the energy emitted in the nuclear region is comparable to that of the body of the galaxy, it is possible that stellar activity is also playing a key role in these processes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the gas evolution especially at the nuclear regions of these galaxies, we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling considering the feedback from both SF regions, including supernova (Type I and II) explosions and an AGN jet emerging from the central region of the active spiral galaxy. We computed the gas mass lost by the system, separating the role of each of these injection energy sources on the galaxy evolution, and found that at scales within 1 kpc an outflow can be generally established considering intense nuclear SF only. The jet alone is unable to drive a massive gas outflow, although it can sporadically drag and accelerate clumps of the underlying outflow to very high velocities.

  17. New Insights on the Accretion Disk-Winds Connection in Radio-Loud AGNs from Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Cappi, M.; Reynolds, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    From the spectral analysis of long Suzaku observations of five radio-loud AGNs we have been able to discover the presence of ultra-fast outflows with velocities ,,approx.0.1 c in three of them, namely 3C III, 3C 120 and 3C 390.3. They are consistent with being accretion disk winds/outflows. We also performed a follow-up on 3C III to monitor its outflow on approx.7 days time-scales and detected an anti-correlated variability of a possible relativistic emission line with respect to blue-shifted Fe K features, following a flux increase. This provides the first direct evidence for an accretion disc-wind connection in an AGN. The mass outflow rate of these outflows can be comparable to the accretion rate and their mechanical power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, they can possibly play a significant role in the expected feedback from AGNs and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets.

  18. Probing dark matter with active galactic nuclei jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Profumo, Stefano; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of detecting a signature of particle dark matter in the spectrum of gamma-ray photons from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) resulting from the scattering of high-energy particles in the AGN jet off of dark matter particles. We consider particle dark matter models in the context of both supersymmetry and universal extra dimensions , and we present the complete lowest-order calculation for processes where a photon is emitted in dark matter-electron and/or dark matter-proton scattering, where electrons and protons belong to the AGN jet. We find that the process is dominated by a resonance whose energy is dictated by the particle spectrum in the dark matter sector (neutralino and selectron for the case of supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein photon and electron for universal extra dimensions ). The resulting gamma-ray spectrum exhibits a very characteristic spectral feature, consisting of a sharp break to a hard power-law behavior. Although the normalization of the gamma-ray flux depends strongly on assumptions on both the AGN jet geometry, composition and particle spectrum as well as on the particle dark matter model and density distribution, we show that for realistic parameters choices, and for two prominent nearby AGNs (Centaurus A and M87), the detection of this effect is in principle possible. Finally, we compare our predictions and results with recent gamma-ray observations from the Fermi, H.E.S.S., and VERITAS telescopes.

  19. [Transfer of the AGnES concept to the regular German health-care system: legal evaluation, reimbursement, qualification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, N; Kleinke, S; Heymann, R; Oppermann, R F; Jakobi, B; Hoffmann, W

    2010-05-01

    According to an amendment of German social security legislation, the AGnES concept of delegation of certain tasks of medical care, especially house calls, by general practitioners (GPs) to qualified practice employees (AGnES employees), will be transferred into the regular German health care system from January 2009 onward. The concept was developed to support GPs in regions with imminent gaps in primary care. Patient data, the specifically delegated and all other activities carried out by the AGnES employees in the AGnES projects were digitally documented. Additionally, the participating GPs, AGnES employees and patients underwent a set of standardised interviews. A curriculum to qualify the AGnES employees and to define the requirements needed was developed. A legal assessment of all delegated activities was carried out, and an economical model to calculate the necessary allowance was calculated. In seven model projects in four federal states in Germany, 11,228 house calls were carried out involving 1,424, mostly multimorbid, patients (mean age: 78.6 years). A modular structured curriculum, considering the basic education and acquired competences, was developed. It allows for an individual qualification of the AGnES employees. The result of the legal assessment was the central relevance of the qualification of the practice employees according to the AGnES curriculum as the essential condition for carrying out the entire range of activities of the AGnES concept. The economic model revealed euro 21.58 for a house call by an AGnES employee. The underlying model referred to underserved regions. A successful transfer of the AGnES concept with a high standard of quality into regular health-care depends on several factors. Of particular importance is the specific qualification of the practice employees, which is a central legal condition for the delegation of medical tasks from GPs to AGnEs employees. A second determining factor is also an adequate reimbursement within

  20. Characterisation of a candidate dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, D.; Panizo-Espinar, G.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M.; Heida, M.

    2018-05-01

    We present Chandra and optical observations of a candidate dual AGN discovered serendipitously while searching for recoiling black holes via a cross-correlation between the serendipitous XMM source catalog (2XMMi) and SDSS-DR7 galaxies with a separation no larger than ten times the sum of their Petrosian radii. The system has a stellar mass ratio M1/M2 ≈ 0.7. One of the galaxies (Source 1) shows clear evidence for AGN activity in the form of hard X-ray emission and optical emission-line diagnostics typical of AGN ionisation. The nucleus of the other galaxy (Source 2) has a soft X-ray spectrum, bluer colours, and optical emission line ratios dominated by stellar photoionisation with a "composite" signature, which might indicate the presence of a weak AGN. When plotted on a diagram with X-ray luminosity vs [OIII] luminosity both nuclei fall within the locus defined by local Seyfert galaxies. From the optical spectrum we estimate the electron densities finding n1 active nature of Source 1 can be established with confidence, whether the nucleus of Source 2 is active remains a matter of debate. Evidence that a faint AGN might reside in its nucleus is, however, tantalising.

  1. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) DR1-Spectral Measurements, Derived Quantities, and AGN Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present the first catalog and data release of the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). We analyze optical spectra of the majority of AGN (77%, 641/836) detected based on their 14-195 keV emission in the 70-month Swift BAT all-sky catalog. This includes redshift determination, absorption and emission line measurements, and black hole mass and accretion rate estimates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (74%, 473/641) with 340 measured for the first time. With ~90% of sources at z10^21.9 cm^-2. Seyfert 1.9 show a range of column densities. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN have a larger fraction of dusty host galaxies suggesting these types of AGN are missed in optical surveys. Using the most sensitive [OIII]/Hbeta and [NII]/Halpha emission line diagnostic, about half of the sources are classified as Seyferts, ~15% reside in dusty galaxies that lack an Hbeta detection, but for which the line upper limits imply either a Seyfert or LINER, ~15% are in galaxies with weak or no emission lines despite high quality spectra, and a few percent each are LINERS, composite galaxies, HII regions, or in known beamed AGN.

  2. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overall radio detection rate of 54% (22% of all bright nearby galaxies) and we estimate that at least ∼50% (∼20% of all bright nearby galaxies) are true AGN. By comparing the radio luminosity function of the LINERs, composite LINER/Hll and Seyferts galaxies in the Palomar sample with those of selected moderate-redshift AGN, we fhd that our sources naturally extend the radio luminosity function of powerful AGN down to powers of about 10 times that of Sgr A*

  3. Search for AGN neutrinos with the Soudan 2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, D.M.

    1997-05-01

    Several authors have presented models for neutrino production from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that allow for the possibility of AGN neutrinos outnumbering the atmospheric neutrino flux for energies in excess of 30 TeV. Preliminary results from a search for high energy neutrinos from AGN using the underground Soudan 2 Detector are presented

  4. Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markoff, S.

    2007-01-01

    Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact

  5. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  6. Can blueshifted Agn spectra explain B L Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, D.

    2009-01-01

    B L Lac spectra are almost completely devoid of any emission line, and absorption features are often present based on which redshifts are estimated. Several models have been proposed to explain the spectra, including the unification scheme currently most popular among astronomers. However, there appear to be ambiguities, uncertainties and contradictory results in this model, and many questions remain unanswered. Also, it involves the process of artificially enhancing the continuum to be concentrated to a high level, by the relativistically beaming jet action, in order to submerge the emission lines, partly or completely, to make them appear weak or invisible. Additionally, the sample based on which B L Lac objects have been included in the unification scheme is rather small to be statistically viable. In this context, we present an alternative and much simpler interpretation of the observed spectra of B L Lac objects, both emission and absorption, as blueshifted lines in Agn. Original spectra of fifty six objects available in the current literature are re-analyzed. Nine of these show only a single weak emission line and no absorption feature, while thirty five exhibit no emission feature but several absorption lines, and another twelve show more than one emission line and, in some cases, several absorption lines. It is demonstrated that emission lines in most B L Lac objects are blueshifted out of the visible region, and, hence, not seen at all. Emission lines, when seen, and absorption lines, are blueshifted and are identified with search lines of longer wavelengths that are naturally weak. Blue shifts, in emission and absorption features, are determined for all objects. Various considerations lead to the conclusion that the blue shift interpretation of B L Lac spectra is superior to and more important than the redshift interpretation. A possible explanation of observed blue shifts is presented in the scenario of the ejection process, a well-recognized mechanism

  7. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  8. AGN Heating Through Cavities and Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulsen, P.E.J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W.R.; David, L.P.; McNamara, B.R.; Rafferty, D.A.; Bîrzan, L.; Wise, M.

    2007-01-01

    Three comments are made on AGN heating of cooling flows. A simple physical argument is used to show that the enthalpy of a buoyant radio lobe is converted to heat in its wake. Thus, a significant part of ``cavity'' enthalpy is likely to end up as heat. Second, the properties of the repeated weak

  9. The AGN Luminosity Fraction in Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jeremy; Weiner, Aaron; Ashby, Matthew; Martinez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; Smith, Howard Alan

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy mergers are key events in galaxy evolution, generally triggering massive starbursts and AGNs. However, in these chaotic systems, it is not yet known what fraction each of these two mechanisms contributes to the total luminosity. Here we measure and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using the Code for Investigating Galaxy Emission (CIGALE) in up to 33 broad bands from the UV to the far-IR for 23 IR-luminous galaxies to estimate the fraction of the bolometric IR luminosity that can be attributed to the AGN. The galaxies are split nearly evenly into two subsamples: late-stage mergers, found in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample or Faint Source Catalog, and early-stage mergers found in the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Sample. We find that the AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity varies greatly from system to system, from 0% up to ~90%, but is substantially greater in the later-stage and brighter mergers. This is consistent with what is known about galaxy evolution and the triggering of AGNs.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  10. Revolutionizing Our Understanding of AGN Feedback and its Importance to Galaxy Evolution in the Era of the Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K.; Harwood, J. J.; Mukherjee, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Rujopakarn, W.; Emonts, B.; Alatalo, K.; Bicknell, G. V.; Davis, T. A.; Greene, J. E.; Kimball, A.; Lacy, M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Lonsdale, Colin; Maksym, W. P.; Molnár, D. C.; Morabito, L.; Murphy, E. J.; Patil, P.; Prandoni, I.; Sargent, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2018-05-01

    Energetic feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) plays an important evolutionary role in the regulation of star formation on galactic scales. However, the effects of this feedback as a function of redshift and galaxy properties such as mass, environment, and cold gas content remain poorly understood. The broad frequency coverage (1 to 116 GHz), high sensitivity (up to ten times higher than the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array), and superb angular resolution (maximum baselines of at least a few hundred kilometers) of the proposed next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) are uniquely poised to revolutionize our understanding of AGNs and their role in galaxy evolution. Here, we provide an overview of the science related to AGN feedback that will be possible in the ngVLA era and present new continuum ngVLA imaging simulations of resolved radio jets spanning a wide range of intrinsic extents. We also consider key computational challenges and discuss exciting opportunities for multiwavelength synergy with other next-generation instruments, such as the Square Kilometer Array and the James Webb Space Telescope. The unique combination of high-resolution, large collecting area, and wide frequency range will enable significant advancements in our understanding of the effects of jet-driven feedback on sub-galactic scales, particularly for sources with extents of a few parsec to a few kiloparsec, such as young and/or lower-power radio AGNs, AGNs hosted by low-mass galaxies, radio jets that are interacting strongly with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, and AGNs at high redshift.

  11. AGN UNIFICATION AT z ∼ 1: u - R COLORS AND GRADIENTS IN X-RAY AGN HOSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Ammons, S.; Rosario, David J. V.; Koo, David C.

    2011-01-01

    We present uncontaminated rest-frame u - R colors of 78 X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts at 0.5 1.1 kpc. These three observations imply that AGN obscuration is uncorrelated with the star formation rate beyond ∼1 kpc. These observations favor a unification scenario for intermediate-luminosity AGNs in which obscuration is determined geometrically. Scenarios in which the majority of intermediate-luminosity AGNs at z ∼ 1 are undergoing rapid, galaxy-wide quenching due to AGN-driven feedback processes are disfavored.

  12. HOW DOES RADIO AGN FEEDBACK FEED BACK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Young, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The possible role of radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) 'feedback' in conventional hierarchical cosmological models has become widely discussed. This paper examines some of the details of how such feedback might work. A basic requirement is the conversion of radio AGN outflow energy into heating of the circumgalactic medium in a time comparable to the relevant cooling times. First, the class of radio AGN relevant to this process is identified as FR-I radio sources. Second, it is argued via comparisons with experimental data that these AGN outflows are strongly decelerated and become fully turbulent sonic or subsonic flows due to their interaction with the surrounding medium. Using this, a three-dimensional time-dependent calculation of the evolution of such turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flows is made to determine the time scale required for conversion of the turbulent energy into heat. This calculation, when coupled with observational data, suggests that the onset of heating can occur ∼10 8 yr after the fully turbulent flow is established, and this time is less than or comparable to the local cooling times in the interstellar or circumgalactic medium for many of these objects. The location of where heat deposition occurs remains uncertain, but estimates of outflow speeds suggest that heating may occur many tens of kpc from the center of the parent galaxy. Recent observations suggest that such radio AGN outflows may become dispersed on much larger scales than previously thought, thus possibly satisfying the requirement that heating occurs over a large fraction of the volume occupied by the circumgalactic gas.

  13. Tracing Supermassive Black Hole Growth with Offset and Dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Julia

    The growth of supermassive black holes is tied to the evolution of their host galaxies, but we are still missing a fundamental understanding of how and when supermassive black holes build up their mass. Black hole mass growth can be traced when the black holes are powered as active galactic nuclei (AGN), and AGN activity can be triggered by the stochastic accretion of gas or by gas inflows driven by galaxy mergers. Galaxy merger simulations make a series of predictions about the AGN that are triggered by mergers: (1) major mergers preferentially trigger higher-luminosity AGN, (2) minor mergers more often trigger AGN activity in one supermassive black hole while major mergers more often trigger AGN activity in both black holes in a merger, and (3) black hole mass growth peaks when the black holes approach the center (theory have been limited by the difficulty in defining a clean observational sample of AGN in galaxy mergers and the observational challenge of spatially resolving two AGN with small (dual AGN as a new observational tool that can be used to address how and when supermassive black hole mass growth occurs. A merger of two galaxies brings two supermassive black holes together, and the two black holes exist at kpc-scale separations for 100 Myr before ultimately merging. While the black holes are at kpc-scale separations, they are known as dual AGN when both of them are fueled as AGN and offset AGN when only one is fueled as an AGN. Since offset and dual AGN only occur in galaxy mergers, by their very definition, they provide a clean observational sample of black hole mass growth in galaxy mergers. The small, kpc-scale separations of offset and dual AGN also enable an observational test of black hole fueling near the centers of merger-remnant galaxies. The full potential of offset and dual AGN for such studies of black hole mass growth has not yet been realized, due to the small number of such systems known. To date, only 13 confirmed offset and dual AGN are

  14. Conical Stream of the Two-Sided Jets in NGC 4261 over the Range of 103–109 Schwarzschild Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Nakahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the jet width profile of of the nearby ( ∼ 30 Mpc AGN NGC 4261 for both the approaching jet and the counter jet at radial distances ranging from ∼ 10 3 – 10 9 Schwarzschild radius ( R S from the central engine. Our Very Large Array (VLA and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA observations reveal that the jets maintain a conical structure on both sides over the range 10 3 – 10 9 R S without any structural transition (i.e., parabolic to conical like in the approaching jet in M87. Thus, NGC 4261 will provide a unique opportunity to examine the conical jet hypothesis in blazars, while it may require some additional consideration on the acceleration and collimation process in AGN jets.

  15. NGC 3393: multi-component AGN feedback as seen by CHEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Raymond, John C.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Paggi, Alessandro; Wang, Junfeng; Risaliti, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Due to its low density, moderate ionization, and weak kinematics, the narrow line region (NLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides poweful diagnostics for investigating AGN feedback. The CHandra Extended Emission line Region Survey (CHEERS) is the ultimate investigation into resolved feedback in the NLR. We present results from our CHEERS investigations of NGC 3393. By imaging extended X-ray line emission of NGC 3393 with Chandra and optical line emission with Hubble's narrow-band filters, we are able to map out the simultaneous impact of photoionization, jets and an AGN disk-wind. When resolved on scales of ~10s of parsecs, the NLR of NGC 3393 shows a complex multi-component medium. Diagnostic line mapping indicates a Low-ionization Emmision Line Region (LINER) cocoon surrounding the outflow-evacuated cavities (in optical) and surrounding the supports the presence of collisional plasma (in X-rays). These physically distinct constituent regions can only be resolved by the high-resolution imaging that Chandra and HST enable.

  16. Star Formation of Merging Disk Galaxies with AGN Feedback Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongwon; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K., E-mail: jw.park@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Using a numerical hydrodynamics code, we perform various idealized galaxy merger simulations to study the star formation (SF) of two merging disk galaxies. Our simulations include gas accretion onto supermassive black holes and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. By comparing AGN simulations with those without AGNs, we attempt to understand when the AGN feedback effect is significant. Using ∼70 simulations, we investigate SF with the AGN effect in mergers with a variety of mass ratios, inclinations, orbits, galaxy structures, and morphologies. Using these merger simulations with AGN feedback, we measure merger-driven SF using the burst efficiency parameter introduced by Cox et al. We confirm previous studies which demonstrated that, in galaxy mergers, AGN suppresses SF more efficiently than in isolated galaxies. However, we also find that the effect of AGNs on SF is larger in major than in minor mergers. In minor merger simulations with different primary bulge-to-total ratios, the effect of bulge fraction on the merger-driven SF decreases due to AGN feedback. We create models of Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-type galaxies and compare their SF properties while undergoing mergers. With the current AGN prescriptions, the difference in merger-driven SF is not as pronounced as in the recent observational study of Kaviraj. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy.

  17. Star Formation of Merging Disk Galaxies with AGN Feedback Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongwon; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2017-01-01

    Using a numerical hydrodynamics code, we perform various idealized galaxy merger simulations to study the star formation (SF) of two merging disk galaxies. Our simulations include gas accretion onto supermassive black holes and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. By comparing AGN simulations with those without AGNs, we attempt to understand when the AGN feedback effect is significant. Using ∼70 simulations, we investigate SF with the AGN effect in mergers with a variety of mass ratios, inclinations, orbits, galaxy structures, and morphologies. Using these merger simulations with AGN feedback, we measure merger-driven SF using the burst efficiency parameter introduced by Cox et al. We confirm previous studies which demonstrated that, in galaxy mergers, AGN suppresses SF more efficiently than in isolated galaxies. However, we also find that the effect of AGNs on SF is larger in major than in minor mergers. In minor merger simulations with different primary bulge-to-total ratios, the effect of bulge fraction on the merger-driven SF decreases due to AGN feedback. We create models of Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-type galaxies and compare their SF properties while undergoing mergers. With the current AGN prescriptions, the difference in merger-driven SF is not as pronounced as in the recent observational study of Kaviraj. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy.

  18. The AGN-Star Formation Connection: Future Prospects with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Barro, Guillermo; Bonato, Matteo; Kocevski, Dale D.; Pérez-González, Pablo; Rieke, George H.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucia; Sajina, Anna; Grogin, Norman A.; Mantha, Kameswara Bharadwaj; Pandya, Viraj; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Santini, Paola

    2017-11-01

    The bulk of the stellar growth over cosmic time is dominated by IR-luminous galaxies at cosmic noon (z=1{--}2), many of which harbor a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN). We use state-of-the-art infrared color diagnostics, combining Spitzer and Herschel observations, to separate dust-obscured AGNs from dusty star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the CANDELS and COSMOS surveys. We calculate 24 μm counts of SFGs, AGN/star-forming “Composites,” and AGNs. AGNs and Composites dominate the counts above 0.8 mJy at 24 μm, and Composites form at least 25% of an IR sample even to faint detection limits. We develop methods to use the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on JWST to identify dust-obscured AGNs and Composite galaxies from z˜ 1{--}2. With the sensitivity and spacing of MIRI filters, we will detect >4 times as many AGN hosts as with Spitzer/IRAC criteria. Any star formation rates based on the 7.7 μm PAH feature (likely to be applied to MIRI photometry) must be corrected for the contribution of the AGN, or the star formation rate will be overestimated by ˜35% for cases where the AGN provides half the IR luminosity and ˜50% when the AGN accounts for 90% of the luminosity. Finally, we demonstrate that our MIRI color technique can select AGNs with an Eddington ratio of {λ }{Edd}˜ 0.01 and will identify AGN hosts with a higher specific star formation rate than X-ray techniques alone. JWST/MIRI will enable critical steps forward in identifying and understanding dust-obscured AGNs and the link to their host galaxies.

  19. The radiative deceleration of ultrarelativistic jets in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melia, F.; Konigl, A.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed study of the dynamical interaction between a highly relativistic jet and the thermal radiation field from an AGN accretion disk is reported, and the Comptonized spectrum arising from this interaction is self-consistently determined. A simple model that captures the essential radiative and geometrical features of realistic disk configurations is presented, and the disk radiation field is calculated. The results confirm Phinney's (1987) suggestion that the thermal radiation field produced by accretion in an AGN could be very effective in decelerating ultrarelativistic jets that are accreted by electromagnetic or hydromagnetic forces closer to the central black hole. Terminal Lorentz factors are consistent with the values inferred in superluminal radio sources are readily produced in this model for plausible disk and jet parameters without additional acceleration in the interaction zone. A new interpretation of the hard X-ray component detected in BL Lac spectra is proposed. 55 refs

  20. The AGN Nature of LINER Nuclear Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); González-Martin, Omaira [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia (Mexico); Hernández-Garcia, Lorena [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome (Italy); Pović, Mirjana [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute and Entoto Observatory and Research Center, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cazzoli, Sara; Olmo, Ascensión del, E-mail: isabel@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-11-16

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2–10keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN toward lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L{sub X}(2–10 keV) > 10{sup 41} erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison

  1. The AGN nature of LINER nuclear sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martin, Omaira; Hernández-Garcia, Lorena; Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Cazzoli, Sara; del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-11-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2-10 keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN towards lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L_X(2-10 keV) > 10^{41} erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison with both

  2. The AGN Nature of LINER Nuclear Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Márquez, Isabel; Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martin, Omaira; Hernández-Garcia, Lorena; Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Cazzoli, Sara; Olmo, Ascensión del

    2017-01-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are specially interesting objects since not only they represent the most numerous local Active Galactic Nuclei population, but they could be the link between normal and active galaxies as suggested by their low X-ray luminosities. The origin of LINER nuclei being still controversial, our works, through a multiwavelength approach, have contributed, firstly, to confirm that a large number of nuclear LINERs in the local universe are AGN powered. Secondly, from the study of X-ray spectral variability, we found that long term variations are very common, and they are mostly related to hard energies (2–10keV). These variations might be due to changes in the absorber and/or intrinsic variations of the source. Thirdly, Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging also indicates that LINERs are the low luminosity end of AGN toward lower luminosities, and MIR spectroscopy shows that the average spectrum of AGN-dominated LINERs with X-ray luminosities L X (2–10 keV) > 10 41 erg/s is similar to the average mid-IR spectrum of AGN-dominated Seyfert 2s; for fainter LINERS, their spectral shape suggests that the dusty-torus may disappear. Fourth, the extended Hα emission of LINERs at HST resolution indicates that they follow remarkably well the Narrow Line Region morphology and the luminosity-size relation obtained for Seyfert and QSOs; HST Hα morphology may suggest the presence of outflows, which could contribute to the line broadening, with the resulting consequences on the percentage of LINERs where the Broad Line Region is detected. This issue is being revisited by our group with a high spectral resolution set of optical data for nearby type-1 LINERs. Finally, concerning systematic studies on the role of star formation in LINERs, which are scarce, our contribution deals with the study of a sample of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs in the local Universe (at z from 0.04 to 0.11), together with its comparison with

  3. OKLO: fossil reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.

    Events leading up to the discovery during the summer of 1972 of the Oklo fossil reactor in Gabon and its subsequent exploration are reviewed. Results of studies are summarized; future investigations are outlined

  4. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  5. CERN Library | Agnes Chavez @ CERN | 3 May

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2016-01-01

    Agnes Chavez is an artist and educator participating in a two-week research stay through the ATLAS Experiment at CERN.   Tuesday 3 May at 4 p.m. CERN Library (52 1-052) Artist/educator, Agnes Chavez will share video outcomes from Projecting Particles, an Art + Science + Education collaboration with ATLAS. The Sci-Art project combines the International Masterclass with Projection Art in a series of teen-led youth workshops and projection events. In this presentation Chavez will share her vision and describe the research and development behind the project, now in its third year.  For the Projecting pARTicles series of art installations she has formed an interdisciplinary team of programmers, artists, scientists and educators to investigate how we can create art and education interventions inspired by emerging particle physics theories. Chavez’s art experiments with data visualization, sound and projections to create participatory environments. She collaborates with programmers t...

  6. AGN Science with STROBE-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, David; Balokovic, Mislav; Garcia, Javier; Koss, Michael; STROBE-X

    2018-01-01

    The probe concept STROBE-X, with its combination of large collecting area, wide-field monitor, broad bandpass, and rapid timing capability, is a powerful tool for studying many aspects of AGN astrophysics. This unique combination of features opens up the possibility for studying AGNs in ways current and other future missions are unable to accomplish. Here, we show a few of the novel new investigations made possible by STROBE-X: probing the structure of the BLR and torus with reverberation of the narrow Fe Kα line and line-of-sight column density, tracking changes in coronal parameters, investigating the origin of the soft excess, Fe Kα emission line surveys, and efficient Compton-thick characterization. Additional ideas and suggestions are always welcome and can be communicated to any member of the STROBE-X team.

  7. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: faus@mit.edu [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-12-05

    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  8. Challenges in Finding AGNs in the Low Luminosity Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nick; Secrest, Nathan; Singh, Amrit; Ellison, Sara

    2016-08-01

    Low luminosity AGNs are an important component of the AGN population. They are often found in the lowest mass galaxies or galaxies that lack classical bulges, a demographic that places important constraints to models of supermassive black hole seed formation and merger-free models of AGN fueling. The detection of AGNs in this low luminosity regime is challenging both because star formation in the host galaxy can dominate the optical spectrum and gas and dust can obscure the central engine at both optical and X-ray wavelengths. Thus while mid-infrared color selection and X-ray observations at energies <10 keV are often powerful tools in uncovering optically unidentified AGNs at higher luminosities, this is not the case in the low luminosity regime. In this talk, I will review the effectiveness of uncovering AGNs in the low luminosity regime using multiwavength investigations, with a focus on infrared spectroscopic signatures.

  9. AGNES - safety reassessment of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of the AGNES (Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety) project for the reassessment of the safety of Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, was to improve the safety culture of the technology at Paks. A report was prepared on the reassessment of the Paks NPP safety. The analysis was divided into four groups: systems analysis, analysis of design basis accidents, severe accident analysis, and level 1 probabilistic safety analysis. Proposed safety enhancement measures are discussed. (N.T.)

  10. X-Rays and Infrared Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirhakos, S. D.; Steiner, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la busqueda de nucleos activos galacticos (NAG) oscurecidos, seleccionamos una tnuestra de galaxias ernisoras de rayos S infrarrojos, Ia mayoria de las cuales son vistas de perf ii. La 6ptica de la regi6n nuclear de las galaxias seleccionadas revelan que el 76% de ellas muestran lineas de emisi5n La clasificaci6n de los es- pectros de acuerdo a los anchos y a la intensidad de cocientes de lineas muestran que existen 34 NAG, 34 objetos de tipo de transici6n y 34 galaxias de la regi6n con nucleos de tipo regi6n H II. Entre los NAG, 3 son del tipo Seyfert I y las otras son del tipo 2. Sugerimos que los objetos identificados como NAG de llneas angostas son objetos tipo Seyfert I oscurecidos ABSTRACT. Looking for obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN), we selected a sample of infrarediX-rays emitting galaxies, mos"t of which are seen as edge-on. Optical spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the selected galaxies revealed that 76 % of them show emission l 'nes. Classification of the spectra according to the widths and line intensity ratios shows that there are 34 AGN, 34 transition type objects and 43 nuclear HIl-like region galaxies. Among the AGN, three are Seyfert type 1 and the others are type 2 objects. We suggest that the objects identified as narrow line AGN are obscured Seyfert 1. o'L : GALAXIES-ACTIVE - X-RAY S-GENERAL

  11. Making Sense of Black Holes: Modeling the Galactic Center and Other Low-power AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino; Moscibrodzka, Monika

    2018-06-01

    The Galactic center host a well-known flat-spectrum radio source, Sgr A*, that is akin to the radio nuclei of quasars and radio galaxies. It is the main target of the Event Horizon Telescope to image the shadow of the black hole. There is, however, still considerable discussion on where the near-horizon emission originates from. Does it come from an accretion flow or is it produced in a relativistic jet-like outflow? Using advanced three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations coupled to general relativistic ray tracing simulations, we now model the dynamics and emission of the plasma around starving black holes in great detail out to several thousand Schwarzschild radii. Jets appear almost naturally in theses simulations. A crucial parameter is the heating of radiating electrons and we argue that electron-proton coupling is low in the accretion flow and high in the magnetized region of the jets, making the jet an important ingredient for the overall appearance of the source. This comprehensive model is able to predict the radio size and appearance, the spectral energy distribution from radio to X-rays, the variability, and the time lags of Sgr A* surprisingly well. Interestingly, the same model can be easily generalized to other low-power AGN like M87, suggesting that GRMHD models for AGN are finally becoming predictive. With upcoming submm-VLBI experiment on the ground and in space, we will be able to further test these models in great detail and see black holes in action.

  12. A COMPACT GROUP OF GALAXIES AT Z = 2.48 HOSTING AN AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi [Gemini Observatory, 670 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: jshih@gemini.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 10{sup 11}M{sub ⊙} and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass–metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow.

  13. AGES: THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Eisenstein, D. J.; Caldwell, N.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Forman, W. R.; Green, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cool, R. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, Bryant Space Science Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) is a redshift survey covering, in its standard fields, 7.7 deg{sup 2} of the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The final sample consists of 23,745 redshifts. There are well-defined galaxy samples in 10 bands (the B{sub W} , R, I, J, K, IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m, and MIPS 24 {mu}m bands) to a limiting magnitude of I < 20 mag for spectroscopy. For these galaxies, we obtained 18,163 redshifts from a sample of 35,200 galaxies, where random sparse sampling was used to define statistically complete sub-samples in all 10 photometric bands. The median galaxy redshift is 0.31, and 90% of the redshifts are in the range 0.085 < z < 0.66. Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) were selected as radio, X-ray, IRAC mid-IR, and MIPS 24 {mu}m sources to fainter limiting magnitudes (I < 22.5 mag for point sources). Redshifts were obtained for 4764 quasars and galaxies with AGN signatures, with 2926, 1718, 605, 119, and 13 above redshifts of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. We detail all the AGES selection procedures and present the complete spectroscopic redshift catalogs and spectral energy distribution decompositions. Photometric redshift estimates are provided for all sources in the AGES samples.

  14. Impression Management Agnes Monica Melalui Akun Instagram (@Agnezmo)

    OpenAIRE

    Alim, Chelsea Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa penggunaan taktik manajemen kesan yang dilakukan Agnes Monica melalui akun Instagram (@agnezmo). Agnes Monica sebagai seseorang yang berpengaruh, selalu menjadi bahan perbincangan publik, dan perhatian media sosial, memiliki kesan yang baik, termasuk melalui Instagram. Peneliti menggunakan metode analisis isi kuantitatif untuk menganalisa 45 post foto Instagram Agnes Monica, yang ada pada tanggal 1 Februari 2014 - 1 April 2014. Hasil penelitian ini ...

  15. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  16. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M ⊙ yr −1 . Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis

  17. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  18. Hypercat - Hypercube of Clumpy AGN Tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikutta, Robert; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Ichikawa, Kohei; Levenson, Nancy; Packham, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Dusty tori surrounding the central engines of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are required by the Unification Paradigm, and are supported by many observations, e.g. variable nuclear absorber (sometimes Compton-thick) in X-rays, reverberation mapping in optical/UV, hot dust emission and SED shapes in NIR/MIR, molecular and cool-dust tori observed with ALMA in sub-mm.While models of AGN torus SEDs have been developed and utilized for a long time, the study of the resolved emission morphology (brightness maps) has so far been under-appreciated, presumably because resolved observations of the central parsec in AGN are only possible very recently. Currently, only NIR+MIR interferometry is capable of resolving the nuclear dust emission (but not of producing images, until MATISSE comes online). Furthermore, MIR interferometry has delivered also puzzling results, e.g. that in some resolved sources the light emanates preferentially from polar directions above the "torus" system, and not from the equatorial plane, where most of the dust is located.We are preparing the release of a panchromatic, fully interpolable hypercube of brightness maps and projected dust images for a large number of CLUMPY torus models (Nenkova+2008), that will help facilitate studies of resolved AGN emission and dust morphologies. Together with the cube we will release a comprehensive set of open-source tools (Python) that will enable researches to work efficiently with this large hypercube:* easy sub-cube selection + memory-mapping (mitigating the too-big-for-RAM problem)* multi-dim image interpolation (get an image at any wavelength & model parameter combination)* simulation of observations with telescopes (compute/provide + apply a PSF) and interferometers (get visibilities)* analyze images with respect to the power contained at all scales and orientations (via 2D steerable wavelets), addressing the seemingly puzzling results mentioned aboveA series of papers is in preparation, aiming at solving the

  19. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  20. ALMA 0.1–0.2 arcsec resolution imaging of the NGC 1068 Nucleus: compact dense molecular gas emission at the putative AGN location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 2 high angular resolution (0.″1–0.″2) observations of the nuclear region of the nearby well-studied type-2 active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 1068, at HCN J = 3–2 and HCO{sup +} J = 3–2 emission lines. For the first time, due to a higher angular resolution than previous studies, we clearly detected dense molecular gas emission at the putative AGN location, identified as a ∼1.1 mm (∼266 GHz) continuum emission peak, by separating this emission from brighter emission located at 0.″5–2.″0 on the eastern and western sides of the AGN. The estimated intrinsic molecular emission size and dense molecular mass, which are thought to be associated with the putative dusty molecular torus around an AGN, were ∼10 pc and ∼several × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, respectively. HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 3–2 flux ratios substantially higher than unity were found throughout the nuclear region of NGC 1068. The continuum emission displayed an elongated morphology along the direction of the radio jet located at the northern side of the AGN, as well as a weak spatially-resolved component at ∼2.″0 on the southwestern side of the AGN. The latter component most likely originated from star formation, with the estimated luminosity more than one order of magnitude lower than the luminosity of the central AGN. No vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1f) J = 3–2 emission lines were detected for HCN and HCO{sup +} across the field of view.

  1. RESOLVING THE GEOMETRY OF THE INNERMOST RELATIVISTIC JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algaba, J. C.; Lee, S. S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, M.; Asada, K., E-mail: algaba@kasi.re.kr [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China)

    2017-01-01

    In the current paradigm, it is believed that the compact VLBI radio core of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) represents the innermost upstream regions of relativistic outflows. These regions of AGN jets have generally been modeled by a conical outflow with a roughly constant opening angle and flow speed. Nonetheless, some works suggest that a parabolic geometry would be more appropriate to fit the high energy spectral distribution properties and it has been recently found that, at least in some nearby radio galaxies, the geometry of the innermost regions of the jet is parabolic. We compile here multi-frequency core sizes of archival data to investigate the typically unresolved upstream regions of the jet geometry of a sample of 56 radio-loud AGNs. Data combined from the sources considered here are not consistent with the classic picture of a conical jet starting in the vicinity of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), and may exclude a pure parabolic outflow solution, but rather suggest an intermediate solution with quasi-parabolic streams, which are frequently seen in numerical simulations. Inspection of the large opening angles near the SMBH and the range of the Lorentz factors derived from our results support our analyses. Our result suggests that the conical jet paradigm in AGNs needs to be re-examined by millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI observations.

  2. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  3. Optical and near-infrared IFU spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the AGN-starburst galaxy NGC 7582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; May, D.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Menezes, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    NGC 7582 is an SB(s)ab galaxy which displays evidences of simultaneous nuclear activity and star formation in its centre. Previous optical observations revealed, besides the H II regions, an ionization cone and a gas disc in its central part. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images in both optical and infrared bands show the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a few compact structures that are possibly associated with young stellar clusters. In order to study in detail both the AGN and evidence for star formation, we analyse optical (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) and near-infrared (Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) archival data cubes. We detected five nebulae with strong He II λ4686 emission in the same region where an outflow is detected in the [O III] λ5007 kinematic map. We interpreted this result as clouds that are exposed to high-energy photons emerging from the AGN throughout the ionization cone. We also detected Wolf-Rayet features which are related to emission of one of the compact clusters seen in the HST image. Broad Hα and Br γ components are detected at the position of the nucleus. [Fe II] λ1.644 μm, H2λ2.122 μm and Br γ flux maps show two blobs, one north and the other south from the nucleus, that seem to be associated with five previously detected mid-infrared sources. Two of the five He II nebulae are partially ionized by photons from starbursts. However, we conclude that the main source of excitation of these blobs is the AGN jet/disc. The jet orientation indicates that the accretion disc is nearly orthogonal to the dusty torus.

  4. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. VIII. Type 1 AGN with Massive Absorbing Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Davies, Richard I.; Koss, Michael; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Burtscher, Leonard; Genzel, Reinhard; Lin, Ming-yi; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David; Sturm, Eckhard; Tacconi, Linda

    2018-04-01

    We explore the relationship between X-ray absorption and optical obscuration within the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS), which has been collecting and analyzing the optical and X-ray spectra for 641 hard X-ray selected (E > 14 keV) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use the deviation from a linear broad Hα-to-X-ray relationship as an estimate of the maximum optical obscuration toward the broad line region (BLR) and compare the A V to the hydrogen column densities ({N}{{H}}) found through systematic modeling of their X-ray spectra. We find that the inferred columns implied by A V toward the BLR are often orders of magnitude less than the columns measured toward the X-ray emitting region, indicating a small-scale origin for the X-ray absorbing gas. After removing 30% of Sy 1.9s that potentially have been misclassified due to outflows, we find that 86% (164/190) of the Type 1 population (Sy 1–1.9) are X-ray unabsorbed as expected based on a single obscuring structure. However, 14% (26/190), of which 70% (18/26) are classified as Sy 1.9, are X-ray absorbed, suggesting that the BLR itself is providing extra obscuration toward the X-ray corona. The fraction of X-ray absorbed Type 1 AGNs remains relatively constant with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio, indicating a stable BLR covering fraction.

  5. RAiSE III: 3C radio AGN energetics and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.

    2018-03-01

    Kinetic jet power estimates based exclusively on observed monochromatic radio luminosities are highly uncertain due to confounding variables and a lack of knowledge about some aspects of the physics of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We propose a new methodology to calculate the jet powers of the largest, most powerful radio sources based on combinations of their size, lobe luminosity, and shape of their radio spectrum; this approach avoids the uncertainties encountered by previous relationships. The outputs of our model are calibrated using hydrodynamical simulations and tested against independent X-ray inverse-Compton measurements. The jet powers and lobe magnetic field strengths of radio sources are found to be recovered using solely the lobe luminosity and spectral curvature, enabling the intrinsic properties of unresolved high-redshift sources to be inferred. By contrast, the radio source ages cannot be estimated without knowledge of the lobe volumes. The monochromatic lobe luminosity alone is incapable of accurately estimating the jet power or source age without knowledge of the lobe magnetic field strength and size, respectively. We find that, on average, the lobes of the Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3C) have magnetic field strengths approximately a factor three lower than the equipartition value, inconsistent with equal energy in the particles and the fields at the 5σ level. The particle content of 3C radio lobes is discussed in the context of complementary observations; we do not find evidence favouring an energetically dominant proton population.

  6. Fossil energy research meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropschot, R. H.; Phillips, G. C.

    1977-12-01

    U.S. ERDA's research programs in fossil energy are reviewed with brief descriptions, budgets, etc. Of general interest are discussions related to the capabilities for such research of national laboratories, universities, energy centers, etc. Of necessity many items are treated briefly, but a general overview of the whole program is provided. (LTN)

  7. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating

  8. Spectral-luminosity evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Darryl; Boldt, Elihu

    1992-01-01

    The origin of the cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds is explained via the mechanism of AGN spectral-luminosity evolution. The spectral evolution of precursor active galaxies into AGN, and Newton-Raphson input and output parameters are discussed.

  9. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  10. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  11. A UV to mid-IR study of AGN selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Mi; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC and MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ∼20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. We fit galaxy, active galactic nucleus (AGN), stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are σ/(1 + z) = 0.040 and σ/(1 + z) = 0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. On the basis of the χ{sub ν}{sup 2} of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I = 23.5 mag. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy-AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGNs, including spatially resolved AGNs with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of 'composite' spectra. We also use our results to compare with the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color, and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F > 10, we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I = 23.5 mag and a surface density of ∼1900 AGN deg{sup –2}.

  12. CERN Library | Agnes Chavez @ CERN | 17 March

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Agnes Chavez will present her work on Tuesday, 17 March 2015 at 4 p.m. in the Library (Builidng. 52-1-052) Coffee will be served from 3.30 p.m.   Agnes Chavez is an artist and educator participating in a two-week research stay organised by the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Chavez is using the stay to develop her art and education project, Projecting pARTicles, which will be exploring particle physics through projection art. Chavez experiments with data visualization, sound and projection art to create participatory environments. She collaborates with programmers to create algorithmic drawings projected on to buildings, walls and spaces. This work explores our relationship with nature and technology, and how these and other sensory experiences determine how we perceive and interpret the world around us. For the Projecting pARTicles series she has formed an interdisciplinary team of programmers, artists, scientists and educators to investigate how we can create art and education interventions inspire...

  13. Renewables vs fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, K. (Energy Research and Development Corporation (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines some of the factors which will influence the future mix of energy from fossil fuels and renewable sources in Australia. Aspects covered include: the present energy situation; impact of environmental issues; potential for renewable energy; motivators for change; and research and development. It is concluded that the future for fossil fuels and renewable energy is dependent on a number of complex factors, many of which are currently unknown. The key factor is economic viability and that will be influenced by a range of factors such as policies of the Australian and overseas governments in relation to pollution and environment protection (reflected in the cost of meeting such requirements), exploration and production costs (also influenced by government policies), availability of supply, rate of technological development and the size of export markets. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Density profile of dark matter haloes and galaxies in the HORIZON-AGN simulation: the impact of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Devriendt, Julien; Bundy, Kevin; Silk, Joe; Pichon, Christophe; Kaviraj, Sugata; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Habouzit, Mélanie

    2017-12-01

    Using a suite of three large cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, HORIZON-AGN, HORIZON–NOAGN (no AGN feedback) and HORIZON-DM (no baryons), we investigate how a typical sub-grid model for AGN feedback affects the evolution of the inner density profiles of massive dark matter haloes and galaxies. Based on direct object-to-object comparisons, we find that the integrated inner mass and density slope differences between objects formed in these three simulations (hereafter, HAGN, HnoAGN and HDM) significantly evolve with time. More specifically, at high redshift (z ∼ 5), the mean central density profiles of HAGN and HnoAGN dark matter haloes tend to be much steeper than their HDM counterparts owing to the rapidly growing baryonic component and ensuing adiabatic contraction. By z ∼ 1.5, these mean halo density profiles in HAGN have flattened, pummelled by powerful AGN activity ('quasar mode'): the integrated inner mass difference gaps with HnoAGN haloes have widened, and those with HDM haloes have narrowed. Fast forward 9.5 billion years, down to z = 0, and the trend reverses: HAGN halo mean density profiles drift back to a more cusped shape as AGN feedback efficiency dwindles ('radio mode'), and the gaps in integrated central mass difference with HnoAGN and HDM close and broaden, respectively. On the galaxy side, the story differs noticeably. Averaged stellar profile central densities and inner slopes are monotonically reduced by AGN activity as a function of cosmic time, resulting in better agreement with local observations.

  15. RAiSE II: resolved spectral evolution in radio AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.; Rogers, Jonathan G.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.

    2018-01-01

    The active galactic nuclei (AGN) lobe radio luminosities modelled in hydrodynamical simulations and most analytical models do not address the redistribution of the electron energies due to adiabatic expansion, synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. We present a synchrotron emissivity model for resolved sources that includes a full treatment of the loss mechanisms spatially across the lobe, and apply it to a dynamical radio source model with known pressure and volume expansion rates. The bulk flow and dispersion of discrete electron packets is represented by tracer fields in hydrodynamical simulations; we show that the mixing of different aged electrons strongly affects the spectrum at each point of the radio map in high-powered Fanaroff & Riley type II (FR-II) sources. The inclusion of this mixing leads to a factor of a few discrepancy between the spectral age measured using impulsive injection models (e.g. JP model) and the dynamical age. The observable properties of radio sources are predicted to be strongly frequency dependent: FR-II lobes are expected to appear more elongated at higher frequencies, while jetted FR-I sources appear less extended. The emerging FR0 class of radio sources, comprising gigahertz peaked and compact steep spectrum sources, can potentially be explained by a population of low-powered FR-Is. The extended emission from such sources is shown to be undetectable for objects within a few orders of magnitude of the survey detection limit and to not contribute to the curvature of the radio spectral energy distribution.

  16. A fossils detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffetaut, E.

    1998-01-01

    Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Direct Imaging of a Toroidal Magnetic Field in the Inner Jet of NRAO 150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol N. Molina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most formation models and numerical simulations cause a helical magnetic field to form, accelerate and collimate jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN. For this reason, observational direct evidence for the existence of these helical magnetic fields is of special relevance. In this work, we present ultra- high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of the jet in the quasar NRAO150. We study the polarization structure and report evidence of a helical magnetic field.

  18. PARSEC-SCALE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES FROM GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to ∼10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.

  19. PARSEC-SCALE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES FROM GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.c, E-mail: jmckinne@stanford.ed [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to {approx}10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.

  20. Misaligned Accretion and Jet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2018-04-01

    Disk accretion onto a black hole is often misaligned from its spin axis. If the disk maintains a significant magnetic field normal to its local plane, we show that dipole radiation from Lense–Thirring precessing disk annuli can extract a significant fraction of the accretion energy, sharply peaked toward small disk radii R (as R ‑17/2 for fields with constant equipartition ratio). This low-frequency emission is immediately absorbed by surrounding matter or refracted toward the regions of lowest density. The resultant mechanical pressure, dipole angular pattern, and much lower matter density toward the rotational poles create a strong tendency to drive jets along the black hole spin axis, similar to the spin-axis jets of radio pulsars, also strong dipole emitters. The coherent primary emission may explain the high brightness temperatures seen in jets. The intrinsic disk emission is modulated at Lense–Thirring frequencies near the inner edge, providing a physical mechanism for low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Dipole emission requires nonzero hole spin, but uses only disk accretion energy. No spin energy is extracted, unlike the Blandford–Znajek process. Magnetohydrodynamic/general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD/GRMHD) formulations do not directly give radiation fields, but can be checked post-process for dipole emission and therefore self-consistency, given sufficient resolution. Jets driven by dipole radiation should be more common in active galactic nuclei (AGN) than in X-ray binaries, and in low accretion-rate states than high, agreeing with observation. In non-black hole accretion, misaligned disk annuli precess because of the accretor’s mass quadrupole moment, similarly producing jets and QPOs.

  1. AGN outflows as neutrino sources: an observational test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, P.; Turcati, A.; Resconi, E.

    2018-04-01

    We test the recently proposed idea that outflows associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) could be neutrino emitters in two complementary ways. First, we cross-correlate a list of 94 "bona fide" AGN outflows with the most complete and updated repository of IceCube neutrinos currently publicly available, assembled by us for this purpose. It turns out that AGN with outflows matched to an IceCube neutrino have outflow and kinetic energy rates, and bolometric powers larger than those of AGN with outflows not matched to neutrinos. Second, we carry out a statistical analysis on a catalogue of [O III] λ5007 line profiles using a sample of 23,264 AGN at z values (˜6 and 18 per cent respectively, pre-trial) for relatively high velocities and luminosities. Our results are consistent with a scenario where AGN outflows are neutrino emitters but at present do not provide a significant signal. This can be tested with better statistics and source stacking. A predominant role of AGN outflows in explaining the IceCube data appears in any case to be ruled out.

  2. FROM GALACTIC TO EXTRAGALACTIC JETS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Beall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the data that have recently become available from observing campaigns, including VLA, VLBA, and satellite instruments, shows some remarkable similarities and significant differences in the data from some epochs of galactic microquasars, including GRS 1915+105, the concurrent radio and X-ray data [3] on Centaurus A (NGC 5128, 3C120 [35], and 3C454.3 as reported by Bonning et al. [16], which showed the first results from the Fermi Space Telescope for the concurrent variability at optical, UV, IR, and g-ray variability of that source. In combination with observations from microquasars and quasars from the MOJAVE Collaboration [32], these data provide time-dependent evolutions of radio data at mas (i.e., parsec for AGNs, and Astronomical Unit scales for microquasars. These sources all show a remarkable richness of patterns of variability for astrophysical jets across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. It is likely that these patterns of variability arise from the complex structures through which the jets propagate, but it is also possible that the jets constitution, initial energy, and collimation have significant observational consequences. On the other hand, Ulrich et al. [42] suggest that this picture is complicated for radio-quiet AGN by the presence of significant emission from accretion disks in those sources. Consistent with the jet-ambient-medium hypothesis, the observed concurrent radio and X-ray variability of Centaurus A [3] could have been caused by the launch of a jet element from Cen A’s central source and that jet’s interaction with the interstellar medium in the core region of that galaxy.

  3. NGC 741—Mergers and AGN Feedback on a Galaxy-group Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L.; O’Sullivan, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S. W. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6140 (New Zealand); Raychaudhury, S., E-mail: gerrit.schellenberger@cfa.harvard.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-08-10

    Low-mass galaxy cluster systems and groups will play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies, such as those to be carried out with eROSITA. Though the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes are of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium, they are poorly understood on the galaxy-group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741 that provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly bent jets, a 100-kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas-sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas-stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  4. Automated spectral and timing analysis of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, F.; Karas, V.; Guainazzi, M.

    2006-12-01

    % We have developed an autonomous script that helps the user to automate the XMM-Newton data analysis for the purposes of extensive statistical investigations. We test this approach by examining X-ray spectra of bright AGNs pre-selected from the public database. The event lists extracted in this process were studied further by constructing their energy-resolved Fourier power-spectrum density. This analysis combines energy distributions, light-curves, and their power-spectra and it proves useful to assess the variability patterns present is the data. As another example, an automated search was based on the XSPEC package to reveal the emission features in 2-8 keV range.

  5. FINDING FOSSIL GROUPS: OPTICAL IDENTIFICATION AND X-RAY CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rykoff, Eli S. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dupke, Renato A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Proctor, Robert N. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garmire, Gordon P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); McKay, Timothy A., E-mail: milleric@mit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We report the discovery of 12 new fossil groups (FGs) of galaxies, systems dominated by a single giant elliptical galaxy and cluster-scale gravitational potential, but lacking the population of bright galaxies typically seen in galaxy clusters. These FGs, selected from the maxBCG optical cluster catalog, were detected in snapshot observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detail the highly successful selection method, with an 80% success rate in identifying 12 FGs from our target sample of 15 candidates. For 11 of the systems, we determine the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and hydrostatic mass, which do not deviate significantly from expectations for normal systems, spanning a range typical of rich groups and poor clusters of galaxies. A small number of detected FGs are morphologically irregular, possibly due to past mergers, interaction of the intra-group medium with a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), or superposition of multiple massive halos. Two-thirds of the X-ray-detected FGs exhibit X-ray emission associated with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), although we are unable to distinguish between AGN and extended thermal galaxy emission using the current data. This sample representing a large increase in the number of known FGs, will be invaluable for future planned observations to determine FG temperature, gas density, metal abundance, and mass distributions, and to compare to normal (non-fossil) systems. Finally, the presence of a population of galaxy-poor systems may bias mass function determinations that measure richness from galaxy counts. When used to constrain power spectrum normalization and {Omega}{sub m}, these biased mass functions may in turn bias these results.

  6. Smashing a Jet into a Cloud to Form Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    What happens when the highly energetic jet from the center of an active galaxy rams into surrounding clouds of gas and dust? A new study explores whether this might be a way to form stars.The authors simulations at an intermediate (top) and final (bottom) stage show the compression in the gas cloud as a jet (red) enters from the left. Undisturbed cloud material is shown in blue, whereas green corresponds to cold, compressed gas actively forming stars. [Fragile et al. 2017]Impacts of FeedbackCorrelation between properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest that there is some means of communication between them. For this reason, we suspect that feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the form of jets, for instance controls the size of the galaxy by influencing star formation. But how does this process work?AGN feedback can be either negative or positive. In negative feedback, the gas necessary for forming stars is heated or dispersed by the jet, curbing or halting star formation. In positive feedback, jets propagate through the surrounding gas with energies high enough to create compression in the gas, but not so high that they heat it. The increased density can cause the gas to collapse, thereby triggering star formation.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Chris Fragile (College of Charleston) modeled what happens when an enormous AGN jet slams into a dwarf-galaxy-sized, inactive cloud of gas. In particular, the team explored the possibility of star-forming positive feedback with the goal of reproducing recent observations of something called Minkowskis Object, a stellar nursery located at the endpoint of a radio jet emitted from the active galaxy NGC 541.The star formation rate in the simulated cloud increases dramatically as a result of the jets impact, reaching the rate currently observed for Minkowskis Objects within 20 million years. [Fragile et al. 2017]Triggering Stellar BirthFragile and collaborators used a

  7. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  8. FROM NEARBY LOW LUMINOSITY AGN TO HIGH REDSHIFT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    44

    6Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sector 125, Noida ... We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN ..... kiloparsec-scale radio study of the MOJAVE6 blazar sample. Kharb et al.

  9. Can double-peaked lines indicate merging effects in AGNs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of merging effects in the central part of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN on the emission spectral line shapes are discussed. We present a model of close binary Broad Line Region. The numerical experiments show that the merging effects can explain double peaked lines. The merging effects may also be present in the center of AGNs, although they emit slightly asymmetric as well as symmetric and relatively stable (in profile shape spectral lines. Depending on the black hole masses and their orbit elements such model may explain some of the line profile shapes observed in AGNs. This work shows that if one is looking for the merging effects in the central region as well as in the wide field structure of AGNs, he should first pay attention to objects which have double peaked lines.

  10. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  11. INTERFEROMETRIC MONITORING OF GAMMA-RAY BRIGHT AGNs. I. THE RESULTS OF SINGLE-EPOCH MULTIFREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Hodgson, Jeffrey A.; Byun, Do-Young; Kang, Sincheol; Kim, Soon-Wook; Kino, Motoki [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Jongho; Kim, Jae-Young; Trippe, Sascha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Miyazaki, Atsushi [Japan Space Forum, 3-2-1, Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Japan (Japan); Kim, Jeong-Sook, E-mail: sslee@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2211 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    We present results of single-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) at the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, which are part of a KVN key science program, Interferometric Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bright AGNs. We selected a total of 34 radio-loud AGNs of which 30 sources are gamma-ray bright AGNs with flux densities of >6 × 10{sup −10} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Single-epoch multifrequency VLBI observations of the target sources were conducted during a 24 hr session on 2013 November 19 and 20. All observed sources were detected and imaged at all frequency bands, with or without a frequency phase transfer technique, which enabled the imaging of 12 faint sources at 129 GHz, except for one source. Many of the target sources are resolved on milliarcsecond scales, yielding a core-jet structure, with the VLBI core dominating the synchrotron emission on a milliarcsecond scale. CLEAN flux densities of the target sources are 0.43–28 Jy, 0.32–21 Jy, 0.18–11 Jy, and 0.35–8.0 Jy in the 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands, respectively. Spectra of the target sources become steeper at higher frequency, with spectral index means of −0.40, −0.62, and −1.00 in the 22–43 GHz, 43–86 GHz and 86–129 GHz bands, respectively, implying that the target sources become optically thin at higher frequencies (e.g., 86–129 GHz).

  12. Development of AGNES, a kinetics code for fissile solutions, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken; Ohnishi, Nobuaki

    1986-01-01

    A kinetics code for fissile solutions, AGNES (Accidentally Generated Nuclear Excursion Simulation code), has been developed. This code calculates the radiolytic gas void effect as a reactivity feedback. Physical and calculative models of the radiolytic gas void are summarized and the usage of AGNES is described. In addition, some benchmark calculations were performed and results of calculations show good agreement with those of experiments. (author)

  13. Testing AGN unification via inference from large catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikutta, Robert; Ivezic, Zeljko; Elitzur, Moshe; Nenkova, Maia

    2018-01-01

    Source orientation and clumpiness of the central dust are the main factors in AGN classification. Type-1 QSOs are easy to observe and large samples are available (e.g. in SDSS), but obscured type-2 AGN are dimmer and redder as our line of sight is more obscured, making it difficult to obtain a complete sample. WISE has found up to a million QSOs. With only 4 bands and a relatively small aperture the analysis of individual sources is challenging, but the large sample allows inference of bulk properties at a very significant level.CLUMPY (www.clumpy.org) is arguably the most popular database of AGN torus SEDs. We model the ensemble properties of the entire WISE AGN content using regularized linear regression, with orientation-dependent CLUMPY color-color-magnitude (CCM) tracks as basis functions. We can reproduce the observed number counts per CCM bin with percent-level accuracy, and simultaneously infer the probability distributions of all torus parameters, redshifts, additional SED components, and identify type-1/2 AGN populations through their IR properties alone. We increase the statistical power of our AGN unification tests even further, by adding other datasets as axes in the regression problem. To this end, we make use of the NOAO Data Lab (datalab.noao.edu), which hosts several high-level large datasets and provides very powerful tools for handling large data, e.g. cross-matched catalogs, fast remote queries, etc.

  14. A model for AGN variability on multiple time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Lia F.; Schawinski, Kevin; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Caplar, Neven; Treister, Ezequiel; Koss, Michael J.; Urry, C. Megan; Zhang, C. E.

    2018-05-01

    We present a framework to link and describe active galactic nuclei (AGN) variability on a wide range of time-scales, from days to billions of years. In particular, we concentrate on the AGN variability features related to changes in black hole fuelling and accretion rate. In our framework, the variability features observed in different AGN at different time-scales may be explained as realisations of the same underlying statistical properties. In this context, we propose a model to simulate the evolution of AGN light curves with time based on the probability density function (PDF) and power spectral density (PSD) of the Eddington ratio (L/LEdd) distribution. Motivated by general galaxy population properties, we propose that the PDF may be inspired by the L/LEdd distribution function (ERDF), and that a single (or limited number of) ERDF+PSD set may explain all observed variability features. After outlining the framework and the model, we compile a set of variability measurements in terms of structure function (SF) and magnitude difference. We then combine the variability measurements on a SF plot ranging from days to Gyr. The proposed framework enables constraints on the underlying PSD and the ability to link AGN variability on different time-scales, therefore providing new insights into AGN variability and black hole growth phenomena.

  15. Boosted jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juknevich, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the substructure of jets high transverse momentum at hadron colliders. A template method is introduced to distinguish heavy jets by comparing their energy distributions to the distributions of a set of templates which describe the kinematical information from signal or background. As an application, a search for a boosted Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks in association with a leptonically decaying W boson is presented as well. (author)

  16. Evolutionary behaviour of AGN: Investigations on BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, V.

    2000-12-01

    The evolution and nature of AGN is still one of the enigmatic questions in astrophysics. While large and complete Quasar samples are available, special classes of AGN, like BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies, are still rare objects. In this work I present two new AGN samples. The first one is the HRX-BL Lac survey, resulting in a sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objects. This sample results from 223 BL Lac candidates based on a correlation of X-ray sources with radio sources. The identification of this sample is 98% complete. 77 objects have been identified as BL Lac objects and form the HRX-BL Lac complete sample, the largest homogeneous sample of BL Lac objects existing today. For this sample, redshifts are now known for 62 objects (81 %). In total I present 101 BL Lac objects in the enlarged HRX-BL Lac survey, for which redshift information is available for 84 objects. During the HRX-BL Lac survey I found several objects of special interest. 1ES 1517+656 turned out to be the brightest known BL Lac object in the universe. 1ES 0927+500 could be the first BL Lac object with a line detected in the X-ray region. RX J1211+2242 is probably the the counterpart of the up to now unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J1212+2304. Additionally I present seven candidates for ultra high frequency peaked BL Lac objects. RX J1054+3855 and RX J1153+3517 are rare high redshift X-ray bright QSO or accreting binary systems with huge magnetic fields. For the BL Lac objects I suggest an unified scenario in which giant elliptical galaxies, formed by merging events of spiral galaxies at z > 2, start as powerful, radio dominated BL Lacs. As the jet gets less powerful, the BL Lacs start to get more X-ray dominated, showing less total luminosities (for z definition to objects with a calcium break up to 40%, but do not support for the HBL the idea of allowing emission lines in the spectra of BL Lac galaxies. A way to find high redshift BL Lac objects might be the identification of faint X

  17. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  18. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  19. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  20. The Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. IX. The Clustering Environments of an Unbiased Sample of Local AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M. C.; Cappelluti, N.; Urry, C. M.; Koss, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Ricci, C.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Allevato, V.; Ajello, M.; Oh, K.; Schawinski, K.; Secrest, N.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the environments of local accreting supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGNs in the Swift/BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.01 2MASS galaxies, and interpreting it via halo occupation distribution and subhalo-based models, we constrain the occupation statistics of the full sample, as well as in bins of absorbing column density and black hole mass. We find that AGNs tend to reside in galaxy group environments, in agreement with previous studies of AGNs throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift, and that on average they occupy their dark matter halos similar to inactive galaxies of comparable stellar mass. We also find evidence that obscured AGNs tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGNs, even when samples were matched in luminosity, redshift, stellar mass, and Eddington ratio. We show that this can be explained either by significantly different halo occupation distributions or statistically different host halo assembly histories. Lastly, we see that massive black holes are slightly more likely to reside in central galaxies than black holes of smaller mass.

  1. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  2. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  3. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Tek P.; Różańska, Agata; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, Bozena [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: tek@camk.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR) by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 10{sup 11.5} cm{sup −3}, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  4. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the

  5. NASA Jet Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  6. The formation and disruption of black hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Gabuzda, Denise; Kylafis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the phenomenology displayed by relativistic jets as well as the most recent theoretical efforts to understand the physical mechanisms at their origin. Relativistic jets have been observed and studied in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) for about half a century and are believed to be fueled by accretion onto a supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy. Since the first discovery of relativistic jets associated with so-called "micro-quasars" much more recently, it has seemed clear that much of the physics governing the relativistic outflows in stellar X-ray binaries harboring black holes and in AGN must be common, but acting on very different spatial and temporal scales. With new observational and theoretical results piling up every day, this book attempts to synthesize a consistent, unified physical picture of the formation and disruption of jets in accreting black-hole systems. The chapters in this book offer overviews accessible not only to specialists but also to graduat...

  7. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  8. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE AGNs. I. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF NEW DUAL AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FI-02540, Kylmaelae (Finland); Chavushyan, Vahram H., E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    A sample of 10 nearby intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is presented. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the black hole (BH) mass for the sample galaxies from the dynamics of the broad-line region. For this purpose, a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the objects was done. Using Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams, we have carefully classified the objects as true intermediate-type AGNs and found that 80%{sup +7.2%} {sub -17.3%} are composite AGNs. The BH mass estimated for the sample is within 6.54 {+-} 0.16 < log M {sub BH} < 7.81 {+-} 0.14. Profile analysis shows that five objects (J120655.63+501737.1, J121607.08+504930.0, J141238.14+391836.5, J143031.18+524225.8, and J162952.88+242638.3) have narrow double-peaked emission lines in both the red (H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548,6583 and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6731) and the blue (H{beta} and [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007) regions of the spectra, with velocity differences ({Delta}V) between the double peaks within 114 km s{sup -1} < {Delta}V < 256 km s{sup -1}. Two of them, J121607.08+504930.0 and J141238.14+391836.5, are candidates for dual AGNs since their double-peaked emission lines are dominated by AGN activity. In searches of dual AGNs, type 1, type II, and intermediate-type AGNs should be carefully separated, due to the high serendipitous number of narrow double-peaked sources (50% {+-} 14.4%) found in our sample.

  10. The energetics of AGN radiation pressure-driven outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Maiolino, R.

    2018-05-01

    The increasing observational evidence of galactic outflows is considered as a sign of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in action. However, the physical mechanism responsible for driving the observed outflows remains unclear, and whether it is due to momentum, energy, or radiation is still a matter of debate. The observed outflow energetics, in particular the large measured values of the momentum ratio (\\dot{p}/(L/c) ˜ 10) and energy ratio (\\dot{E}_k/L ˜ 0.05), seems to favour the energy-driving mechanism; and most observational works have focused their comparison with wind energy-driven models. Here, we show that AGN radiation pressure on dust can adequately reproduce the observed outflow energetics (mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and kinetic power), as well as the scalings with luminosity, provided that the effects of radiation trapping are properly taken into account. In particular, we predict a sublinear scaling for the mass outflow rate (\\dot{M} ∝ L^{1/2}) and a superlinear scaling for the kinetic power (\\dot{E}_k ∝ L^{3/2}), in agreement with the observational scaling relations reported in the most recent compilation of AGN outflow data. We conclude that AGN radiative feedback can account for the global outflow energetics, at least equally well as the wind energy-driving mechanism, and therefore both physical models should be considered in the interpretation of future AGN outflow observations.

  11. Revisiting the `forbidden' region: AGN radiative feedback with radiation trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Ricci, C.; Celotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, driven by radiation pressure on dust, is an important mechanism for efficiently coupling the accreting black hole to the surrounding environment. Recent observations confirm that X-ray selected AGN samples respect the effective Eddington limit for dusty gas in the plane defined by the observed column density versus the Eddington ratio, the so-called NH - λ plane. A `forbidden' region occurs in this plane, where obscuring clouds cannot be long-lived, due to the action of radiation pressure on dust. Here we compute the effective Eddington limit by explicitly taking into account the trapping of reprocessed radiation (which has been neglected in previous works), and investigate its impact on the NH - λ plane. We show that the inclusion of radiation trapping leads to an enhanced forbidden region, such that even Compton-thick material can potentially be disrupted by sub-Eddington luminosities. We compare our model results to the most complete sample of local AGNs with measured X-ray properties, and find good agreement. Considering the anisotropic emission from the accretion disc, we also expect the development of dusty outflows along the polar axis, which may naturally account for the polar dust emission recently detected in several AGNs from mid-infrared observations. Radiative feedback thus appears to be the key mechanism regulating the obscuration properties of AGNs, and we discuss its physical implications in the context of co-evolution scenarios.

  12. The joint fit of the BHMF and ERDF for the BAT AGN Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Koss, Michael; Ricci, Claudio; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Lamperti, Isabella

    2018-01-01

    A natural product of an AGN survey is the AGN luminosity function. This statistical measure describes the distribution of directly measurable AGN luminosities. Intrinsically, the shape of the luminosity function depends on the distribution of black hole masses and Eddington ratios. To constrain these fundamental AGN properties, the luminosity function thus has to be disentangled into the black hole mass and Eddington ratio distribution function. The BASS survey is unique as it allows such a joint fit for a large number of local AGN, is unbiased in terms of obscuration in the X-rays and provides black hole masses for type-1 and type-2 AGN. The black hole mass function at z ~ 0 represents an essential baseline for simulations and black hole growth models. The normalization of the Eddington ratio distribution function directly constrains the AGN fraction. Together, the BASS AGN luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio distribution functions thus provide a complete picture of the local black hole population.

  13. A High Definition View of AGN Feedback: Chandra Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.; Mundell, C. G.

    2010-03-01

    To improve the physics of AGN feedback, it is crucial to evaluate the true role of outflows on galaxy evolution observationally. I will present new results from Chandra spectral imaging of nearby Seyfert galaxies, which offer unique opportunities to examine feedback in action in much greater detail than at high redshift. Exploiting Chandra's highest possible resolution, we are able to study structures in NGC 4151 on spatial scales of 0.5 arcsec (30 pc), showing an extended X-ray morphology overall consistent with the optical NLR. We find that most of the NLR clouds in NGC 4151 have [OIII] to soft X-ray ratio consistent with the values observed in NLRs of some Seyfert 2 galaxies, which indicates a uniform ionization parameter even at large radii. We examine various X-ray emission mechanisms of the radio jet and consider thermal emission from interaction between radio outflow and the NLR clouds the most probable origin for the X-ray emission associated with the jet.

  14. Broadband radio spectro-polarimetric observations of high-Faraday-rotation-measure AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Alice; Carrasco-González, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Shane; Basu, Aritra; Bruni, Gabriele; Kraus, Alex; Curiel, Salvador; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-01

    We present broadband polarimetric observations of a sample of high-Faraday-rotation-measure (high-RM) active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) telescope from 1 to 2 GHz, and 4 to 12 GHz. The sample (14 sources) consists of very compact sources (linear resolution smaller than ≈5 kpc) that are unpolarized at 1.4 GHz in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Total intensity data have been modeled using a combination of synchrotron components, revealing complex structure in their radio spectra. Depolarization modeling, through the so-called qu-fitting (the modeling of the fractional quantities of the Stokes Q and U parameters), has been performed on the polarized data using an equation that attempts to simplify the process of fitting many different depolarization models. These models can be divided into two major categories: external depolarization (ED) and internal depolarization (ID) models. Understanding which of the two mechanisms is the most representative would help the qualitative understanding of the AGN jet environment and whether it is embedded in a dense external magneto-ionic medium or if it is the jet-wind that causes the high RM and strong depolarization. This could help to probe the jet magnetic field geometry (e.g., helical or otherwise). This new high-sensitivity data shows a complicated behavior in the total intensity and polarization radio spectrum of individual sources. We observed the presence of several synchrotron components and Faraday components in their total intensity and polarized spectra. For the majority of our targets (12 sources), the depolarization seems to be caused by a turbulent magnetic field. Thus, our main selection criteria (lack of polarization at 1.4 GHz in the NVSS) result in a sample of sources with very large RMs and depolarization due to turbulent magnetic fields local to the source. These broadband JVLA data reveal the complexity of the polarization properties of this class of radio sources

  15. Agnes Pockels: Life, Letters and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Christiane A.

    2004-03-01

    Agnes Pockels (1862 - 1935) was a German woman, whose studies pioneered surface science. She was born in malaria infected North Italy while her father served in the Austrian army. Because he suffered adverse health effects, the family moved in1871 to Braunschweig (North Germany). There, Pockels went to high school. She was interested in science, but formal training was not available for girls. She took on the role of household manager and nurse as her parents' health deteriorated further. Her diary illustrates the difficulties she faced in trying to maintain her own health, the health of her parents and her scientific research at the same time. When Pockels was 18 or 19, she designed a ring tensiometer. Additionally, she found a new method to introduce water-insoluble compounds to the water surface by dissolving them in an organic solvent, and applying drops of the solution. Her surface film balance technique from 1882 is the basis for the method later developed by Langmuir. Since her experimental work was highly original and in a new field, she failed to get it recognized in her own country. When she was 28, she wrote to Lord Rayleigh, since she had read about his recent experiments in surface physics. Rayleigh was so impressed with her experimental methods and results that he had her letter translated from German and published it in Nature (1891). She continued her research on surface films, interactions of solutions and contact angles (more papers, 3 in Nature). Still, she did all experiments at home. With the death of her brother in 1913 and the onset of the war, she retired into private life. Thus she was surprised when she was awarded in her late 60ies with a honorary doctorate by the TU Braunschweig (1932) and the annual prize of the German Colloid Society (1931).

  16. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  17. Multi-phase outflows as probes of AGN accretion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele; Zubovas, Kastytis

    2018-05-01

    Powerful outflows with a broad range of properties (such as velocity, ionization, radial scale and mass loss rate) represent a key feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN), even more so since they have been simultaneously revealed also in individual objects. Here we revisit in a simple analytical framework the recent remarkable cases of two ultraluminous infrared quasars, IRAS F11119+3257 and Mrk 231, which allow us to investigate the physical connection between multi-phase AGN outflows across the ladder of distance from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We argue that any major deviations from the standard outflow propagation models might encode unique information on the past SMBH accretion history, and briefly discuss how this could help address some controversial aspects of the current picture of AGN feedback.

  18. Compton-thick AGN at high and low redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Ranalli, P.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2017-10-01

    The most obscured sources detected in X-ray surveys, the Compton-thick AGN present great interest both because they represent the hidden side of accretion but also because they may signal the AGN birth. We analyse the NUSTAR observations from the serendipitous observations in order to study the Compton-thick AGN at the deepest possible ultra-hard band (>10 keV). We compare our results with our SWIFT/BAT findings in the local Universe, as well as with our results in the CDFS and COSMOS fields. We discuss the comparison with X-ray background synthesis models finding that a low fraction of Compton-thick sources (about 15 per cent of the obscured population) is compatible with both the 2-10keV band results and those at harder energies.

  19. Coeval Starburst and AGN Activity in the CDFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.

    2009-10-01

    Here we present a study on the host galaxies properties of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) detected in the CDFS 1Ms observation and for which deep K-band observations obtained with ISAAC@VLT are available. The aim of this study is to characterize the host galaxies properties of obscured AGN in terms of their stellar masses, star formation rates, and specific star formation rates. To this purpose we refined the X-ray/optical association of 179 1 Ms sources in the MUSIC area, using a three-bands (optical, K, and IRAC) catalog for the counterparts search and we derived the rest frame properties from SED fitting. We found that the host of obscured AGN at z>1 are associated with luminous, massive, red galaxies with significant star formation rates episodes still ongoing in about 50% of the sample.

  20. Mid-infrared Variability of Changing-look AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Zhenfeng; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo; Yan, Lin; Dou, Liming

    2017-01-01

    It is known that some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) transit from Type 1 to Type 2 or vice versa. There are two explanations for the so-called changing-look AGNs: one is the dramatic change of the obscuration along the line of sight, and the other is the variation of accretion rate. In this Letter, we report the detection of large amplitude variations in the mid-infrared luminosity during the transitions in 10 changing-look AGNs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) and newly released Near-Earth Object WISE Reactivation data. The mid-infrared light curves of 10 objects echo the variability in the optical band with a time lag expected for dust reprocessing. The large variability amplitude is inconsistent with the scenario of varying obscuration, rather it supports the scheme of dramatic change in the accretion rate.

  1. Mid-infrared Variability of Changing-look AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhenfeng; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan, Lin [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dou, Liming, E-mail: shengzf@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-09-01

    It is known that some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) transit from Type 1 to Type 2 or vice versa. There are two explanations for the so-called changing-look AGNs: one is the dramatic change of the obscuration along the line of sight, and the other is the variation of accretion rate. In this Letter, we report the detection of large amplitude variations in the mid-infrared luminosity during the transitions in 10 changing-look AGNs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) and newly released Near-Earth Object WISE Reactivation data. The mid-infrared light curves of 10 objects echo the variability in the optical band with a time lag expected for dust reprocessing. The large variability amplitude is inconsistent with the scenario of varying obscuration, rather it supports the scheme of dramatic change in the accretion rate.

  2. Delayed or No Feedback? Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Son, Donghoon; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: hjbae@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    We present gas kinematics based on the [O iii] λ 5007 line and their connection to galaxy gravitational potential, active galactic nucleus (AGN) energetics, and star formation, using a large sample of ∼110,000 AGNs and star-forming (SF) galaxies at z < 0.3. Gas and stellar velocity dispersions are comparable to each other in SF galaxies, indicating that the ionized gas kinematics can be accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies. In contrast, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. The [O iii] velocity–velocity dispersion (VVD) diagram dramatically expands toward high values as a function of AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven, while SF galaxies do not show such a trend. We find that the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [O iii] profile. AGNs with strong outflow signatures show on average similar specific star formation rates (sSFRs) to those of star-forming galaxies. In contrast, AGNs with weak or no outflows have an order of magnitude lower sSFRs, suggesting that AGNs with current strong outflows do now show any negative AGN feedback and that it may take dynamical time to impact on star formation over galactic scales.

  3. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Königl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R S (R S = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  4. Dynamics and Formation of Obscuring Tori in AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikova, Elena Yu.; Sergeyev, Alexey V., E-mail: bannikova@astron.kharkov.ua [Institute of Radio Astronomy, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Institute of Astronomy, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2017-12-12

    We considered the evolution of a self-gravitating clumpy torus in the gravitational field of the central mass of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the framework of the N-body problem. The initial conditions take into account winds with different opening angles. Results of our N-body simulations show that the clouds moving on orbits with a spread in inclinations and eccentricities form a toroidal region. The velocity of the clouds at the inner boundary of the torus is lower than in a disk model that can explain the observed rotation curves. We discuss the scenario of torus formation related with the beginning of the AGN stage.

  5. Duty-cycle and energetics of remnant radio-loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.

    2018-05-01

    Deriving the energetics of remnant and restarted active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is much more challenging than for active sources due to the complexity in accurately determining the time since the nucleus switched-off. I resolve this problem using a new approach that combines spectral ageing and dynamical models to tightly constrain the energetics and duty-cycles of dying sources. Fitting the shape of the integrated radio spectrum yields the fraction of the source age the nucleus is active; this, in addition to the flux density, source size, axis ratio, and properties of the host environment, provides a constraint on dynamical models describing the remnant radio source. This technique is used to derive the intrinsic properties of the well-studied remnant radio source B2 0924+30. This object is found to spend 50_{-12}^{+14} Myr in the active phase and a further 28_{-5}^{+6} Myr in the quiescent phase, have a jet kinetic power of 3.6_{-1.7}^{+3.0}× 10^{37} W, and a lobe magnetic field strength below equipartition at the 8σ level. The integrated spectra of restarted and intermittent radio sources are found to yield a `steep-shallow' shape when the previous outburst occurred within 100 Myr. The duty-cycle of B2 0924+30 is hence constrained to be δ < 0.15 by fitting the shortest time to the previous comparable outburst that does not appreciably modify the remnant spectrum. The time-averaged feedback energy imparted by AGNs into their host galaxy environments can in this manner be quantified.

  6. X-ray evidence for ultra-fast outflows in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Sambruna, Rita; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James; Reynolds, Christopher; Cappi, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    X-ray evidence for massive, highly ionized, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) has been recently reported in a number of AGNs through the detection of blue-shifted Fe XXV/XXVI absorption lines. We present the results of a comprehensive spectral analysis of a large sample of 42 local Seyferts and 5 radio galaxies observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. We assessed the global detection significance of the absorption lines and performed a detailed photo-ionization modeling. We find that UFOs are common phenomena, being present in >40% of the sources. Their outflow velocity distribution is in the range ˜0.03--0.3c, with mean value of ˜0.14c. The ionization parameter is very high, in the range logξ˜3--6 erg~s^{-1}~cm, and the associated column densities are also large, in the range ˜10^{22}--10^{24} cm^{-2}. Their location is constrained at ˜0.0003--0.03pc (˜10^2--10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are in the interval ˜0.01--1M_{⊙}~yr^{-1} and the associated mechanical power is high, in the range ˜10^{43}--10^{45} erg/s. Therefore, UFOs are capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  7. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  8. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  9. The role of AGN feedback in galaxy evolution at high-redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that supermassive black holes may play a crucial role for galaxy evolution, in particular during the formation of massive galaxies at high redshift (z ≅ 2 - 3). Our work focuses on quantifying the effects of jets of radiogalaxies and of large bolometric luminosities of quasars on the interstellar gas in their host galaxies. To this end, we studied the kinematics of the ionized gas in 12 moderately powerful radio galaxies and 11 quasars (6 radio-loud and 5 radio-quiet) at high redshifts with rest-frame optical imaging spectroscopy obtained at the VLT with SINFONI. We searched for outflows and other signatures of feedback from the supermassive black holes in the centers of these galaxies to evaluate if the AGN may plausibly quench star formation. In our sample of moderately powerful radiogalaxies, we observe velocity dispersions nearly as large as those observed in the most powerful ones (with FWHM ≅ 1000 km/s), but the quantity of ionized gas is decreased by one order of magnitude (M-ion gas ≅ 10"8 - 10"9 M-sun) and velocity gradients tend to be less dramatic (Δv ≤ 400 km/s), when they are observed. In our sample of quasars, we had to carefully subtract the broad spectral component of emission lines to have access to its narrow, and spatially extended, component. We detect truly extended emission line regions in 4/6 sources of our radio-loud sub-sample and in 1/5 source of our radio-quiet sub-sample. We estimate that masses of ionized gas in these sources are smaller than in our sample of high-redshift radiogalaxies (with Mion gas ≅ 10"7 - 10"8 Msun) and kinematics tend to be more quiescent, akin to what is observed in local quasars. Finally, detailed observations of two outliers among our sample of high-redshift radiogalaxies revealed that one of them is closely surrounded by 14 companions galaxies, hence lying in an over density. We therefore interpret the presence and morphology of ionized gas around these galaxies as evidence

  10. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The legacy of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaroli, N.; Balzani, V. [CNR, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  12. Right-handed fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Estalrrich, Almudena; Bondioli, Luca; Fiore, Ivana; Bermúdez de Castro, José-Maria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Rosas, Antonio; Frayer, David W

    2017-11-01

    Fossil hominids often processed material held between their upper and lower teeth. Pulling with one hand and cutting with the other, they occasionally left impact cut marks on the lip (labial) surface of their incisors and canines. From these actions, it possible to determine the dominant hand used. The frequency of these oblique striations in an array of fossil hominins documents the typically modern pattern of 9 right- to 1 left-hander. This ratio among living Homo sapiens differs from that among chimpanzees and bonobos and more distant primate relatives. Together, all studies of living people affirm that dominant right-handedness is a uniquely modern human trait. The same pattern extends deep into our past. Thus far, the majority of inferred right-handed fossils come from Europe, but a single maxilla from a Homo habilis, OH-65, shows a predominance of right oblique scratches, thus extending right-handedness into the early Pleistocene of Africa. Other studies show right-handedness in more recent African, Chinese, and Levantine fossils, but the sample compiled for non-European fossil specimens remains small. Fossil specimens from Sima del los Huesos and a variety of European Neandertal sites are predominately right-handed. We argue the 9:1 handedness ratio in Neandertals and the earlier inhabitants of Europe constitutes evidence for a modern pattern of handedness well before the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ISOTROPIC HEATING OF GALAXY CLUSTER CORES VIA RAPIDLY REORIENTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 10 44–45 erg s –1 , typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  14. ISOTROPIC LUMINOSITY INDICATORS IN A COMPLETE AGN SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Rieke, George H.; Rigby, Jane R.

    2009-01-01

    The [O IV] λ25.89 μm line has been shown to be an accurate indicator of active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity in that it correlates well with hard (10-200 keV) X-ray emission. We present measurements of [O IV] for 89 Seyfert galaxies from the unbiased revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) sample. The [O IV] luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured Seyferts are indistinguishable, indicating that their intrinsic AGN luminosities are quite similar and that the RSA sample is well suited for tests of the unified model. In addition, we analyze several commonly used proxies for AGN luminosity, including [O III] λ5007 A, 6 cm radio, and 2-10 keV X-ray emission. We find that the radio luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured AGNs show no significant difference, indicating that radio luminosity is a useful isotropic luminosity indicator. However, the observed [O III] and 2-10 keV luminosities are systematically smaller for obscured Seyferts, indicating that they are not emitted isotropically.

  15. The search for red AGN with 2MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, R. M.; Nelson, B. O.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Huchra, J. P.; Smith, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a simple, highly efficient 2MASS color-based survey that has already discovered 140 previously unknown red AGN and QSOs. These objects are near-infrared-bright and relatively nearby; the media redshift of the sample is z=0.25, and all but two have z<0.7.

  16. RESOLVING THE INNER JET STRUCTURE OF 1924-292 WITH THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Weintroub, Jonathan; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Young, Ken H.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Wright, Melvyn; Freund, Robert; Marrone, Daniel P.; Friberg, Per; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Shen Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We present the first 1.3 mm (230 GHz) very long baseline interferometry model image of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet using closure phase techniques with a four-element array. The model image of the quasar 1924-292 was obtained with four telescopes at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope in Arizona, and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy in California in 2009 April. With the greatly improved resolution compared with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jet structure of 1924-292 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwest along a position angle of –53° at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentatively identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies, and making a position angle difference of ∼80° with respect to the centimeter jet. The size of the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 × 10 11 K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue in favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. The successful measurement of closure phase paves the way for imaging and time resolving Sgr A* and nearby AGNs with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  17. RESOLVING THE INNER JET STRUCTURE OF 1924-292 WITH THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Weintroub, Jonathan; Moran, James M.; Primiani, Rurik; Young, Ken H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Plambeck, Richard; Wright, Melvyn [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Freund, Robert; Marrone, Daniel P. [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Friberg, Per; Tilanus, Remo P. J. [James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Honma, Mareki; Oyama, Tomoaki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krichbaum, Thomas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Shen Zhiqiang, E-mail: rslu@haystack.mit.edu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); and others

    2012-09-20

    We present the first 1.3 mm (230 GHz) very long baseline interferometry model image of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet using closure phase techniques with a four-element array. The model image of the quasar 1924-292 was obtained with four telescopes at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope in Arizona, and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy in California in 2009 April. With the greatly improved resolution compared with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jet structure of 1924-292 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwest along a position angle of -53 Degree-Sign at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentatively identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies, and making a position angle difference of {approx}80 Degree-Sign with respect to the centimeter jet. The size of the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue in favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. The successful measurement of closure phase paves the way for imaging and time resolving Sgr A* and nearby AGNs with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  18. Understanding AGNs in the Local Universe through Optical Reverberation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    I present the results of observational projects aimed at measuring the mass of the black hole at the center of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and understanding the structure and kinematics of the broad-line emitting gas within the black hole's sphere of influence.The first project aims to measure the black hole mass in the Kepler-field AGN KA1858. We obtained simultaneous spectroscopic data from the Lick Observatory 3-m telescope using the Kast Double Spectrograph and photometry data from five ground-based telescopes, and used reverberation mapping (RM) techniques to measure the emission-line light curves' lags relative to continuum variations. We obtained lags for H-beta, H-gamma, H-delta, and He II, and obtained the first black hole mass measurement for this object. Our results will serve as a reference point for future studies on relations between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics using Kepler AGN light curves.The second project, in collaboration with the AGN STORM team, aims to understand the structure and dynamics of the broad line region (BLR) in NGC 5548 in both UV and optical wavelengths. To supplement 6 months of HST UV observations, we obtained simultaneous optical spectroscopic data from six ground-based observatories. We obtained emission-line lags for the optical H-beta and He II lines as well as velocity-resolved lag measurements for H-beta. We also compared the velocity-resolved lags for H-beta to the UV emission lines C IV and Ly-alpha and found similar lag profiles for all three lines.Finally, I will discuss my contributions to two other collaborations in AGN RM. A key component in RM is monitoring continuum variability, which is often done through ground-based photometry. I will present a pipeline that performs aperture photometry on any number of images of an AGN with WCS coordinates and immediately produces relative light curves. This pipeline enables quick looks of AGN variability in real time and has been used in the

  19. Uranium concentrations in fossils measured by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Okano, Jun

    1988-01-01

    Semiquantitative analyses of uranium in fossil bones and teeth were carried out by SIMS. The results show a tendency that uranium concentrations in the fossils increase with the ages of the fossils. It is noticed that fossil bones and teeth having uranium concentration of more than several hundred ppm are not rare. (author)

  20. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  1. Nonradial and nonpolytropic astrophysical outflows. X. Relativistic MHD rotating spine jets in Kerr metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, L.; Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.

    2018-04-01

    Context. High-resolution radio imaging of active galactic nuclei (AGN) has revealed that the jets of some sources present superluminal knots and transverse stratification. Recent observational projects, such as ALMA and γ-ray telescopes, such as HESS and HESS2 have provided new observational constraints on the central regions of rotating black holes in AGN, suggesting that there is an inner- or spine-jet surrounded by a disk wind. This relativistic spine-jet is likely to be composed of electron-positron pairs extracting energy from the black hole and will be explored by the future γ-ray telescope CTA. Aims: In this article we present an extension to and generalization of relativistic jets in Kerr metric of the Newtonian meridional self-similar mechanism. We aim at modeling the inner spine-jet of AGN as a relativistic light outflow emerging from a spherical corona surrounding a Kerr black hole and its inner accretion disk. Methods: The model is built by expanding the metric and the forces with colatitude to first order in the magnetic flux function. As a result of the expansion, all colatitudinal variations of the physical quantities are quantified by a unique parameter. Unlike previous models, effects of the light cylinder are not neglected. Results: Solutions with high Lorentz factors are obtained and provide spine-jet models up to the polar axis. As in previous publications, we calculate the magnetic collimation efficiency parameter, which measures the variation of the available energy across the field lines. This collimation efficiency is an integral part of the model, generalizing the classical magnetic rotator efficiency criterion to Kerr metric. We study the variation of the magnetic efficiency and acceleration with the spin of the black hole and show their high sensitivity to this integral. Conclusions: These new solutions model collimated or radial, relativistic or ultra-relativistic outflows in AGN or γ-ray bursts. In particular, we discuss the

  2. AGNs with discordant optical and X-ray classification are not a physical family: diverse origin in two AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovás-Pascual, I.; Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Wiersema, K.; Barcons, X.; Braito, V.; Caccianiga, A.; Del Moro, A.; Della Ceca, R.; Severgnini, P.

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 3-17 per cent of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) without detected rest-frame UV/optical broad emission lines (type-2 AGN) do not show absorption in X-rays. The physical origin behind the apparently discordant optical/X-ray properties is not fully understood. Our study aims at providing insight into this issue by conducting a detailed analysis of the nuclear dust extinction and X-ray absorption properties of two AGNs with low X-ray absorption and with high optical extinction, for which a rich set of high-quality spectroscopic data is available from XMM-Newton archive data in X-rays and XSHOOTER proprietary data at UV-to-NIR wavelengths. In order to unveil the apparent mismatch, we have determined the AV/NH and both the supermassive black hole and the host galaxy masses. We find that the mismatch is caused in one case by an abnormally high dust-to-gas ratio that makes the UV/optical emission to appear more obscured than in the X-rays. For the other object, we find that the dust-to-gas ratio is similar to the Galactic one but the AGN is hosted by a very massive galaxy so that the broad emission lines and the nuclear continuum are swamped by the star light and difficult to detect.

  3. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.

  4. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  5. Jet Crackle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    crackle is correlated to signals with intermittent periods of steepened shock-like waves followed by weaker, longer, rounded rarefaction regions, but to...turbulence is concentrated in a weakly curved (for a typical round jet) shear layer between the high-speed potential core flow and the surrounding co-flow...decreases into the acoustic field. The effect of varying dc between −0.1 and −0.003δm(t)/∆U causes the Nδm/Lx curves to shift downward as fewer waves

  6. Fossil Groups as Cosmological Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onghia, Elena

    Optical and X-ray measurements of fossil groups (FGs) suggest that they are old and relaxed systems. If FGs are assembled at higher redshift, there is enough time for intermediate-luminosity galaxies to merge, resulting in the formation of the brightest group galaxy (BGG). We carry out the first, systematic study of a large sample of FGs, the "FOssil Group Origins'' (FOGO) based on an International Time Project at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory. For ten FOGO FGs we have been awarded time at SUZAKU Telescope to measure the temperature of the hot intragroup gas (IGM). For these systems we plan to evaluate and correlate their X-ray luminosity and X-ray temperature, Lx-Tx, optical luminosity and X-ray temperature, Lopt-Tx, and group velocity dispersion with their X-ray temperature, sigma V-Tx, as compared to the non fossil systems. By combining these observations with state-of-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations we will open a new window into the study of the IGM and the nature of fossil systems. Our proposed work will be of direct relevance for the understanding and interpretation of data from several NASA science missions. Specifically, the scaling relations obtained from these data combined with our predictions obtained using state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulation numerical adopting a new hydrodynamical scheme will motivate new proposal on CHANDRA X-ray telescope for fossil groups and clusters. We will additionally create a public Online Planetarium Show. This will be an educational site, containing an interactive program called: "A Voyage to our Universe''. In the show we will provide observed images of fossil groups and similar images and movies obtained from the numerical simulations showing their evolution. The online planetarium show will be a useful reference and an interactive educational tool for both students and the public.

  7. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  8. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume II provides the model equations with each of their variables defined, while Volume III lists the equations, and a one line definition for equations, in a shorter, more readable format.

  9. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Schluns, Kyle; Greene, Jenny E.; Cool, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6 -1.9 % to 18 +5 -5 %). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9 +3 -2 % to 29 -19 +26 %). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs

  10. The fraction of AGNs in major merger galaxies and its luminosity dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Sanders, David B.

    2018-05-01

    We use a phenomenological model which connects the galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) populations to investigate the process of AGNs triggering through major galaxy mergers at z ˜ 0. The model uses stellar mass functions as input and allows the prediction of AGN luminosity functions based on assumed Eddington ratio distribution functions (ERDFs). We show that the number of AGNs hosted by merger galaxies relative to the total number of AGNs increases as a function of AGN luminosity. This is due to more massive galaxies being more likely to undergo a merger and does not require the assumption that mergers lead to higher Eddington ratios than secular processes. Our qualitative analysis also shows that to match the observations, the probability of a merger galaxy hosting an AGN and accreting at a given Eddington value has to be increased by a factor ˜10 relative to the general AGN population. An additional significant increase of the fraction of high Eddington ratio AGNs among merger host galaxies leads to inconsistency with the observed X-ray luminosity function. Physically our results imply that, compared to the general galaxy population, the AGN fraction among merger galaxies is ˜10 times higher. On average, merger triggering does however not lead to significantly higher Eddington ratios.

  11. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Relativistic jets in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. New discoveries and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ammando F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the launch of the Fermi satellite only two classes of AGNs were known to produce relativistic jets and thus emit up to the γ-ray energy range: blazars and radio galaxies, both hosted in giant elliptical galaxies. The first four years of observations by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi confirmed that these two are the most numerous classes of identified sources in the extragalactic γ-ray sky, but the discovery of γ-ray emission from 5 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies revealed the presence of a possible emerging third class of AGNs with relativistic jets. Considering that narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies seem to be typically hosted in spiral galaxy, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects, the onset of production of relativistic jets, and the cosmological evolution of radio-loud AGN. Here, we discuss the radio-to-γ-rays properties of the γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, also in comparison with the blazar scenario.

  13. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (zBAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  14. New fossil fuel combustion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minghetti, E.; Palazzi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to supply general information concerning fossil fuels that represent, today and for the near future, the main energy source of our Planet. New fossil fuel technologies are in continual development with two principal goals: to decrease environmental impact and increase transformation process efficiency. Examples of this efforts are: 1) gas-steam combined cycles integrated with coal gasification plants, or with pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors; 2) new cycles with humid air or coal direct fired turbine, now under development. In the first part of this article the international and national energy situations and trends are shown. After some brief notes on environmental problems and alternative fuels, such as bio masses and municipal wastes, technological aspects, mainly relevant to increase fossil-fueled power plant performances, are examined in greater depth. Finally the research and technological development activities of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) Engineering Branch, in order to improve fossil fuels energy and environmental use are presented

  15. Progress of fossil fuel science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. More than 45% of the world's electricity is generated from coal, and it is the major fuel for generating electricity worldwide. The known coal reserves in the world are enough for more than 215 years of consumption, while the known oil reserves are only about 39 times of the world's consumption and the known natural gas reserves are about 63 times of the world's consumption level in 1998. In recent years, there have been effective scientific investigations on Turkish fossil fuels, which are considerable focused on coal resources. Coal is a major fossil fuel source for Turkey. Turkish coal consumption has been stable over the past decade and currently accounts for about 24% of the country's total energy consumption. Lignite coal has had the biggest share in total fossil fuel production, at 43%, in Turkey. Turkish researchers may investigate ten broad pathways of coal species upgrading, such as desulfurization and oxydesulfurization, pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, liquefaction and hydroliquefaction, extraction and supercritical fluid extraction, gasification, oxidation, briquetting, flotation, and structure identification.

  16. Fossil Polypodiaceae and their spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1991-01-01

    In this publication emphasis is laid on the modern definition of the family Polypodiaceae (Filicales), which is based on an extensive study of Recent material and which is much restricted with respect to older circumscriptions of the family as usually applied by palaeobotanists. Fossils of fems

  17. Fossil energy and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folke, G.

    2001-01-01

    To fulfil the basic goal of delivering food for the tables of the citizens, modern Western agriculture is extremely dependent on supporting material flows, infrastructure, and fossil energy. According to several observers, fossil fuel production is about to peak, i.e., oil extraction is no longer capable of keeping pace with the increasing demand. This situation may trigger an unprecedented increase in fossil energy prices, which may make the current highly energy dependent food production-distribution system highly vulnerable. The paper starts with a survey of this vulnerability. Also, the supply of phosphorus, a key factor in agriculture, may be at stake under such circumstances. The paper analyses this situation and discusses settlement structures integrated with agriculture that might increase food security by reducing energy demands. In the proposed ideal societal structure, agriculture is integrated with settlements and most of the food needed by the population is produced locally, and the nutrients for food production are recycled from households and animals by means of biological processes demanding considerably less mechanical investment and fossil support energy than the conventional type of agriculture. The vulnerability of this structure would be considerably lower, than that of the current system. (author)

  18. Energetics of the molecular gas in the H2 luminous radio galaxy 3C 326: Evidence for negative AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Boulanger, F.; Salomé, P.; Guillard, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Ogle, P.; Appleton, P.; Falgarone, E.; Pineau Des Forets, G.

    2010-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the gas conditions in the H2 luminous radio galaxy 3C 326 N at z ~ 0.1, which has a low star-formation rate (SFR ~ 0.07 M⊙ yr-1) in spite of a gas surface density similar to those in starburst galaxies. Its star-formation efficiency is likely a factor ~10-50 lower than those of ordinary star-forming galaxies. Combining new IRAM CO emission-line interferometry with existing Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, we find that the luminosity ratio of CO and pure rotational H2 line emission is factors 10-100 lower than what is usually found. This suggests that most of the molecular gas is warm. The Na D absorption-line profile of 3C 326 N in the optical suggests an outflow with a terminal velocity of ~-1800 km s-1 and a mass outflow rate of 30-40 M⊙ yr-1, which cannot be explained by star formation. The mechanical power implied by the wind, of order 1043 erg s-1, is comparable to the bolometric luminosity of the emission lines of ionized and molecular gas. To explain these observations, we propose a scenario where a small fraction of the mechanical energy of the radio jet is deposited in the interstellar medium of 3C 326 N, which powers the outflow, and the line emission through a mass, momentum and energy exchange between the different gas phases of the ISM. Dissipation times are of order 107-8 yrs, similar or greater than the typical jet lifetime. Small ratios of CO and PAH surface brightnesses in another 7 H2 luminous radio galaxies suggest that a similar form of AGN feedback could be lowering star-formation efficiencies in these galaxies in a similar way. The local demographics of radio-loud AGN suggests that secular gas cooling in massive early-type galaxies of ≥1011 M⊙ could generally be regulated through a fundamentally similar form of “maintenance-phase” AGN feedback. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer.

  19. The MASIV Survey - IV. Relationship between intra-day scintillation and intrinsic variability of radio AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, J. Y.; Macquart, J.-P.; Jauncey, D. L.; Pursimo, T.; Giroletti, M.; Bignall, H. E.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Rickett, B. J.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Ojha, R.; Reynolds, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between 5 GHz interstellar scintillation (ISS) and 15 GHz intrinsic variability of compact, radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) drawn from the Microarcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory blazar monitoring program. We discover that the strongest scintillators at 5 GHz (modulation index, m5 ≥ 0.02) all exhibit strong 15 GHz intrinsic variability (m15 ≥ 0.1). This relationship can be attributed mainly to the mutual dependence of intrinsic variability and ISS amplitudes on radio core compactness at ˜ 100 μas scales, and to a lesser extent, on their mutual dependences on source flux density, arcsec-scale core dominance and redshift. However, not all sources displaying strong intrinsic variations show high amplitude scintillation, since ISS is also strongly dependent on Galactic line-of-sight scattering properties. This observed relationship between intrinsic variability and ISS highlights the importance of optimizing the observing frequency, cadence, timespan and sky coverage of future radio variability surveys, such that these two effects can be better distinguished to study the underlying physics. For the full MASIV sample, we find that Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud sources exhibit significantly higher 5 GHz ISS amplitudes than gamma-ray quiet sources. This relationship is weaker than the known correlation between gamma-ray loudness and the 15 GHz variability amplitudes, most likely due to jet opacity effects.

  20. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang Bing, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  1. The Use of Faraday Rotation Sign Maps as a Diagnostic for Helical Jet Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichstein, Andrea; Gabuzda, Denise

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the sign of the Faraday Rotation measure obtained from multi-frequency radio observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considered have B-field structures with a central 'spine' of B-field orthogonal to the jet and/or a longitudinal B-field near one or both edges of the jet. This structure can plausibly be interpreted as being caused by a helical/toroidal jet magnetic field. Faraday Rotation is a rotation of the plane of polarization that occurs when the polarized radiation passes through a magnetized plasma. The sign of the RM is determined by the direction of the line-of-sight B-field in the region causing the Faraday Rotation, and an ordered toroidal or helical magnetic field associated with an AGN jet will thus produce a distinctive bilateral distribution of the RMs across the jet. We present and discuss RM-sign maps and their possible interpretation regarding the magnetic field geometries for several sources.

  2. RECONSTRUCTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL JET GEOMETRY FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Sayali; Perlman, Eric S.; Li, Kunyang; Kosak, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Relativistic jets in AGN are one of the most interesting and complex structures in the Universe. Some of the jets can be spread over hundreds of kilo parsecs from the central engine and display various bends, knots and hotspots. Observations of the jets can prove helpful in understanding the emission and particle acceleration processes from sub-arcsec to kilo parsec scales and the role of magnetic field in it. The M87 jet has many bright knots as well as regions of small and large bends. We attempt to model the jet geometry using the observed 2 dimensional structure. The radio and optical images of the jet show evidence of presence of helical magnetic field throughout. Using the observed structure in the sky frame, our goal is to gain an insight into the intrinsic 3 dimensional geometry in the jets frame. The structure of the bends in jet's frame may be quite different than what we see in the sky frame. The knowledge of the intrinsic structure will be helpful in understanding the appearance of the magnetic field and hence polarization morphology. To achieve this, we are using numerical methods to solve the non-linear equations based on the jet geometry. We are using the Log Likelihood method and algorithm based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations.

  3. AGN Heating in Simulated Cool-core Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bryan, Greg L., E-mail: yuanlium@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratories, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We analyze heating and cooling processes in an idealized simulation of a cool-core cluster, where momentum-driven AGN feedback balances radiative cooling in a time-averaged sense. We find that, on average, energy dissipation via shock waves is almost an order of magnitude higher than via turbulence. Most of the shock waves in the simulation are very weak shocks with Mach numbers smaller than 1.5, but the stronger shocks, although rare, dissipate energy more effectively. We find that shock dissipation is a steep function of radius, with most of the energy dissipated within 30 kpc, more spatially concentrated than radiative cooling loss. However, adiabatic processes and mixing (of post-shock materials and the surrounding gas) are able to redistribute the heat throughout the core. A considerable fraction of the AGN energy also escapes the core region. The cluster goes through cycles of AGN outbursts accompanied by periods of enhanced precipitation and star formation, over gigayear timescales. The cluster core is under-heated at the end of each cycle, but over-heated at the peak of the AGN outburst. During the heating-dominant phase, turbulent dissipation alone is often able to balance radiative cooling at every radius but, when this is occurs, shock waves inevitably dissipate even more energy. Our simulation explains why some clusters, such as Abell 2029, are cooling dominated, while in some other clusters, such as Perseus, various heating mechanisms including shock heating, turbulent dissipation and bubble mixing can all individually balance cooling, and together, over-heat the core.

  4. Announcment: Conference on Obscured AGN Across Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Current deep surveys, notably in X-rays and the mid-IR, are making it possible to carry out a census of essentially all the luminous AGN in the Universe. By pene-trating the obscuration that, in Type 2 sources, hides the nuclear regions in the UV to the near-IR spectrum, these new surveys are finding the radio quiet coun-terparts of the powerful radio galaxies.

  5. Clustering of galaxies around AGNs in the HSC Wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yuji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Toba, Yoshiki; He, Wanqiu; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Usuda, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the clustering of galaxies around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which single-epoch virial masses of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) are available to investigate the relation between the large-scale environment of AGNs and the evolution of SMBHs. The AGN samples used in this work were derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) observations and the galaxy samples were from the 240 deg2 S15b data of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). The investigated redshift range is 0.6-3.0, and the masses of the SMBHs lie in the range 107.5-1010 M⊙. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy samples reaches to Mλ310 ˜ -18 at rest-frame wavelength 310 nm for the low-redshift end of the samples. More than 70% of the galaxies in the analysis are blue. We found a significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on redshift, which primarily reflects the brightness-dependence of the galaxy clustering. At the lowest redshifts the cross-correlation length increases from 7 h-1 Mpc around Mλ310 = -19 mag to >10 h-1 Mpc beyond Mλ310 = -20 mag. No significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on BH mass was found for whole galaxy samples dominated by blue galaxies, while there was an indication of BH mass dependence in the cross-correlation with red galaxies. These results provides a picture of the environment of AGNs studied in this paper being enriched with blue star-forming galaxies, and a fraction of the galaxies are evolving into red galaxies along with the evolution of SMBHs in that system.

  6. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  7. A window on stochastic processes and gamma-ray cosmology through spectral and temporal studies of AGN observed with H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biteau, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years after the discovery that quasars are extragalactic sources, their bright cores (AGN) and the jets that some of them exhibit still have plenty of secrets to share, particularly through observations in the gamma-ray band. Above 100 GeV, Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. have detected 50 AGN, mostly blazars, objects whose jets are pointed toward the observer. The detection of two faint ones, 1ES 1312-423 and SHBL J001355.9-185406, is described in this thesis. Their multiwavelength spectra are reproduced with a synchrotron self-Compton model. The γ rays emitted by blazars are partly absorbed by the extragalactic background light (EBL), the second most intense cosmological background, which carries the integrated history of star formation. The first detection of this absorption above 100 GeV is performed, enabling the measurement of the EBL peak-amplitude in the optical band at the 20% level. In addition to these spectral studies, the fast flux-variations of blazars are investigated using the outbursts of PKS 2155-304 seen by H.E.S.S.. The observation of a skewed flux distribution and of an R.M.S.-flux correlation are interpreted within a kinematic model, where the emission is a realization of a stochastic process. (author)

  8. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  9. Subgrid Modeling of AGN-driven Turbulence in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Evan; Brüggen, Marcus

    2008-10-01

    Hot, underdense bubbles powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are likely to play a key role in halting catastrophic cooling in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters. We present three-dimensional simulations that capture the evolution of such bubbles, using an adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code, FLASH3, to which we have added a subgrid model of turbulence and mixing. While pure hydro simulations indicate that AGN bubbles are disrupted into resolution-dependent pockets of underdense gas, proper modeling of subgrid turbulence indicates that this is a poor approximation to a turbulent cascade that continues far beyond the resolution limit. Instead, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities act to effectively mix the heated region with its surroundings, while at the same time preserving it as a coherent structure, consistent with observations. Thus, bubbles are transformed into hot clouds of mixed material as they move outward in the hydrostatic intracluster medium (ICM), much as large airbursts lead to a distinctive "mushroom cloud" structure as they rise in the hydrostatic atmosphere of Earth. Properly capturing the evolution of such clouds has important implications for many ICM properties. In particular, it significantly changes the impact of AGNs on the distribution of entropy and metals in cool-core clusters such as Perseus.

  10. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  11. Development of the criticality accident analysis code, AGNES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    1989-01-01

    In the design works for the facilities which handle nuclear fuel, the evaluation of criticality accidents cannot be avoided even if their possibility is as small as negligible. In particular in the system using solution fuel like uranyl nitrate, solution has the property easily becoming dangerous form, and all the past criticality accidents occurred in the case of solution, therefore, the evaluation of criticality accidents becomes the most important item of safety analysis. When a criticality accident occurred in a solution fuel system, due to the generation and movement of radiolysis gas voids, the oscillation of power output and pressure pulses are observed. In order to evaluate the effect of criticality accidents, these output oscillation and pressure pulses must be calculated accurately. For this purpose, the development of the dynamic characteristic code AGNES (Accidentally Generated Nuclear Excursion Simulation code) was carried out. The AGNES is the reactor dynamic characteristic code having two independent void models. Modified energy model and pressure model, and as the benchmark calculation of the AGNES code, the results of the experimental analysis on the CRAC experiment are reported. (K.I.)

  12. The Kepler Light Curves of AGN: A Detailed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Malkan, Matt; Howell, Steve B.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of 21 light curves of Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Kepler spacecraft. First, we describe the necessity and development of a customized pipeline for treating Kepler data of stochastically variable sources like AGN. We then present the light curves, power spectral density functions (PSDs), and flux histograms. The light curves display an astonishing variety of behaviors, many of which would not be detected in ground-based studies, including switching between distinct flux levels. Six objects exhibit PSD flattening at characteristic timescales that roughly correlate with black hole mass. These timescales are consistent with orbital timescales or free-fall accretion timescales. We check for correlations of variability and high-frequency PSD slope with accretion rate, black hole mass, redshift, and luminosity. We find that bolometric luminosity is anticorrelated with both variability and steepness of the PSD slope. We do not find evidence of the linear rms–flux relationships or lognormal flux distributions found in X-ray AGN light curves, indicating that reprocessing is not a significant contributor to optical variability at the 0.1%–10% level.

  13. Compton Reflection in AGN with Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Gehrels, N.; Lubiński, P.; Malzac, J.; Petrucci, P. O.; Shrader, C. R.; Soldi, S.

    2009-05-01

    AGN exhibit complex hard X-ray spectra. Our current understanding is that the emission is dominated by inverse Compton processes which take place in the corona above the accretion disk, and that absorption and reflection in a distant absorber play a major role. These processes can be directly observed through the shape of the continuum, the Compton reflection hump around 30 keV, and the iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. We demonstrate the capabilities of Simbol-X to constrain complex models for cases like MCG-05-23-016, NGC 4151, NGC 2110, and NGC 4051 in short (10 ksec) observations. We compare the simulations with recent observations on these sources by INTEGRAL, Swift and Suzaku. Constraining reflection models for AGN with Simbol-X will help us to get a clear view of the processes and geometry near to the central engine in AGN, and will give insight to which sources are responsible for the Cosmic X-ray background at energies >20 keV.

  14. Formation and spatial distribution of hypervelocity stars in AGN outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We study star formation within outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a new source of hypervelocity stars (HVSs). Recent observations revealed active star formation inside a galactic outflow at a rate of ∼ 15M⊙yr-1 . We verify that the shells swept up by an AGN outflow are capable of cooling and fragmentation into cold clumps embedded in a hot tenuous gas via thermal instabilities. We show that cold clumps of ∼ 103 M⊙ are formed within ∼ 105 yrs. As a result, stars are produced along outflow's path, endowed with the outflow speed at their formation site. These HVSs travel through the galactic halo and eventually escape into the intergalactic medium. The expected instantaneous rate of star formation inside the outflow is ∼ 4 - 5 orders of magnitude greater than the average rate associated with previously proposed mechanisms for producing HVSs, such as the Hills mechanism and three-body interaction between a star and a black hole binary. We predict the spatial distribution of HVSs formed in AGN outflows for future observational probe.

  15. Physical Conditions in Ultra-fast Outflows in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. B.; Tombesi, F.; Bottorff, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have revealed highly ionized gas, in the form of absorption lines from H-like and He-like Fe. Some of these absorbers, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), have radial velocities of up to 0.25c. We have undertaken a detailed photoionization study of high-ionization Fe absorbers, both UFOs and non-UFOs, in a sample of AGN observed by XMM-Newton. We find that the heating and cooling processes in UFOs are Compton-dominated, unlike the non-UFOs. Both types are characterized by force multipliers on the order of unity, which suggest that they cannot be radiatively accelerated in sub-Eddington AGN, unless they were much less ionized at their point of origin. However, such highly ionized gas can be accelerated via a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) wind. We explore this possibility by applying a cold MHD flow model to the UFO in the well-studied Seyfert galaxy, NGC 4151. We find that the UFO can be accelerated along magnetic streamlines anchored in the accretion disk. In the process, we have been able to constrain the magnetic field strength and the magnetic pressure in the UFO and have determined that the system is not in magnetic/gravitational equipartition. Open questions include the variability of the UFOs and the apparent lack of non-UFOs in UFO sources.

  16. SDSS IV MaNGA - Properties of AGN Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernandez-Toledo, H.; Cortes-Suárez, E.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Ibarra-Medel, H.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Negrete, C. A.; Calette, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Aquino, E.; Valenzuela, O.; Clemente, J. C.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Schimoia, J.; Riffel, R. A.; Rembold, S. B.; Brownstein, J. R.; Pan, K.; Yates, R.; Mallmann, N.; Bitsakis, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present the characterization of the main properties of a sample of 98 AGN host galaxies, both type-II and type-I, in comparison with those of ≍2700 non-active galaxies observed by the MaNGA survey. We found that AGN hosts are morphologically early-type or early-spirals. AGN hosts are, on average, more massive, more compact, more centrally peaked and more pressure-supported systems. They are located in the intermediate/transition region between starforming and non-star-forming galaxies (i.e., the so-called green valley). We consider that they are in the process of halting/quenching the star formation. The analysis of the radial distributions of different properties shows that the quenching happens from inside-out involving both a decrease of the effciency of the star formation and a deficit of molecular gas. The data-products of the current analysis are distributed as a Value Added Catalog within the SDSS-DR14.

  17. X-RAY ABSORPTION, NUCLEAR INFRARED EMISSION, AND DUST COVERING FACTORS OF AGNs: TESTING UNIFICATION SCHEMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria), E-39005, Santander (Spain); Ramos, A. Asensio; Almeida, C. Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Watson, M. G.; Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Caccianiga, A.; Ballo, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Braito, V., E-mail: mateos@ifca.unican.es [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2016-03-10

    We present the distributions of the geometrical covering factors of the dusty tori (f{sub 2}) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGNs drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGNs have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2–10 keV luminosities between 10{sup 42} and 10{sup 46} erg s{sup −1}, and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work, we determined the rest-frame 1–20 μm continuum emission from the torus, which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGNs are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGNs having, on average, tori with higher f{sub 2} than type 1 AGNs. Nevertheless, ∼20% of type 1 AGNs have tori with large covering factors, while ∼23%–28% of type 2 AGNs have tori with small covering factors. Low f{sub 2} are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGNs the effect is certainly small. f{sub 2} increases with the X-ray column density, which implies that dust extinction and X-ray absorption take place in material that share an overall geometry and most likely belong to the same structure, the putative torus. Based on our results, the viewing angle, AGN luminosity, and also f{sub 2} determine the optical appearance of an AGN and control the shape of the rest-frame ∼1–20 μm nuclear continuum emission. Thus, the torus geometrical covering factor is a key ingredient of unification schemes.

  18. MOJAVE. X. PARSEC-SCALE JET ORIENTATION VARIATIONS AND SUPERLUMINAL MOTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 817 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Homan, D. C. [Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Savolainen, T., E-mail: mlister@purdue.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ∼0.°5 to ∼2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr{sup –1}), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the

  19. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  20. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  1. Clustering fossils in solid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhshik, Mohammad, E-mail: m.akhshik@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    In solid inflation the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. As a result, the long tenor perturbation induces observable clustering fossils in the form of quadrupole anisotropy in large scale structure power spectrum. In this work we revisit the bispectrum analysis for the scalar-scalar-scalar and tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum for the general parameter space of solid. We consider the parameter space of the model in which the level of non-Gaussianity generated is consistent with the Planck constraints. Specializing to this allowed range of model parameter we calculate the quadrupole anisotropy induced from the long tensor perturbations on the power spectrum of the scalar perturbations. We argue that the imprints of clustering fossil from primordial gravitational waves on large scale structures can be detected from the future galaxy surveys.

  2. THE SPECTACULAR RADIO-NEAR-IR-X-RAY JET OF 3C 111: THE X-RAY EMISSION MECHANISM AND JET KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland—Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lister, Matthew L.; Hogan, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cara, Mihai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazanas, Demos [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the sub-parsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near-IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR , HST , and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  3. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  4. Extinction and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, ,. J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The author examines evidence of mass extinctions in the fossil record and searches for reasons for such large extinctions. Five major mass extinctions eliminated at least 40 percent of animal genera in the oceans and from 65 to 95 percent of ocean species. Questions include the occurrence of gradual or catastrophic extinctions, causes, environment, the capacity of a perturbation to cause extinctions each time it happens, and the possibility and identification of complex events leading to a mass extinction.

  5. The Study on the Physical Properties of Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) belong to a special class of active galaxies, and have violent active phenomena and intense physical processes in the nuclei. Blazar is a subclass of AGNs, and has a relativistic jet with a small jet viewing angle. Therefore, the boosting effect is very important, and almost all the observed radiation is dominated by the jet. The relativistic jet physics is not very clear yet, such as the jet formation, collimation, and matter content etc. The multi-waveband radiation of blazar is dominated by jet, which provides an ideal laboratory for studying the jet physics. The first chapter of this thesis introduces the recent progress of AGNs and blazars. We further introduce the jet model that commonly used in blazars in the second chapter. In the third chapter, we fit simultaneously (or quasi-simultaneously) the multi-waveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) blazars with the jet model and χ2 procedure, which takes into account different soft photon fields (broad line region or a molecular torus). We find that the SED fitting with an external soft photon from IR torus is systematically better than that from the broad line region (BLR) based on a χ2 test, which suggests that the γ-ray emitting region most possibly stays outside the BLR. The minimum electron Lorentz factor, γmin, is constrained from the modeling of these LSP blazars with good soft X-ray data, and in a range from 5 to 160 (with a median value of 55), which plays a key role in jet power estimation. Assuming one-to-one ratio of proton and electron, we find that the jet power for LSP blazars is systematically higher than that of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies. A possible reason for this is that there are some positrons in the jets of these blazars. If this is the case, the jet power will be reduced. Therefore, we propose a mixed composition of e±-p in the jets of these LSP blazars. If we assume that the jet power

  6. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  7. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  8. Very forward jet, Mueller Navelet jets and jet gap jet measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2018-01-01

    The measurements of very forward jet, Mueller-Navelet jets and jet-gap-jet events are presented for different collision energies. The analyses are based on data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are defined through the anti-$k_\\mathrm{t}$ clustering algorithm for different cone sizes. Jet production studies provide stringent tests of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and contribute to tune Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and phenomenological models. The measurements are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators.

  9. Prudence in a fossil generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschak, R.R.; Yost, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade, regulatory agencies have increasingly required that to be reimbursed for an investment in facilities, utilities must first prove their generating facility construction projects were prudently managed. The proof was almost always solicited when the plants were nearing completion. Utilities failing this retrospective prudence test have often suffered severe financial penalties. Thus far fossil plants have been spared the brunt of the prudence challenge. However, this situation may change. Regulatory agencies are honing the prudence concept into a broad tool. Application of this regulatory method is not likely to wane but rather just change its focus - from that of nuclear to other large utility expenditures. The primary ones being fossil construction, fuel purchases, and transmission facilities. For new plant construction to begin again and successfully pass the prudence challenge, the industry must learn from the troubles of the nuclear era, and change the way that decisions are made, documented and archived. Major decisions resulting in the commitment of millions of dollars over extended time periods (and governmental administrations) must be appropriately structured, packaged, collated to key issues and stored for ease of retrieval when the Prudence questions are asked. This paper describes how utilities can anticipate fossil-related prudence and shield themselves from extensive retrospective reconstruction of decisions made years ago. Through the establishment of a formal program of prudence safeguards, utility management can reduce its exposure to potentially adverse prudence reviews. In many cases, the resulting focus on, and improvements in, the decision making process can have beneficial side effects - such as better decisions that lead to lower project costs

  10. ¿Teología para agnósticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo Martínez, Igancio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Pretendo exponer de la manera más breve unas pocas razones que muestren que la teología concierne también al agnóstico. Por teología entiendo la reflexión sistemática en torno a la fe cristiana y por agnóstico, también en sentido muy amplio, aquel que no participa de esta fe. La tesis que defiendo es que no es necesaria la fe para interesarse por la teología; tiene sentido ocuparse de Dios sin creer en su existencia.
    ¿Por qué el agnóstico habría de ocuparse de la teología cuando el creyente parece que no la necesita? Cree antes de examinar reflexivamente su fe, que no depende de argumentos ni de demostraciones. Lo cierto es que la teología no conduce a la fe y hasta puede dudarse de si la fortalece. Conozco personas profundamente creyentes que huyen de las disquisiciones teológicas como de la peste. Viven la fe en una experiencia de amor al prójimoque no precisa de argumentos. Les basta acompañarse con las Sagradas Escrituras y de algunos libros piadosos o de espiritualidad. Cabría ampliar el horizonte de este artículo y preguntarse por el alcance y sentido que tenga la «reflexión sistemática» sobre Dios para aquellos que creen.
    En todo caso, no deja de ser paradójico intentar una defensa de la teología, cuando parece que les sobra, tanto a agnósticos como a creyentes; incluso la Iglesia ha encerrado a los teólogos en un gueto en el que, si bien gozan de mucha mayor libertad que en el pasado, la disfrutan en buena parte porque se han quedado sin audiencia. Escriben exclusivamente para los colegas que son los únicos que los leen. Claro que, dada la fragmentación actual de los saberes, lo mismo les ocurre a los demás especialistas.
    Si una buena parte de los creyentes se desentienden de la teología, ¿por qué habría de ocupar al agnóstico? Barrunto que una vindicación de la teología valga tanto para los unos como para los otros, pero en esta ocasión considero tan sólo las

  11. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  12. Developing fossil fuel based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoori, A.R.; Lindner, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the undesirable effects of burning fossil fuels in the conventional power generating systems have resulted in increasing demand for alternative technologies for power generation. This paper describes a number of new technologies and their potential to reduce the level of atmospheric emissions associated with coal based power generation, such as atmospheric and pressurized fluid bed combustion systems and fuel cells. The status of their development is given and their efficiency is compared with that of conventional pc fired power plants. 1 tab., 7 figs

  13. The first 62 AGN observed with SDSS-IV MaNGA - II: resolved stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Nícolas Dullius; Riffel, Rogério; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Schimoia, Jaderson; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Ávila-Reese, Vladimir; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Machado, Alice D.; Cirolini, Rafael; Ilha, Gabriele S.; do Nascimento, Janaína C.

    2018-05-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar population age maps, average radial profiles and gradients for the first 62 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) observed with SDSS-IV MaNGA to study the effects of the active nuclei on the star formation history of the host galaxies. These results, derived using the STARLIGHT code, are compared with a control sample of non-active galaxies matching the properties of the AGN hosts. We find that the fraction of young stellar populations (SP) in high-luminosity AGN is higher in the inner (R≤0.5 Re) regions when compared with the control sample; low-luminosity AGN, on the other hand, present very similar fractions of young stars to the control sample hosts for the entire studied range (1 Re). The fraction of intermediate age SP of the AGN hosts increases outwards, with a clear enhancement when compared with the control sample. The inner region of the galaxies (AGN and control galaxies) presents a dominant old SP, whose fraction decreases outwards. We also compare our results (differences between AGN and control galaxies) for the early and late-type hosts and find no significant differences. In summary, our results suggest that the most luminous AGN seems to have been triggered by a recent supply of gas that has also triggered recent star formation (t ≤ 40 Myrs) in the central region.

  14. UNRAVELLING THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS. II. PHOTOIONIZATION AND ENERGETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy EVolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local ( z  < 0.1) and moderate-luminosity Type 2 AGNs to study the ionization properties and energetics of AGN-driven outflows. We find strong evidence connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization. The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.

  15. Outflow Kinematics Manifested by the Hα Line: Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeun; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Energetic ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been studied as a key phenomenon related to AGN feedback. To probe the kinematics of the gas in the narrow-line region, [O iii] λ 5007 has been utilized in a number of studies showing nonvirial kinematic properties due to AGN outflows. In this paper, we statistically investigate whether the H α emission line is influenced by AGN-driven outflows by measuring the kinematic properties based on the H α line profile and comparing them with those of [O iii]. Using the spatially integrated spectra of ∼37,000 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find a nonlinear correlation between H α velocity dispersion and stellar velocity dispersion that reveals the presence of the nongravitational component, especially for AGNs with a wing component in H α . The large H α velocity dispersion and velocity shift of luminous AGNs are clear evidence of AGN outflow impacts on hydrogen gas, while relatively smaller kinematic properties compared to those of [O iii] imply that the observed outflow effect on the H α line is weaker than the case of [O iii].

  16. Hurricane Agnes rainfall and floods, June-July 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James F.; Patterson, James Lee; Paulhus, Joseph Louis Hornore

    1975-01-01

    Hurricane Agnes originated in the Caribbean Sea region in mid-June. Circulation barely reached hurricane intensity for a brief period in the Gulf of Mexico. The storm crossed the Florida Panhandle coastline on June 19, 1972, and followed an unusually extended overland trajectory combining with an extratropical system to bring very heavy rain from the Carolinas northward to New York. This torrential rain followed the abnormally wet May weather in the Middle Atlantic States and set the stage for the subsequent major flooding. The record-breaking floods occurred in the Middle Atlantic States in late June and early July 1972. Many streams in the affected area experienced peak discharges several times the previous maxima of record. Estimated recurrence intervals of peak flows at many gaging stations on major rivers and their tributaries exceeded 100 years. The suspended-sediment concentration and load of most flooded streams were also unusually high. The widespread flooding from this storm caused Agnes to be called the most destructive hurricane in United States history, claiming 117 lives and causing damage estimated at $3.1 billion in 12 States. Damage was particularly high in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. The detailed life history of Hurricane Agnes, including the tropical depression and tropical storm stages, is traced. Associated rainfalls are analyzed and compared with climatologic recurrence values. These are followed by a detailed description of the flood and streamflows of each affected basin. A summary of peak stages and discharges and comparison data for previous floods at 989 stations are presented. Deaths and flood damage estimates are compiled.

  17. Investigating the Temperature Problem in Narrow Line Emitting AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sam; Richardson, Chris T.

    2018-06-01

    Our research investigates the physical conditions in gas clouds around the narrow line region of AGN. Specifically, we explore the necessary conditions for anomalously high electron temperatures, Te, in those clouds. Our 321 galaxy data set was acquired from SDSS DR14 after requiring S/N > 5.0 in [OIII] 4363 and S/N > 3.0 in all BPT diagram emission lines, to ensure both accurate Te and galaxy classification, with 0.04 study the effects these conditions have on gas cloud Te.

  18. Interstellar Scintillation and Scattering of Micro-arc-second AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Jauncey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the first quasar 3C 273 led directly to the discovery of their variability at optical and radio wavelengths. We review the radio variability observations, in particular the variability found at frequencies below 1 GHz, as well as those exhibiting intra-day variability (IDV at cm wavelengths. Observations have shown that IDV arises principally from scintillation caused by scattering in the ionized interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The sensitivity of interstellar scintillation towards source angular sizes has provided a powerful tool for studying the most compact components of radio-loud AGN at microarcsecond and milliarcsecond scale resolution.

  19. Hot Coronae in Local AGN: Present Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marinucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear X-ray emission in radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN is commonly believed to be due to inverse Compton scattering of soft UV photons in a hot corona. The radiation is expected to be polarized, the polarization degree depending mainly on the geometry and optical depth of the corona. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR observations are providing for the first time high quality measurements of the coronal physical parameters—temperature and optical depth. We hereby review the NuSTAR results on the coronal physical parameters (temperature and optical depth and discuss their implications for future X-ray polarimetric studies.

  20. Monitoring AGNs with Hbeta Asymmetry with the Wyoming Infra-Red Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Michael S.; Du, Pu; Wang, Jian-Min; Wang, Kai; Huang, Zhengpeng; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-rong; Kasper, David H.; Chick, William T.; Nguyen, My L.; Maithil, Jaya; Hand, Derek; Bai, Jin-Ming; Ho, Luis

    2018-06-01

    We present preliminary results from two seasons of reverberation mapping of AGNs using the optical longslit spectrograph on the 2.3 meter WIRO telescope. The majority of the sample is part of our "Monitoring AGNs with Hbeta Asymmetry" project, also known as MAHA, which targets rarer AGNs with extremely asymmetric profiles that may provide new insights into the full diversity of size and structure of the broad-line region (BLR). Our hundreds of nights of telescope time provide dozens of epochs of spectra for approximately two dozen objects. Notably we find that many AGNs with broader asymmetric Hbeta emission lines possess time lags significantly shorter than expected for their luminosity in comparison to the majority of AGNs reverberation mapped.

  1. Towards A Complete Census of the Compton-thick AGN Population in our Cosmic Backyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Ady

    2016-09-01

    We propose for Chandra and NuSTAR observations of two local AGNs to characterise their obscuring properties. We are using Chandra and NuSTAR to form the first complete measurement of the column density (N_H) distribution of AGN at D35%. We also found that Chandra resolution is key in resolving the AGN from off-nuclear X-ray sources. When combined with NuSTAR, this allow us to accurately characterise the broadband spectrum of the AGN, and identify it as CT. These new observations will provide Chandra data for all D<15Mpc AGNs and boost up the N_H distribution up to 85% complete. This will be fully completed with future NuSTAR observations.

  2. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  3. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  4. Towards A Complete Census of the Compton-thick AGN population and the NH Distribution of AGN in the Local Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present updated results from an ongoing project to establish the most unbiased census of the Compton- thick active galactic nucleus (CTAGN) population and the intrinsic column density (NH) distribution of the overall AGN population in the local universe, using a sample of mid-infrared (mid-IR) selected AGN within 15 Mpc. We find that 20% of the AGN in the sample are bona-fide CTAGN based upon hard X-ray studies (E > 10 keV). More candidates are then selected using multiwavelength techniques, i.e. mid-IR:X-ray and optical [OIII]5007:X-ray flux ratios. Based on these analyses along with evidence from previous literature, we initially find a further 25% of potential candidates. We then observed two of these candidates, NGC 5643 and NGC 3486, using NuSTAR and is able to confirm the former as a CTAGN and rule out the latter as an obscured AGN. This constrains the total CTAGN population in the sample to 25-40%, though it could potentially be as high as 65% accounting for those that still lack data. Finally, we use these results to estimate the intrinsic NH distribution of the local AGN population. Two more of our CTAGN candidates are scheduled to be observed by NuSTAR, bringing the completeness of hard X-ray energy data of the sample to 65%. This work provides a well-defined local benchmark for AGN unification studies.

  5. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  6. PRIMUS: INFRARED AND X-RAY AGN SELECTION TECHNIQUES AT 0.2 < z < 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Alexander J.; Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cool, Richard J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu Guangtun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of Spitzer/IRAC and X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection techniques in order to quantify the overlap, uniqueness, contamination, and completeness of each. We investigate how the overlap and possible contamination of the samples depend on the depth of both the IR and X-ray data. We use Spitzer/IRAC imaging, Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray imaging, and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey to construct galaxy and AGN samples at 0.2 < z < 1.2 over 8 deg{sup 2}. We construct samples over a wide range of IRAC flux limits (SWIRE to GOODS depth) and X-ray flux limits (10 ks to 2 Ms). We compare IR-AGN samples defined using both the IRAC color selection of Stern et al. and Donley et al. with X-ray-detected AGN samples. For roughly similar depth IR and X-ray surveys, we find that {approx}75% of IR-selected AGNs are also identified as X-ray AGNs. This fraction increases to {approx}90% when comparing against the deepest X-ray data, indicating that at most {approx}10% of IR-selected AGNs may be heavily obscured. The IR-AGN selection proposed by Stern et al. suffers from contamination by star-forming galaxies at various redshifts when using deeper IR data, though the selection technique works well for shallow IR data. While similar overall, the IR-AGN samples preferentially contain more luminous AGNs, while the X-ray AGN samples identify a wider range of AGN accretion rates including low specific accretion rate AGNs, where the host galaxy light dominates at IR wavelengths. The host galaxy populations of the IR and X-ray AGN samples have similar rest-frame colors and stellar masses; both selections identify AGNs in blue, star-forming and red, quiescent galaxies.

  7. The mm-wave compact component of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Ehud; Vogel, Stuart; Baldi, Ranieri D.; Smith, Krista L.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2018-05-01

    mm-wave emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) may hold the key to understanding the physical origin of their radio cores. The correlation between radio/mm and X-ray luminosity may suggest a similar physical origin of the two sources. Since synchrotron self absorption decreases with frequency, mm-waves probe smaller length scales than cm-waves. We report on 100 GHz (3 mm) observations with CARMA of 26 AGNs selected from the hard X-ray Swift/BAT survey. 20/26 targets were detected at 100 GHz down to the 1 mJy (3σ) sensitivity, which corresponds to optically thick synchrotron source sizes of 10-4 - 10-3 pc. Most sources show a 100 GHz flux excess with respect to the spectral slope extrapolated from low frequencies. This mm spectral component likely originates from smaller scales than the few-GHz emission. The measured mm sources lie roughly around the Lmm (100 GHz) ˜10-4LX (2-10 keV) relation, similar to a few previously published X-ray selected sources, and hinting perhaps at a common coronal origin.

  8. Testing the AGN Unification Model in the Infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Almeida, C; Levenson, N A; Radomski, J T; Alonso-Herrero, A; Asensio Ramos, A; Rodríguez Espinosa, J M; Pérez García, A M; Packham, C; Mason, R; Díaz-Santos, T

    2012-01-01

    We present near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 21 Seyfert galaxies, using subarcsecond resolution imaging data. Our aim is to compare the properties Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) tori using clumpy torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared (IR) nuclear SEDs. These dusty tori have physical sizes smaller than 6 pc radius, as derived from our fits. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) unification schemes account for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry. However, we find evidence that strong unification may not hold, and that the immediate dusty surroundings of Sy1 and Sy2 nuclei are intrinsically different. The Type 2 tori studied here are broader, have more clumps, and these clumps have lower optical depths than those of Type 1 tori. The larger the covering factor of the torus, the smaller the probability of having direct view of the AGN, and vice-versa. In our sample, Sy2 tori have larger covering factors (C T = 0.95±0.02) and smaller escape probabilities than those of Sy1 (C T = 0.5±0.1). Thus, on the basis of the results presented here, the classification of a Seyfert galaxy may depend more on the intrinsic properties of the torus rather than on its mere inclination, in contradiction with the simplest unification model.

  9. Changing-Look AGNs or Short-Lived Radio Sources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wołowska, Aleksandra [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Mooley, Kunal [Centre for Astrophysical Surveys, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Hallinan, Gregg, E-mail: ola@astro.umk.pl [Cahill Center for Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The evolution of extragalactic radio sources has been a fundamental problem in the study of active galactic nuclei for many years. A standard evolutionary model has been created based on observations of a wide range of radio sources. In the general scenario of the evolution, the younger and smaller Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources become large-scale FRI and FRII objects. However, a growing number of observations of low power radio sources suggests that the model cannot explain all their properties and there are still some aspects of the evolutionary path that remain unclear. There are indications, that some sources may be short-lived objects on timescales of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. Those objects represent a new population of active galaxies. Here, we present the discovery of several radio transient sources on timescales of 5–20 yrs, largely associated with renewed AGN (Active Galactic Nucleus) activity. These changing-look AGNs possibly represent behavior typical for many active galaxies.

  10. The broad-band SEDs of four `hypervariable' AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, James S.; Ward, Martin J.; Lawrence, Andy; Bruce, Alastair; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Elvis, Martin; Gezari, Suvi; Marshall, Philip J.; Done, Chris

    2018-03-01

    We present an optical-to-X-ray spectral analysis of four `hypervariable' AGN (HVAs) discovered by comparing Pan-STARRS data to that from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey over a 10 yr baseline (Lawrence et al.). There is some evidence that these objects are X-ray loud for their corresponding UV luminosities, but given that we measured them in a historic high state, it is not clear whether to take the high state or low state as typical of the properties of these HVAs. We estimate black hole masses based on Mg II and H α emission line profiles, and either the high- or low-state luminosities, finding mass ranges log (MBH/M⊙) = 8.2-8.8 and log (MBH/M⊙) = 7.9-8.3, respectively. We then fit energy-conserving models to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs), obtaining strong constraints on the bolometric luminosity and αOX. We compare the SED properties with a larger, X-ray selected AGN sample for both of these scenarios, and observe distinct groupings in spectral shape versus luminosity parameter space. In general, the SED properties are closer to normal if we assume that the low state is representative. This supports the idea that the large slow outbursts may be due to extrinsic effects (for example microlensing) as opposed to accretion rate changes, but a larger sample of HVAs is needed to be confident of this conclusion.

  11. Evidence for AGN feedback in low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Penny, Sam; Smethurst, Rebecca; Krawczyk, Coleman; Nichol, Bob; SDSS-IV MaNGA

    2018-01-01

    Despite being the dominant galaxy population by number in groups and clusters, the formation and quenching mechanism of dwarf galaxies remains unknown. We present evidence for AGN feedback in a subset of 69 quenched low-mass galaxies (M* less than 5e9 Msun, fainter than Mr = -19) selected from the first two years of the MaNGA survey. The majority (85 per cent) of these quenched galaxies appear to reside in a group environment. We find 6 galaxies in our sample that appear to have an active AGN that is preventing on-going star-formation; this is the first time such a feedback mechanism has been observed in this mass range. Interestingly, five of these six galaxies have an ionised gas component that is kinematically offset from their stellar component, suggesting the gas is either recently accreted or outflowing. We hypothesise these six galaxies are low-mass equivalents to the “red geysers” observed in more massive galaxies. Of the other 62 galaxies in the sample, we find 8 do appear to have some low-level, residual star formation, or emission from hot, evolved stars. The remaining galaxies in our sample have no detectable ionised gas emission throughout their structures, consistent with them being quenched. I will show that despite being the "simplest" galaxies in our current models of galaxy formation, these quenched dwarf galaxies are a diverse population.

  12. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  13. Paleoradiology. Imaging mummies and fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhem, Rethy K. [Western Ontario Univ. London Health Sciences Centre, ON (Canada). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Brothwell, Don R. [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeology

    2008-07-01

    This is an important work on a topic of huge interest to archaeologists and related scientists, since the use of imaging techniques in the field has been expanding rapidly in recent decades. Paleoradiology involves the use of X-rays and advanced medical imaging modalities to evaluate ancient human and animal skeletons as well as biological materials from archaeological sites. Paleoradiological studies have been performed on mummies, skeletal remains and fossils to determine their sex and age at death. Diagnostic paleoradiology is the use of X-ray studies to detect ancient diseases. The broad range of themes and imaging techniques in this volume reflects four decades of research undertaken by Don Brothwell in the fields of anthropology, human paleopathology, and zooarchaeology, combined with two decades of skeletal radiology experience during which Rethy Chhem read over 150,000 skeletal X-ray and CT studies. (orig.)

  14. Paleoradiology. Imaging mummies and fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhem, Rethy K.; Brothwell, Don R.

    2008-01-01

    This is an important work on a topic of huge interest to archaeologists and related scientists, since the use of imaging techniques in the field has been expanding rapidly in recent decades. Paleoradiology involves the use of X-rays and advanced medical imaging modalities to evaluate ancient human and animal skeletons as well as biological materials from archaeological sites. Paleoradiological studies have been performed on mummies, skeletal remains and fossils to determine their sex and age at death. Diagnostic paleoradiology is the use of X-ray studies to detect ancient diseases. The broad range of themes and imaging techniques in this volume reflects four decades of research undertaken by Don Brothwell in the fields of anthropology, human paleopathology, and zooarchaeology, combined with two decades of skeletal radiology experience during which Rethy Chhem read over 150,000 skeletal X-ray and CT studies. (orig.)

  15. Retrofitting for fossil fuel flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.; Trueblood, R.C.; Lukas, R.W.; Worster, C.M.; Marx, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    Described in this paper are two fossil plant retrofits recently completed by the Public Service Company of New Hampshire that demonstrate the type of planning and execution required for a successful project under the current regulatory and budget constraints. Merrimack Units 1 and 2 are 120 MW and 338 MW nominal cyclone-fired coal units in Bow, New Hampshire. The retrofits recently completed at these plants have resulted in improved particulate emissions compliance, and the fuel flexibility to allow switching to lower sulphur coals to meet current and future SO 2 emission limits. Included in this discussion are the features of each project including the unique precipitator procurement approach for the Unit 1 Retrofit, and methods used to accomplish both retrofits within existing scheduled maintenance outages through careful planning and scheduling, effective use of pre-outage construction, 3-D CADD modeling, modular construction and early procurement. Operating experience while firing various coals in the cyclone fired boilers is also discussed

  16. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Lallia, P.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  17. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  18. The cosmic evolution of massive black holes in the Horizon-AGN simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, M.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Devriendt, J.

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the demographics of black holes (BHs) in the large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. This simulation statistically models how much gas is accreted on to BHs, traces the energy deposited into their environment and, consequently, the back-reaction of the ambient medium on BH growth. The synthetic BHs reproduce a variety of observational constraints such as the redshift evolution of the BH mass density and the mass function. Strong self-regulation via AGN feedback, weak supernova feedback, and unresolved internal processes result in a tight BH-galaxy mass correlation. Starting at z ˜ 2, tidal stripping creates a small population of BHs over-massive with respect to the halo. The fraction of galaxies hosting a central BH or an AGN increases with stellar mass. The AGN fraction agrees better with multi-wavelength studies, than single-wavelength ones, unless obscuration is taken into account. The most massive haloes present BH multiplicity, with additional BHs gained by ongoing or past mergers. In some cases, both a central and an off-centre AGN shine concurrently, producing a dual AGN. This dual AGN population dwindles with decreasing redshift, as found in observations. Specific accretion rate and Eddington ratio distributions are in good agreement with observational estimates. The BH population is dominated in turn by fast, slow, and very slow accretors, with transitions occurring at z = 3 and z = 2, respectively.

  19. A MODEL FOR TYPE 2 CORONAL LINE FOREST (CLiF) AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidden, Ana [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rose, Marvin; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We present a model for the classification of Coronal Line Forest Active Galactic Nuclei (CLiF AGNs). CLiF AGNs are of special interest due to their remarkably large number of emission lines, especially forbidden high-ionization lines (FHILs). Rose et al. suggest that their emission is dominated by reflection from the inner wall of the obscuring region rather than direct emission from the accretion disk. This makes CLiF AGNs laboratories to test AGN-torus models. Modeling an AGN as an accreting supermassive black hole surrounded by a cylinder of dust and gas, we show a relationship between the viewing angle and the revealed area of the inner wall. From the revealed area, we can determine the amount of FHIL emission at various angles. We calculate the strength of [Fe vii] λ 6087 emission for a number of intermediate angles (30°, 40°, and 50°) and compare the results with the luminosity of the observed emission line from six known CLiF AGNs. We find that there is good agreement between our model and the observational results. The model also enables us to determine the relationship between the type 2:type 1 AGN fraction vs the ratio of torus height to radius, h / r .

  20. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet-heating active galactic nucleus feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-03-01

    We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion

  1. Morphology of AGN Emission Line Regions in SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicheng; Sun, Ai-Lei; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Kelly, Michael; Greene, Jenny E.; Rembold, Sandro B.; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2018-05-01

    Extended narrow-line regions (NLRs) around active galactic nuclei (AGN) are shaped by the distribution of gas in the host galaxy and by the geometry of the circumnuclear obscuration, and thus they can be used to test the AGN unification model. In this work, we quantify the morphologies of the narrow-line regions in 308 nearby AGNs (z = 0 - 0.14, Lbol˜1042.4 - 44.1 erg s-1) from the MaNGA survey. Based on the narrow-line region maps, we find that a large fraction (81%) of these AGN have bi-conical NLR morphology. The distribution of their measured opening angles suggests that the intrinsic opening angles of the ionization cones has a mean value of 85-98° with a finite spread of 39-44° (1-σ). Our inferred opening angle distribution implies a number ratio of type I to type II AGN of 1:1.6-2.3, consistent with other measurements of the type I / type II ratio at low AGN luminosities. Combining these measurements with the WISE photometry data, we find that redder mid-IR color (lower effective temperature of dust) corresponds to stronger and narrower photo-ionized bicones. This relation is in agreement with the unification model that suggests that the bi-conical narrow-line regions are shaped by a toroidal dusty structure within a few pc from the AGN. Furthermore, we find a significant alignment between the minor axis of host galaxy disks and AGN ionization cones. Together, these findings suggest that obscuration on both circumnuclear (˜pc) and galactic (˜ kpc) scales are important in shaping and orienting the AGN narrow-line regions.

  2. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  3. Radio jets in NGC 4151: where eMERLIN meets HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. R. A.; McHardy, I. M.; Baldi, R. D.; Beswick, R. J.; Argo, M. K.; Dullo, B. T.; Knapen, J. H.; Brinks, E.; Fenech, D. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Panessa, F.; Rampadarath, H.; Westcott, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present high-sensitivity eMERLIN radio images of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 at 1.51 GHz. We compare the new eMERLIN images to those from archival MERLIN observations in 1993 to determine the change in jet morphology in the 22 yr between observations. We report an increase by almost a factor of 2 in the peak flux density of the central core component, C4, thought to host the black hole, but a probable decrease in some other components, possibly due to adiabatic expansion. The core flux increase indicates an active galactic nucleus (AGN) that is currently active and feeding the jet. We detect no significant motion in 22 yr between C4 and the component C3, which is unresolved in the eMERLIN image. We present a spectral index image made within the 512 MHz band of the 1.51 GHz observations. The spectrum of the core, C4, is flatter than that of other components further out in the jet. We use HST emission-line images (H α, [O III] and [O II]) to study the connection between the jet and the emission-line region. Based on the changing emission-line ratios away from the core and comparison with the eMERLIN radio jet, we conclude that photoionization from the central AGN is responsible for the observed emission-line properties further than 4 arcsec (360 pc) from the core, C4. Within this region, a body of evidence (radio-line co-spatiality, low [O III]/H α and estimated fast shocks) suggests additional ionization from the jet.

  4. On jet substructure methods for signal jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Powling, Alexander [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); CERN, PH-TH,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-08-17

    We carry out simple analytical calculations and Monte Carlo studies to better understand the impact of QCD radiation on some well-known jet substructure methods for jets arising from the decay of boosted Higgs bosons. Understanding differences between taggers for these signal jets assumes particular significance in situations where they perform similarly on QCD background jets. As an explicit example of this we compare the Y-splitter method to the more recently proposed Y-pruning technique. We demonstrate how the insight we gain can be used to significantly improve the performance of Y-splitter by combining it with trimming and show that this combination outperforms the other taggers studied here, at high p{sub T}. We also make analytical estimates for optimal parameter values, for a range of methods and compare to results from Monte Carlo studies.

  5. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  6. Jet quenching at ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    RHIC results on leading hadron suppression indicate that the jets produced in hard processes are strongly quenched by the dense medium created in heavy ion collisions. Most of the energy lost by the leading parton remains within the jet cone, but several questions on the medium modification of the jet structure have not been addressed. These include the longitudinal and transverse structures of the quenched jet, the associated radiation observables, and the dependence on the parton flavor. These topics will be studied by ALICE thanks to both the robustness of its tracking and the charged particle identification system. Large medium effects are expected in both the low pt and in the high pt regions. To make ALICE better suited for jet physics, the performances on high p t particles and jets can be significantly improved by completing the present set-up with a large Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EmCal). This will significantly improve the resolution on the jet energy and on the particle composition (with the detection of both charged and neutral particles). It will also allow to calibrate the jet energy by measuring the high energy photon emitted in the opposite direction. EmCal will be used to trigger on the jet energy itself, thus allowing a significant improvement of the statistics achievable for jets of high energy. Finally, due too both the γ/π 0 and the electron/hadron discrimination, EmCal will enhance the ALICE capabilities at high p t for direct photons and heavy quarks measurements

  7. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  8. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R ampersand D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R ampersand D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based

  9. Fossil Fuels, Backstop Technologies, and Imperfect Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the transition from fossil fuels to backstop technologies in a general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by research and development. The analysis generalizes the existing literature by allowing for imperfect substitution between fossil fuels and the new energy

  10. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  11. Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, W.; Siegrist, S.; Schaefli, M.; Eichenberger, U.

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

  12. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  13. Tracing the External Origin of the AGN Gas Fueling Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Raimundo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared observations of the active galaxy MCG–6-30-15 provide strong evidence that its molecular gas fueling reservoir is of external origin. MCG–6-30-15 has a counter-rotating core of stars within its central 400 pc and a counter-rotating disc of molecular gas that extends as close as ~50–100 pc from the central black hole. The gas counter-rotation establishes that the gas reservoir in the center of the galaxy originates from a past external accretion event. In this contribution we discuss the gas and stellar properties of MCG–6-30-15, its past history and how the findings on this galaxy can be used to understand AGN fueling in S0 galaxies with counter-rotating structures.

  14. Safety reassessment of the Paks NPP (the AGNES project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gado, J [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics; Bajsz, J; Cserhati, A; Elter, J [Paksi Atomeroemue Vallalat, Paks (Hungary); Hollo, E [Energiagazdalkodasi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Kovacs, K [EROTERV Engineering and Contractor Co (Hungary); Maroti, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics; Miko, S [Paksi Atomeroemue Vallalat, Paks (Hungary); Techy, Z [Energiagazdalkodasi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Vidovszky, I [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1996-12-31

    The reassessment of the Paks NPP safety according to internationally recognized criteria of the Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety (AGNES) project is outlined. The Paks NPP consists of four WWER-440/V-213 units. The following groups of analysis have been performed: system analysis and description; analysis of design basis accidents; severe accidents analysis; level 1 probabilistic safety analysis. Postulated accidents (PA) and Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOO) are estimated in detail for the following initiating events: increase/decrease in secondary heat removal; decrease in primary coolant inventory; increase/decrease of reactor coolant inventory; reactivity and power distribution anomalies; analysis of transients with the failure of reactor scram (ATWS); pressurized thermal shock analyses. Severe accident analysis was made for the accidents on in-vessel phase and containment phase, for radioactive release and for accident management.

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Microvariable AGN Source Mrk 501

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. Sadun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the optical observations and analysis of the high-energy peaked BL Lac object (HBL, Mrk 501, at redshift z = 0.033. We can confirm microvariable behavior over the course of minutes on several occasions per night. As an alternative to the commonly understood dynamical model of random variations in intensity of the AGN, we develop a relativistic beaming model with a minimum of free parameters, which allows us to infer changes in the line of sight angles for the motion of the different relativistic components. We hope our methods can be used in future studies of beamed emission in other active microvariable sources, similar to the one we explored.

  16. Cloudy Skies over AGN: Observations with Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, M.; Risaliti, G.

    2009-05-01

    Recent time-resolved spectroscopic X-ray studies of bright obscured AGN show that column density variability on time scales of hours/days may be common, at least for sources with NH>1023 cm-2. This opens new oppurtunities in the analysis of the structure of the circumnuclear medium and of the X-ray source: resolving the variations due to single clouds covering/uncovering the X-ray source provides tight constraints on the source size, the clouds' size and distance, and their average number, density and column density. We show how Simbol-X will provide a breakthrough in this field, thanks to its broad band coverage, allowing (a) to precisely disentangle the continuum and NH variations, and (2) to extend the NH variability analysis to column densities >1023 cm-2.

  17. Bare AGN: an Unobscured View of the Innermost Accretion Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M.; Dauser, T.; Beuchert, T.; Jeffreson, S.; Tawabutr, J.; Wilms, J.; Garcia, J.; Walton, D.

    2017-10-01

    In a systematic study of the relativistic reflection spectra and coronal properties for a sample of bare AGN we analyze high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories utilizing state-of-the-art reflection codes. Features of blurred reflection off an ionized accretion disk are modelled using different flavors of the relativistic ray-tracing code Relxill. We show that the more physically motivated and self-consistent lamp-post geometry is largely consistent with fits of broken power-law emissivity profiles. We provide good constraints on parameters describing the compact reprocessing corona, i.e., the reflection fraction and the lamp-post height. The latter are found to be prevalent within 1-10 r_{g}, while our models generally find close-to-maximal black hole spins. These results are discussed and compared with previous studies by Walton et al. (2013).

  18. Safety reassessment of the Paks NPP (the AGNES project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.; Hollo, E.; Kovacs, K.; Maroti, L.; Techy, Z.; Vidovszky, I.

    1995-01-01

    The reassessment of the Paks NPP safety according to internationally recognized criteria of the Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety (AGNES) project is outlined. The Paks NPP consists of four WWER-440/V-213 units. The following groups of analysis have been performed: system analysis and description; analysis of design basis accidents; severe accidents analysis; level 1 probabilistic safety analysis. Postulated accidents (PA) and Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOO) are estimated in detail for the following initiating events: increase/decrease in secondary heat removal; decrease in primary coolant inventory; increase/decrease of reactor coolant inventory; reactivity and power distribution anomalies; analysis of transients with the failure of reactor scram (ATWS); pressurized thermal shock analyses. Severe accident analysis was made for the accidents on in-vessel phase and containment phase, for radioactive release and for accident management

  19. Star-forming Galaxies as AGN Imposters? A Theoretical Investigation of the Mid-infrared Colors of AGNs and Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas P.; Secrest, Nathan J.

    2018-05-01

    We conduct for the first time a theoretical investigation of the mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) produced by dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an extreme starburst. These models employ an integrated modeling approach using photoionization and stellar population synthesis models in which both the line and emergent continuum is predicted from gas exposed to the ionizing radiation from a young starburst and an AGN. In this work, we focus on the infrared colors from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, predicting the dependence of the colors on the input radiation field, the interstellar medium conditions, the obscuring column, and the metallicity. We find that an extreme starburst can mimic an AGN in two band mid-infrared color cuts employed in the literature. However, the three-band color cuts employed in the literature require starbursts with extremely high ionization parameters or gas densities. We show that the extreme mid-infrared colors seen in some blue compact dwarf galaxies are not due to metallicity but rather a combination of high ionization parameters and high column densities. Based on our theoretical calculations, we present a theoretical mid-infrared color cut that will exclude even the most extreme starburst that we have modeled in this work. The theoretical AGN demarcation region presented here can be used to identify elusive AGN candidates for future follow-up studies with the James Webb Space Telescope. The full suite of simulated SEDs are available online.

  20. Jets in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Jet streams, "jets" for short, are remarkably coherent streams of air found in every major atmosphere. They have a profound effect on a planet's global circulation, and have been an enigma since the belts and zones of Jupiter were discovered in the 1600s. The study of jets, including what processes affect their size, strength, direction, shear stability, and predictability, are active areas of research in geophysical fluid dynamics. Jet research is multidisciplinary and global, involving collaborations between observers, experimentalists, numerical modelers, and applied mathematicians. Jets in atmospheres have strong analogies with shear instability in nonneutral plasmas, and these connections are highlighted throughout the article. The article begins with a description of four major challenges that jet researchers face: nonlinearity, non-intuitive wave physics, non-constant-coefficients, and copious nondimensional numbers. Then, two general fluid-dynamical tenets, the practice of rendering expressions dimensionally homogeneous (nondimensional), and the universal properties of shocks are applied to the open question of what controls the on-off switch of shear instability. The discussion progresses to how the physics of jets varies in equatorial, midlatitude, and polar regions, and how jets are observed to behave in each of these settings. The all-in-one conservation law of potential vorticity (PV), which combines the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and thermal energy into a single expression, is the common language of jet research. Earth and Uranus have weak retrograde equatorial jets, but most planets exhibit super-rotating equatorial jets, which require eddies to transport momentum up gradient in a non-intuitive manner. Jupiter and Saturn exhibit multiple alternating jets in their midlatitudes. The theory for why jets are invariably zonal (east-west orientated) is reviewed, and the particular challenges that Jupiter's sharp westward jets present to existing

  1. The Keck/OSIRIS Nearby AGN Survey (KONA). I. The Nuclear K-band Properties of Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Malkan, M.; Davies, R.; Yu, P. C.; Shaver, S.; Davis, B.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN survey (KONA), a new adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopic survey of Seyfert galaxies. KONA permits at ∼0.″1 resolution a detailed study of the nuclear kinematic structure of gas and stars in a representative sample of 40 local bona fide active galactic nucleus (AGN). KONA seeks to characterize the physical processes responsible for the coevolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, principally inflows and outflows. With these IFU data of the nuclear regions of 40 Seyfert galaxies, the KONA survey will be able to study, for the first time, a number of key topics with meaningful statistics. In this paper we study the nuclear K-band properties of nearby AGN. We find that the K-band (2.1 μm) luminosities of the compact Seyfert 1 nuclei are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosities, implying a non-stellar origin for the majority of the continuum emission. The best-fit correlation is log L K = 0.9log L 2–10 keV + 4 over three orders of magnitude in both K-band and X-ray luminosities. We find no strong correlation between 2.1 μm luminosity and hard X-ray luminosity for the Seyfert 2 galaxies. The spatial extent and spectral slope of the Seyfert 2 galaxies indicate the presence of nuclear star formation and attenuating material (gas and dust), which in some cases is compact and in some galaxies extended. We detect coronal-line emission in 36 galaxies and for the first time in 5 galaxies. Finally, we find 4/20 galaxies that are usually classified as Seyfert 2 based on their optical spectra exhibit a broad component of Brγ emission, and one galaxy (NGC 7465) shows evidence of a double nucleus. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M

  2. Antelope--Fossil rebuild project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Columbia Power Cooperative Association (CPCA), Monument, Oregon, proposes to upgrade a 69-kV transmission line in Wasco and Wheeler Counties, Oregon, between the Antelope Substation and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Fossil Substation. The project involves rebuilding and reconductoring 23.2 miles of transmission line, including modifying it for future use at 115 kV. Related project activities will include setting new wood pole structures, removing and disposing of old structures, conductors, and insulators, and stringing new conductor, all within the existing right-of-way. No new access roads will be required. A Borrower's Environmental Report was prepared for the 1992--1993 Work Plan for Columbia Power Cooperative Association in March 1991. This report investigated cultural resources, threatened or endangered species, wetlands, and floodplains, and other environmental issues, and included correspondence with appropriate Federal, state, and local agencies. The report was submitted to the Rural Electrification Administration for their use in preparing their environmental documentation for the project

  3. Phenomenology of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.F.

    1980-05-01

    The basic idea of these lectures is very simple. Quarks and gluons - the elementary quanta of quantum chromodynamics or QCD - are produced with perturbarively calculable rates in short distance processes. This is because of asymptotic freedom. These quanta produced at short distances are, in a sense, 'visible' as jets of hadrons. (The jets do not contain the colored QCD quanta if - as we will assume - color is confined. The jets contain only colorless hadrons.) The distribution of these jets is the distribution of the original quanta, apart from fluctuations generated in the (long distance) jet formation process. The distribution of the jets can thus thest QCD in a particularly clear way at the parton level, at distance of order 5 x 10 -16 cm (PETRA/PEP energies). (orig.)

  4. A turbulent radio jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)

  5. Hadronic jets an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics is an incredibly rich subject detailing the narrow cone of hadrons and other particles produced by the hadronization of a quark or gluon in a particle physics or heavy ion experiment. This book is a general overview of jet physics for scientists not directly involved in the field. It presents the basic experimental and theoretical problems arising when dealing with jets, and describing the solutions proposed in recent years.

  6. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  7. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  8. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed, and the measured characteristics are compared to the theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, in general the agreement between experiment and theory is remarkable. There are some intriguing differences. Since the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed

  9. Properties of gluon jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on understanding of QCD. The future prospects are discussed

  10. Are jets really there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillethun, E.

    1976-09-01

    Based on the results of high energy proton-proton collisions obtained at the CERN ISR in 1972-73, the production of 'jets' is discussed. Jets in e + e - collisions are also discussed and the parameters 'sphericity' and 'rapidity' are used in analysis of the data. The jets studied have been defined as having at least one particle of high transverse momentum. It is not clear whether the jets represent new physics or are another way of stating that resonances (rho,K*, Δ, N* etc.) are produced with high p(sub T), and that in such production the high transverse momentum must be balanced essentially locally in the collision. (JIW)

  11. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs. 2; Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-Shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Clapp, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blue shifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\siml00,000kmis (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of\\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6 erg s/cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s/cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\siml0(exp 22)-10(exp 24)/sq cm, with a mean value of N_H\\siml0(exp23)/sq cm. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  12. Prospects for AGN Science using the ART-XC on the SRG Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Bonamente, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced hard X-ray sensitivity provided by the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope to the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission facilitates the detection of heavily obscured and other hard-spectrum cosmic X-ray sources. The SRG all-sky survey will obtain large, statistically-well-defined samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) including a significant population of local heavily-obscured AGN. In anticipation of the SRG all-sky survey, we investigate the prospects for refining the bright end of the AGN luminosity function and determination of the local black hole mass function and comparing the spatial distribution of AGN with large-scale structure defined by galaxy clusters and groups. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the deep survey Ecliptic Pole regions.

  13. AGN feedback through UFO and galaxy-wide winds in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Bischetti, M.; Zappacosta, L.; Fiore, F.

    2017-10-01

    AGN feedback through massive molecular winds is today routinely observed in local AGN host galaxies, but not as such in the early universe. I will present the first evidence for a massive, AGN-driven molecular wind in the z 4 QSO APM08279, which also hosts the most well studied and persistent nuclear semi-raltivistic wind (UFO). This observation directly probes the expansion mechanism of a nuclear wind into the ISM on galaxy wide scales, that so far was constrained by a couple of other objects only (Feruglio et al. 2015, Tombesi et al. 2015). This result also opens the path toward the exploration of molecular AGN-driven winds at early epochs, close after the end of the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR).

  14. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. 1; Radiation-Hydrodynamics Solution for the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan. G. S.; Kallman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scale by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the 2D radiation transfer problem in a flux limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary 1D models for the wind, and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for AGN luminosities greater than 0.1 L(sub edd) external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 infrared-driven winds is a viable option for the AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.

  15. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  16. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  17. Imprints of the large-scale structure on AGN formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porqueres, Natàlia; Jasche, Jens; Enßlin, Torsten A.; Lavaux, Guilhem

    2018-04-01

    Black hole masses are found to correlate with several global properties of their host galaxies, suggesting that black holes and galaxies have an intertwined evolution and that active galactic nuclei (AGN) have a significant impact on galaxy evolution. Since the large-scale environment can also affect AGN, this work studies how their formation and properties depend on the environment. We have used a reconstructed three-dimensional high-resolution density field obtained from a Bayesian large-scale structure reconstruction method applied to the 2M++ galaxy sample. A web-type classification relying on the shear tensor is used to identify different structures on the cosmic web, defining voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters. We confirm that the environmental density affects the AGN formation and their properties. We found that the AGN abundance is equivalent to the galaxy abundance, indicating that active and inactive galaxies reside in similar dark matter halos. However, occurrence rates are different for each spectral type and accretion rate. These differences are consistent with the AGN evolutionary sequence suggested by previous authors, Seyferts and Transition objects transforming into low-ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs), the weaker counterpart of Seyferts. We conclude that AGN properties depend on the environmental density more than on the web-type. More powerful starbursts and younger stellar populations are found in high densities, where interactions and mergers are more likely. AGN hosts show smaller masses in clusters for Seyferts and Transition objects, which might be due to gas stripping. In voids, the AGN population is dominated by the most massive galaxy hosts.

  18. Uncovering extreme AGN variability in serendipitous X-ray source surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward C.; Garcia Soto, Aylin; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, Meg

    2018-01-01

    Constraints on the duty cycle and duration of accretion episodes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are vital for establishing how most AGNs are fueled, which is essential for a complete picture of black hole/galaxy co-evolution. Perhaps the best handle we have on these activity parameters is provided by AGNs that have displayed dramatic changes in their bolometric luminosities and, in some cases, spectroscopic classifications. Given that X-ray emission is directly linked to black-hole accretion, X-ray surveys should provide a straightforward means of identifying AGNs that have undergone dramatic changes in their accretion states. However, it appears that such events are very rare, so wide-area surveys separated in time by many years are needed to maximize discovery rates. We have cross-correlated the Einstein IPC Two-Sigma Catalog with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Faint Source Catalog to identify a sample of soft X-ray sources that varied by factors ranging from 7 to more than 100 over a ten year timescale. When possible, we have constructed long-term X-ray light curves for the sources by combining the Einstein and RASS fluxes with those obtained from serendipitous pointed observations by ROSAT, Chandra,XMM, and Swift. Optical follow-up observations indicate that many of the extremely variable sources in our sample are indeed radio-quiet AGNs. Interestingly, the majority of objects that dimmed between ~1980 and ~1990 are still (or are again) broad-line AGNs rather than“changing-look” candidates that have more subtle AGN signatures in their spectra — despite the fact that none of the sources examined thus far has returned to its highest observed luminosity. Future X-ray observations will provide the opportunity to characterize the X-ray behavior of these anonymous, extreme AGNs over a four decade span.

  19. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way. Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky. The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight. Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila. Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered. This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the visible-light image (left) shows a dark sky speckled

  20. From molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei - The universality of the jet phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konigl, A.

    1986-01-01

    Jets are among the most remarkable astrophysical phenomena explored in recent years. The term ''jets'' was originally coined to describe the narrow, elongated features that had been discovered in radio maps (and, in some cases, also by X-ray and optical observations) of extragalactic sources. Similar features have subsequently been found, however, also in our own galaxy, with the relativistic beams of SS433 being probably the most celebrated example. While the SS433 beams are still unique, there is now mounting evidence that oppositely directed jets are very frequently associated with nascent stars embedded in dense molecular clouds. The purpose of this article is, in essence, to ''bridge the gap'' between these smallest-scale jets and their enormously larger extragalactic counterparts. By concentrating on the similarities between molecular-cloud and extragalactic jets, the author shall try to extract some of the basic dynamical principles that could account for the apparent universality of this phenomenon. Following an observational overview, he considers the general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) aspects of the production, the collimation, and the propagation of jets in protostellar and in active-galactic-nuclei (AGN) environments

  1. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets and Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.

  2. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alexei J; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth-death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the 'morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using

  3. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-02-01

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m 2 jet /p jet T scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  4. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-02-15

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  5. Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoff, Sera

    2007-04-01

    Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact relationship with the accretion flow. In this talk I will focus on jets in black hole systems, which provide the ideal test population for studying the relationship between inflow and outflow over an extreme range in mass and accretion rate. I will present several recent results from coordinated multi-wavelength studies of low-luminosity sources. These results not only support similar trends in weakly accreting black hole behavior across the mass scale, but also suggest that the same underlying physical model can explain their broadband spectra. I will discuss how comparisons between small- and large-scale systems are revealing new information about the regions nearest the black hole, providing clues about the creation of these weakest of jets. Furthermore, comparisons between our Galactic center nucleus Sgr A* and other sources at slightly higher accretion rates can illucidate the processes which drive central activity, and pave the way for new tests with upcoming instruments.

  6. A Rotation Measure Gradient on the M87 VLA Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algaba Juan Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotation measures (RMs have proven to be an excellent tool to study magnetic field structures in AGNs. Here we study RM properties on kiloparsec scales of theM87 jet via stacked multi wavelength polarized VLA observations. Our results show for the first time an indication of the RM gradient transverse to the jet in knot A, and possibly knot C and HST-1. Motivated by the shape of the RM in knots A and B, we discuss that part of it may be a filamentary structure of higher RM due to an external Faraday screen, although we consider this unlikely The data presented here can be easily explained by a helical magnetic field. By combining this result together with polarization direction plus the shape and degree of the fractional polarization across the jet, we can fairly conclude the presence of systematically wrapped, possibly helical, magnetic fields tightly wounded in knots A and C, in agreement with an MHD quad shock model.

  7. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  8. The fossil history of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harms

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoscorpions, given their resemblance to scorpions, have attracted human attention since the time of Aristotle, although they are much smaller and lack the sting and elongated tail. These arachnids have a long evolutionary history but their origins and phylogenetic affinities are still being debated. Here, we summarise their fossil record based on a comprehensive review of the literature and data contained in other sources. Pseudoscorpions are one of the oldest colonisers of the land, with fossils known since the Middle Devonian (ca. 390 Ma. The only arachnid orders with an older fossil record are scorpions, harvestmen and acariform mites, plus two extinct groups. Pseudoscorpions do not fossilise easily, and records from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic consist almost exclusively of amber inclusions. Most Mesozoic fossils come from Archingeay and Burmese ambers (Late Cretaceous and those from the Cenozoic are primarily from Eocene Baltic amber, although additional fossils from, for example, Miocene Dominican and Mexican ambers, are known. Overall, 16 of the 26 families of living pseudoscorpions have been documented from fossils and 49 currently valid species are recognised in the literature. Pseudoscorpions represent a case of morphological stasis and even the Devonian fossils look rather modern. Indeed, most amber fossils are comparable to Recent groups despite a major gap in the fossil record of almost 250 Myr. Baltic amber inclusions indicate palaeofauna inhabiting much warmer climates than today and point to climatic shifts in central Europe since the Eocene. They also indicate that some groups (e.g. Feaellidae and Pseudogarypidae had much wider Eocene distributions. Their present-day occurrence is relictual and highlights past extinction events. Faunas from younger tropical amber deposits (e.g. Dominican and Mexican amber are comparable to Recent ones. Generally, there is a strong bias in the amber record towards groups that live under tree

  9. A statistical study of H i gas in nearby narrow-line AGN-hosting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (M H i ), stellar mass (M * ), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (M H i /M * ) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either M H i or M H i /M * . The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

  10. A statistical study of H i gas in nearby narrow-line AGN-hosting galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong, E-mail: zyn@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (M{sub H} {sub i}), stellar mass (M{sub *}), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either M{sub H} {sub i} or M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

  11. Jet physics in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizides, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is one of the experiments currently prepared for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, starting operation end of 2007. ALICE is dedicated to the research on nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, which addresses the properties of strongly interacting matter under varying conditions of high density and temperature. The conditions provided at the LHC allow significant qualitative improvement with respect to previous studies. In particular, energetic probes, light quarks and gluons, will be abundantly produced. These probes might be identified by their fragmentation into correlated particles, so called jets, of high enough energy to allow full reconstruction of jet properties; even in the underlying heavy-ion environment. Understanding the dependence of high-energy jet production and fragmentation influenced by the dense medium created in the collision region is an open field of active research. Generally, one expects energy loss of the probes due to medium-induced gluon radiation. It is suggested that hadronization products of these, rather soft gluons may be contained within the jet emission cone, resulting in a modification of the characteristic jet fragmentation, as observed via longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions with respect to the direction of the initial parton, as well as of the multiplicity distributions arising from the jet fragmentation. Particle momenta parallel to the jet axis are softened (jet quenching), while transverse to it increased (transverse heating). The present thesis studies the capabilities of the ALICE detectors to measure these jets and quantifies obtainable rates and the quality of jet reconstruction, in both proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In particular, it is addressed whether modification of the jet fragmentation can be detected within the high-particle-multiplicity environment of central lead-lead collisions. (orig.)

  12. Deformations of free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruchuri, Srinivas

    This thesis studies three different problems. First we demonstrate that a flowing liquid jet can be controllably split into two separate subfilaments through the applications of a sufficiently strong tangential stress to the surface of the jet. In contrast, normal stresses can never split a liquid jet. We apply these results to observations of uncontrolled splitting of jets in electric fields. The experimental realization of controllable jet splitting would provide an entirely novel route for producing small polymeric fibers. In the second chapter we present an analytical model for the bending of liquid jets and sheets from temperature gradients, as recently observed by Chwalek et al. [Phys. Fluids, 14, L37 (2002)]. The bending arises from a local couple caused by Marangoni forces. The dependence of the bending angle on experimental parameters is presented, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments. The methodology gives a simple framework for understanding the mechanisms for jet and sheet bending. In chapter 4 we address the discrepancy between hydrodynamic theory of liquid jets, and the snap-off of narrow liquid jets observed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [23]. This has been previously attributed to the significant role of thermal fluctuations in nanofluidic systems. We argue that hydrodynamic description of such systems should include corrections to the Laplace pressure which result from the failure of the sharp interface assumption when the jet diameter becomes small enough. We show that this effect can in principle give rise to jet shapes similar to those observed in MD simulations, even when thermal fluctuations are completely neglected. Finally we summarize an algorithm developed to simulate droplet impact on a smooth surface.

  13. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  14. Arrhenius reconsidered: astrophysical jets and the spread of spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Malkah I.; Sheldon, Robert B.

    2015-09-01

    In 1871, Lord Kelvin suggested that the fossil record could be an account of bacterial arrivals on comets. In 1903, Svante Arrhenius suggested that spores could be transported on stellar winds without comets. In 1984, Sir Fred Hoyle claimed to see the infrared signature of vast clouds of dried bacteria and diatoms. In 2012, the Polonnaruwa carbonaceous chondrite revealed fossilized diatoms apparently living on a comet. However, Arrhenius' spores were thought to perish in the long transit between stars. Those calculations, however, assume that maximum velocities are limited by solar winds to ~5 km/s. Herbig-Haro objects and T-Tauri stars, however, are young stars with jets of several 100 km/s that might provide the necessary propulsion. The central engine of bipolar astrophysical jets is not presently understood, but we argue it is a kinetic plasma instability of a charged central magnetic body. We show how to make a bipolar jet in a belljar. The instability is non-linear, and thus very robust to scaling laws that map from microquasars to active galactic nuclei. We scale up to stellar sizes and recalculate the viability/transit-time for spores carried by supersonic jets, to show the viability of the Arrhenius mechanism.

  15. Quark jets, gluon jets and the three-gluon vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    1989-11-01

    Using hadronic jets in electron-positron annihilation, we suggest a simple and model-independent method to see the differences between quark and gluon jets. We define and analyse special energy dependent moments of jets and choose those which are the most characteristic to the jet type. The method handles the energy of a jet in an adequate way. We discuss new methods using jet flavor tagging, ordinary flavor tagging of a definite quark jet or discrimination between quark and gluon jets, to test the triple-gluon vertex in electron-positron annihilation. An enriched sample of gluon jets, jets with the smallest energy in four-jet events, as well as a continuous tagging variable are also studied. 21 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  16. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  17. Fossil energy use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Energy demand projections indicate that fossil energy will provide some ninety per cent of global primary energy demand for the foreseeable future. This paper considers the principal environmental impacts associated with fossil energy use and describes approaches to minimise them. Technologies are now available to reduce significantly pollutant emissions from fossil fuel use. Emerging technologies offer higher conversion efficiencies to reduce still further specific emissions per unit of energy output. It is essential, particularly in those areas of rapid growth in energy use, that best practice and technology are deployed. Technology transfer and training will help to achieve this and enable fossil energy use to be fully compatible with increasingly stringent environmental requirements. (author) 4 figs., 12 refs

  18. Developments in fossil fuel electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Argiri, M.

    1993-01-01

    A major part of the world's electricity is generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, and there is a significant environmental impact due to the production of fossil fuels and their combustion. Coal is responsible for 63% of the electricity generated from fossil fuels; natural gas accounts for about 20% and fuel oils for 17%. Because of developments in supply and improvements in generating efficiencies there is apparently a considerable shift towards a greater use of natural gas, and by the year 2000 it could provide 25% of the world electricity output. At the same time the amount of fuel oil burned will have decreased. The means to minimize the environmental impact of the use of fossil fuels, particularly coal, in electricity production are considered, together with the methods of emission control. Cleaner coal technologies, which include fluidized bed combustion and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), can reduce the emissions of NO x , SO 2 and CO 2 . (author)

  19. Pollution and exhaustibility of fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels causes environmental damage. This is modeled and the ‘optimal’ rate of depletion is derived. Also this trajectory is compared with the case where there occurs no environmental damage.

  20. The fossil record of the sixth extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, Roy E; Smith, Felisa A; Lyons, S Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Comparing the magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis with those in the fossil record is difficult without an understanding of differential preservation. Integrating data from palaeontological databases with information on IUCN status, ecology and life history characteristics of contemporary mammals, we demonstrate that only a small and biased fraction of threatened species (fossil record, compared with 20% of non-threatened species. We find strong taphonomic biases related to body size and geographic range. Modern species with a fossil record tend to be large and widespread and were described in the 19(th) century. The expected magnitude of the current extinction based only on species with a fossil record is about half of that of one based on all modern species; values for genera are similar. The record of ancient extinctions may be similarly biased, with many species having originated and gone extinct without leaving a tangible record. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Jet physics at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese, P.

    1997-05-01

    We present high E T jet measurements from CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The incfilusive jet cross section at √s = 1800 GeV with ∼ 5 times more data is compared to the published CDF results, preliminary D0 results, and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. The summation E T cross section is also compared to QCD predictions and the dijet angular distribution is used to place a limit on quark compositeness. The inclusive jet cross section at √s = 630 GeV is compared with that at 1800 GeV to test the QCD predictions for the scaling of jet cross sections with √s. Finally, we present momentum distributions of charged particles in jets and compare them to Modified Leading Log Approximation predictions

  2. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  3. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  4. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion

  5. PRIMUS: THE DEPENDENCE OF AGN ACCRETION ON HOST STELLAR MASS AND COLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aird, James; Coil, Alison L.; Moustakas, John; Smith, M. Stephen M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Blanton, Michael R.; Zhu Guangtun [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Burles, Scott M. [D.E. Shaw and Co., L.P., 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 850, Cupertino, CA 95014 (United States); Cool, Richard J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    We present evidence that the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the distribution of their accretion rates do not depend on the stellar masses of their host galaxies, contrary to previous studies. We use hard (2-10 keV) X-ray data from three extragalactic fields (XMM-LSS, COSMOS, and ELAIS-S1) with redshifts from the Prism Multi-object Survey to identify 242 AGNs with L{sub 2-10keV} = 10{sup 42-44} erg s{sup -1} within a parent sample of {approx}25,000 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 over {approx}3.4 deg{sup 2} and to i {approx} 23. We find that although the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN at fixed X-ray luminosity rises strongly with stellar mass, the distribution of X-ray luminosities is independent of mass. Furthermore, we show that the probability that a galaxy will host an AGN can be defined by a universal Eddington ratio distribution that is independent of the host galaxy stellar mass and has a power-law shape with slope -0.65. These results demonstrate that AGNs are prevalent at all stellar masses in the range 9.5< log M{sub *}/M{sub sun}<12 and that the same physical processes regulate AGN activity in all galaxies in this stellar mass range. While a higher AGN fraction may be observed in massive galaxies, this is a selection effect related to the underlying Eddington ratio distribution. We also find that the AGN fraction drops rapidly between z {approx} 1 and the present day and is moderately enhanced (factor {approx}2) in galaxies with blue or green optical colors. Consequently, while AGN activity and star formation appear to be globally correlated, we do not find evidence that the presence of an AGN is related to the quenching of star formation or the color transformation of galaxies.

  6. The Contribution of Compton-Thick AGN/ULIRGs to the X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele

    Accretion onto the supermassive black holes located at the centre of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGN) is one of the most efficient power sources in the Universe, and provides a significant contribution to the energy radiated over cosmic times. The spectral shape of the X-ray background and its progressive resolution strongly suggests that most AGN are heavily obscured by large amounts of dust and gas. Their primary radiation field is reprocessed and re-emitted at longer wavelengths, driving a huge IR luminosity. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are the local counterparts of the high-redshift (z sport the typical features of buried AGN in the mid-IR. IRAS 12127 1412 was observed for the first time in the X-rays by our group. Its Chandra spectrum clearly shows the signatures of AGN reflection at 2 10 keV. Similar properties were previously found in IRAS 00182 7112. Our Suzaku observations will allow to pinpont the AGN emission above 10 keV, and will provide fundamental information on the physical and geometrical structure of Compton-thick AGN embedded in a nuclear starburst. These sources are believed to experience the very initial phase of the AGN feedback on the surrounding environment, eventually leading to the formation of powerful optically- bright quasars. Besides this, we stress another remarkable opportunity related to the study of these two ULIRGs. Due to their really unique mid-IR and hard X-ray spectral properties, IRAS 00182 7112 and IRAS 12127 1412 can be considered as representative templates for a significant fraction of the obscured AGN population. Their broadband spectral energy distribution can then be used to calibrate new photometric diagnostics based on mid-IR colors and bolometric corrections, capable of selecting their faint counterparts within the IR deep fields. The wealth of data in the WISE and Spitzer archives will allow a complete census of this AGN subclass. The reflection efficiency inferred from our new Suzaku observations will make

  7. Progress in ESR dating of fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this review the progress of ESR dating is briefly described together with its historical development. Examples of fossil dating include shells and corals in geological sediments, fossil bones and teeth in anthropology and fossil woods in geology. The total dose of natural radiation (TD) equivalent to the archaeological dose in TL dating was obtained by the additive dose method. Initially, the TDs were plotted against the known ages; using the apparent annual dose-rate thus obtained gives the ESR age within a factor of 2 or 3 for a fossil. Precise assessment of the radiation environment was made later taking the disequilibrium of uranium series disintegration into account. ESR ages of corals agreed well with those obtained by radiocarbon and uranium-thorium methods. The time-independent accumulation rate or a linear accumulation or uranium was adopted as a first sensible model for the opensystem fossil bones: the relation between the TD and the age explains the ages of anthropologically important bones. Lastly, geological assessment of fossil woods was made by ESR based on the organic radicals and electron traps in the silicified part. (author)

  8. Primate diversification inferred from phylogenies and fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2017-12-01

    Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: (1) diversification rates increased through time; (2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene. Consistent with the first hypothesis, analyses of phylogenies supported increasing speciation rates and negligible extinction rates. In contrast, fossils showed that while speciation rates increased, speciation and extinction rates tended to be nearly equal, resulting in zero net diversification. Partially supporting the second hypothesis, the fossil data recorded a clear pattern of diversity decline in the Oligocene, although diversification rates were near zero. The phylogeny supported increased extinction ∼34 Ma, but also elevated extinction ∼10 Ma, coinciding with diversity declines in some fossil clades. The results demonstrated that estimates of speciation and extinction ignoring fossils are insufficient to infer diversification and information on extinct lineages should be incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massive hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.

  10. A fragilidade das Instituições Sociais e o rompimento da Ética no filme Agnes de Deus.

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Palermo Moretto

    2015-01-01

    Research about the fragilities of the social institutions in the movie Agnes of God and the ethic and moral. There are a mistery in the story:a murder of the baby inside the convent.  The young nun, Agnes killed her baby and a psichiatrist. Dra. Martha Livingstone  begans a investigation since the childhood of Agnes until the crime. The presence of the Superior Mother, Mirian Ruth is important to the story. She is an administrator and protect Agnes in many situations. Such social institutions...

  11. AGNES at vibrated gold microwire electrode for the direct quantification of free copper concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Rute F., E-mail: rdomingos@ipgp.fr [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Torre Sul Lab 11-6.3, Av. Rovisco Pais #1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carreira, Sara [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Torre Sul Lab 11-6.3, Av. Rovisco Pais #1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Galceran, Josep [Department of Chemistry, University of Lleida and Agrotecnio, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida (Spain); Salaün, Pascal [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 4 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L693 GP (United Kingdom); Pinheiro, José P. [LIEC/ENSG, UMR 7360 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, 15 Avenue du Charmois, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2016-05-12

    The free metal ion concentration and the dynamic features of the metal species are recognized as key to predict metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Quantification of the former is, however, still challenging. In this paper, it is shown for the first time that the concentration of free copper (Cu{sup 2+}) can be quantified by applying AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian equilibrium stripping) at a solid gold electrode. It was found that: i) the amount of deposited Cu follows a Nernstian relationship with the applied deposition potential, and ii) the stripping signal is linearly related with the free metal ion concentration. The performance of AGNES at the vibrating gold microwire electrode (VGME) was assessed for two labile systems: Cu-malonic acid and Cu-iminodiacetic acid at ionic strength 0.01 M and a range of pH values from 4.0 to 6.0. The free Cu concentrations and conditional stability constants obtained by AGNES were in good agreement with stripping scanned voltammetry and thermodynamic theoretical predictions obtained by Visual MinteQ. This work highlights the suitability of gold electrodes for the quantification of free metal ion concentrations by AGNES. It also strongly suggests that other solid electrodes may be well appropriate for such task. This new application of AGNES is a first step towards a range of applications for a number of metals in speciation, toxicological and environmental studies for the direct determination of the key parameter that is the free metal ion concentration. - Highlights: • AGNES principles are valid at the vibrating gold microwire electrode (VGME). • VGME was successfully employed to quantify free Cu concentrations by using AGNES. • Stability constants of labile systems were in good agreement with predictions.

  12. Dust-deficient Palomar-Green Quasars and the Diversity of AGN Intrinsic IR Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic broadband infrared (IR) emission properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 87 z ≲ 0.5 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars. While the Elvis AGN template with a moderate far-IR correction can reasonably match the SEDs of the AGN components in ∼60% of the sample (and is superior to alternatives such as that by Assef), it fails on two quasar populations: (1) hot-dust-deficient (HDD) quasars that show very weak emission thoroughly from the near-IR to the far-IR, and (2) warm-dust-deficient (WDD) quasars that have similar hot dust emission as normal quasars but are relatively faint in the mid- and far-IR. After building composite AGN templates for these dust-deficient quasars, we successfully fit the 0.3–500 μm SEDs of the PG sample with the appropriate AGN template, an infrared template of a star-forming galaxy, and a host galaxy stellar template. 20 HDD and 12 WDD quasars are identified from the SED decomposition, including seven ambiguous cases. Compared with normal quasars, the HDD quasars have AGNs with relatively low Eddington ratios and the fraction of WDD quasars increases with AGN luminosity. Moreover, both the HDD and WDD quasar populations show relatively stronger mid-IR silicate emission. Virtually identical SED properties are also found in some quasars from z = 0.5 to 6. We propose a conceptual model to demonstrate that the observed dust deficiency of quasars can result from a change of structures of the circumnuclear tori that can occur at any cosmic epoch.

  13. Nuclear mid-infrared properties of nearby low-luminosity AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D; Duschl, W J; Hönig, S F; Gandhi, P; Smette, A

    2012-01-01

    We present ground-based high-spatial resolution mid-infrared (MIR) observations of 20 nearby low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) with VLT/VISIR and the preliminary analysis of a new sample of 10 low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Gemini/Michelle. LLAGN are of great interest because these objects are the most common among active galaxies, especially in the nearby universe. Studying them in great detail makes it possible to investigate the AGN evolution over cosmic timescale. Indeed, many LLAGN likely represent the final stage of an AGN's lifetime. We show that even at low luminosities and accretion rates nuclear unresolved MIR emission is present in most objects. Compared to lower spatial resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, the high-resolution MIR photometry exhibits significantly lower fluxes and different PAH emission feature properties in many cases. By using scaled Spitzer/IRS spectra of typical starburst galaxies, we show that the star formation contribution to the 12 μm emission is minor in the central parsecs of most LLAGN. Therefore, the observed MIR emission in the VISIR and Michelle data is most likely emitted by the AGN itself, which, for higher luminosity AGN, is interpreted as thermal emission from a dusty torus. Furthermore, the 12 /amemission of the LLAGN is strongly correlated with the absorption corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the MIR- X-ray correlation found previously for AGN is extended to a range from 10 40 to 10 45 erg/s. This correlation is independent of the object type, and in particular the low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Michelle fall exactly on the power-law fit valid for brighter AGN. In addition, no dependency of the MIR-X-ray ratio on the accretion rate is found. These results are consistent with the unification model being applicable even in the probed low-luminosity regime.

  14. The Role of the Most Luminous Obscured AGNs in Galaxy Assembly at z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Petty, Sara [Green Science Policy Institute, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Connolly, Brian [Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stern, Daniel; Bridge, Carrie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lake, Sean; Tsai, Chao-Wei [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jarrett, Tom [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, 7700 Rondebosch, Capetown 7700 (South Africa); Benford, Dominic [Observational Cosmology Lab., Code 665, NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jones, Suzy [Department of Space, Earth, and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Wu, Jingwen [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 F160W imaging and infrared spectral energy distributions for 12 extremely luminous, obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1.8 < z < 2.7 selected via “hot, dust-obscured” mid-infrared colors. Their infrared luminosities span (2–15) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ⊙}, making them among the most luminous objects in the universe at z ∼ 2. In all cases, the infrared emission is consistent with arising at least for the most part from AGN activity. The AGN fractional luminosities are higher than those in either submillimeter galaxies or AGNs selected via other mid-infrared criteria. Adopting the G , M {sub 20}, and A morphological parameters, together with traditional classification boundaries, infers that three-quarters of the sample are mergers. Our sample does not, however, show any correlation between the considered morphological parameters and either infrared luminosity or AGN fractional luminosity. Moreover, the asymmetries and effective radii of our sample are distributed identically to those of massive galaxies at z ∼ 2. We conclude that our sample is not preferentially associated with mergers, though a significant merger fraction is still plausible. Instead, we propose that our sample includes examples of the massive galaxy population at z ∼ 2 that harbor a briefly luminous, “flickering” AGN and in which the G and M {sub 20} values have been perturbed due to either the AGN and/or the earliest formation stages of a bulge in an inside-out manner. Furthermore, we find that the mass assembly of the central black holes in our sample leads the mass assembly of any bulge component. Finally, we speculate that our sample represents a small fraction of the immediate antecedents of compact star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2.

  15. Photoionization Models of the H_2 Emission of the Narrow Line Region of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, I.; Gruenwald, R.

    2011-05-01

    The excitation mechanism of the narrow line region (NLR) of AGNs is still an open question. Excitation by UV radiation from O and B stars, x-rays from the central black hole, shock from supernovae or jets, or a combination of these mechanisms have been suggested. In the present work, we use photoionization models to study the excitation mechanisms of the H_2 infrared emission lines in the NLR. In the literature, analyzes of the H_2 emission have been done assuming that the molecules is present only in neutral regions (photodissociation regions, x-ray-dominated regions, or shocks; Veilleux et al. 1997, Krabbe et al. 2000, Rigopoulou et al. 2002, Rodriguez-Ardila et al. 2004, 2005, and Davies et al. 2005). However, they are not conclusive. In previous work (Aleman & Gruenwald 2004, 2011), we show that the H_2 emission from the ionized region of PNe can be significant for planetary nebulae (PNe) with hot central stars (T⋆ > 150000 K). Such stars produce copious amounts of high energy photons, which create an extended partially ionized region that favors the H_2 survival. The conditions in the NLR are similar to those in PNe with hot central stars, so we can expect that the H_2 emission might also be important. We obtain and analyze a grid of photoionization models for different NRL parameters. We study the resulting H_2 density and emission, as well as, the formation, destruction, excitation, and de-excitation mechanisms. The higher values observed for the H_2 1-0 S(1)/Brγ ratio cannot be reproduced by our models. The calculated ratios are between 10^-8 and 10^-1, while the observational ration can be as high as 10. The calculated ratio is strongly anti-correlated with the ionization parameter (U) and only models with U<10-3 result in ratios inside the observational range. We show that the NLR is an environment more hostile to the H_2 molecule than the ionized region of PNe. Another interesting result of our calculations is that the H_2 formation on grain surfaces

  16. Jets and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Kramer, G.

    2010-12-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  17. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  18. Jet angularity measurements for single inclusive jet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Lee, Kyle; Ringer, Felix

    2018-04-01

    We study jet angularity measurements for single-inclusive jet production at the LHC. Jet angularities depend on a continuous parameter a allowing for a smooth interpolation between different traditional jet shape observables. We establish a factorization theorem within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) where we consistently take into account in- and out-of-jet radiation by making use of semi-inclusive jet functions. For comparison, we elaborate on the differences to jet angularities measured on an exclusive jet sample. All the necessary ingredients for the resummation at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy are presented within the effective field theory framework. We expect semiinclusive jet angularity measurements to be feasible at the LHC and we present theoretical predictions for the relevant kinematic range. In addition, we investigate the potential impact of jet angularities for quark-gluon discrimination.

  19. Recovery of value-added fossil resin from El-Maghara coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.S.; Mostafa, S.I. [Central Metallurgical R and D Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

    2003-06-01

    El-Maghara coal was confirmed to contain a substantial amount of fossil resin intimately associated with its macerals. Macroscopic identification as well as physical diagnosis of solvent refined resinite material proved its particular significance and sufficient value to justify a fossil resin industry in Egypt. This resin has thermosetting properties superior to most synthetics resins available from petrochemicals. It could compete in the market as a chemical commodity in high-speed printing and high-performance adhesive applications. It could have also special values as a feedstock for high-density jet fuel after proper hydrogenation. The froth flotation technique was applied to recover this valuable material from El-Maghara ground coal. The solvent extraction method using commercial solvents was used to refine the resinite fraction collected as flotation concentrate. The variables affecting the flotation technique were studied. Characterization of refined resin was applied. (orig.)

  20. Dental development in living and fossil orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have investigated molar development in extant and fossil hominoids, yet relatively little is known about orangutans, the only great ape with an extensive fossil record. This study characterizes aspects of dental development, including cuspal enamel daily secretion rate, long-period line periodicities, cusp-specific molar crown formation times and extension rates, and initiation and completion ages in living and fossil orangutan postcanine teeth. Daily secretion rate and periodicities in living orangutans are similar to previous reports, while crown formation times often exceed published values, although direct comparisons are limited. One wild Bornean individual died at 4.5 years of age with fully erupted first molars (M1s), while a captive individual and a wild Sumatran individual likely erupted their M1s around five or six years of age. These data underscore the need for additional samples of orangutans of known sex, species, and developmental environment to explore potential sources of variation in molar emergence and their relationship to life history variables. Fossil orangutans possess larger crowns than living orangutans, show similarities in periodicities, and have faster daily secretion rate, longer crown formation times, and slower extension rates. Molar crown formation times exceed reported values for other fossil apes, including Gigantopithecus blacki. When compared to African apes, both living and fossil orangutans show greater cuspal enamel thickness values and periodicities, resulting in longer crown formation times and slower extension rates. Several of these variables are similar to modern humans, representing examples of convergent evolution. Molar crown formation does not appear to be equivalent among extant great apes or consistent within living and fossil members of Pongo or Homo. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons

  2. Latest results from JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large tokamak designed with the essential objective of obtaining and studying plasmas with parameters close to those envisaged for an eventual power-generating, nuclear-fusion reactor. JET is situated on a site near Abingdon, Oxon, UK. JET is the largest single project of the nuclear fusion research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The tokamak started operation in mid 1983 after a five year construction period. The scientific and technical results achieved so far are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  3. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  4. CANDELS: CONSTRAINING THE AGN-MERGER CONNECTION WITH HOST MORPHOLOGIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Dahlen, Tomas; Donley, Jennifer L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nandra, Kirpal; Brusa, Marcella; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rangel, Cyprian; Laird, Elise S. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bournaud, Frederic [CEA, IRFU, SAp and Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Conselice, Christopher J. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Dekel, Avishai, E-mail: kocevski@ucolick.org [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); and others

    2012-01-10

    Using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging taken as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we examine the role that major galaxy mergers play in triggering active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity at z {approx} 2. Our sample consists of 72 moderate-luminosity (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 42-44} erg s{sup -1}) AGNs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 that are selected using the 4 Ms Chandra observations in the Chandra Deep Field South, the deepest X-ray observations to date. Employing visual classifications, we have analyzed the rest-frame optical morphologies of the AGN host galaxies and compared them to a mass-matched control sample of 216 non-active galaxies at the same redshift. We find that most of the AGNs reside in disk galaxies (51.4{sup +5.8}{sub -5.9}%), while a smaller percentage are found in spheroids (27.8{sup +5.8}{sub -4.6}%). Roughly 16.7{sup +5.3}{sub -3.5}% of the AGN hosts have highly disturbed morphologies and appear to be involved in a major merger or interaction, while most of the hosts (55.6{sup +5.6}{sub -5.9}%) appear relatively relaxed and undisturbed. These fractions are statistically consistent with the fraction of control galaxies that show similar morphological disturbances. These results suggest that the hosts of moderate-luminosity AGNs are no more likely to be involved in an ongoing merger or interaction relative to non-active galaxies of similar mass at z {approx} 2. The high disk fraction observed among the AGN hosts also appears to be at odds with predictions that merger-driven accretion should be the dominant AGN fueling mode at z {approx} 2, even at moderate X-ray luminosities. Although we cannot rule out that minor mergers are responsible for triggering these systems, the presence of a large population of relatively undisturbed disk-like hosts suggests that the stochastic accretion of gas plays a greater role in fueling AGN activity at z {approx} 2 than previously thought.

  5. Self-consistent two-phase AGN torus models⋆. SED library for observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Heymann, Frank; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    We assume that dust near active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is distributed in a torus-like geometry, which can be described as a clumpy medium or a homogeneous disk, or as a combination of the two (i.e. a two-phase medium). The dust particles considered are fluffy and have higher submillimeter emissivities than grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The dust-photon interaction is treated in a fully self-consistent three-dimensional radiative transfer code. We provide an AGN library of spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Its purpose is to quickly obtain estimates of the basic parameters of the AGNs, such as the intrinsic luminosity of the central source, the viewing angle, the inner radius, the volume filling factor and optical depth of the clouds, and the optical depth of the disk midplane, and to predict the flux at yet unobserved wavelengths. The procedure is simple and consists of finding an element in the library that matches the observations. We discuss the general properties of the models and in particular the 10 μm silicate band. The AGN library accounts well for the observed scatter of the feature strengths and wavelengths of the peak emission. AGN extinction curves are discussed and we find that there is no direct one-to-one link between the observed extinction and the wavelength dependence of the dust cross sections. We show that objects in the library cover the observed range of mid-infrared colors of known AGNs. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by matching the SEDs of a number of representative objects: Four Seyferts and two quasars for which we present new Herschel photometry, two radio galaxies, and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy. Strikingly, for the five luminous objects we find that pure AGN models fit the SED without needing to postulate starburst activity. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The SED

  6. Radio follow-up observations of stellar tidal disruption flares: Constraints on off-axis jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körding E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs, which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. Plus, the existing followup observation are mostly within ∼ 10 months of the discovery, so the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of six known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1–8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57.

  7. Is Black Hole Growth a Universal Process? Exploring Selection Effects in Measurements of AGN Accretion Rates and Host Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    At the center of essentially every massive galaxy is a monstrous black hole producing luminous radiation driven by the accretion of gas. By observing these active galactic nuclei (AGN) we may trace the growth of black holes across cosmic time. However, our knowledge of the full underlying AGN population is hindered by complex observational biases. My research aims to untangle these biases by using a novel approach to simulate the impact of selection effects on multiwavelength observations.The most statistically powerful studies of AGN to date come from optical spectroscopic surveys, with some reporting a complex relationship between AGN accretion rates and host galaxy characteristics. However, the optical waveband can be strongly influenced by selection effects and dilution from host galaxy star formation. I have shown that accounting for selection effects, the Eddington ratio distribution for optically-selected AGN is consistent with a broad power-law, as seen in the X-rays (Jones et al. 2016). This suggests that a universal Eddington ratio distribution may be enough to describe the full multiwavelength AGN population.Building on these results, I have expanded a semi-numerical galaxy formation simulation to include this straightforward prescription for AGN accretion and explicitly model selection effects. I have found that a simple model for AGN accretion can broadly reproduce the host galaxies and halos of X-ray AGN, and that different AGN selection techniques yield samples with very different host galaxy properties (Jones et al. 2017). Finally, I will discuss the capabilities of this simulation to build synthetic multiwavelength SEDs in order to explore what AGN populations would be detected with the next generation of observatories. This research is supported by a NASA Jenkins Graduate Fellowship under grant no. NNX15AU32H.

  8. Taxing fossil fuels under speculative storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumen, Semih; Unalmis, Deren; Unalmis, Ibrahim; Unsal, D. Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Long-term environmental consequences of taxing fossil fuel usage have been extensively studied in the literature. However, these taxes may also impose several short-run macroeconomic policy challenges, the nature of which remains underexplored. This paper investigates the mechanisms through which environmental taxes on fossil fuel usage can affect the main macroeconomic variables in the short-run. We concentrate on a particular mechanism: speculative storage. Formulating and using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model, calibrated for the United States, with an explicit storage facility and nominal rigidities, we show that in designing environmental tax policies it is crucial to account for the fact that fossil fuel prices are subject to speculation. The existence of forward-looking speculators in the model improves the effectiveness of tax policies in reducing fossil fuel usage. Improved policy effectiveness, however, is costly: it drives inflation and interest rates up, while impeding output. Based on this tradeoff, we seek an answer to the question how monetary policy should interact with environmental tax policies in our DSGE model of fossil fuel storage. We show that, in an environment with no speculative storers, monetary policy should respond to output along with CPI inflation in order to minimize the welfare losses brought by taxes. However, when the storage facility is activated, responding to output in the monetary policy rule becomes less desirable.

  9. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

  10. Fossil fuel usage and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air

  11. Revisiting the EC/CMB model for extragalactic large scale jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.

    2017-04-01

    One of the most outstanding results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory was the discovery that AGN jets are bright X-ray emitters on very large scales, up to hundreds of kpc. Of these, the powerful and beamed jets of flat-spectrum radio quasars are particularly interesting, as the X-ray emission cannot be explained by an extrapolation of the lower frequency synchrotron spectrum. Instead, the most common model invokes inverse Compton scattering of photons of the cosmic microwave background (EC/CMB) as the mechanism responsible for the high-energy emission. The EC/CMB model has recently come under criticism, particularly because it should predict a significant steady flux in the MeV-GeV band which has not been detected by the Fermi/LAT telescope for two of the best studied jets (PKS 0637-752 and 3C273). In this work, we revisit some aspects of the EC/CMB model and show that electron cooling plays an important part in shaping the spectrum. This can solve the overproduction of γ-rays by suppressing the high-energy end of the emitting particle population. Furthermore, we show that cooling in the EC/CMB model predicts a new class of extended jets that are bright in X-rays but silent in the radio and optical bands. These jets are more likely to lie at intermediate redshifts and would have been missed in all previous X-ray surveys due to selection effects.

  12. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Associated Emission in Collisionless Relativistic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K. I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman. G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  13. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, Anelise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); College de France, Paris (France); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Salomé, Philippe, E-mail: anelise.audibert@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2017-12-12

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  14. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: jsbridge@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  15. Simultaneous Chandra and NuSTAR Observations of the Highly Obscured AGN Candidate in NGC660.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Ady

    2014-09-01

    We are using NuSTAR to undertake a detailed investigation of the obscured AGN population at D<15Mpc. Our latest target is NGC660 where the presence of an AGN has been ambiguous. However, recently it was observed to undergo a radio outburst which reveals a bright continuum source (Argo et al. 2015), coincident with Chandra 2-8 keV emission from one of the three point sources near the nucleus (<5"). This confirms and pinpoints the X-ray position of the AGN. Comparisons of the Chandra flux with the radio emission and other multiwavelength luminosity indicators indicate that the X-ray flux is suppressed, suggesting that it is absorbed by a high column of gas. A NuSTAR observation for this object has been scheduled as part of our program. The requested Chandra observation is essential to unambiguously constrain the AGN and isolate it from other sources at <8 keV. When combined with NuSTAR, we will then be able to accurately characterise the 0.5-30 keV spectrum of the AGN for the first time.

  16. Correlating The Star Formation Histories Of MaNGA Galaxies With Their Past AGN Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Ortiz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a primary mechanism affecting star formation in MaNGA galaxies. Using the Pipe3D code, we modeled the stellar population from MaNGA spectra and derived the star formation histories of 53 AGN host galaxies. We seek to compare the star formation histories of the host galaxies of AGN with the ages of their radio lobes to better understand the role of AGN feedback in the star formation histories of MaNGA galaxies. MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is one of the three core programs in the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS). MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematics of nearly 10,000 local galaxies through dithered observations using fiber integral field units (IFUs) that vary in diameter from 12" (19 fibers) to 32" (127 fibers). In this poster, we present initial results on the star formation histories of MaNGA AGN host galaxies. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  17. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  18. Probing the gas fuelling and outflows in nearby AGN with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, Anelise; Combes, Françoise; García-Burillo, Santiago; Salomé, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fuelling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g. the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5-1”) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  19. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Audibert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″ CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  20. Children's Ideas about Fossils and Foundational Concepts Related to Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Raven, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Many standards documents and learning progressions recommend evolution learning in elementary grades. Given young children's interest in dinosaurs and other fossils, fossil investigations can provide a rich entry into evolutionary biology for young learners. Educational psychology literature has addressed children's reasoning about foundational…

  1. Measurements of Jets in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nattrass, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions

  2. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lose time. Symptoms of jet lag include: Trouble falling asleep or waking up Tiredness during the day ... at your destination. For longer trips, before you leave, try to adapt to the time schedule of ...

  3. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  4. DRIVING OUTFLOWS WITH RELATIVISTIC JETS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK EFFICIENCY ON INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INHOMOGENEITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the detailed physics of the feedback mechanism by relativistic active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets interacting with a two-phase fractal interstellar medium (ISM) in the kpc-scale core of galaxies using 29 three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback efficiency, as measured by the amount of cloud dispersal generated by the jet-ISM interactions, is sensitive to the maximum size of clouds in the fractal cloud distribution but not to their volume filling factor. Feedback ceases to be efficient for Eddington ratios P jet /L edd ∼ –4 , although systems with large cloud complexes ∼> 50 pc require jets of Eddington ratio in excess of 10 –2 to disperse the clouds appreciably. Based on measurements of the bubble expansion rates in our simulations, we argue that sub-grid AGN prescriptions resulting in negative feedback in cosmological simulations without a multi-phase treatment of the ISM are good approximations if the volume filling factor of warm-phase material is less than 0.1 and the cloud complexes are smaller than ∼25 pc. We find that the acceleration of the dense embedded clouds is provided by the ram pressure of the high-velocity flow through the porous channels of the warm phase, flow that has fully entrained the shocked hot-phase gas it has swept up, and is additionally mass loaded by ablated cloud material. This mechanism transfers 10% to 40% of the jet energy to the cold and warm gas, accelerating it within a few 10 to 100 Myr to velocities that match those observed in a range of high- and low-redshift radio galaxies hosting powerful radio jets.

  5. Examining the nature of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the AGN PKS 1222+216 and 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sharleen; Brill, Ari; Mukherjee, Reshmi; VERITAS

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are a type of active galactic nuclei (AGN) that emit jets of ionized matter which move towards the Earth at relativistic speeds. In this research we carried out a study of two objects, 3C 279 and PKS 1222+216, which belong to the subset of blazars known as FSRQs (flat spectrum radio quasars), the most powerful TeV-detected sources at gamma-ray energies with bolometric luminosities exceeding 1048 erg/s. The high-energy emission of quasars peaks in the MeV-GeV band, making these sources very rarely detectable in the TeV energy range. In fact, only six FSRQs have ever been detected in this range by very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes. We will present results from observing campaigns on 3C 279 in 2014 and 2016, when the object was detected in high flux states by Fermi-LAT. Observations include simultaneous coverage with the Fermi-LAT satellite and the VERITAS ground-based array spanning four decades in energy from 100 MeV to 1 TeV. We will also report VERITAS observations of PKS 1222+216 between 2008 and 2017. The detection/non-detection of TeV emission during flaring episodes at MeV energies will further contribute to our understanding of particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission mechanisms in blazar jets.

  6. Discovery of a Kiloparsec Extended Hard X-Ray Continuum and Fe-Kα from the Compton Thick AGN ESO 428-G014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Paggi, A.; Karovska, M.; Maksym, W. P.; Raymond, J.; Risaliti, G.; Wang, Junfeng

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of kiloparsec-scale diffuse emission in both the hard continuum (3-6 keV) and in the Fe-Kα line in the Compton thick (CT) Seyfert galaxy ESO 428-G014. This extended hard component contains at least ˜24% of the observed 3-8 keV emission, and follows the direction of the extended optical line emission (ionization cone) and radio jet. The extended hard component has ˜0.5% of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity within the bi-cones. A uniform scattering medium of density 1 {{cm}}-3 would produce this luminosity in a 1 kpc path length in the bi-cones. Alternatively, higher column density molecular clouds in the disk of ESO 428-G014 may be responsible for these components. The continuum may also be enhanced by the acceleration of charged particles in the radio jet. The steeper spectrum (Γ ˜ 1.7 ± 0.4) of the hard continuum outside of the central 1.″5 radius nuclear region suggests a contribution of scattered/fluorescent intrinsic Seyfert emission. Ultrafast nuclear outflows cannot explain the extended Fe-Kα emission. This discovery suggests that we may need to revise the picture at the base of our interpretation of CT AGN spectra.

  7. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  8. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.

    1981-09-01

    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  9. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...... isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  10. Lessons learned from fossil FAC assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, R. Barry; Shields, Kevin J. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada); Shulder, Stephen J. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In their work the authors have noted great diversity in the Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) Programs used at conventional fossil power plants. The results and findings of FAC Program assessments conducted at 22 conventional plants are summarized and discussed. By comparing the FAC Program characteristics and relevant unit features with damage and failure experiences, a number of common factors requiring attention from fossil utility organizations have been identified. The assessment experiences have also provided a picture of trends in specific FAC activities and general awareness within the conventional fossil fleet. One of the most important aspects of these studies is that while a few new locations of FAC have been found, there is some consolidation of the most frequently found locations. (orig.)

  11. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  12. Jet supercooling and molecular jet spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wharton, L.; Levy, D.

    1979-01-01

    The marriage of the laser and the seeded supersonic jet has generated a family of new optical spectroscopic results. We shall discuss the essential features of the technique and some results. The results will include structural and dynamical views of NO 2 , NaAr, and I 2 -noble gas complexes. The extension of the method to heavier systems is illustrated with free base phthalocyanine

  13. Testing a double AGN hypothesis for Mrk 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, K.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Medling, A. M.; Sanders, D. B.; Evans, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Mrk 273 contains two infrared nuclei, N and SW, separated by 1 arcsecond. A Chandra observation has identified the SW nucleus as an absorbed X-ray source with NH 4 × 1023 cm-2 but also hinted at the possible presence of a Compton-thick AGN in the N nucleus, where a black hole of 109 M⊙ is inferred from the ionized gas kinematics. The intrinsic X-ray spectral slope recently measured by NuSTAR is unusually hard (Γ 1.3) for a Seyfert nucleus, for which we seek an alternative explanation. We hypothesize a strongly absorbed X-ray source in N, of which X-ray emission rises steeply above 10 keV, in addition to the known X-ray source in SW, and test it against the NuSTAR data, assuming the standard spectral slope (Γ = 1.9). This double X-ray source model gives a good explanation of the hard continuum spectrum, deep Fe K absorption edge, and strong Fe K line observed in this ULIRG, without invoking the unusual spectral slope required for a single source interpretation. The putative X-ray source in N is found to be absorbed by NH = 1.4+0.7-0.4 × 1024 cm-2. The estimated 2-10 keV luminosity of the N source is 1.3 × 1043 erg s-1, about a factor of 2 larger than that of SW during the NuSTAR observation. Uncorrelated variability above and below 10 keV between the Suzaku and NuSTAR observations appears to support the double source interpretation. Variability in spectral hardness and Fe K line flux between the previous X-ray observations is also consistent with this picture.

  14. The COS-AGN survey: Revealing the nature of circum-galactic gas around hosts of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Trystyn A. M.; Ellison, Sara L.; Tumlinson, Jason; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Horton, Ryan; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Schaye, Joop

    2018-04-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to play a critical role in shaping galaxies, but their effect on the circumgalactic medium (CGM) is not well studied. We present results from the COS-AGN survey: 19 quasar sightlines that probe the CGM of 20 optically-selected AGN host galaxies with impact parameters 80 frame equivalent widths EW≥124 mÅ) whilst many of the metal ions are not detected in individual sightlines. A sightline-by-sightline comparison between COS-AGN and the control sample yields no significant difference in EW distribution. However, stacked spectra of the COS-AGN and control samples show significant (>3σ) enhancements in the EW of both Siiii And Lyα at impact parameters >164 kpc by a factor of +0.45 ± 0.05 dex and >+0.75 dex respectively. The lack of detections of both high-ionization species near the AGN and strong kinematic offsets between the absorption systemic galaxy redshifts indicates that neither the AGN's ionization nor its outflows are the origin of these differences. Instead, we suggest the observed differences could result from either AGN hosts residing in haloes with intrinsically distinct gas properties, or that their CGM has been affected by a previous event, such as a starburst, which may also have fuelled the nuclear activity.

  15. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  16. Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbir, F.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should be added to their existing market price, and such real costs should be compared with the real costs of other, environmentally acceptable, energy alternatives, such as hydrogen

  17. The Role of Turbulence in AGN Self-Regulation in Galaxy Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannapieco, Evan; Brueggen, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Cool cores of galaxy clusters are thought to be heated by low-power active galactic nuclei (AGN), whose accretion is regulated by feedback. However, the interaction between the hot gas ejected by the AGN and the ambient intracluster medium is extremely difficult to simulate, as it involves a wide range of spatial scales and gas that is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable. Here we use a subgrid model for RT-driven turbulence to overcome these problems and present the first observationally-consistent hydrodynamical simulations of AGN self-regulation in galaxy clusters. For a wide range of parameter choices the cluster in our three-dimensional simulations regulates itself for at least several 10 9 years. Heating balances cooling through a string of outbreaks with a typical recurrence time of ≅80 Myrs, a timescale that depends only on the global cluster properties.

  18. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. II. Multidimensional, Radiation-Hydrodynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Anton; Kallman, Tim; Bisno\\vatyiI-Kogan, Gennadyi

    2011-01-01

    We explore a detailed model in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration results from the extinction of AGN radiation in a global ow driven by the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains. We assume that external illumination by UV and soft X-rays of the dusty gas located at approximately 1pc away from the supermassive black hole is followed by a conversion of such radiation into IR. Using 2.5D, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations in a ux-limited di usion approximation we nd that the external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via out ows driven by infrared radiation pressure in AGN with luminosities greater than 0:05 L(sub edd) and Compton optical depth, Tau(sub T) approx > & 1.

  19. Co-existence of two plasma phases in solar and AGN coronas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubičela A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we have juxtaposed two distant cosmic locations of the Sun and AGN where neutral hydrogen appears in a close connection with hot coronas. Besides the solar photosphere, chromosphere and prominences where the presence of neutral hydrogen is well established, its emission quite high in hot solar corona is still puzzling. Some of earlier observations where Hα emission in solar corona was detected in eclipse and in daily coronagraphic observations are reviewed. A proper theoretical explanation of this cold chromospheric-type emission in the hot corona does not exist yet. On the other side, a similar emission of hydrogen lines is present in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs. Much research work is currently being done in this field. We outline some of the concepts of the AGN structure prevailing in the astrophysics today.

  20. Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked [O III] Lines. II. Single AGNs with Complex Narrow-line Region Kinematics are More Common than Binary AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 1% of low-redshift (z interpreted as either due to kinematics, such as biconical outflows and/or disk rotation of the narrow line region (NLR) around single black holes, or due to the relative motion of two distinct NLRs in a merging pair of AGNs. Here, we report follow-up near-infrared (NIR) imaging and optical slit spectroscopy of 31 double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) parent sample presented in Liu et al. The NIR imaging traces the old stellar population in each galaxy, while the optical slit spectroscopy traces the NLR gas. These data reveal a mixture of origins for the double-peaked feature. Roughly 10% of our objects are best explained by binary AGNs at (projected) kpc-scale separations, where two stellar components with spatially coincident NLRs are seen. ~50% of our objects have [O III] emission offset by a few kpc, corresponding to the two velocity components seen in the SDSS spectra, but there are no spatially coincident double stellar components seen in the NIR imaging. For those objects with sufficiently high-quality slit spectra, we see velocity and/or velocity dispersion gradients in [O III] emission, suggestive of the kinematic signatures of a single NLR. The remaining ~40% of our objects are ambiguous and will need higher spatial resolution observations to distinguish between the two scenarios. Our observations therefore favor the kinematics scenario with a single AGN for the majority of these double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs. We emphasize the importance of combining imaging and slit spectroscopy in identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, i.e., in no cases does one of these alone allow an unambiguous identification. We estimate that ~0.5%-2.5% of the z ~ 150 km s-1. Based in part on observations obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research

  1. Transcription regulation of the alpha-glucanase gene agn1 by cell separation transcription factor Ace2p in fission yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nick; de Haan, Annett; Hochstenbach, Frans

    2006-01-01

    During the final stage of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, transcription factor Ace2p activates expression of genes involved in the separation of newly formed daughter cells, such as agn1+, which encodes the alpha-glucanase Agn1p. The agn1 promoter contains

  2. Obscured AGN at z similar to 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey : I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    Aims. The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z similar to 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods. A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN

  3. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  4. The Origin of Fast Molecular Outflows in Quasars: Molecule Formation in AGN-Driven Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Alexander James; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2017-07-01

    Observations of AGN host galaxies have detected fast molecular outflows, with velocities up to 1000 km s-1. However, the origin of these molecular outflows is currently unclear. One possibility is that they are formed from molecular gas that is swept up from the host galaxy by the AGN wind. However, previous studies have suggested that molecular clouds that are swept up by an AGN wind are unlikely to survive being accelerated to such high velocities. An alternative scenario is that molecules may form within the AGN wind material itself. We present a suite of 3D hydrodynamic simulations of an idealised AGN wind that we have run to explore this scenario. These simulations are coupled to a time-dependent chemical model to follow the creation and destruction of molecules, including H2, CO, OH and HCO+. We find that molecules do form within the wind, with molecular outflow rates up to 140 M⊙ yr-1 after 1 Myr. This is sensitive to the ambient ISM density, metallicity, and AGN luminosity. We also compute observable CO emission lines from these simulations using a radiative transfer code in post-processing. The CO-derived outflow rates are comparable to those seen in observations, although the maximum line of sight velocities are a factor ≍2 lower than observed. We find a CO (1-0) to H2 conversion factor of αCO = 0.15 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 at solar metallicity, 5 times lower than is typically assumed in observations of such systems.

  5. The ΓX-L/LEdd relation in BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Koss, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Mushotzky, Richard; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Treister, Ezequiel; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona; Balokovic, Mislav

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the relation between accretion rate (in terms of L/LEdd) and shape of the hard X-ray spectral energy distribution (namely the photon index Γx) for a large sample of over 200 hard X-ray-selected, low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs), drawn from the Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). This includes 30 AGNs for which black hole mass (and therefore L/LEdd) is measured directly through masers, spatially resolved gas or stellar dynamics, or reverberation mapping. The high-quality and broad energy coverage of the data provided through BASS allow us to examine several alternative determinations of both Γx and L/LEdd. We find very weak correlation between Γx and L/LEdd for the BASS sample as a whole, with best-fitting relations that are considerably shallower than those reported in previous studies. Moreover, we find no corresponding correlations among the subsets of AGN with different MBH determination methodology, and in particular those AGN with direct or single-epoch MBH estimates. This latter finding is in contrast to several previous studies which focused on z > 0.5 broad-line AGN. We conclude that this tension can be partially accounted for if one adopts a simplified, power-law X-ray spectral model, combined with L/LEdd estimates that are based on the continuum emission and on single-epoch broad-line spectroscopy in the optical regime. Given these findings, we highlight the limitations of using Γx as a probe of supermassive black hole evolution in deep extragalactic X-ray surveys.

  6. Exploring the Connection Between Star Formation and AGN Activity in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman. T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Schiminovich, D.; O'Dowd, M.; Bertincourt, B.

    2012-01-01

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from SDSS and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic con- tributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [NeII] 12.8 micron emission-line is well correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGN show a clear excess of [NeIII] 15.6 micron emission relative to star forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including: the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [NeV] 14.3 micron to [NeII] micron 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7, 11.3, and 17 micron PAH features, and the optical "D" parameter which measures the distance a source lies from the locus of star forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN-dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 micron feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  7. A fragilidade das Instituições Sociais e o rompimento da Ética no filme Agnes de Deus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Palermo Moretto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research about the fragilities of the social institutions in the movie Agnes of God and the ethic and moral. There are a mistery in the story:a murder of the baby inside the convent.  The young nun, Agnes killed her baby and a psichiatrist. Dra. Martha Livingstone  begans a investigation since the childhood of Agnes until the crime. The presence of the Superior Mother, Mirian Ruth is important to the story. She is an administrator and protect Agnes in many situations. Such social institutions are showed as Family, Religion and the Justice. Methods are explained: questions and the hipnosis. Agnes has mistics experiences and reveal the conflict between cience and religion.

  8. Finding AGN in Deep X-ray Flux States with Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, Dirk; Komossa, S.; Bush, Mason; Pruett, Chelsea; Ernst, Sonny; Barber, Taylor; Carter, Jen; Schartel, Norbert; Rodriguez, Pedro; Santos-Lleó, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We report on our ongoing project of finding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that go into deep X-ray flux states detected by Swift. Swift is performing an extensive study on the flux and spectral variability of AGN using Guest Investigator and team fill-in programs followed by triggering XMM_Newton for deeper follow-up observations. So far this program has been very successful and has led to a number of XMM-Newton follow up observations, including Mkn 335, PG 0844+349, and RX J2340.8-5329. Recent...

  9. Cosmological Evolution of the Central Engine in High-Luminosity, High-Accretion Rate AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guainazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the status of observational studies aiming at probing the cosmological evolution of the central engine in high-luminosity, high-accretion rate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. X-ray spectroscopic surveys, supported by extensive multi-wavelength coverage, indicate a remarkable invariance of the accretion disk plus corona system, and of their coupling up to redshifts z≈6. Furthermore, hard X-ray (E >10 keV surveys show that nearby Seyfert Galaxies share the same central engine notwithstanding their optical classication. These results suggest that the high-luminosity, high accretion rate quasar phase of AGN evolution is homogeneous over cosmological times.

  10. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF MICROQUASARS AND LOW LUMINOSITY AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, L. H. S.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal; Singh, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region of microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning 10 10 orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing two different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, namely, fast reconnection driven by anomalous resistivity (AR) and by turbulence. We apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts—GRBs), and find that LLAGNs and microquasars do confirm the trend above. Furthermore, when driven by turbulence, not only their radio but also their gamma-ray emission can be due to magnetic power released by fast reconnection, which may accelerate particles to relativistic velocities in the core region of these sources. Thus the turbulent-driven fast reconnection model is able to reproduce verywell the observed emission. On the other hand, the emission from blazars and GRBs does not follow the same trend as that of the LLAGNs and microquasars, indicating that the radio and gamma-ray emission in these cases is produced beyond the core, along the jet, by another population of relativistic particles, as expected

  11. Identifying the subtle signatures of feedback from distant AGN using ALMA observations and the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, C. M.; Rosario, D. J.; McAlpine, S.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stanley, F.; Simpson, J.; Theuns, T.; Bower, R. G.; Hickox, R. C.; Santini, P.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present sensitive 870 μm continuum measurements from our ALMA programmes of 114 X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra Deep Field-South and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. We use these observations in combination with data from Spitzer and Herschel to construct a sample of 86 X-ray selected AGN, 63 with ALMA constraints at z = 1.5-3.2 with stellar mass >2 × 1010 M⊙. We constructed broad-band spectral energy distributions in the infrared band (8-1000 μm) and constrain star-formation rates (SFRs) uncontaminated by the AGN. Using a hierarchical Bayesian method that takes into account the information from upper limits, we fit SFR and specific SFR (sSFR) distributions. We explore these distributions as a function of both X-ray luminosity and stellar mass. We compare our measurements to two versions of the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations: the reference model with AGN feedback and the model without AGN. We find good agreement between the observations and that predicted by the EAGLE reference model for the modes and widths of the sSFR distributions as a function of both X-ray luminosity and stellar mass; however, we found that the EAGLE model without AGN feedback predicts a significantly narrower width when compared to the data. Overall, from the combination of the observations with the model predictions, we conclude that (1) even with AGN feedback, we expect no strong relationship between the sSFR distribution parameters and instantaneous AGN luminosity and (2) a signature of AGN feedback is a broad distribution of sSFRs for all galaxies (not just those hosting an AGN) with stellar masses above ≈1010 M⊙.

  12. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. 1; Emission-Line Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Muhotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth. E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    \\Ve compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 microns, [Ne II] 12.81 microns, [Ne III] 15.56 microns and [Ne V] 14.32 microns, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGNs are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that the BAT AGN fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. From this we found that sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGN have smaller emission line ratios than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGN represents the main contribution to the observed line emission. Overall, we present a different set of emission line diagnostics to distinguish between AGN and star forming galaxies that can be used as a tool to find new AGN.

  13. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R. (comp.)

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Diagnosing Homo sapiens in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Christopher Brian; Buck, Laura Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing Homo sapiens is a critical question in the study of human evolution. Although what constitutes living members of our own species is straightforward, in the fossil record this is still a matter of much debate. The issue is complicated by questions of species diagnoses and ideas about the mode by which a new species is born, by the arguments surrounding the behavioural and cognitive separateness of the species, by the increasing appreciation of variation in the early African H. sapiens record and by new DNA evidence of hybridization with extinct species. This study synthesizes thinking on the fossils, archaeology and underlying evolutionary models of the last several decades with recent DNA results from both H. sapiens and fossil species. It is concluded that, although it may not be possible or even desirable to cleanly partition out a homogenous morphological description of recent H. sapiens in the fossil record, there are key, distinguishing morphological traits in the cranium, dentition and pelvis that can be usefully employed to diagnose the H. sapiens lineage. Increasing advances in retrieving and understanding relevant genetic data provide a complementary and perhaps potentially even more fruitful means of characterizing the differences between H. sapiens and its close relatives.

  15. The Fascinating Story of Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1973-01-01

    How this energy source was created, its meaning to mankind, our drastically reduced supply, and why we cannot wait for nature to make more are considered. Today fossil fuels supply 96 percent of the energy used but we must find alternate energy options if we are to combat the energy crisis. (BL)

  16. Fossil Hunting: Intracluster Stars in Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eric; Bridge, Carrie; Desai, Vandana; Kenney, Jeffrey; Krick, Jessica; Surace, Jason; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    In dense clusters, galaxy interactions and mergers play a significant role in galaxy evolution. During these interactions, tidal forces can lead to the ejection of stars from their parent galaxies; these stars are a fossil record of environmentally-driven galaxy evolution. We propose to map the

  17. Fossil rhinoceroses from Hopefield, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.; Singer, R.

    1960-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The fossil specimens of rhinoceroses recovered at the "Elandsfontein" site, Hopefield, Cape Province, belong to the two living species of Africa, viz., Ceratotherium simum (Burchell) and Diceros bicornis (L.) (Singer, 1954). Both are widely distributed in the African Pleistocene (see

  18. The fossil hippopotamus from Hopefield, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.; Singer, R.

    1961-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The fossil remains of Hippopotamus from the Pleistocene "Elandsfontein" site near Hopefield, Cape Province, have already been briefly described by Singer and Keen (1955), who found that the material available at the time was not different from the living Hippopotamus amphibius L.

  19. Carbon Risk and the Fossil Fuel Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2015-04-01

    As calls for ambitious climate action intensify, questions arise concerning the resilience of the fossil fuel industry in a world ever more inclined to favour climate protection. This article will attempt to assess the extent of present risks and show how the strength of debate can affect practices and strategy employed by companies in this sector. (author)

  20. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  1. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  2. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  3. Jet shapes in hadron and electron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.

    1993-05-01

    High energy jets are observed both in hadronic machines like the Tevatron and electron machines like LEP. These jets have an extended structure in phase space which can be measured. This distribution is usually called the jet shape. There is an intrinsic relation between jet variables, like energy and direction, the jet algorithm used, and the jet shape. Jet shape differences can be used to separate quark and gluon jets

  4. Galaxies with jet streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes recent research work on supersonic gas flow. Notable examples have been observed in cosmic radio sources, where jet streams of galactic dimensions sometimes occur, apparently as the result of interaction between neighbouring galaxies. The current theory of jet behaviour has been convincingly demonstrated using computer simulation. The surprisingly long-term stability is related to the supersonic velocity, and is analagous to the way in which an Appollo spacecraft re-entering the atmosphere supersonically is protected by the gas from the burning shield. (G.F.F.)

  5. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  6. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  7. An early Oligocene fossil demonstrates treeshrews are slowly evolving "living fossils".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ni, Xijun

    2016-01-14

    Treeshrews are widely considered a "living model" of an ancestral primate, and have long been called "living fossils". Actual fossils of treeshrews, however, are extremely rare. We report a new fossil species of Ptilocercus treeshrew recovered from the early Oligocene (~34 Ma) of China that represents the oldest definitive fossil record of the crown group of treeshrews and nearly doubles the temporal length of their fossil record. The fossil species is strikingly similar to the living Ptilocercus lowii, a species generally recognized as the most plesiomorphic extant treeshrew. It demonstrates that Ptilocercus treeshrews have undergone little evolutionary change in their morphology since the early Oligocene. Morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis support the long-standing idea that Ptilocercus treeshrews are morphologically conservative and have probably retained many characters present in the common stock that gave rise to archontans, which include primates, flying lemurs, plesiadapiforms and treeshrews. This discovery provides an exceptional example of slow morphological evolution in a mammalian group over a period of 34 million years. The persistent and stable tropical environment in Southeast Asia through the Cenozoic likely played a critical role in the survival of such a morphologically conservative lineage.

  8. Jets, arcs, and shocks: NGC 5195 at radio wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampadarath, H.; Soria, R.; Urquhart, R.; Argo, M. K.; Brightman, M.; Lacey, C. K.; Schlegel, E. M.; Beswick, R. J.; Baldi, R. D.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; McHardy, I. M.; Williams, D. R. A.; Dumas, G.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the nearby, interacting galaxy NGC 5195 (M 51b) in the radio, optical and X-ray bands. We mapped the extended, low-surface-brightness features of its radio-continuum emission; determined the energy content of its complex structure of shock-ionized gas; constrained the current activity level of its supermassive nuclear black hole. In particular, we combined data from the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (˜1-pc scale), from our new e-MERLIN observations (˜10-pc scale), and from the Very Large Array (˜100-1000-pc scale), to obtain a global picture of energy injection in this galaxy. We put an upper limit to the luminosity of the (undetected) flat-spectrum radio core. We find steep-spectrum, extended emission within 10 pc of the nuclear position, consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission from nuclear star formation or from an outflow powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). A linear spur of radio emission juts out of the nuclear source towards the kpc-scale arcs (detected in radio, Hα and X-ray bands). From the size, shock velocity, and Balmer line luminosity of the kpc-scale bubble, we estimate that it was inflated by a long-term-average mechanical power ˜3-6 × 1041 erg s-1 over the last 3-6 Myr. This is an order of magnitude more power than can be provided by the current level of star formation, and by the current accretion power of the supermassive black hole. We argue that a jet-inflated bubble scenario associated with previous episodes of AGN activity is the most likely explanation for the kpc-scale structures.

  9. A simple way to improve AGN feedback prescription in SPH simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2016-03-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback is an important ingredient in galaxy evolution, however its treatment in numerical simulations is necessarily approximate, requiring subgrid prescriptions due to the dynamical range involved in the calculations. We present a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations designed to showcase the importance of the choice of a particular subgrid prescription for AGN feedback. We concentrate on two approaches to treating wide-angle AGN outflows: thermal feedback, where thermal and kinetic energy is injected into the gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH) particle, and virtual particle feedback, where energy is carried by tracer particles radially away from the AGN. We show that the latter model produces a far more complex structure around the SMBH, which we argue is a more physically correct outcome. We suggest a simple improvement to the thermal feedback model - injecting the energy into a cone, rather than spherically symmetrically - and show that this markedly improves the agreement between the two prescriptions, without requiring any noticeable increase in the computational cost of the simulation.

  10. The contribution of unresolved radio-loud AGN to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucke, A.; Pohl, M.

    2000-01-01

    , and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN. According to this picture, blazars represent the beamed fraction of the Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies (FR galaxies). The observed log N-log S distribution and redshift distribution of both FSRQs and BL Lacs constrain our model. Depending slightly on the evolutionary...

  11. The unification of powerful radio-loud AGN: the multi-wavelength balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte; Drouart, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Powerful radio-loud AGN, by virtue of their optically-thin low-frequency radio emission, represent unique targets in orientation-based unification studies, and in searches for orientation indicators and orientation invariants. Central in these efforts is the landmark Third Cambridge Catalog of Radio

  12. Line Shape Variability in a Sample of AGN with Broad Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGNs, those with broad emission lines in their spectra, of the data obtained from the international long-term optical monitoring campaign coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy ...

  13. IC 3639 - A new bona fide Compton thick AGN unveiled by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse high-quality NuSTAR observations of the local (z = 0.011) Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) IC 3639, in conjunction with archival Suzaku and Chandra data. This provides the first broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the source, spanning nearly two decades in energy (0.5 -30 keV)....

  14. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND OPTICAL VARIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Jonelle L.; Bentz, Misty C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Street, Rachel A.; Treu, Tommaso; Li Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Stern, Daniel; Brown, Timothy M.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The Lick AGN Monitoring Project targeted 13 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies with the intent of measuring the masses of their central black holes using reverberation mapping. The sample includes 12 galaxies selected to have black holes with masses roughly in the range 10 6 -10 7 M sun , as well as the well-studied active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. In conjunction with a spectroscopic monitoring campaign, we obtained broadband B and V images on most nights from 2008 February through 2008 May. The imaging observations were carried out by four telescopes: the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, the 2 m Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring telescope, the Palomar 60 inch (1.5 m) telescope, and the 0.80 m Tenagra II telescope. Having well-sampled light curves over the course of a few months is useful for obtaining the broad-line reverberation lag and black hole mass, and also allows us to examine the characteristics of the continuum variability. In this paper, we discuss the observational methods and the photometric measurements, and present the AGN continuum light curves. We measure various variability characteristics of each of the light curves. We do not detect any evidence for a time lag between the B- and V-band variations, and we do not find significant color variations for the AGNs in our sample.

  15. CAIXA: a catalogue of AGN in the XMM-Newton archive. III. Excess variance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, G.; Papadakis, I.; Bianchi, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Matt, G.; Uttley, P.; Bonilla, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. We report on the results of the first XMM-Newton systematic "excess variance" study of all the radio quiet, X-ray un-obscured AGN. The entire sample consist of 161 sources observed by XMM-Newton for more than 10 ks in pointed observations, which is the largest sample used so far to study

  16. Microvariability in AGNs: study of different statistical methods - I. Observational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibecchi, L.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Carpintero, D. D.; Romero, G. E.; Combi, J. A.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of a study of different statistical methods currently used in the literature to analyse the (micro)variability of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from ground-based optical observations. In particular, we focus on the comparison between the results obtained by applying the so-called C and F statistics, which are based on the ratio of standard deviations and variances, respectively. The motivation for this is that the implementation of these methods leads to different and contradictory results, making the variability classification of the light curves of a certain source dependent on the statistics implemented. For this purpose, we re-analyse the results on an AGN sample observed along several sessions with the 2.15 m 'Jorge Sahade' telescope (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. For each AGN, we constructed the nightly differential light curves. We thus obtained a total of 78 light curves for 39 AGNs, and we then applied the statistical tests mentioned above, in order to re-classify the variability state of these light curves and in an attempt to find the suitable statistical methodology to study photometric (micro)variations. We conclude that, although the C criterion is not proper a statistical test, it could still be a suitable parameter to detect variability and that its application allows us to get more reliable variability results, in contrast with the F test.

  17. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspari, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Brighenti, F. [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Temi, P. [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ettori, S., E-mail: mgaspari@mpa-garching.mpg.de [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L {sub x}-T {sub x} relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R {sub 500}, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L {sub x}-T {sub x} at T {sub 500} ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit.

  18. AGN classification for X-ray sources in the 105 month Swift/BAT survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, N.; Bassani, L.; Palazzi, E.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-03-01

    We here provide classifications for 8 hard X-ray sources listed as 'unknown AGN' in the 105 month Swift/BAT all-sky survey catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS, 235, 4). The corresponding optical spectra were extracted from the 6dF Galaxy Survey (Jones et al. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 683).

  19. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered By NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition f...

  20. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.; Ettori, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L x -T x relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R 500 , while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L x -T x at T 500 ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit

  1. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in an Elliptical Galaxy with the Most Updated AGN Physics. I. Low Angular Momentum Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Yoon, DooSoo; Li, Ya-Ping; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Ho, Luis C.; Guo, Fulai

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the cosmological evolution of an isolated elliptical galaxy by performing two-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations. The inner boundary of the simulation is chosen so that the Bondi radius is resolved. Compared to previous works, the two accretion modes—namely, hot and cold, which correspond to different accretion rates and have different radiation and wind outputs—are carefully discriminated, and the feedback effects by radiation and wind in each mode are taken into account. The most updated AGN physics, including the descriptions of radiation and wind from the hot accretion flows and wind from cold accretion disks, are adopted. Physical processes like star formation and SNe Ia and II are taken into account. We study the AGN light curve, typical AGN lifetime, growth of the black hole mass, AGN duty cycle, star formation, and X-ray surface brightness of the galaxy. We compare our simulation results with observations and find general consistency. Comparisons with previous simulation works find significant differences, indicating the importance of AGN physics. The respective roles of radiation and wind feedback are examined, and it is found that they are different for different problems of interest, such as AGN luminosity and star formation. We find that it is hard to neglect any of them, so we suggest using the names “cold feedback mode” and “hot feedback mode” to replace the currently used ones.

  2. Searching for faint AGN in the CDFS: an X-ray (Chandra) vs optical variability (HST) comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Pouliasis, E.; Bonanos, A.; Sokolovsky, K.; Yang, M.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Bellas, I.; Gavras, P.; Spetsieri, Z.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray surveys are believed to be the most efficient way to detect AGN. Recently though, optical variability studies are claimed to probe even fainter AGN. We are presenting results from an HST study aimed to identify Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) through optical variability selection in the CDFS.. This work is part of the 'Hubble Catalogue of Variables'project of ESA that aims to identify variable sources in the Hubble Source Catalogue.' In particular, we used Hubble Space Telescope (HST) z-band images taken over 5 epochs and performed aperture photometry to derive the lightcurves of the sources. Two statistical methods (standard deviation & interquartile range) resulting in a final sample of 175 variable AGN candidates, having removed the artifacts by visual inspection and known stars and supernovae. The fact that the majority of the sources are extended and variable indicates AGN activity. We compare the efficiency of the method by comparing with the 7Ms Chandra detections. Our work shows that the optical variability probes AGN at comparable redshifts but at deeper optical magnitudes. Our candidate AGN (non detected in X-rays) have luminosities of L_x<6×10^{40} erg/sec at z˜0.7 suggesting that these are associated with low luminosity Seyferts and LINERS.

  3. The XMM-Newton Wide Field Survey in the COSMOS Field: Redshift Evolution of AGN Bias and Subdominant Role of Mergers in Triggering Moderate-luminosity AGNs at Redshifts up to 2.2

    OpenAIRE

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Shankar, F.; James, J. B.; McCracken, H. J.; Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Peacock, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the redshift evolution of the projected correlation function of 593 X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with I_(AB) < 23 and spectroscopic redshifts z < 4, extracted from the 0.5–2 keV X-ray mosaic of the 2.13 deg^2 XMM- Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS). We introduce a method to estimate the average bias of the AGN sample and the mass of AGN hosting halos, solving the sample variance using the halo model and taking into account the growth of the structure over t...

  4. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  5. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets Prospects from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, N

    2009-01-01

    Jets at the LHC are expected to provide the testing ground for studying QCD energy loss. In this contribution, we briefly outline the strategy that will be used to measure jets in ATLAS and how we will go about studying energy loss. We describe the utility of measuring the jet $R_{AA}$, the fragmentation function, and heavy flavor jets. Utilizing the collision energy provided by the LHC and the nearly hermetic and highly segmented calorimeter, ATLAS is expected to make important contributions to the understanding of parton energy loss using fully reconstructed jets.

  6. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets: Prospects from ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, N.

    2009-01-01

    Jets at the LHC are expected to provide the testing ground for studying QCD energy loss. In this contribution, we briefly outline the strategy that will be used to measure jets in ATLAS and how we will go about studying energy loss. We describe the utility of measuring the jet R AA , the fragmentation function, and heavy flavor jets. Utilizing the collision energy provided by the LHC and the nearly hermetic and highly segmented calorimeter, ATLAS is expected to make important contributions to the understanding of parton energy loss using fully reconstructed jets.

  7. Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ammando, Filippo, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF), Bologna (Italy)

    2017-11-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.

  8. Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D'Ammando

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT, opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1 galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.

  9. Fossils and palaeontological distributions of Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucete, M.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; van Welzen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The correct identification of described plant fossils from the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) needs to be confirmed in order to correctly date their phylogeny and map their palaeontological distributions. Previous identifications of fossil specimens often appear to be

  10. The LLAMA Project: A SINFONI Study of Gas Outflows and Feeding in Local, X-ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Thomas Taro; Davies, Richard; Burtscher, Leonard; Lin, Ming-yi

    2018-01-01

    We present new results from our survey of the inner few hundred parsecs of nearby galaxies as part of our Local Luminous AGN with Matched Analogues (LLAMA) project. AGN within the LLAMA sample were selected based on detection at ultra-hard X-rays (14-195 keV) by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope ensuring the definitive presence of an AGN. We further imposed a redshift (z 42.5) cutoff to create a complete and volume-limited sample of nearby, luminous AGN. Inactive galaxies were chosen carefully by matching in redshift, host galaxy morphology, inclination, and stellar mass to create a clean sample with which to compare to the AGN. A subset of LLAMA AGN and inactive galaxies were observed with VLT/SINFONI using adaptive optics producing high spatial resolution integral field unit spectra in the H and K band. This unique IFU data allows for analysis of a suite of NIR emission lines including [FeII], H2 (1-0) S(1), [SiVI], and Br-gamma to probe the ionized and warm molecular gas in the circumnuclear region as well as CO absorption lines to probe the stellar disk. I will present initial results from our study including the prevalence of AGN outflows along with their geometry, kinematics, and mass outflow rates and compare the mass, state, and excitation mechanisms of circumnuclear gas between AGN and inactive galaxies. Finally, I will discuss our results in the context of AGN fuelling and feedback and provide insight on interpreting similar data at higher redshift.

  11. Extragalactic gamma-ray background from AGN winds and star-forming galaxies in cosmological galaxy-formation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, A.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Guetta, D.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-10-01

    We derive the contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) from active galactic nuclei (AGN) winds and star-forming galaxies by including a physical model for the γ-ray emission produced by relativistic protons accelerated by AGN-driven and supernova-driven shocks into a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This is based on galaxy interactions as triggers of AGN accretion and starburst activity and on expanding blast waves as the mechanism to communicate outwards the energy injected into the interstellar medium by the active nucleus. We compare the model predictions with the latest measurement of the EGB spectrum performed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the range between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. We find that AGN winds can provide 35 ± 15% of the observed EGB in the energy interval Eγ = 0.1-1 GeV, for 73 ± 15% at Eγ = 1-10 GeV, and for 60 ± 20% at Eγ ≳10 GeV. The AGN wind contribution to the EGB is predicted to be larger by a factor of 3-5 than that provided by star-forming galaxies (quiescent plus starburst) in the hierarchical clustering scenario. The cumulative γ-ray emission from AGN winds and blazars can account for the amplitude and spectral shape of the EGB, assuming the standard acceleration theory, and AGN wind parameters that agree with observations. We also compare the model prediction for the cumulative neutrino background from AGN winds with the most recent IceCube data. We find that for AGN winds with accelerated proton spectral index p = 2.2-2.3, and taking into account internal absorption of γ-rays, the Fermi-LAT and IceCube data could be reproduced simultaneously.

  12. Hosts and environments of low luminosity active galaxies in the local universe: The care and feeding of weak AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejko, John Kenneth

    The observed relationship between the mass of a galaxy's supermassive black hole and the galaxy's bulge mass suggests a relationship between the growth of the galaxy and the growth of its central black hole. When these black holes grow, they release phenomenal amounts of energy into their surroundings, possibly disrupting further growth of the galaxy. The feeding (inflowing matter) and feedback (outflowing energy) of a galaxy's central black hole may be intimately related to the properties of the host's environment, on scales many orders of magnitude beyond the black hole's gravitational influence. While feeding, a massive black hole reveals itself as an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but only a few percent of all galaxies show evidence of an AGN. This thesis focuses on this question: What distinguishes galaxies that are currently hosting actively accreting black holes from those that are not? We use the vast data set provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) to study the environments of a well defined sample of AGN hosts. To reduce contamination by galaxies that do not harbor actively accreting black holes, we define a clear, unambiguous sample of local AGN. Using this sample, we search for AGN in merging galaxies and measure the 2-point cross-correlation function of AGN and all galaxies to estimate the environments of AGN hosts compared to non-AGN hosts. We also describe trends in different subsamples of AGN, including luminosity and classification sub-type. Finally, we show how these techniques may be applied to future data sets such as forthcoming SDSS III data and X-ray data from the eROSITA satellite.

  13. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  14. Mineralogy of Non-Silicified Fossil Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The best-known and most-studied petrified wood specimens are those that are mineralized with polymorphs of silica: opal-A, opal-C, chalcedony, and quartz. Less familiar are fossil woods preserved with non-silica minerals. This report reviews discoveries of woods mineralized with calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various iron and copper minerals, manganese oxide, fluorite, barite, natrolite, and smectite clay. Regardless of composition, the processes of mineralization involve the same factors: availability of dissolved elements, pH, Eh, and burial temperature. Permeability of the wood and anatomical features also plays important roles in determining mineralization. When precipitation occurs in several episodes, fossil wood may have complex mineralogy.

  15. Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Orly; Dinamarca, Jorge; Hochman, Gal; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-03-01

    Long-term global climate change, caused by burning petroleum and other fossil fuels, has motivated an urgent need to develop renewable, carbon-neutral, economically viable alternatives to displace petroleum using existing infrastructure. Algal feedstocks are promising candidate replacements as a 'drop-in' fuel. Here, we focus on a specific algal taxon, diatoms, to become the fossil fuel of the future. We summarize past attempts to obtain suitable diatom strains, propose future directions for their genetic manipulation, and offer biotechnological pathways to improve yield. We calculate that the yields obtained by using diatoms as a production platform are theoretically sufficient to satisfy the total oil consumption of the US, using between 3 and 5% of its land area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Danmarks Største Fossiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger

    2008-01-01

    For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram.......For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram....

  17. Fossil Energy Planning for Navajo Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acedo, Margarita [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This project includes fossil energy transition planning to find optimal solutions that benefit the Navajo Nation and stakeholders. The majority of the tribe’s budget currently comes from fossil energy-revenue. The purpose of this work is to assess potential alternative energy resources including solar photovoltaics and biomass (microalgae for either biofuel or food consumption). This includes evaluating carbon-based reserves related to the tribe’s resources including CO2 emissions for the Four Corners generating station. The methodology for this analysis will consist of data collection from publicly available data, utilizing expertise from national laboratories and academics, and evaluating economic, health, and environmental impacts. Finally, this report will highlight areas of opportunities to implement renewable energy in the Navajo Nation by presenting the technology requirements, cost, and considerations to energy, water, and environment in an educational structure.

  18. Structural coloration in a fossil feather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob; Briggs, Derek E G; Clarke, Julia; Mayr, Gerald; Prum, Richard O

    2010-02-23

    Investigation of feathers from the famous Middle Eocene Messel Oil Shale near Darmstadt, Germany shows that they are preserved as arrays of fossilized melanosomes, the surrounding beta-keratin having degraded. The majority of feathers are preserved as aligned rod-shaped eumelanosomes. In some, however, the barbules of the open pennaceous, distal portion of the feather vane are preserved as a continuous external layer of closely packed melanosomes enclosing loosely aligned melanosomes. This arrangement is similar to the single thin-film nanostructure that generates an iridescent, structurally coloured sheen on the surface of black feathers in many lineages of living birds. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of preservation of a colour-producing nanostructure in a fossil feather and confirms the potential for determining colour differences in ancient birds and other dinosaurs.

  19. Transitional fossils and the origin of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bever, Gabe S; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Joyce, Walter G; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2010-12-23

    The origin of turtles is one of the most contentious issues in systematics with three currently viable hypotheses: turtles as the extant sister to (i) the crocodile-bird clade, (ii) the lizard-tuatara clade, or (iii) Diapsida (a clade composed of (i) and (ii)). We reanalysed a recent dataset that allied turtles with the lizard-tuatara clade and found that the inclusion of the stem turtle Proganochelys quenstedti and the 'parareptile' Eunotosaurus africanus results in a single overriding morphological signal, with turtles outside Diapsida. This result reflects the importance of transitional fossils when long branches separate crown clades, and highlights unexplored issues such as the role of topological congruence when using fossils to calibrate molecular clocks.

  20. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  1. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  2. Triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipsham, E.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.

    1989-01-01

    Triton burnup measurements have been made at JET using time-integrated copper activation and time-resolved silicon detector techniques. The results confirm the classical nature of both the confinement and the slowing down of the 1 MeV tritons in a plasma. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  3. Vortex diode jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  4. LHCb jet reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Oscar; Rangel, Murilo; Barter, William; Bursche, Albert; Potterat, Cedric; Coco, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than 4 X 10 32 cm -2 s -1 and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1,02fb -1 on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test perturbative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space ηX φ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the colorimeters are used on the LHCb experiment to create objects called particle flow objects that are used as input to anti-kt algorithm. The LHCb is specially interesting for jets studies because its η region is complementary to the others main experiments on LHC. We will present the first results of jet reconstruction using 2011 LHCb data. (author)

  5. LHCb jet reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Oscar; Rangel, Murilo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barter, William [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bursche, Albert [Universitat Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Potterat, Cedric [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Coco, Victor [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than 4 X 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1,02fb{sup -1} on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test perturbative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space {eta}X {phi} and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the colorimeters are used on the LHCb experiment to create objects called particle flow objects that are used as input to anti-kt algorithm. The LHCb is specially interesting for jets studies because its {eta} region is complementary to the others main experiments on LHC. We will present the first results of jet reconstruction using 2011 LHCb data. (author)

  6. Fastener investigation in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, P., E-mail: patrick.bunting@ccfe.ac.uk; Thompson, V.; Riccardo, V.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Experimental work to identify the cause of a bolt seizure inside the JET vessel. • Taguchi method used to reduce tests to 16 while covering 5 parameters. • Experimental work was unable to reproduce bolt seizure. • Thread contamination had little effect on the bolt performance. - Abstract: JET is an experimental fusion reactor consisting of magnetically confined, high temperature plasma inside a large ultra-high vacuum chamber. The inside of the chamber is protected from the hot plasma with tiles made from beryllium, tungsten, carbon composites and other materials bolted to the vessel wall. The study was carried out in response to a JET fastener seizing inside the vacuum vessel. The following study looks at characterising the magnitude of the individual factors affecting the fastener break away torque. This was carried out using a statistical approach, the Taguchi method: isolating the net effect of individual factors present in a series of tests [1](Grove and Davis, 1992). Given the severe environment within the JET vessel due to the combination of heat, ultra-high vacuum and the high contact pressure in bolt threads, the contributions of localised diffusion bonding is assessed in conjunction with various combinations of bolt and insert material.

  7. Jet Inlet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2014-044 Jet Inlet Efficiency Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John Wohleber Munitions Aerodynamics Sciences...CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Nigel Plumb Taylor Sykes-Green Keith Williams John

  8. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  9. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)

    2015-02-18

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  10. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  11. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  12. Dissecting the Butterfly: Dual Outflows in the Dual AGN NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julie; Nevin, Rebecca; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George

    2018-01-01

    Current theories of galaxy evolution invoke some kind of feedback (from the stars or the supermassive black hole) to explain the properties of galaxies. However, numerical simulations and observations have not been able to evaluate the real impact of feedback in galaxies. This is largely because most studies have focused on studying stellar feedback or AGN feedback alone, instead of considering the combined effect of both. In fact, this is an unexplored territory for observations due to the difficulty of separating the contribution from the two sources.In this contribution I present the discovery of a dual outflow of different species of gas in the prototypical merging galaxy NGC 6240 using HST imaging, long-slit and integral-eld spectroscopy: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. The AGN outflow extends up to 4 kpc along a position angle of 56 degrees, has a conical shape with an opening angle of 52 degrees and a maximum line-of-sight velocity of 350 km/s. The WFC3 images also reveal a bubble of Halpha emission in the northwest, which has no counterpart in [O III], consistent with a scenario in which the starburst is ionizing and driving outflowing winds which inflate the bubble at an expansion velocity of 380 km/s. Assuming a spherical geometry for the starburst-driven bubble and a conical geometry for the AGN-driven outflow, we estimate mass outflow rates of 26 Msun/yr and 62 Msun/yr, respectively. We conclude that the AGN contribution to the evolution of the merger remnant and the formation of outflowing winds is signicant in the central 5 kpc of NGC 6240.

  13. Red Geyser: A New Class of Galaxy with Large-scale AGN-driven Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Namrata; Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; MaNGA Team

    2018-01-01

    A new class of quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies harboring possible AGN-driven winds have been discovered using the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. These galaxies named "red geysers" constitute 5%-10% of the local quiescent galaxy population and are characterized by narrow bisymmetric ionized gas emission patterns. These enhanced patterns are seen in equivalent width maps of Hα, [OIII] and other strong emission lines. They are co-aligned with the ionized gas velocity gradients but significantly misaligned with stellar velocity gradients. They also show very high gas velocity dispersions (~200 km/s). Considering these observations in light of models of the gravitational potential, Cheung et al. argued that red geysers host large-scale AGN-driven winds of ionized gas that may play a role in suppressing star formation at late times. In this work, we test the hypothesis that AGN activity is ultimately responsible for the red geyser phenomenon. We compare the nuclear radio activity of the red geysers to a matched control sample of galaxies of similar stellar mass, redshift, rest frame NUV–r color and axis ratio. and additionally, control for the presence of ionized gas. We have used 1.4 GHz radio continuum data from the VLA FIRST Survey to stack the radio flux from the red geyser sample and control sample. We find that the red geysers have a higher average radio flux than the control galaxies at > 3σ significance. Our sample is restricted to rest-frame NUV–r color > 5, thus ruling out possible radio emission due to star formation activity. We conclude that red geysers are associated with more active AGN, supporting a feedback picture in which episodic AGN activity drives large-scale but relatively weak ionized winds in many in many early-type galaxies.

  14. Adaptation, plant evolution, and the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Niklas, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of adaptation in determining patterns of evolution has become an important focus of debate in evolutionary biology. As it pertains to paleobotany, the issue is whether or not adaptive evolution mediated by natural selection is sufficient to explain the stratigraphic distributions of taxa and character states observed in the plant fossil record. One means of addressing this question is the functional evaluation of stratigraphic series of plant organs set in the context of paleoenvironmental change and temporal patterns of floral composition within environments. For certain organ systems, quantitative estimates of biophysical performance can be made on the basis of structures preserved in the fossil record. Performance estimates for plants separated in time or space can be compared directly. Implicit in different hypotheses of the forces that shape the evolutionary record (e.g. adaptation, mass extinction, rapid environmental change, chance) are predictions about stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental trends in the efficacy of functional performance. Existing data suggest that following the evolution of a significant structural innovation, adaptation for improved functional performance can be a major determinant of evolutionary changes in plants; however, there are structural and development limits to functional improvement, and once these are reached, the structure in question may no longer figure strongly in selection until and unless a new innovation evolves. The Silurian-Devonian paleobotanical record is consistent with the hypothesis that the succession of lowland floodplain dominants preserved in the fossil record of this interval was determined principally by the repeated evolution of new taxa that rose to ecological importance because of competitive advantages conferred by improved biophysical performance. This does not seem to be equally true for Carboniferous-Jurassic dominants of swamp and lowland floodplain environments. In these cases

  15. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  16. The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Knecht, Brian J; Hegna, Thomas A

    2017-04-21

    Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK. Using X-ray microtomography, our principal aim was to resolve details of the limbs and mouthparts which would allow us to test whether this fossil belongs in the extant, relict family Paracharontidae; represented today by a single, blind species Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921. Tomography reveals several novel and significant character states for G. anglicus; most notably in the chelicerae, pedipalps and walking legs. These allowed it to be scored into a phylogenetic analysis together with the recently described Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from the Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) Cambay amber, and Kronocharon prendinii Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber. We recovered relationships of the form ((Graeophonus (Paracharonopsis + Paracharon)) + (Charinus (Stygophrynus (Kronocharon (Charon (Musicodamon + Paraphrynus)))))). This tree largely reflects Peter Weygoldt's 1996 classification with its basic split into Paleoamblypygi and Euamblypygi lineages; we were able to score several of his characters for the first time in fossils. Our analysis draws into question the monophyly of the family Charontidae. Our data suggest that Graeophonus is a crown group amblypygid, and falls within a monophyletic Paleoamblypgi clade, but outside the family Paracharontidae (= Paracharonopsis + Paracharon). Our results also suggest a new placement for the Burmese amber genus Kronocharon, a node further down from its original position. Overall, we offer a

  17. Ultraviolet/Optical Emission of the Ionized Gas in AGN: Diagnostics of the Ionizing Source and Gas Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Feltre

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN are powerful means of probing the physical properties of the ionized gas within them. In particular, near future observational facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST, will allow detailed statistical studies of rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectral features of the very distant AGN with unprecedented accuracy. In this proceedings, we discuss the various ways of exploiting new dedicated photoionization models of the narrow-line emitting regions (NLR of AGN for the interpretation of forthcoming revolutionary datasets.

  18. A Multi-wavelength Analysis of Binary-AGN Candidate PSO J334.2028+01.4075

    OpenAIRE

    Foord, Adi; Gultekin, Kayhan; Reynolds, Mark; Ayers, Megan; Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi; Runnoe, Jessie

    2017-01-01

    We present analysis of the first Chandra observation of PSO J334.2028+01.4075 (PSO J334), targeted as a binary-AGN candidate based on periodic variations of the optical flux. With no prior targeted X-ray coverage for PSO J334, our new 40 ksec Chandra observation allows for the opportunity to differentiate between a single or binary-AGN system, and if a binary, can characterize the mode of accretion. Simulations show that the two expected accretion disk morphologies for binary-AGN systems are ...

  19. Ultraviolet/Optical Emission of the Ionized Gas in AGN: Diagnostics of the Ionizing Source and Gas Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltre, Anna [Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon1, Ens de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Charlot, Stephane [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Mignoli, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bongiorno, Angela [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Calura, Francesco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Chevallard, Jacopo [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), European Space Agency (ESA), Noordwijk (Netherlands); Curtis-Lake, Emma [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Gilli, Roberto [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Plat, Adele, E-mail: anna.feltre@univ-lyon1.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France)

    2017-11-02

    Spectroscopic studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are powerful means of probing the physical properties of the ionized gas within them. In particular, near future observational facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will allow detailed statistical studies of rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectral features of the very distant AGN with unprecedented accuracy. In this proceedings, we discuss the various ways of exploiting new dedicated photoionization models of the narrow-line emitting regions (NLR) of AGN for the interpretation of forthcoming revolutionary datasets.

  20. Clean fossil-fuelled power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using fossil fuels is likely to remain the dominant means of producing electricity in 2030 and even 2050, partly because power stations have long lives. There are two main ways of reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. These are carbon capture and storage (CCS), which can produce near-zero CO 2 emissions, and increases in plant efficiency, which can give rise to significant reductions in CO 2 emissions and to reduced costs. If a typical UK coal-fired plant was replaced by today's best available technology, it would lead to reductions of around 25% in emissions of CO 2 per MW h of electricity produced. Future technologies are targeting even larger reductions in emissions, as well as providing a route, with CCS, to zero emissions. These two routes are linked and they are both essential activities on the pathway to zero emissions. This paper focuses on the second route and also covers an additional third route for reducing emissions, the use of biomass. It discusses the current status of the science and technologies for fossil-fuelled power generation and outlines likely future technologies, development targets and timescales. This is followed by a description of the scientific and technological developments that are needed to meet these challenges. Once built, a power plant can last for over 40 years, so the ability to upgrade and retrofit a plant during its lifetime is important