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Sample records for forzada del mango

  1. Ácaros del mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  2. Composición y remoción nutrimental de frutos de mango 'Haden' y 'Tommy Atkins' bajo producción forzada Fruit nutrient composition and removal by 'Haden' and 'Tommy Atkins' mangos fruits under forced production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mellado-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Para mejorar el manejo de la nutrición del mango y mantener la fertilidad del suelo es necesario conocer la composición nutrimental de los frutos así como la cantidad de nutrimentos removidos por la cosecha. En 2009 se realizó el presente estudio con los cvs. Haden y Tommy Atkins bajo producción forzada en el Valle de Apatzingán, Michoacán, México con los objetivos de: i determinar la composición nutrimental de los tejidos del fruto (epidermis, pulpa, testa y embrión; y ii cuantificar la cantidad de nutrimentos removida por la cosecha de los dos cultivares de mango. Se seleccionaron dos huertos comerciales de mango 'Haden' y dos de 'Tommy Atkins', con manejo del riego y tipo de suelo (Vertisol similares. En cada huerto se eligieron cinco árboles de los que se cosecharon dos frutos en madurez fisiológica. Los frutos se separaron en sus tejidos y a cada uno les fue determinado en la materia seca la concentración de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn y B. La composición nutrimental de los tejidos del fruto presentó variaciones dentro de cada cultivar. La epidermis y el embrión presentaron las mayores concentraciones de nutrimentos. La cantidad de nutrimentos removidos varió con el tejido, presentándose los valores más altos para pulpa y epidermis y los más bajos para la testa. La cantidad de nutrimentos removida por tonelada de fruto fresco fue similar en los dos cultivares de mango, con excepción del Mn cuya remoción fue mayor en los frutos de 'Haden'. Los intervalos de remoción nutrimental para 'Haden' y 'Tommy Atkins' fueron (kg t-1 fruto fresco: N (1.03-1.11, P (0.22-0.24, K (1.88-2.14, Ca (0.21-0.31, Mg (0.14-0.15, S (0.28-0.33; (g t-1 fruto fresco: Fe (3.53.8, Cu (1.0-1.1, Mn (3.2-4.8, Zn (2.0-2.8 y B (1.5-1.6.To improve the management of mango nutrition and maintain soil fertility it is necessary to know the nutrient composition of the fruit as well as the amount of nutrients removed by the crop planting . This study

  3. La responsabilidad internacional del estado por desapariciones forzadas de personas: obligaciones internacionales y atribución

    OpenAIRE

    Sferrazza, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    La desaparición forzada de personas es una de las más atroces violaciones a los derechos humanos, debido a la brutalidad de sus conductas constitutivas y a la pluralidad de víctimas que involucra. La presente investigación se propone estudiar la responsabilidad internacional del Estado ante la comisión de desapariciones forzadas. Máster en Estudios Avanzados en Derechos Humanos Presidente: Cesáreo Gutiérrez Espada; Vocal: Felipe González Morales; Secretario: Alicia Gil

  4. Estudio Dinámico Bajo Oscilación Forzada del Sistema Fruto-Pedúnculo (S.F.P del Café Variedad Colombia

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    Ciro Héctor J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En CENICAFE, Chinchiná, Caldas, se estudió la respuesta de las ramas de café variedad Colombia a la aplicación de vibraciones forzadas transversales, aplicadas en un sólo punto. Se vibraron ramas de café variedad Colombia a frecuencias de 1.500, 1.800, 2.000 y 2.200 cpm y, amplitudes de 0.5, 1.0 y 1,5 cm en puntos localizados a 1/3Y 1/2 de su longitud, durante 5 segundos. El mejor resultado (74% de desprendimiento de cerezas maduras y 30% de cerezas verdes en el café desprendido se obtuvo vibrando las ramas a 1.500 c.p.m amplitud de 1,5 cm y sujetándolas a 1/3 de su longitud. Se determinaron propiedades físico-mecánicas a las cerezas verdes. pintonas y maduras (masa, densidad, radio característico. longitud y diámetro de pedúnculo, momento de inercia másico del fruto, rigidez, constante de elasticidad, de importancia para el estudio de la respuesta del sistema fruto pedúnculo (S.F P. a las vibraciones forzadas. Se observó que la constante de elasticidad, módulo de rigidez y el momento de inercia aumentan a medida que aumenta el grado de madurez de la cereza. Con las propiedades físico-mecánicas antes mencionadas se implementó el modelo de grados de libertad propuesto por Martínez (1983 para estudiar la respuesta del S.F. P. a la aplicación de vibraciones forzadas. Los resultados obtenidos con este modelo indican que las frecuencias naturales de resonancia del S. F. P. para frutos pintones y maduros son inferiores a las de las cerezas verdes, en el primero y segundo modos de vibración. Para cerezas maduras en el primer modo de vibración la frecuencia de resonancia varia de 1.500 a 1,530 c.p.m. En el segundo modo de vibración la frecuencia de resonancia de cerezas maduras es 28.000 c.p.m.

  5. INTENSIDAD DE PODA SOBRE EL VIGOR, PRODUCCIÓN Y PESO DEL FRUTO, DEL MANGO 'ATAULFO'

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La poda es una práctica indispensable para mantener la productividad en huertos de mango; sin embargo, esta labor es poco usual en Nayarit, México, y hasta el momento se desconoce cual es la intensidad más adecuada que permita controlar el tamaño del árbol y obtener rendimientos más altos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la intensidad de poda sobre el vigor del árbol, producción y peso del fruto del mango ¿Ataulfo¿. Se estudiaron las intensidades de poda de 50, 75 y 100 c...

  6. CONSTITUYENTES VOLÁTILES DEL MANGO DE AZÚCAR

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    Edgar Bautista.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Empleando Extracción de Volátiles por Espacio de Cabeza Dinámico y Extracción Líquido-Líquido, se estudió el aroma del mango de azúcar (Mangifera indica L, variedad nativa Colombiana apreciada por su exquisito aroma y sabor. Estos dos métodos complementarios permifieron la identificación, por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta resolución y Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución - Espectrometría de Masas, de 52 coinponentes, entre los cuales sobresalieron como mayoritarios el 3-careno, el butanoato de etilo, el ácido butanóico y el a-pineno. Aunque la composición porcentual en peso de volátiles varió según el método de extracción, el grupo predominante en ambos sistemas de extracción es el de los terpenos, seguido de los esteres. El aroma de los extractos obtenidos fue evaluado por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución-Olfatometría.

  7. Mundos del detenido-desaparecido. El sinsentido de la catástrofe : Reseña del libro: Gatti, Gabriel (2011). Identidades desaparecidas. Peleas por el sentido en los mundos de la desaparición forzada. Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Marís Jazmín

    2013-01-01

    En este libro, Gabriel Gatti se propone dar cuenta, con un lenguaje claro y sensible, de distintos mecanismos y vehículos de construcción de identidad y sentido después del quiebre de los marcos interpretativos que trae consigo la figura del desaparecido. Su hipótesis principal es que la desaparición forzada es una catástrofe para la identidad y para el lenguaje, pero que existe un lugar para vivirla y es el “mundo del detenido-desaparecido”. En función de su objetivo de pensar distintas form...

  8. Análisis de la red de valor del mango Ataulfo en la subcuenca del Río Atoyac, estado de Guerrero.

    OpenAIRE

    Embris Jiménez, Omar

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo definir las causas que existen en torno al problema de la red de valor del mango Ataulfo en la subcuenca de Atoyac, así como identificar las alternativas de aprovechamiento de las ventajas competitivas propias del territorio y del potencial productivo que permitan generar ingresos a la población. Aunque el mango Ataulfo es líder en rendimiento y representa los mayores ingresos para los productores, presenta bajo nivel competitivo, debido a: altos costos ...

  9. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

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    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  10. Del dolor al duelo: límites al anhelo frente a la desaparición forzada. // From the bereavement to the grief: limits to the yearning faced with the frorced dissapearance.

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    Victoria Eugenia Diaz.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article develops the research question about the logic of the grief process when a subject lost is caused by forced disappearance of a loved one. Even though the study of the sources allows to state that the common response to this event is a suspended bereavement, research results allow to propose that there are collective -justice and ritual and individual –grief act- mechanisms which can contribute for a subject to overcome the obstacles and to begin grief resolution. In order to come to this conclusion, the concepts of grief work, reality test, bereavement, and act are discussed to be able to state that the grief for the disappearance does not depend on the reunion with the lost object, nor on the find of a corpse, but on a change of the subject/object relationship where this latter is psychically assumed as radically lost. // El artículo desarrolla la pregunta de investigación en torno a la lógica del proceso de duelo cuando la pérdida de un sujeto es causada por la desaparición forzada de un ser amado. Si bien el estudio de las fuentes permite afirmar que la respuesta común a este evento es la de un dolor suspendido, los resultados de la investigación permiten proponer que existen mecanismo colectivos —la justicia y el ritual— y particulares —el acto de duelo— que pueden contribuir a que un sujeto movilice los obstáculos e inicie la elaboración de su duelo. Se discuten, para llegar a esta conclusión, las nociones de trabajo de duelo, de prueba de realidad, de dolor y de acto, para llegar a afirmar que el duelo por la desaparición no depende del reencuentro con el objeto perdido, ni siquiera bajo la forma de hallazgo del cadáver, sino de un cambio en la relación del sujeto con el objeto donde se instaure psíquicamente este último como radicalmente perdido.

  11. UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION

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    Adolfo Moreno Bermúdez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios estandarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139. En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%.In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango, is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139. This research article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

  12. El dolor por un muerto – vivo. Una lectura freudiana del duelo en los casos de desaparición forzada

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Zorio

    2011-01-01

    antes y un después en quienes viven esta tragedia; las víctimas la señalan como una huella imborrable que solo la muerte del doliente borrará. La justicia ineficiente y las intenciones detrás de la desaparición tienen efectos nodales en los procesos de duelo. El trabajo pregunta a la teoría freudiana por los elementos de este proceso que lo diferencian de otros duelos, de otras pérdidas. El duelo, el tabú a los muertos, el dolor y la angustia, entre otros c...

  13. CARACTERIZACION FISICOQUIMICA DEL MANGO COMUN (Mangifera indica L. DURANTE SU PROCESO DE MADURACION

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    VICTOR QUINTERO C

    Full Text Available El proceso de maduración del mango está gobernado bajo una serie de reacciones bioquímicas al interior del fruto que se caracterizan por cambios en la textura, color, en el contenido de azúcares, ácidos, aromas, entre otros. Las sustancias acumuladas durante el desarrollo se transforman de manera lenta y progresiva hasta que el fruto alcanza las condiciones de aroma y jugosidad que permita clasificarlo como maduro. Se realizó una cinética de maduración durante nueve días, determinando parámetros físicos y químicos como color en pulpa y en cáscara, textura, actividad de agua, sólidos solubles, pH y acidez titulable. Se modeló cinéticamente el comportamiento de cada una estas variables y se pudo determinar que los sólidos solubles tienen una tendencia explicada con un modelo de regresión multiplicativo y la actividad de agua con un modelo de regresión reciproco de X mientras el pH y la acidez con una ecuación de regresión de raíz cuadrada de X, de la misma manera el cambio de color en cáscara y en pulpa presento una regresión reciproca de X. Por último en el caso de la textura se observó y se ajustó modelos lineales tanto para cáscara como para pulpa.

  14. México: país de desapariciones forzadas

    OpenAIRE

    José Reveles

    2015-01-01

    En nuestra maltrecha democracia, la desaparición forzada de los 43 estudiantes de la Normal Rural “Isidro Burgos” en Iguala, Guerrero, en la noche del 26 al 27 de sep-tiembre de 2014, visibilizó una violación cotidiana de derechos humanos. 43 dice mucho más que la mención de 130 mil ejecutados con violencia en México; es más contundente 43 que citar a millón y medio de desplazados; sacude más la conciencia 43 que la alusión a los no menos de 30 mil desaparecidos durante una absurda e inútil g...

  15. Effeet of ealeium ehloride in the storage of mango (mangifera indica ev. tommy atkins Influencia del cloruro de calcio en la conservación del mango (Mangifera indica L. variedad Tommy atkins

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    Galvis V. Antonio

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In our country, it exists a lot of postharvest losses caused by inadequate handling of perishable products. The mango, a very important fruit for exportation, has similar problems and it is necessary to solve them. This study was carry out in order to determine the incidence of CaCl2 in the maintenance of the mango variety Tommy Atkinsstored at 1O°C and 90% R.H. lt was lound  that the fruit treated with a solution of 15% of
    CaCl2 reached the best devolpement of its phycochemical characteristics of pH, brix and acidity and its madurity process was complete.En la actualidad, existen numerosas pérdidas en la poscosecha de productos perecederos, debidas, principalmente, al manejo inadecuado de éstos y a la poca atención que se les suministra después de su recolección. El mango, una de las frutas de mayor importancia para el
    mercado internacional, no escapa a esta situación; por lo cual, se hacen necesarios estudios que permitan su conservación después de la recolección. Por ésto, en el presente estudio, se empleó en la conservación del mango
    variedad Tommy Atkins un retardante de maduración, el cloruro de calcio (CaCl2 a baja temperatura (10°C, con 90% de humedad relativa (H. R., encontrándose que la inmersión de la fruta en una solución de concentración del 15% de CaCl2 permite su conservación por un espacio
    de 38 días con un buen comportamiento de las características lisicoquímicas de °Brix, acidez y pH del producto y alcanzado su completa madurez fisiológica.

  16. Clasificación por calidades del mango Manila mediante procesamiento de imágenes y según la norma NMX-FF-058-SCFI-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo reseña una metodología para clasificar el mango Manila según su calidad. A partir de la obtención de dos imágenes que representan ambas caras del mango Manila, se estima el área dañada en la superficie, con lo que es posible determinar su nivel de calidad de acuerdo a la norma mexicana NMX-FF-058-SCFI-2006. En esta investigación, se propone un método para la estimación de la cantidad de área dañada en la cascara del mango Manila, utilizando operadores morfológicos sobr...

  17. Reflexiones sobre problemas de biología reproductiva del mango Ataúlfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas

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    Malc R. Gehrke Vélez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Soconusco, en el Estado mexicano de Chiapas, es una región de gran potencial agroproductivo. Sin embargo, desde los años 50 del siglo pasado, sus ecosistemas han sido constantemente devastados por tecnologías inapropiadas de producción agropecuaria, lo cual ha afectado negativamente su productividad y muchos de los cultivos que parecían promisorios han quedado descartados por incosteabilidad. Hoy surge una nueva posibilidad de desarrollo sostenible con la plantación de mango “Ataúlfo”, una variedad de origen local que ha sido desarrollada hasta llegar a ser uno de los cultivos más importantes de la región desde el punto de vista de productividad y rentabilidad. El fruto de esta variedad presenta características morfológicas y organolépticas muy deseables y, a escala mundial, se está posicionando como una fruta de alta calidad y deseabilidad en el mercado. Sin embargo, después de más de cuarenta años de desarrollo, los huertos de Ataúlfo están siendo afectados por problemas de biología reproductiva que están causando falta de prendimiento y aborto de flores y frutas. En huertos donde se llegaron a producir más de 15 toneladas de fruta por hectárea, ahora se cosechan menos de cuatro. Se hizo una revisión exhaustiva de trabajos de investigación en diversas partes del mundo lo cual genera una hipótesis sobre las posibles causas del fenómeno delmango niño” y del mango “partenocárpico”, así como de la caída prematura de flores y frutos. Se discute también la posibilidad de una incompatibilidad alo- y endogámica de la variedad Ataúlfo. Todos estos fenómenos parecen estar relacionados con cambios en la temperatura y precipitación en el área, causados por prácticas inapropiadas de cultivo en épocas anteriores y por fenómenos globales, como la incidencia de huracanes y el calentamiento global.  Finalmente, se hacen recomendaciones para desarrollar líneas de investigación que resuelvan estos

  18. Análisis de mujeres cachemires como sujetos subalternos en la representación institucional de India y Paquistán a partir del fenómeno de desaparición forzada (1989-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Correa, Laura Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    El interés de esta monografía es analizar las consecuencias de la representación institucional de India y Paquistán en la disputa territorial por Cachemira durante el periodo de 1989 a 2008. Puntualmente, se analiza y explica cómo la representación institucional prestada individualmente por India y Paquistán validó sus intereses como agentes de poder en la región, pasó por alto las necesidades de la población cachemir y fomentó la práctica de la desaparición forzada, lo que en consecuencia co...

  19. Enfoque geométrico para la estimación del peso del fruto mango de azúcar mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio O., Pedro S.; Sánchez T., Germán

    2011-01-01

    La medición precisa del las propiedades físicas de los frutos, tales como el peso y el nivel de maduración, constituye un procedimiento típico e importante en varios procesos industriales orientados a la clasificación y selección de productos de calidad par a la exportación. Este trabajo describe un procedimiento geométrico para la estimación del peso del fruto Mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L.), de manera automática mediante el análisis de imágenes de intensidad 2D. El procedimiento inici...

  20. PROPIEDADES TÉCNICO-FUNCIONALES DE LA FIBRA DIETARIA DE CÁSCARAS DE MANGO VARIEDADHILACHA (Mangifera indica L.: EFECTO DEL SECADO POR CONVECCIÓN

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    GUSTAVO ADOLFO HINCAPIÉ LL.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Un subproducto de la obtención del jugo de mango es su cáscara; la cual contiene niveles considerables de fibra dietaria que podrían ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos alimenticios, sin embargo, actualmente no es muy aprovechado. El proceso de secado prolonga la vida útil de la cascara y permite que pueda ser adicionada a otros alimentos. En este estudio, se caracterizó fisicoquímicamente la Cáscara de Mango Hilacha (CMH y se evaluó el efecto de cinco temperaturas de secado sobre las propiedades técnico-funcionales de la fibra dietaria; Capacidad de Hinchamiento (CH, Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA y Capacidad de Adsorción de Lípidos (CAL, características que determinan en gran medida la calidad de la fibra dietaria (FD. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la CMH tiene un contenido de fibra dietaria total, proteína, extracto etéreo, carbohidratos y fibra cruda similar al de otras variedades de mango. La cáscara de mango hilacha seca y molida (CSMH obtenida, es una promisoria fuente de FD, ya que su calidad no se vio afectada significativamente por el proceso de secado empleado en este trabajo.

  1. Usage of the common mango agroindustrial waste (mangifera indica L. in the destraction of fermentables sugars Aprovechamiento del residuo agroindustrial del mango común (Mangifera indica L. en la obtención de azúcares fermentables

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    J. E. Betancourt Gutiérrez

    2007-12-01

    , adding a recombining yeast that has the capacity to ferment sugars from five carbons.El residuo del mango común (Mangifera indica L. es un material vegetal que contiene gran cantidad de tejido lignocelulósico, el cual puede ser aprovechado para la obtención de metabolitos fermentables y productos de la fermentación. En este trabajo se aplicaron tratamientos de hidrólisis al residuo del mango común con el fin de hacer la conversión de sus polisacáridos a unidades de azúcares fermentables. Se aplicó hidrólisis ácida a tres concentraciones diferentes de ácido sulfúrico diluido. También, se aplicó hidrólisis enzimática con dos tipos de enzimas comerciales a diferentes concentraciones en las condiciones de trabajo estándar. De igual manera se aplicó hidrólisis térmica a dos temperaturas diferentes. A cada tratamiento aplicado se le efectuaron pruebas de concentración de azúcares totales, concentración de azúcares reductores, porcentaje de celulosa y hemicelulosa residual, datos con los cuales se determinaron los mejores tratamientos y se procedió a efectuar combinaciones de los mejores tratamientos de hidrólisis. El tratamiento más significativo de las pruebas individuales fue el de hidrólisis ácida a 0,50% v/v de ácido sulfúrico a 80◦C por una hora. En los tratamientos combinados el resultado más significativo fue el tratamiento en el que se combinaron la hidrólisis enzimática (como pretratamiento más una hidrólisis térmica e hidrólisis ácida. Por razones de seguridad en el uso de reactivos, así como eliminación de efectos colaterales adversos para la fermentación alcohólica posterior, se seleccionó el procedimiento que involucra la hidrólisis térmica como pretratamiento y la hidrólisis enzimática como tratamiento principal, como el tratamiento de mejor aplicación en la producción de metabolitos fermentables a partir de residuos de mango común con finalidad producción de alcohol posteriormente. Estudios posteriores han

  2. México: país de desapariciones forzadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reveles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestra maltrecha democracia, la desaparición forzada de los 43 estudiantes de la Normal Rural “Isidro Burgos” en Iguala, Guerrero, en la noche del 26 al 27 de sep-tiembre de 2014, visibilizó una violación cotidiana de derechos humanos. 43 dice mucho más que la mención de 130 mil ejecutados con violencia en México; es más contundente 43 que citar a millón y medio de desplazados; sacude más la conciencia 43 que la alusión a los no menos de 30 mil desaparecidos durante una absurda e inútil guerra al narcotráfico. Los 43 de Ayotzinapa fueron sacudida de conciencias para una energía social contenida durante años y que todavía busca los cauces que transformen esa indignación en acciones organizadas para un cambio radical y pacífico en México. Hay que sumar a esta barbarie a los otros 80 mil centroamericanos tragados por ese triángulo de las Bermudas de la violencia extrema en que se ha convertido la República Mexicana.

  3. ANÁLISIS DEL PERFIL DE COMPUESTOS VOLÁTILES DEL MANGO (Mangifera indica L. Var. Tommy Atkins TRATADO POR MÉTODOS COMBINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Moreno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el perfil de compuestos volátiles del mango (Mangifera indica L. Var. Tommy Atkins al ser tratado con la combinación de los métodos de deshidratación osmótica con o sin pulso de vacío (DOPV y DO y con secado por aire caliente o con vacío (SAC y VAC. El tiempo utilizado en la cinética del proceso de DO fue de 42 horas y la DOPV de 30 horas; en los procesos de secado, el SAC se realizó durante 24 horas y el VAC requirió 40 horas. En el perfil de compuestos volátiles del mango fresco analizado por cromatografía de gases acoplada a detector de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS se encontraron compuestos tipo mono y sesquiterpénico, además de ácidos y ésteres grasos. El germacreno D (20,49% fue el compuesto terpénico de mayor abundancia encontrado en el análisis realizado. La cantidad de compuestos volátiles en la fruta procesada fue afectada por la aplicación de DOPV y VAC; sin embargo estas pérdidas fueron menores que en las muestras secadas sin pretratamiento osmótico. En el análisis sensorial realizado, las frutas tratadas con DOPV y DO presentaron una menor intensidad calificada en el olor en comparación con la muestra no pretratada.

  4. Desaparición forzada de padre: una ausencia que se hace presente

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Millán, Nathalia Andrea

    2015-01-01

    "Esta investigación estudia cómo han experimentado la desaparición forzada de su padre algunos adolescentes que han sido víctimas de este delito en un marco de violencia sociopolítica y cómo perciben las consecuencias de este hecho en su vida. Se realizó con cinco adolescentes entre 13 y 19 años. A partir de entrevistas se logró obtener la descripción de sus experiencias; estas historias fueron analizadas por la investigadora a partir del método IPA (Análisis Fenomenológico Interpretativo) de...

  5. Concordancia entre capacidad vital lenta y capacidad vital forzada en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica o con sospecha de ella

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Martínez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia en términos de consistencia entre la capacidad vital lenta y la capacidad vital forzada en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) o remitidos por sospecha de EPOC. Diseño. Estudio de concordancia en términos de consistencia entre la capacidad vital lenta (CVL) y la capacidad vital forzada (CVF) en pacientes con EPOC o remitidos por sospecha de EPOC. Lugar. Se llevó a cabo en el Laboratorio de Función Pulmonar del Hospital Universitari...

  6. La posición del Tribunal Supremo respecto a la aplicación del derecho internacional a los crímenes del pasado en España: Un análisis jurídico tras los informes del Grupo de Trabajo sobre Desapariciones Forzadas, el Comité contra la Desaparición Forzada y el Relator Especial sobre Justicia Transicional de las Naciones Unidas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Junto a la indiscutible importancia del caso, la sentencia del Tribunal Supremo español en el proceso seguido contra el Juez Baltasar Garzón, acusado de prevaricación al haberse declarado competente para investigar las denuncias presentadas por crímenes cometidos durante la Guerra Civil y el franquismo, ha tenido una transcendencia determinante: Desde entonces y hasta la fecha, la doctrina sentada por el Alto Tribunal ha sido seguida prácticamente de manera literal por los restantes tribunale...

  7. Efecto del proceso de fritura a vacío sobre la calidad de un pasabocas de mango (Manguifera indica L. Effect of vacuum frying process on the quality of a snack of mango (Manguifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Villamizar V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo cada vez más creciente de pasabocas ha estimulado la búsqueda de procesos para mejorar su calidad. En este estudio se evaluó el comportamiento de los parámetros de calidad de un pasabocas frito hecho con mango (Manguifera indica L., utilizando vacío sobre una pasta elaborada con ese fruto. El proceso de fritura se realizó aplicando diferentes presiones de vacío (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperaturas (100, 110 y 120 °C y tiempos (30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 seg. Los resultados mostraron que el vacío mejora las características de calidad del producto ya que los contenidos de grasa y humedad fueron muy bajos, la actividad de agua fue menor, la textura fue adecuada para las exigencias del mercado y el color presentó cambios muy pequeños en relación con los de la pasta. El mejor tratamiento fue 0.5 bar de presión, 110 °C de temperatura y 90 seg de inmersión.The latest trends in consumption of snacks, have led to the search for processes that enhance the quality of snack. The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of quality parameters of a fried snack made from mango (Manguifera indica L., using vacuum on a base of mango pulp and starch, in their preparation. The frying process was carried out using different vacuum pressures (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperatures (100, 110 and 120 °C and times (30, 45, 60, 75 and 90s. The results showed that the vacuum improves the quality characteristics of the snacks, finding a fat and very low humidity contents, lower water activity, and texture, according to market products and a small color variation with respect to paste color. The best treatment was to 0.5 bar, 110 °C y 90s of immersion time.

  8. Efecto del portainjerto y del injerto intermedio sobre la calidad de fruta en mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra Posada Fánor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el cultivo de mango se evaluó el efecto de 'Arauca' (genotipo débil e 'Hilacha' (genotipo vigoroso –utilizados alternadamente como portainjerto o injerto intermedio– sobre la calidad de fructificación de las variedades Irwin, Tommy Atkins y Davis-Haden, en un huerto de 21 años en el departamento del Tolima (Colombia. Los parámetros evaluados de calidad de fruta fueron: diámetro y longitud del fruto, firmeza, pH, peso fresco, sólidos solubles totales (SST, acidez total titulable (ATT y relación SST/ATT. Mientras que las variedades mostraron diferencias estadísticas en todos los parámetros de calidad de fruta que fueron evaluados, los portainjertos no produjeron diferencia alguna sobre estos parámetros. Las variables diámetro del fruto, firmeza, pH y acidez titulable fueron influenciadas por el interinjerto, mientras que el peso fresco, la longitud del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales y la relación SST/ATT permanecieron inalterados. Hubo diferencias significativas entre las combinaciones evaluadas (variedad/interinjerto/portainjerto para todos los parámetros evaluados, con excepción de la firmeza. Por ejemplo, las combinaciones Tommy Atkins/Hilacha/ Arauca y Tommy Atkins/Arauca/Hilacha presentaron valores cercanos de peso de fruto. Otro tanto sucedió al comparar las combinaciones Tommy Atkins/Hilacha y Tommy Atkins/Hilacha/ Arauca, para este mismo parámetro. Esto sugiere que el uso de 'Arauca' como portainjerto o como interinjerto, le confiere mayor peso del fruto a la variedad 'Tommy Atkins' , a pesar de que 'Arauca' es un portainjerto menos vigoroso que 'Hilacha'.

  9. Uses for mango wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A.M.

    1981-03-01

    The potential use of chemically modified mango waste is investigated in this article. Observations suggest that mango seed and peel are important raw materials for a number of industrial applications:- confectionery and chocolate industries, soft drink manufacturers, food processing, and textile and paper industries. Studies indicate that a high quality mango pectin can be obtained from mango peel. The wide availability, ease of collection and storage, will facilitate the establishment of small and medium size industries near mango processing plants. (Refs. 14).

  10. La desaparición forzada de personas: análisis crítico del derecho administrativo colombiano a través de los estándares del sistema interamericano de protección de derechos humanos. Estudio de caso de los mal llamados “falsos positivos”

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Mendoza, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    La categorización jurídica de los mal llamados “falsos positivos” en Colombia es un tema controversial: en algunas ocasiones se habla de ejecuciones extrajudiciales, otras veces de homicidio en persona protegida y en otros casos de desapariciones forzadas, dependiendo de la institución que juzgue los casos. Ahora bien, al no existir unidad de criterios en la categorización jurídica de los “falsos positivos”, se hace imprescindible la integración de conceptos en torno a entender dichos hechos...

  11. Efecto del recubrimiento comestible sobre los atributos físicoquímicos de mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado y refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Dussán-Sarria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El mango presenta una corta vida poscosecha. La tecnología de frutas mínimamente procesadas (cortadas es una alternativa adecuada para su conservación y comercialización. En este estudio fueron evaluados los atributos de calidad del mango 'Tommy Atkins' mínimamente procesado durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Tambien el efecto de un recubrimiento comestible de almidón de yuca y cera de carnauba tratado previamente con ácidos orgánicos (1% y CaCl2, (1% y se evaluó el efecto de dos bolsas de polietileno, bandeja de poliestireno cubiertas con PVC y PET. El experimento fue conducido en bloques completamente al azar y para el análisis estadístico fue utilizado el programa SAS 9.3 y la prueba de Tukey a nivel de 5% de significancia. El fruto fue almacenado a 5±1°C y 90±2% de HR y cada cuatro días, hasta el día 24 fueron medidos los atributos de calidad (color, firmeza, pH, acidez titulable y sólidos solubles. El mango mínimamente procesado tratado con ácido cítrico, ácido ascórbico, CaCl2, y recubrimiento comestible, asociado al empaque PET fue el tratamiento agroindustrial que extendió la vida útil en por lo menos 24 días.

  12. Análisis de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de mango (Mangifera indica L. “Bocado” de tres localidades del Estado Cojedes, Venezuela

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    Elba Milagros Garrido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El mango Bocado es un fruto subutilizado a escala industrial, a pesar de que en el país posee una elevada productividad. Su aprovechamiento se ha limitado al desarrollo de productos artesanales, como jaleas, mermeladas, licores, encurtidos de mango verde y pulpa concentrada. En este trabajo se analizaron las variables físicas y químicas del mango Bocado de tres localidades del Estado Cojedes (El Genareño, Caño Hondo y La Palma para indagar diferencias sobre variables de proceso, calidad nutricional y cumplimiento de normativas internacionales y nacionales. Los frutos fueron recolectados por los productores, y procesados en el Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los Llanos Occidentales Ezequiel Zamora (Cojedes, Venezuela. A los frutos de las localidades se les determinó la masa total del fruto, del epicarpio, de la semilla y del mesocarpio, el diámetro ecuatorial y polar, y las proporciones (% de las diferentes partes del fruto. Se realizaron análisis de humedad, fibra dietética, cenizas, minerales Ca, Fe, Na, K, Mg y Zn, sólidos solubles totales, acidez total titulable, pH, ácido ascórbico y actividad de agua. La diferencia entre las variables se calculó mediante un análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias (Tukey, a un nivel de significancia de 5 %, así como también por análisis discriminante. Las características físicas de los frutos de las localidades de El Genareño y Caño Hondo, no pudieron ser discriminadas entre sí, pero se diferenciaron ambas de los frutos del sector La Palma. Los frutos de El Genareño presentaron porcentajes de pulpa > 65 y mayores concentraciones de potasio y ácido ascórbico, por lo que los mangos Bocado de esta localidad ofrecieron mayor beneficio para procesamiento y mejor calidad nutricional.

  13. Análisis de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de mango (Mangifera indica L. "Bocado" de tres localidades del Estado Cojedes, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Milagros Garrido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El mango Bocado es un fruto subutilizado a escala industrial, a pesar de que en el país posee una elevada productividad. Su aprovechamiento se ha limitado al desarrollo de productos artesanales, como jaleas, mermeladas, licores, encurtidos de mango verde y pulpa concentrada. En este trabajo se analizaron las variables físicas y químicas del mango Bocado de tres localidades del Estado Cojedes (El Genareño, Caño Hondo y La Palma para indagar diferencias sobre variables de proceso, calidad nutricional y cumplimiento de normativas internacionales y nacionales. Los frutos fueron recolectados por los productores, y procesados en el Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad Nacional Experimental de Los Llanos Occidentales Ezequiel Zamora (Cojedes, Venezuela. A los frutos de las localidades se les determinó la masa total del fruto, del epicarpio, de la semilla y del mesocarpio, el diámetro ecuatorial y polar, y las proporciones (% de las diferentes partes del fruto. Se realizaron análisis de humedad, fibra dietética, cenizas, minerales Ca, Fe, Na, K, Mg y Zn, sólidos solubles totales, acidez total titulable, pH, ácido ascórbico y actividad de agua. La diferencia entre las variables se calculó mediante un análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias (Tukey, a un nivel de significancia de 5 %, así como también por análisis discriminante. Las características físicas de los frutos de las localidades de El Genareño y Caño Hondo, no pudieron ser discriminadas entre sí, pero se diferenciaron ambas de los frutos del sector La Palma. Los frutos de El Genareño presentaron porcentajes de pulpa > 65 y mayores concentraciones de potasio y ácido ascórbico, por lo que los mangos Bocado de esta localidad ofrecieron mayor beneficio para procesamiento y mejor calidad nutricional.

  14. forzada en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para mediados del año 2007 la red de Internet tiene conectados a más de 1,200 millones de personas por todo el mundo. Sin embargo, la historia social de la tecnología indica que algunas de las innovaciones más importantes se reservan para fruto de quienes las inventan y desarrollan. Desde el punto de vista del análisis social la internacionalización de los estudios sobre Internet, no es lo mismo preguntarse las cosas desde el centro del sistema—mundo, que desde la periferia donde se ubica América Latina. En la primera parte de este texto se exponen algunas cifras que dan cuenta de la presencia y crecimiento de Internet en el mundo de habla hispana; en la segunda se plantea una estrategia para desarrollar Cibercultur@ que ha sido diseñada para operar justo al revés de como se ha ido dando el proceso de expansión y difusión del acceso a Internet en las regiones no centrales de la sociedad a escala mundial.

  15. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular f

  16. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular f

  17. Secuelas Psicológicas de la Guerra en Mujeres Forzadas a Desplazarse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Las secuelas psicológicas de la violencia por efecto del conflicto armado se convierten en huellas traumáticas que permanecen en la existencia de las mujeres victimizadas a modo de estigmas imborrables, y dado que en Colombia las mujeres que son víctimas de los vejámenes de la guerra superan la mitad de afectados totales, el género femenino se encuentra sobrerrepresentado entre las víctimas (Sierra, Calle, y Vélez, 2015. Por consiguiente, es importante preguntarse ¿qué secuelas psicológicas de la guerra prevalecen en mujeres forzadas a emigrar? En esta investigación se entiende que las secuelas psicológicas de la guerra, están representadas por los signos, síntomas y trastornos psicológicos cuya referencia se encuentra en el Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales en su quinta edición (DSM-V de la American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013, mientras que la migración forzada se concibe se entiende la acción de desplazamiento de personas, familias y grupos hacia otro lugar, región o país (emigración, que tiene como origen la intensión y actividad de expulsión, acoso y desarraigo de una persona, grupo o comunidad por parte de un actor o colectivo que manipula el poder según sus intereses. Este es un estudio acerca de las secuelas psicológicas que la guerra causa a las mujeres abordada desde una mirada psicosocial. En esta revisión fueron incluidos estudios publicados en revistas especializadas, informes institucionales y libros. Esta es una revisión narrativa con fines interpretativos. Los criterios de inclusión fueron los siguientes: ser una investigación publicada e indexada en el periodo 2005-2015, con un alcance departamental y/o nacional en relación a resultados obtenidos. Se llevaron a cabo búsquedas electrónicas de literatura en las siguientes fuentes: Academic Search Complete, Medline, Redalyc, EBSCO, Google Scholar, y Science Direct. Se seleccionaron 7 investigaciones de 50 que cumpl

  18. Efecto del proceso de fritura a vacío sobre la calidad de un pasabocas de mango (Manguifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamizar V Rafael Humberto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El consumo cada vez más creciente de pasabocas ha estimulado la búsqueda de procesos para mejorar su calidad. En este estudio se evaluó el comportamiento de los parámetros de calidad de un pasabocas frito hecho con mango (Manguifera indica L., utilizando vacío sobre una pasta elaborada con ese fruto. El proceso de fritura se realizó aplicando diferentes presiones de vacío (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperaturas (100, 110 y 120 °C y tiempos (30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 seg. Los resultados mostraron que el vacío mejora las características de calidad del producto ya que los contenidos de grasa y humedad fueron muy ba- jos, la actividad de agua fue menor, la textura fue adecuada para las exigencias del mercado y el color presentó cambios muy pequeños en relación con los de la pasta.  El mejor tratamiento fue 0.5 bar de presión, 110 ºC de temperatura y 90 seg de inmersión.

  19. Efecto del proceso de fritura a vacío sobre la calidad de un pasabocas de mango (Manguifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Villamizar V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo cada vez más creciente de pasabocas ha estimulado la búsqueda de procesos para mejorar su calidad. En este estudio se evaluó el comportamiento de los parámetros de calidad de un pasabocas frito hecho con mango (Manguifera indica L., utilizando vacío sobre una pasta elaborada con ese fruto. El proceso de fritura se realizó aplicando diferentes presiones de vacío (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperaturas (100, 110 y 120 °C y tiempos (30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 seg. Los resultados mostraron que el vacío mejora las características de calidad del producto ya que los contenidos de grasa y humedad fueron muy bajos, la actividad de agua fue menor, la textura fue adecuada para las exigencias del mercado y el color presentó cambios muy pequeños en relación con los de la pasta. El mejor tratamiento fue 0.5 bar de presión, 110 °C de temperatura y 90 seg de inmersión.

  20. Evaluación de la intensidad del daño por Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann (Díptera: Tephritidae en 53 variedades de mango Mangifera indica L. y aspectos biológicos generales del insecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata O. Mario de J.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the damage intensity for Anastrepha fraterculus, in 53 varieties of mango at the basic orchard of the ICA-Palmira, there was no evident relationship between the epicarp texture an the infestation degreen. The fragrance, taste and soluble solids are characteristies more associated with a high or low degree of infestation. The following varieties are suggested as promissory: Froilan, Rosa, Pig-693, Mariquiteño, Kola Alphonse, Lorito , Spring Field. The incubation period of the pest in laboratory, lasted three days, the larval stage 17.66 days, pupal stage 17.80 days, and 7.78 days was the life of the adult. The relation of ocurrence of males and females was of 0.75: 1.00. The insects pretes shing days for copulation and egg laying.Al evaluar intensidad del daño de Anastrepha fraterculus en 53 variedades de mango del huerto básico del ICA Palmira, no se encontró relación aparente entre la textura de epicarpio y el grado de infestación. El aroma, sabor y sólidos solubles se asocian más con el grado de infestación se sugirieron como promisorias las variedades: Froilan, Rosa, Pig-693, Mariquiteño, Kola Alphonse, Lorito y Spring Field. El período de incubación de la plaga en el laboratorio tardó tres días, el estado larval 17.66, el pupal 17.80 y 7.78 días duró la longevidad del adulto. La relación de macho y hembra fue 0.75: 1.00, la mosca prefiere copular y ovipositar en días de alto brillo solar.

  1. México : el desafío estético de la desaparición forzada

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Deotté

    2015-01-01

    Este ensayo constituye una reflexión sobre la estética de la desaparición forzada a partir del caso mexicano relativo a la desaparición de 43 jóvenes normalistas de Ayotzinapa, hechos acaecidos en octubre de 2014, en el estado de Guerrero (México). Se analiza el soporte fotográfico de estos crudos acontecimientos y se pone en relación con la función de la imagen en otros casos de grandes crímenes contra la humanidad estableciendo una genealogía de la estética de la desaparición. Se exponen qu...

  2. Influencia de la temperatura y el tiempo de almacenamiento en la conservación del fruto de mango (Manifera indica L. variedad Van Dyke Influence of temperature and storage time on quality of mango fruit (Mangifera indica l. variety Van Dyke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvis Jesús A.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangos (Mangifera índica L. Variedad Van Dyke en grado de madurez fisiológica, se almacenaron en tres temperaturas de refrigeración (12, 10 Y 7°C y H. R del 85 - 90%, por tiempos de 10, 20 y 30 días. Adicionalmente se almacenaron mangos a 18°C por 15 días, los cuales fueron tomados como testigo. Los mangos fueron cosechados de la finca Frutol, localizada
    en el municipio de El Espinal, departamento del Tolima.
    Temperatura media 29°C, altitud 431 m.s.n.m, humedad
    relativa del 70%, precipitación promedio anual 1368
    mm. Durante el almacenamiento se evaluaron características
    fisicas como porcentaje de pérdidas de peso, dureza del
    fruto y de la pulpa. Además se evaluaron algunos cambios
    químicos y bioquímicos como la variación de los °Brix, el pH, el porcentaje de acidez, el contenido de sacarosa, glucosa y fructosa y de ácidos (cítrico, málico, succínico y ascórbico. Finalmente se evaluaron los cambios de color de la corteza.
    Del estudio se concluyó que la mejor temperatura de
    almacenamiento fue 12°C, en la cual el fruto maduró
    hasta alcanzar la madurez organoléptica en el día 30, lo
    cual equivale al doble del tiempo de conservación respecto
    a los mangos almacenados a 18°C. El mango resultó ser sensible a las temperaturas de 10 y 7°C, la cual se caracterizó por la interrupción del proceso de maduración siendo más graves los daños por frío en la temperatura de 7°C. En la temperatura de 10°C, se presentó evolución de los cambios que caracterizan la maduración hasta el día 20, pero entre el día 21 y el día 30 los cambios fueron interrumpidos, lo que indica que los daños por frío se hicieron irreversibles a partir del día 21.Mangos variety Van Dyke harvested at physiologic maturity were stored at low temperatures (12, 10 and 7°C, 85% RH, for 10, 20 and 30 days. Control mangos were stored at 18°C by 15 days. The fruits were harvested in the Frutol

  3. El señor de los mangos: O las antípodas morales del etnógrafo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arellano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuando desde la Antropología Social se aborda la Violencia de Estado, los entrevistados son principalmente las víctimas de esa violencia -con quienes el investigador y, la comunidad científica en general comparten un posicionamiento ético frente a unos Derechos Humanos violados- y por lo tanto, el principal problema metodológico consiste en aprender a "escuchar el sufrimiento" y distanciarse emocionalmente. Por ello, en este artículo me propongo problematizar aquellas situaciones de entrevista etnográfica en las que, las cualidades de la relación empática - selección previa del entrevistado, por parte del etnógrafo y, una valoración ética y moral compartida - no están presentes. Es decir, cuando el entrevistado es ese "otro moral", perpetrador de la Violencia de Estado, quien busca al etnógrafo y lo pone frente a una narración de lo inconcebible y al mismo tiempo, ante la posibilidad de una comprensión holística de la violencia.When Social Anthropology addresses the topic of Estate's Violence, generally the respondents are victims of such violence. Usually, the researchers and the scientific community shared an ethical position against the violation of human rights and therefore one of the main problems in this situation is to learn how to listen to the suffering with enough emotional distance. In this article I propose to analyze ethnographic interview protocols, when such emphatic relation is not present, when the respondent is an 'other moral being' (e.g one of perpetrators of Estate's Violence who seeks the ethnographer and makes him to face the narrative of such violence.

  4. Configuración identitaria en jóvenes tras la desaparición forzada de un familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alvis-Rizzo, Colombia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico: En este trabajo investigamos la configuración identitaria en jóvenes que vivieron en su infancia la desaparición forzada de un familiar, a través de un estudio cualitativo adelantado desde la perspectiva teórica del construccionismo social. Tomamos la narración autobiográfica de siete jóvenes -cuatro mujeres y tres hombres-, y de cinco familiares (madres y abuelas. Encontramos que la identidad de estas personas jóvenes se configura en un contexto social violento, en el cual las prácticas sociales se tejen en relación con la desaparición, en medio de una familia que se ha reconfigurado por la incertidumbre que produce la ausencia del cuerpo, y por el ocultamiento del evento tras un imperativo social de silenciar el hecho. Se evidencian dos tendencias en la configuración identitaria: una orientada a la reconstrucción, y otra a la pérdida.

  5. Configuración identitaria en jóvenes tras la desaparición forzada de un familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alvis-Rizzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo investigamos la configuración identitaria en jóvenesque vivieron en su infancia la desaparición forzada de un familiar, a través de un estudio cualitativoadelantado desde la perspectiva teórica del construccionismo social. Tomamos la narraciónautobiográfica de siete jóvenes -cuatro mujeres y tres hombres-, y de cinco familiares (madres yabuelas. Encontramos que la identidad de estas personas jóvenes se configura en un contexto socialviolento, en el cual las prácticas sociales se tejen en relación con la desaparición, en medio de unafamilia que se ha reconfigurado por la incertidumbre que produce la ausencia del cuerpo, y por elocultamiento del evento tras un imperativo social de silenciar el hecho. Se evidencian dos tendenciasen la configuración identitaria: una orientada a la reconstrucción, y otra a la pérdida.

  6. Fimosis: ¿Son necesarias la circuncisión o la dilatación forzada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Morales Concepción

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo del prepucio y su retractilidad se estudiaron 500 niños con edades entre 0 y 16 años en 3 hospitales pediátricos de La Habana, desde agosto del 2000 hasta julio del 2001. Se evaluó en todos los pacientes el grado de retractilidad del prepucio sobre la base de la clasificación de Kayaba. Se observó en 59,6 % de los lactantes el prepucio tipo I (no retráctil mientras que el tipo V (completamente retráctil en 3,8 %. En los adolescentes el prepucio tipo I no se apreció, mientras que el tipo V se encontró en 81,1 %. Se halló que 132 niños que habían sido dilatados forzadamente éstos tenían adherencias balanoprepuciales al momento del examen. La circuncisión fue necesaria en 11 niños (2,2 %. La separación incompleta del prepucio y el glande es normal y común en recién nacidos, con progresos de la separación espontánea hasta la adolescencia, la que es total en la mayoría de los niños, por lo que se concluye que la circuncisión tiene muy poca indicación en la infancia, al igual que la dilatación forzada del prepucio.

  7. Caracterizacion fisiológica del crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de mango (mangifera indica l. variedad van dyke en el municipio de el Espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvis Jose Antonio

    2002-12-01

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    Se realizó el seguimiento de los cambios ocurridos durante el crecimiento y desarrollo del mango Variedad Van Dyke, desde la antesis hasta la madurez fisiológica: Diámetros longitudinal, transversal, el volumen, la gravedad específica, el peso fresco y seco, color de la corteza y de la pulpa y la Intensidad Respiratoria. El diseño experimental empleado fue completamente al azar.

     

    Se estableció que el tiempo que transcurre desde la antesis hasta alcanzar la madurez fisiológica es de 90 días. El crecimiento del fruto es de tipo Sigmoidal Simple. Se identificaron 3 etapas durante el crecimiento. El análisis de regresión permitió establecer modelos 1ineales para las características físicas.

     

    El fruto presentó alta intensidad respiratoria en los primeros días del crecimiento y fue disminuyendo hasta alcanzar valores mínimos al final de la etapa de crecimiento. Hubo una alta correlación inversa entre la I.R. y las variables físicas medidas.

     

  8. Evaluación de la intensidad del daño por Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann (Díptera: Tephritidae) en 53 variedades de mango Mangifera indica L. y aspectos biológicos generales del insecto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zapata O. Mario de J; Alomía de Gutierrez Bertha

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the damage intensity for Anastrepha fraterculus, in 53 varieties of mango at the basic orchard of the ICA-Palmira, there was no evident relationship between the epicarp texture an the infestation degreen...

  9. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  10. USO DE ATRAYENTES Y SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTICIOS PARA EL INCREMENTO DE DEPREDADORES DE ESCAMA BLANCA DEL MANGO, AULACASPIS TUBERCULARIS NEWSTEAD (HEMIPTERA: DIASPIDIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Martín HERNÁNDEZ-FUENTES; Mario Alfonso URÍAS-LÓPEZ; José Isabel LÓPEZ ARROYO; Jaime Gustavo LÓPEZ ARRIAGA

    2012-01-01

    El mango es un cultivo importante en México, en años recientes se ha observado un incremento poblacional de Aulacaspos tubercularis en este frutal. Se evaluaron atrayentes y suplementos alimenticios para retener y/o atraer depredadores de A. tubercularis en dos ciclos de producción (2009- 2010). Se observó mayor efecto de tratamientos en la variable huevos de Ceraeochrysa con el uso de 0.25 mL de salicilato de metilo (SM) por árbol. Adultos de Pentilia fueron ligeramente atraídos con las dife...

  11. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  12. Mangifera Indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  13. Genetic map of mango: a tool for mango breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is an economically and nutritionally important tropical/subtropical tree fruit crop, affectionately labeled the “King of Fruit”. Mango is an allotetraploid with 40 chromosomes and the size of the diploid genome is ~439 Mb. Most of the current commercial cultivars are select...

  14. Experiences with the Mango Chain Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Zuñiga-Arias, G.; Sterrenburg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The mango chain game is a simulation game used for research purposes. It facilitated studying the bargaining power of Costa Rican mango producers in international supply chains of mango. The game simulates a simplified mango export chain in which real world local producers can play the role of

  15. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  16. Experiences with the Mango Chain Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Zuñiga-Arias, G.; Sterrenburg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The mango chain game is a simulation game used for research purposes. It facilitated studying the bargaining power of Costa Rican mango producers in international supply chains of mango. The game simulates a simplified mango export chain in which real world local producers can play the role of produ

  17. Experiences with the Mango Chain Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Zuñiga-Arias, G.; Sterrenburg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The mango chain game is a simulation game used for research purposes. It facilitated studying the bargaining power of Costa Rican mango producers in international supply chains of mango. The game simulates a simplified mango export chain in which real world local producers can play the role of produ

  18. Nehuen Mapu Historia de una Relocalización Forzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alonso Pacheco Rivas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo desarrolla dos líneas de investigación en temas de pobreza y derechoshumanos en las comunidades del cajón del Río Queuco en el Alto Bio Bio, Chile. La primera es un estudio del caso de la relocalización de la comunidad de Nehuen Mapu en el fundo San Ramón en la comuna de Santa Bárbara desde la Comunidad de Malla Malla. La segunda es el contexto general de evaluación de la política indígena desde la perspectiva del derecho al desarrollo y los derechos humanos. En la primera línea se emplea la metodología cualitativa de investigación-acción, en la segunda la combinación de análisis de datos cualitativos y cuantitativos para los enfoques de evaluación. Los resultados obtenidos definen las causas y consecuencias de la relocalización de la comunidad y permiten postular un modelo de análisis y evaluación de la política indígena en Chile.

  19. La construcción de la presa y el canal bajo del Alberche 1939-1950 : la utilización de los prisioneros republicanos como mano de obra forzada en su construcción = The construction of the dam and the low channel of Alberche 1939-1950 : the use of the republican prisioners as forced labour in its construction

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Conde, José

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se hace un estudio sobre la reglamentación del trabajo forzado por parte del régimen franquista, vencedor en la guerra civil, todo ello orquestado a través del Patronato de redención de Penas por el Trabajo, y su utilización para realizar obras públicas de interés para el nuevo Estado. Se estudia en concreto la construcción de la Presa del río Alberche y el Canal Bajo del Alberche que, partiendo de ella, serviría para irrigar una zona de 10.000 hectáreas en la vega de Talaver...

  20. Fimosis: ¿Son necesarias la circuncisión o la dilatación forzada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Morales Concepción

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el desarrollo del prepucio y su retractilidad se estudiaron 500 niños con edades entre 0 y 16 años en 3 hospitales pediátricos de La Habana, desde agosto del 2000 hasta julio del 2001. Se evaluó en todos los pacientes el grado de retractilidad del prepucio sobre la base de la clasificación de Kayaba. Se observó en 59,6 % de los lactantes el prepucio tipo I (no retráctil mientras que el tipo V (completamente retráctil en 3,8 %. En los adolescentes el prepucio tipo I no se apreció, mientras que el tipo V se encontró en 81,1 %. Se halló que 132 niños que habían sido dilatados forzadamente éstos tenían adherencias balanoprepuciales al momento del examen. La circuncisión fue necesaria en 11 niños (2,2 %. La separación incompleta del prepucio y el glande es normal y común en recién nacidos, con progresos de la separación espontánea hasta la adolescencia, la que es total en la mayoría de los niños, por lo que se concluye que la circuncisión tiene muy poca indicación en la infancia, al igual que la dilatación forzada del prepucio.In order to evaluate the development of the prepuce and its retractility, 500 children aged 0-16 were studied in 3 pediatric hospitals of Havana from August, 2000, to July, 200l. The prepuce retractility degree was evaluated on the basis of Kayaba’s classification. The type 1 (non retractile prepuce was obdserved in 59.6 %of the infants, whereas the type V (completely retractile was found in 3.8 %. The type I prepuce was not present in the adolescents, and the type V was observed in 81.1 %. Balanopreputial adherences were found on examining 132 children that had been forcedly dilated. Circumcision was necessary in 11 children (2.2 %. The incomplete separation of the prepuce and the glans penis is normal and common among newborn infants and it progresses spontaneously up to adolescence. As this separation is complete in most of the children, circumcision has little

  1. The importance of tracks and signs on habitat use caracterization of medium and big mammals in los mangos forest (Puerto López, Meta, Colombia Importancia de los rastros para la caracterización del uso de hábitat de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el bosque Los Mangos (Puerto López, Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Lenis Angélica

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracks and signs are very useful for detecting medium and big mammals, which usually are out of sight. These are helpful tools on field investigation, provide detailed information on the identity and activities of an animal in a place, and can provide us indications of their habitat use (Aranda, 1981a; Navarro & Muñoz, 2000; Villalba & Yanosky, 2000. In this paper we characterize the habitat use of medium and big land mammals in Los Mangos forest. We use an observation and track tramp transect, and a modification of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI for evaluating habitat suitability. We detect six burrows, four footprints and five Seje palm (Oenocarpus batagua feeding places, in addition to ten tracks compiled along the other days of field investigation. We recognized ten species of mammals which belong to five orders, using tracks and bitted fruits. The HSI calculated was 7.30 on inner forest, indicating that the habitat is appropriate for animals which use burrows. Resources like food (insects, fruits and preys, refuge, water and resting places converges generating favorable environment for immigration and residence of insectivore, frugivore and carnivore mammals. The fertile plane forest is an important habitat of this area because present there. It offers quality
    resources to the animal species in there.Los métodos indirectos ayudan a detectar mamíferos medianos y grandes los cuales son muy difíciles de observar. Los rastros son una herramienta valiosa para trabajar en campo, sirven de base para registrar la presencia de una especie en un lugar, y para determinar cómo está usando su hábitat (Aranda, 1981a; Navarro y Muñoz, 2000; Villalba y Yanosky, 2000. En este trabajo se caracteriza el uso que mamíferos terrestres medianos y grandes están haciendo del hábitat en el bosque de vega Los Mangos. Se realizó un transecto de trampas de huellas y de observación de rastros, y se utilizó una modificación del índice de calidad

  2. Estudio de la cinética fisicoquímica del mango (mangifera indica l. var. tommy atkins) tratado por métodos combinados de secado

    OpenAIRE

    MORENO, ANGÉLICA; León, David; GIRALDO, GERMAN; RIOS, EUNICE

    2010-01-01

    El seguimiento cinético de los parámetros de peso, actividad de agua (aw) y ganancia de sólidos solubles (ºBrix) en cubos de mango (Mangifera indica L. Var. Tommy Atkins) fueron evaluados durante los procesos de deshidratación osmótica con o sin pulso de vacío (DO y DOPV) en combinación con el secado por aire caliente (SAC) o a vacío (VAC). Se observó que la DOPV y el SAC son los métodos más efectivos ya que requieren menor tiempo de proceso para alcanzar sus niveles adecuados de humedad para...

  3. Movilizaciones Pasivas Forzadas: Revisión Crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Díaz, José; Montaño Munuera, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    La movilización pasiva forzada es una de las técnicas de elección de la Fisioterapia actual cuando se presentan situaciones de pérdida de movilidad articular, bien sea por causas intrínsecas a la propia articulación (inmovilizaciones prolongadas) o extrínsecas a ella (P.e: contractura muscular o una retracción de la cápsula). Tradicionalmente, el objetivo buscado ha sido movilizar lo antes posible la articulacián para restaurar el rango articular, basándose en el hecho de que el c...

  4. La desaparición forzada: una verdad caleidoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jesús Palma Florián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia de la desaparición forzada genera efectos en el lazo social y en la colectividad, al igual que en la escena subjetiva donde se inscribe como vacío en el orden simbólico. En el trabajo sobre el duelo que concierne a los desaparecidos es fundamental el lugar de la búsqueda de la verdad, la cual opera como pulsión de saber y como causa de goce. Este artículo se propone ver cómo en el contexto colombiano, específicamente en los escenarios transicionales que proponen la Ley de Justicia y Paz y la Ley de Víctimas, se estructuran espacios de producción de la verdad que posibilitan o restringen su búsqueda por parte de los familiares de las víctimas de desaparición forzada, haciendo un seguimiento al tránsito que se da desde las escenas públicas colectivas, a través de la verdad judicial y la verdad histórica, hacia la escena subjetiva donde se debe resolver el duelo.

  5. Un análisis econométrico de la redes de difusión de innovación en el sistema de producción del mango (Mangifera indica L. en el estado de Colima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayrén Polanco Gaytán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de Mango (Mangifera indica L. no es homogénea, está sujeta a cambios climáticos y a problemas sanitarios, así como al maltrato de la fruta durante el proceso de corte, transporte y empacado. Determinantes de la rentabilidad (productividad y calidad implican, por lo general, elevar el costo de producción, tanto por las instalaciones, equipos, pago de asesores técnicos, adopción de prácticas aceptadas de sanidad e inocuidad, etcétera. Sin embargo, existen otros aspectos de la rentabilidad de las Unidades de Producción Rural (UPR, que son menos evidentes, aunque también implican incrementos de costos. Éstos, se asocian a la administración y planeación de la producción; a la organización de los productores, tanto para la compra de insumos como la venta conjunta, o desarrollo de mercados; o para proveerse de servicios, como el financiamiento, asistencia técnica, gestión de innovación de apoyos, entre otros. Con la finalidad de identificar las redes de difusión de innovaciones en el control de plagas, la metodología de redes conforma el marco apropiado para plasmar empíricamente la formación de redes entre los productores. Sin embargo, existe el contexto teórico de los modelos de difusión de innovaciones que han sido aplicados a los sectores intensivos en conocimiento e innovación; por lo que el objetivo del presente texto es realizar la aplicación empírica del modelo de difusión de innovación de influencia interna en el sistema de producción de mago en el estado de Colima.

  6. Detection and characterization of mango malformation and its causal agent in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Palomo, María

    2014-01-01

    El mango (Mangifera indica L.) es un árbol originario de la región indobirmana, laderas del Himalaya y Sri Lanka, donde aún existen poblaciones silvestres y ha sido cultivado desde la antigüedad en la India como atestiguan las sagradas escrituras hindúes, los libros de los Vedas, redactadas entre el 1500 y el 1000 a. C. (Galán-Saúco, 2009). La dispersión del mango fue muy rápida por el subcontinente de la India y el archipiélago malayo con la apertura del comercio entre Asia y Europa. El mang...

  7. Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Richa; SHAH, ASHOK

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango...

  8. La migración internacional forzada:una ruptura con los proyectos de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Zuluaga, Blanca Inés

    2011-01-01

    Este texto está basado en una investigación cualitativa realizada en siete ciudades colombianas sobre los cambios y conflictos que se dan en las familias cuando el padre o la madre migran a otros países y dejan hijos e hijas menores de veinticuatro años en Colombia. El artículo, por un lado, hace una aproximación a las condiciones que genera la migración forzada en Colombia, así como a una serie de preguntas sobre este fenómeno: ¿por qué migran?, ¿cuál es su proceso?... Por otro lado, analiza...

  9. Las migraciones forzadas por la violencia: el caso de Colombia Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Marcela Gómez Builes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones humanas han sido uno de los motores en la historia de las sociedades. Durante el siglo XX, el desplazamiento forzoso interno se ha constituido en un componente importante de los procesos migratorios en el mundo. Colombia, uno de los casos paradigmáticos de este fenómeno, es un país con un acumulado de más de tres y medio millones de personas desplazadas forzadamente por la violencia, en los últimos 25 años de su historia, producto de un conflicto armado interno de origen sociopolítico. Además de los efectos sociodemográficos en la reconfiguración de las ciudades, esta problemática afecta la condición humana de cada una de las víctimas de este fenómeno, deteriorando la calidad de vida y la salud de estas personas. El presente artículo pretende, mediante una revisión sistemática, ofrecer un panorama general del fenómeno de las migraciones forzadas por la violencia en el mundo y analizar las particularidades de esta problemática en la experiencia colombiana. De esta manera se afirma que el desplazamiento forzado es un drama humano que se concreta en la violación de los derechos humanos, y por lo tanto expone individuos y colectivos altamente fragilizados con un profundo deterioro de la calidad de vida y de la salud.The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the

  10. Estrategias de márqueting digital : Zara vs Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Lozano, Laura

    2016-01-01

    La següent investigació consisteix en un estudi comparatiu entre les estratègies de màrqueting digital de les empreses de moda espanyoles Zara i Mango. L'objectiu del treball és descobrir quins són els punts en comú i les diferències entre les formes de publicitar-se virtualment de totes dues empreses, mitjançant l'anàlisi d'aspectes com l'email màrqueting, el SEO i SEM, i amb especial atenció, les estratègies a xarxes socials (Facebook, Mango i Instagram). La siguiente investigación consi...

  11. Propagación clonal de guanábana (Annona muricata utilizando el sistema de ventilación forzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Palomino Diana Marcela

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la construcción e implementación de un sistema que ventila mecánicamente los vasos de cultivo in vitro. El sistema forza un flujo de aire a través de filtros que lo descontaminan y luego lo hacen pasar, ya estéril a los vasos de cultivo limpiando la atmósfera del vaso del exceso de gases
    acumulados en ella. Se cultivaron in vitro segmentos nodales de Annona muricata bajo nueve tratamientos diferentes variando las concentraciones y combinaciones de BA y ANA, aunque se logró en todos los casos la inducción de brotes y la elongación de ellos se determinó que el medio más adecuado fue el que contenía BA (2 mg/l y ANA (0,3 mg/l sobre el medio básico de Murashige y Skoog (M&S. La técnica utilizada de cultivo in vitro complementada con el sistema de ventilación forzada ha permitido desarrollar un protocolo con el cual se logra la propagación clonal de A. muricata asegurando la preservación de los genotipos iniciales y una inducción de brotes mas eficiente que proporciona un mayor rendimiento de los explantes y un mejor desarrollo fisiológico de los mismos. El experimento requirió de la implementación del sistema
    de ventilación, de la evaluación de este con respecto al cultivo sellado in vitro de guanábana y del desarrollo de un protocolo que facilita su utilización en experimentos posteriores.

  12. La imprescriptibilidad del delito de desaparición forzada: El caso Plazas Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial topics in Colombian Criminal Law nowadays is based on the sentence regarding retired Colonel Plazas Vega in terms of the Statute of Limitations for crimes against humanity. This paper is a summary of this sentence seen from diverse legalistic, guarantistic and argumentative stances in order to guide readers, and open a debate concerning the decisions adopted in this case

  13. La imprescriptibilidad del delito de desaparición forzada: El caso Plazas Vega

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2013-01-01

    One of the most controversial topics in Colombian Criminal Law nowadays is based on the sentence regarding retired Colonel Plazas Vega in terms of the Statute of Limitations for crimes against humanity...

  14. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  15. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  16. Mantenimiento centrado en confiabilidad como estrategia para apoyar los indicadores de disponibilidad y paradas forzadas en la Planta Oscar A. Machado EDC; Reliability Centered Maintenance as a Strategy to support availability and forced outages indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Hung C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad dar a conocer las experiencias adquiridas en la aplicación de losprincipios y conceptos fundamentales del Mantenimiento Centrado en Confiabilidad (RCM comoestrategia para apoyar los indicadores de disponibilidad y paradas forzadas en las unidades de generaciónque conforman la Planta Oscar Augusto Machado (OAM de C. A. La Electricidad de Caracas. The objective of this work is to illustrate the experiences acquired in the application of fundamentalprinciples and concepts of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM as a strategy to support availabilityand forced outages indicators in the generating facilities that make up the Oscar Augusto Machado (OAMPlant of the C. A. La Electricidad de Caracas.

  17. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  18. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  19. The importance of tracks and signs on habitat use caracterization of medium and big mammals in los mangos forest (Puerto López, Meta, Colombia) Importancia de los rastros para la caracterización del uso de hábitat de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el bosque Los Mangos (Puerto López, Meta, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Tracks and signs are very useful for detecting medium and big mammals, which usually are out of sight. These are helpful tools on field investigation, provide detailed information on the identity and activities of an animal in a place, and can provide us indications of their habitat use (Aranda, 1981a; Navarro & Muñoz, 2000; Villalba & Yanosky, 2000). In this paper we characterize the habitat use of medium and big land mammals in Los Mangos forest. We use an observation and track tram...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator has determined meets the criteria set forth in § 319.56-5 with regard to the mango seed weevil... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United...

  1. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  2. Quality Safety Standards of Organic Mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui; LIN; Riji; WEI; Zheng; ZHANG; Zhaojun; HUANG; Yankun; PAN; Daoping; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    This article conducts a brief analysis of the factors that affect the quality safety of organic mango, and discusses the organic production measures for improving the quality and quality safety of mango, including the choice of environment of place of origin, varieties and seedlings, fertilizers and fertilization, plant protection products and other production inputs. A test is carried out in 0.667 hm2 of base in Tianyang County, Baise City. Content of lead, arsenic and 14 kinds of pesticide residue such as BHC in the mango are not detected; the content of heavy metal such as mercury and cadmium is 0.001-0.006 mg/kg. Then the quality and quality safety indicators of organic mango are discussed, and finally the Guangxi local standards of organic mango products are developed.

  3. Análisis factorial de ítems de respuesta forzada: una revisión y un ejemplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Calderón Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los test de respuesta forzada son ampliamente utilizados para reducir el efecto de los diferentes tipos de sesgo en la respuesta asociados a los test psicológicos (por ejemplo, la aquiescencia o la deseabilidad social. Sin embargo, este tipo de test genera los denominados datos ipsativos, los cuales poseen propiedades que hacen desaconsejable la aplicación de las técnicas clásicas de análisis factorial para su evaluación psicométrica. Pese a ello, en la práctica, muchos investigadores siguen empleando estos procedimientos para analizar los ítems de repuesta forzada; esto lleva necesariamente a conclusiones erróneas. El presente trabajo expone las propiedades analíticas de los ítems de respuesta forzada, así como un ejemplo que ilustra c ó mo afectan estas propiedades a la aplicación de las técnicas estadísticas clásicas y conducen a interpretaciones erróneas. Adicionalmente, se presenta una de las principales alternativas para analizar este tipo de datos basada en el modelo de juicio comparativo de Thurstone, así como los resultados de un estudio de simulación que ilustra su aplicación y efectividad en la recuperación de la estructura factorial original. Copyright © 2012, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.

  4. Análisis factorial de ítems de respuesta forzada: una revisión y un ejemplo

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Carvajal, Carlos; Ximénez Gómez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Los test de respuesta forzada son ampliamente utilizados para reducir el efecto de los diferentes tipos de sesgo en la respuesta asociados a los test psicológicos (por ejemplo, la aquiescencia o la deseabilidad social). Sin embargo, este tipo de test genera los denominados datos ipsativos, los cuales poseen propiedades que hacen desaconsejable la aplicación de las técnicas clásicas de análisis factorial para su evaluación psicométrica. Pese a ello, en la práctica, muchos investigadores siguen...

  5. Un análisis econométrico de la redes de difusión de innovación en el sistema de producción del mango (Mangifera indica L.) en el estado de Colima

    OpenAIRE

    Mayrén Polanco Gaytán; Renato Francisco González Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    La producción de Mango (Mangifera indica L.) no es homogénea, está sujeta a cambios climáticos y a problemas sanitarios, así como al maltrato de la fruta durante el proceso de corte, transporte y empacado. Determinantes de la rentabilidad (productividad y calidad) implican, por lo general, elevar el costo de producción, tanto por las instalaciones, equipos, pago de asesores técnicos, adopción de prácticas aceptadas de sanidad e inocuidad, etcétera. Sin embargo, existen otros aspectos de la re...

  6. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. A Patient Developed Painful Muscle Cramps due to Overeating Mangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman had a habit to eat a mango every night before sleep and experienced muscle cramps during sleep. Her muscle cramps may be resulted from potassium overload due to overeating mangos.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A...

  10. Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6 t año-1 y exportador (2*10(5 t año-1 de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco. Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6 t year-1 and exporter (2*10(5 t year-1 of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization. This revision

  11. La Responsabilitat Social Corporativa a les empreses de moda espanyoles: Els casos d' Inditex i Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Moure Soler, Carla

    2015-01-01

    La Responsabilitat Social Corporativa s'ha convertit en un dels intangibles amb una major projecció de futur a les grans empreses. En aquest treball d'investigació s'estudia com gestionen les empreses espanyoles la RSC, i en concret les companyies del sector de la moda, un dels que ha de fer front a més reptes en el camp de la sostenibilitat. L'anàlisi es centra en els casos de Inditex i Mango per arribar a conèixer com gestionen i comuniquen la RSC, així com les contribucions que genera aque...

  12. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, P A; Gabbard, Z

    2000-08-01

    The mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus (= Sternochetus) mangiferae (F.), is a federally quarantined pest that prevents shipment of mangos from Hawaii into the continental United States. Although this monophagous weevil allegedly causes reduced seed germination, damage to the fruit pulp, and premature fruit drop in mangos, there are few studies examining these potential sources of crop loss. We conducted studies to assess the effect of mango weevil infestation on seed viability while making observations on the frequency of pulp feeding. Naturally infested seeds from mature fruit were planted in pots and scored for successful germination. Germination rates for infested seeds were equal to those of uninfested control seeds in a polyembryonic cultivar ('Common'), whereas germination was significantly reduced for infested seeds of a monoembryonic cultivar ('Haden') compared with uninfested control seeds but germination of infested seeds was still > 70%. To assess seed tolerance of damage, seeds were artificially damaged by cutting away 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting and scored for germination. None of the damage treatments was significantly different from the undamaged controls, indicating that mango seeds can withstand substantial damage and still germinate successfully. Over the 2-yr period we conducted experiments, only four of 3,602 mango fruits (0.11%) showed evidence of direct feeding damage to the pulp. Results suggest that C. mangiferae is a less serious pest of mangos than previously thought.

  13. Fijian seasonal scourge of mango tree falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anuj; Reeves, Ben

    2009-12-01

    Mango tree falls are a frequent presentation at any health facility in the South Pacific. This study aims to identify (i) the number of admissions because of falls from mango trees; (ii) epidemiology; (iii) seasonal trend; (iv) injury profile; and (v) hospital care provided. Retrospective case review on all mango tree falls related injuries resulting in admissions at the Lautoka Hospital, Fiji during a 1-year period (2007). Patient records were analysed to identify specific injury patterns such as upper/lower limb fractures, spinal cord injury and head injury, caused by mango tree falls. Thirty-nine cases were identified. Eighty-two percent (n = 32) of the falls occurred in the mango season (June-November). Seventy-two percent (n = 28) of the patients were males and 28% (n = 11) were females. Seventy-six percent were aged 5-13 and only 21% were adults. Also, 77% (n = 30) of the patients were ethnic Fijians and 23% (n = 9) were Fijian-Indians. Sixty-four percent (n = 25) had closed fractures and 17% (n = 7) had open fractures. Fifty-six percent (n = 22) of the fractures were of the fore arm. There were two cases of spinal cord injury, four cases of head injury, one ICU admission and one death. Average hospital stay was 7.56 days. All these injuries were recreational and the majority in the urban setting. They were all avoidable.

  14. ESR study of free radicals in mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammad S.; Morishita, Norio; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes was performed. Mangoes in the fresh state were irradiated with γ-rays, lyophilized and then crushed into a powder. The ESR spectrum of the powder showed a strong main peak at g = 2.004 and a pair of peaks centered at the main peak. The main peak was detected from both flesh and skin specimens. This peak height gradually decreased during storage following irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose-response relationship even at 9 days post-irradiation. The side peaks therefore provide a useful means to define the irradiation of fresh mangoes.

  15. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W

    2008-02-01

    Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.

  16. Determinación del color en epicarpios de mango (Mangifera sp. y plátano (Musa AAB en maduración mediante sistema de visión computarizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En investigación agraria y alimentaria, el procesamiento y análisis de imágenes en color se ha convertido en un área importante de estudio. En este contexto, el sistema de visión computarizada ha demostrado ser un procedimiento útil. Los propósitos de este trabajo fueron determinar el color en epicarpios de frutos de mango y plátano durante la maduración con sistema de visión computarizada. El sistema lo constituyó un escenario iluminado, una cámara digital CCD y un computador (desktop, ambos calibrados. El procesamiento digital de las imágenes se llevó a cabo con el software Adobe® Photoshop®, con el cual se generaron imágenes promediadas en coordenadas rectangulares L*, a*, b*. Las coordenadas polares (C*, hº fueron calculadas, y para todos los casos, los resultados fueron descritos. Los resultados permitieron describir adecuadamente las variaciones de color en epicarpios de ambos frutos durante la maduración, mediante coordenadas colorimétricas de los espacios de color CIE-L*a*b* y CIE-L*C*hº, a través de imágenes digitales obtenidas con sistema de visión computarizada.

  17. Determinación del color en epicarpios de mango (Mangifera sp. y plátano (Musa AAB en maduración mediante sistema de visión computarizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En investigación agraria y alimentaria, el procesamiento y análisis de imágenes en color se ha convertido en un área importante de estudio. En este contexto, el sistema de visión computarizada ha demostrado ser un procedimiento útil. Los propósitos de este trabajo fueron determinar el color en epicarpios de frutos de mango y plátano durante la maduración con sistema de visión computarizada. El sistema lo constituyó un escenario iluminado, una cámara digital CCD y un computador (desktop, ambos calibrados. El procesamiento digital de las imágenes se llevó a cabo con el software Adobe® Photoshop®, con el cual se generaron imágenes promediadas en coordenadas rectangulares L*, a*, b*. Las coordenadas polares (C*, hº fueron calculadas, y para todos los casos, los resultados fueron descritos. Los resultados permitieron describir adecuadamente las variaciones de color en epicarpios de ambos frutos durante la maduración, mediante coordenadas colorimétricas de los espacios de color CIE-L*a*b* y CIE-L*C*hº, a través de imágenes digitales obtenidas con sistema de visión computarizada.

  18. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Mango, Mangifera indica L., from Australia into the Continental United States: A Pathway-initiated Risk... to read as follows: Sec. 319.56-60 Mangoes from Australia. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be...

  19. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  20. Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Sánchez Arévalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realizadas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de Vector de Corrección del Error. La elección del modelo es comentada en la metodología. Las variables utilizadas para explicar los determinantes de exportación de mango son precios domésticos, los precios al por mayor en los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la renta interna de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea y el tipo de cambio euro/dólar. Los resultados muestran que los precios internacionales y la renta de los importadores, son determinantes para explicar la exportación de esta fruta.

  1. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  2. MODELADO DE LA CINÉTICA DE SECADO DE MANGO PRE-TRATADAS CON DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA Y MICROONDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIBEL GARCÍA-PATERNINA

    Full Text Available La aplicación de tecnologías complementarias como la deshidratación osmótica y microondas como pre-tratamientos al secado convencional contribuye al desarrollo de nuevos productos y favorece la disminución de los cambios físico-químicos y organolépticos en el mango. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la deshidratación osmótica con una solución a 65°Brix de 37 a 40°C por 60 min, tratamiento con microondas a 560 W por 7 min y combinado como pre-tratamientos al secado de hojuelas de mango a 70°C en una estufa tipo bandeja y al sol. Las muestras de mango con 11 a 14°Brix y humedad del 80% fueron dimensionadas a 1x1x0,4 cm. La pérdida de peso y el tiempo de secado en los pre-tratados presentaron diferencias significativas (p0,99 se ajustó para el secado sin pre-tratamiento y el modelo de Vermet et al. (R²>0,99 para los pre-tratados. La De ff para microondas y secado en estufa fue mayor. Las hojuelas de mango pre-tratadas con deshidratación osmótica fueron las que mejor conservaron la apariencia de las hojuelas de mango

  3. Digitalizados por decreto: cibercultur@ o inclusión forzada en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A. Gonzaléz

    2008-01-01

    La política mundial de inclusión digital de los países pobres está basada en una deficiente concepción teórica sobre el tema.Las prenociones tales como Brecha Digital, Sociedad de la Información, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación, etc. son nociones sacadas del periodismo que carecen de estatuto teórico adecuado a la especificidad del proceso de relación entre el vector tecnológico y las ecologías simbólicas. El autor presenta algunos elementos de crítica y propone la necesidad de una ...

  4. Otredad racializada en la migración forzada de afrocolombianos a Antofagasta (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Margarita Echeverri B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo constata que Chile se ha consolidado como destino de afrodescendientes del Pací - ico colombiano en los últimos años. Desde las especiicidades de esta red migratoria, analiza las particularidades del desplazamiento forzado internacional de la población colombiana en Antofagasta, la reconiguración de las representaciones que recaen sobre ésta y su relación con la producción de discursos políticos y sociales racializados y sexualizados. Concluye que éstos últimos actúan como políticas de enunciación restrictivas de las prácticas transnaciona - les y la incorporación social y cultural a ambos lados de la frontera.

  5. The antioxidant activitives of mango peel among different cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Fei-Yue; Fu, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the contents of total phenol and total flavonoid of 8 mango cultivars were determined. Their antioxidant abilities were also evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP as well as TEAC were also analyzed. Results showed that mango peels were rich in natural antioxidant compounds the antioxidant abilities were different among different cultivars. The correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP indicated phenolics represent a major part of antioxidant capacity in mango peels. This was also useful in the utilization of mango processing waste.

  6. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  7. CONTENIDO DE FENOLES TOTALES EN FRUTOS DE MANGO ′SUPER HADEN′ DAÑADOS POR ANTRACNOSIS Y TRATADOS EN POSCOSECHA

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El contenido de fenoles totales en el exocarpio de los frutos tiene relación con los mecanismos de defensa propios del fruto frente al ataque por patógenos fúngicos. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. es causante de la antracnosis en el mango (Mangifera indica L.) y ocasiona elevadas pérdidas en poscosecha. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el contenido de fenoles totales en frutos de mango ‘Super Haden’ dañados y tratados en poscosecha y evi...

  8. Caracterización morfológica y bioquímica de aislamientos de Colletotrichum spp y su patogenicidad en mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Carlos(Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain); Gómez, Luis; Umaña, Gerardina

    2003-01-01

    Se clasificó el agente causal de la antracnosis mediante la descripción morfológica (tamaño y forma de la espora, color de la colonia y tamaño del micelio), la reacción de patogenicidad en mango (variedad Haden amarilla) siguiendo los postulados de Koch y mediante el empleo de electroforésis de isoenzimas utilizando el sistema esterasa con a y b en naftilacetato como sustrato. Se utilizaron cultivos monospóricos en PDA de nueve hospedantes de la enfermedad: mango, aguacate, café, papaya, cítr...

  9. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY.../retailer positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act), a review...

  10. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order... of two non-voting wholesaler/retailer positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research,...

  11. Physico-chemical evaluation of the “Casturi” Mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangifera casturi “Casturi” mango is a tropical fruit tree about 10–30 m tall which is endemic to very small area around Banjarmasin in Southern Borneo (Indonesia). The casturi mango is believed to be first introduced to Florida by Richard Campbell in early 2000 as part of the germplasm conservat...

  12. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  13. Characterisation of Neofusicoccum species causing mango dieback in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.M.; Cirvilleri, G.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Polizzi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Species of Botryosphaeriaceae are important fungal pathogens of mango worldwide. A survey of 11 mango orchards located in the provinces of Catania, Messina, Palermo and Ragusa (Sicily, southern Italy), resulted in the isolation of a large number (76) of Neofusicoccum isolates associated with decline

  14. Characterisation of Neofusicoccum species causing mango dieback in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.M.; Cirvilleri, G.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Polizzi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Species of Botryosphaeriaceae are important fungal pathogens of mango worldwide. A survey of 11 mango orchards located in the provinces of Catania, Messina, Palermo and Ragusa (Sicily, southern Italy), resulted in the isolation of a large number (76) of Neofusicoccum isolates associated with decline

  15. Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) transcriptome and chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, M Kamran; Khan, Ishtaiq A; Zhang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    We characterized mango leaf transcriptome and chloroplast genome using next generation DNA sequencing. The RNA-seq output of mango transcriptome generated >12 million reads (total nucleotides sequenced >1 Gb). De novo transcriptome assembly generated 30,509 unigenes with lengths in the range of 300 to ≥3,000 nt and 67× depth of coverage. Blast searching against nonredundant nucleotide databases and several Viridiplantae genomic datasets annotated 24,593 mango unigenes (80% of total) and identified Citrus sinensis as closest neighbor of mango with 9,141 (37%) matched sequences. The annotation with gene ontology and Clusters of Orthologous Group terms categorized unigene sequences into 57 and 25 classes, respectively. More than 13,500 unigenes were assigned to 293 KEGG pathways. Besides major plant biology related pathways, KEGG based gene annotation pointed out active presence of an array of biochemical pathways involved in (a) biosynthesis of bioactive flavonoids, flavones and flavonols, (b) biosynthesis of terpenoids and lignins and (c) plant hormone signal transduction. The mango transcriptome sequences revealed 235 proteases belonging to five catalytic classes of proteolytic enzymes. The draft genome of mango chloroplast (cp) was obtained by a combination of Sanger and next generation sequencing. The draft mango cp genome size is 151,173 bp with a pair of inverted repeats of 27,093 bp separated by small and large single copy regions, respectively. Out of 139 genes in mango cp genome, 91 found to be protein coding. Sequence analysis revealed cp genome of C. sinensis as closest neighbor of mango. We found 51 short repeats in mango cp genome supposed to be associated with extensive rearrangements. This is the first report of transcriptome and chloroplast genome analysis of any Anacardiaceae family member.

  16. Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The effect of infestations of mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), on premature fruit drop of mangoes was investigated. Mango fruits ('Haden') of equal size were collected both off the ground and from the tree at four times during the season (June-August). If weevil-infested fruit were more prone to dropping than uninfested fruit, the prediction was that a higher infestation rate would be found in fruit on the ground compared with fruit on the tree. Average fruit weight was used as an indicator of fruit maturity. The seed infestation rate was significantly higher in fruit collected off the ground compared with fruit collected from the tree in 38 g and 79 g (early-season) fruit but not significantly different in 207 g (midseason) and 281 g (late season) fruit. The age distribution of weevils and the number of insects in infested fruits were similar for ground and tree fruits on all dates. Results suggest that mango seed weevil infestation can increase fruit drop during early fruit development.

  17. Mango extracts and the mango component mangiferin promote endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Wilkinson, Ashley S; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2010-04-28

    This study tested the hypothesis that mango extracts contain bioactive molecules capable of modulating endothelial cell migration, an essential step in the formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels is an important therapeutic target for diseases such as limb ischemia, coronary infarction or stroke. We examined the effect of mango peel and flesh extracts as well as the individual polyphenolic molecules, mangiferin and quercetin, on bovine aortic cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Our results show that mangiferin, and extracts rich in mangiferin, increase endothelial cell migration. The dose-effect relationship for various extracts further suggests that this action of mangiferin is modulated by other components present in the extracts. The promigratory effect of mango extracts or mangiferin was unrelated to an effect on cell proliferation, and did not involve a change in the production of matrix metalloprotease-2 or -9 by the endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin present in mango extracts may have health promoting effects in diseases related to the impaired formation of new blood vessels.

  18. Importancia de los rastros para la caracterización del uso de hábitat de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el bosque los mangos (puerto lópez, meta, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Los métodos indirectos ayudan a detectar mamíferos medianos y grandes los cuales son muy difíciles de observar. Los rastros son una herramienta valiosa para trabajar en campo, sirven de base para registrar la presencia de una especie en un lugar, y para determinar cómo está usando su hábitat (Aranda, 1981a; Navarro y Muñoz, 2000; Villalba y Yanosky, 2000). En este trabajo se caracteriza el uso que mamíferos terrestres medianos y grandes están haciendo del hábitat en el bosque de vega Los Mang...

  19. Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

  20. Advances in research and development of mango industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. E. Bally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World mango production is spread over 100 countries that produce over 34.3 million tons of fruit annually. Eighty percent of this production is based in the top nine producing nations that also consume upward of 90% of their production domestically. One to 2 percent of fruit is traded internationally in to markets in the European Community, USA, Arabian Peninsula and Asia. This paper outlines some of the recent research and development advances in mango breeding and genomics, rootstock development, disease management and harvest technologies that are influencing the production and quality of mango fruit traded domestically and internationally.

  1. Diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico del "Síndrome de Latigazo Cervical"

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Baños, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    El denominado Síndrome de Latigazo Cervical (SLC) es una lesión de la columna cervical que acontece generalmente tras la colisión de vehículos a motor, al producirse una forzada extensión o flexión del cuello y una violenta oscilación de la cabeza de delante hacia atrás o de atrás hacia delante unido a movimientos de lateralidad y torsión forzada del cuello. Los objetivos principales de esta revisión consisten principalmente en definir el mejor protocolo de diagnóstico para el “Síndrome d...

  2. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango is very delicate and perishable fruit, highly susceptible to post ... problems limit transport distances of fresh fruits from production farms to markets .... according to procedures described by Nielsen (2003) using digital titration instrument.

  3. Mangos of Puerto Rico, country contribution: Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Puerto Rico; geographical distribution; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests...

  4. Microbial Spoilage, Actions of Preservatives and Phytochemical Screening of Mango

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa Olusegun AREKEMASE; Ganiyu OYEYIOLA; Fathia Oluwatoyin SAAD; Daniel Salem TERWASE

    2015-01-01

    .... The effects of chemical preservatives such as sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, citric acid and sodium chloride at different concentrations on the microbial counts and pH of mango seed powder stored...

  5. Investigating the Production of Biodiesel from Alphonso Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the Production of Biodiesel from Alphonso Mango Seed Oil. ... cetane number, kinematic viscosity, Iodine value, density and saponification value ... oil methyl ester could be used as an alternative to/or blended with petrodiesel.

  6. Some Electrical Properties of Wild Mango Seed ad Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Electrical resistivity and conductivity of wild mango (irvingia ... that temperature and moisture contents had a more significant effect. ... flowering plants, consisting of approximately .... density to the electric field strength. In.

  7. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... sive preservation techniques to produce high quality and ... guarantee the microbial quality and appearance of the products during ... Syrup composition to package the mango slices. Syrup ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  8. Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Shaw, R E; Guthrie, J A; Dunlop, K J; Roberts

    1995-03-01

    The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

  9. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  10. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (ΦPSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  11. 76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and.... SUMMARY: This rule proposes amendment of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to... the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act). The National Mango Board...

  12. 78 FR 39564 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of... rule. SUMMARY: This document amends the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to allow foreign producers, from countries exporting mangos to the United States, to nominate themselves or...

  13. Normas de calidad para las variedades de mango "tommy Atkins" y "común" (hilacha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mahecha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron dos variedades Je mango (Manauifera indica L; Tommy Atkins y Común.Se realizaron las siguientes determinaciones; a físicas; forma, volumen, dureza, peso total, rendimiento en pulpa y relación longitud/diámetro y b químicos: % de acidez titulable, y de almidón, °Brix, pH, índice de madurez y análisis sensorial,Se ensayó un método cualitativoparadeterminaralmidon.se desarrollaron cartas de color tanto de la cascara como de la pulpa, del estado verde al maduro y se diseñó un dispositivo para medir en forma ágil la longitud y los diámetros de la fruta. En las dos variedades se encontraron correlaciones altamente significativas entre la longitud y los diámetros mayor y menor, la longitud y el peso total, la dureza sin cascara y el índice de madurez, el peso específico aparente y el % de almidón y entre el contenido de almidón y el índice de madurez. En base a los resultados obtenidos se establecieron estándares preliminares de calidad para selección de mango durante la recolección, comercialización y mercadeo

  14. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  15. Niveles de depresión y estrategias de afrontamiento en familiares de víctimas de desaparición forzada en la ciudad de Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Se buscó determinar la relación entre el nivel de depresión y las estrategias de afrontamiento en familiares de personas víctimas de desaparición forzada de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Los participantes fueron 34 personas adultas de ambos géneros (4 hombres y 30 mujeres) con un rango de edad 18 a 71 años de edad, familiares de víctimas de desaparición forzada de entre 6 y 21 meses de haber acontecido el evento, a quienes se les aplicó el cuestionario de depresión de Beck validado y estan...

  16. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  17. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  18. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  19. Refugiados y desplazados forzados: Categorías de la migración forzada creadas como medidas de contención a las migraciones no deseadas Refugees and Displaced Persons: Categories of Forced Migration Created as Means to Contain Unwanted Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Posada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende exponer el modo en que los refugiados y los desplazados forzados surgen como categorías jurídicas, a partir de intereses de la comunidad internacional por controlar las migraciones no deseadas. Para ello se hace un desarrollo analítico a partir del Sistema global de las migraciones propuesto por Vidal (2005, en el cual se relacionan las categorías de migración forzada, refugio y desplazamiento forzado. Se intenta, además, mostrar que la categoría de refugiado incide de manera restrictiva en los intereses de los migrantes forzados y entre ellos los desplazados forzados.This article aims to present the way in which the legal categories of "refugees" and "displaced persons" arise from the interest of the international community to control unwanted migration. In order to do so, an analytical argument is used based on the global system of migration proposed by Vidal (2005, in which the categories of forced migration, refugee and forced displacement are related. The article also tries to show that the category of refugee impacts in a restrictive way the interests of forced migrants, including displaced persons.

  20. Thermal inactivation kinetics of partially purified mango pectin methylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alonso DÍAZ-CRUZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kinetic parameters of thermal inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME in a partially purified mango enzyme extract were determined. The PME of mango partially purified by salting out showed different patterns of thermal inactivation, indicating the presence of a thermostable fraction at 70 °C and a thermolabile fraction at lower temperatures. The inactivation of the thermostable fraction exhibited a linear behavior that yielded a z-value of 9.44 °C and an activation energy (Ea of 245.6 kJ mol-1 K-1 using the Arrhenius model. The thermostable mango PME fraction represented 17% of total crude enzyme extract, which emphasizes the importance of residual enzyme activity after heat treatment.

  1. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  2. Proyecto de instalaciones del edificio IES Salvador Dalí

    OpenAIRE

    López Riesco, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Este edificio de 1987 estará dotado de un sistema de calefacción a base de emisores de calor alimentados por dos calderas a gas natural SAUNIER DUVAL THERMOSYSTEM CONDENS F200/3, de las cuales se ramificará una red de tuberías dividida en 4 circuitos formando una instalación bitubular. Un último circuito se encargará de calefactor el gimnasio y el pasillo central. El fluido caloportador será el agua. La distribución del fluido caloportador se realiza de forma forzada con bombas...

  3. ISOLATION OF GENOMIC DNAs FROM THE TROPICAL FRUIT TREES AVOCADO, COCONUT, GUAVA AND MANGO FOR PCR-BASED DNA MARKER APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis M. Ramírez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En frutales tropicales de porte arbóreo, el aisla- miento del ADN genómico con suficiente calidad para ser usa- do en tecnologías de marcadores moleculares basadas en PCR, posee en muchas ocasiones serios problemas por la presencia de inhibidores, tales como los polisacáridos que inhiben el procesamiento enzimático del ADN o los polifenoles que inhiben las reacciones de PCR. Se probaron diferentes proto- colos de extracción y purificación de ADN en cuatro frutales tropicales: guayabo ( Psidium guajava L., aguacatero ( Persea americana Mill., mango ( Mangifera indica L. y cocotero ( Cocos nucifera L.. El protocolo de Doyle y Doyle logró buenos rendimientos y calidad del ADN para la amplificación (PCR en mango y cocotero, pero no en guayaba y aguacatero. Para estas dos últimas especies se probaron diferentes técni- cas con resultados igualmente insatisfactorios. La modifica- ción del método del CTAB con respecto a la composición del buffer de extracción en combinación con el empleo de colum- nas de adsorción reversible NucleoSpin, permitió la extracción exitosa del ADN con la calidad suficiente para aplicar las técni- cas de AFLP, SSR e ISTR en guayabo y/o aguacatero.

  4. Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha V. Ashtikar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in the adsorbent doses & temperature percent removal of copper increases. Thus mango seeds have the potential to be applied as alternative low-cost biosorbent in the remediation of heavy metal contamination in waste water.

  5. Aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del río Eume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordi de Carricarte, Luciano

    1960-02-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia de La Coruña, junto a la desembocadura del río Eume, y en las proximidades del pueblo de Puentedeume, se ha realizado el aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de dicho río, formado, en cuestión, por tres elementos básicos: una presa de embalse de doble curvatura, de 103 m de altura; una conducción forzada, integrada por un túnel de 2.839 m de longitud y dos tuberías de 310; y una central, equipada con dos grupos de 75.000 CV.

  6. Drying of mango pulp in a dryer of laboratory tunnel type; Secado de pulpa de mango en un secador de laboratorio tipo tunel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Resendiz, Oscar; Chagoyan Serrano, Jose; Flores I, Alfredo; Rodriguez M, Jose A [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The result of four tests of drying of mango pulp Kent are presented, which were carried out in a dryer of the tunnel type in constant conditions of temperature, speed and absolute humidity of the air. The temperatures at which the tests were conducted were 35, 40, 45 and 50 Celsius degrees. The average speed of the drying air was 2.35 m/s. For the four tests the drying variables were measured for the purpose of controlling the process. The tests were suspended after 10 hours. The initial and final moisture contents of the samples on a wet weight basis for the test at 35 were 87.04% and 58.94% for that at 40 were 87.42% and 17.25%, for that at 45 were 87.55% and 13.29%, and for that at 50 were 87.43% and 48%. The graphs of the evolution of moisture content of the samples dried under the specified conditions are compared. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de cuatro pruebas de secado de pulpa de mango Kent, las cuales se realizaron en un secador tipo tunel en condiciones constantes de temperatura, velocidad y humedad absoluta del aire. Las temperaturas empleadas fueron 35, 40, 45 y 50 grados Celsius y la velocidad del aire de secado fue de 2.35 m/s. Para las cuatro pruebas se midieron las variables de secado mencionadas con el fin de controlar el proceso. Las pruebas se suspendieron al cumplirse 10 h. Las humedades inicial y final base humeda de las muestras para la prueba de 35 fueron 87.04% y 58.94%, para la de 40 fueron 87.42% y 17.25% y para la de 45 fueron de 87.55% y 13.29% y para la de 50 fueron de 87.43% y 48%. Se comparan entre si las graficas de la evolucion del contenido de humedad de las muestras que se secaron a las condiciones ya mencionadas.

  7. Recorrer e intervenir estéticamente el espacio público. Acciones de resistencia visual en protestas sobre violencia policial y desapariciones forzadas durante la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las tácticas de protestas en el espacio público a través de intervenciones estéticas, considerando el arte callejero un medio de resistencia visual en reclamos sobre la violencia y desaparición forzada, que afectan a las emociones y convocan a la memoria. Sus productores son equilibristas que desarticulan los términos de lo político y los clarifican en su acción, a fin de establecer una comunicación por medio de las emociones. A través de su acción, promueven territorializaciones con función discursiva, que subvierten el orden hegemónico y fomentan la creación de vínculos en un gesto de ruptura con la impunidad, interpelando y reivindicando sobre la represión; en la capacidad de reinterpretación, y en transformación hacia la reflexión crítica y el desarrollo de nuevas acciones de protestas y resistencia.

  8. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  9. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while...

  10. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  11. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-24

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  12. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  13. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  14. Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Shirley F; Meister, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen L; Payton, Mark; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in both male (−4.45 mg/dL, P = 0.018) and female (−3.56 mg/dL, P = 0.003) participants. In addition, hip circumference was reduced in male (−3.3 cm, P = 0.048) but not in female participants. However, there were no significant changes in body weight or composition in either gender. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact body weight but provides a positive effect on fasting blood glucose. PMID:25210462

  15. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with diseases of mango (Mangifera indica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakunyingcharoen, T.; Cheewangkoon, R.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.; Niekerk, van J.M.; Lombard, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal species of Botryosphaeriaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution and are important pathogens of a wide range of plant hosts. This study aims to use phylogenetic inference to review the geographical distribution of botryosphaeriacous species that have been associated with diseases of mango (Mang

  16. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  17. Optical properties, ethylene production and softening in mango fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Grassi, M.; Meirelles de Azevedo Pementel, A.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Firmness decay, chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation, controlled by ethylene, are major ripening events in mango fruit. Pigment content and tissue structure affect the optical properties of the mesocarp, which can be measured nondestructively in the intact fruit by time-resolved reflect

  18. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  19. Morphological diversity of mango germplasm from the upper Athi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Phenotypic variation in plants can be evaluated by morphological ... for use in the visual assessment of 98 mango accessions from 15 sites of the UAR ... of the selected 20; however, ANOVA and Chi square test revealed that diversity ...

  20. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with diseases of mango (Mangifera indica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakunyingcharoen, T.; Cheewangkoon, R.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.; Niekerk, van J.M.; Lombard, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal species of Botryosphaeriaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution and are important pathogens of a wide range of plant hosts. This study aims to use phylogenetic inference to review the geographical distribution of botryosphaeriacous species that have been associated with diseases of mango (Mang

  1. CINÉTICA DE LA DIFERENCIA DE COLOR Y CROMA EN EL PROCESO TÉRMICO DE PULPA DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L.) HADEN

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Perú presenta un excedente no exportable de mango fresco, que es destinado en un 60% al consumo nacional en fresco y entre 20 a 25% a la exportación en pulpa simple o concentrada y congelada, es aquí donde el manejo de métodos de conservación por calor (procesos térmicos) y sus parámetros cinéticos  afectan la degradación de la calidad organoléptica y nutricional de la pulpa de mango, por lo que se convierte en el problema central del presente estudio. Estudiada la cinética de la diferencia d...

  2. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Bertoldi, Michele C; Krenek, Kimberley; Talcott, Stephen T; Stringheta, Paulo C; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2010-04-14

    Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity.

  3. Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Susan S; Talcott, Stephen T; Chin, Sherry T; Mallak, Anne C; Lounds-Singleton, Angela; Pettit-Moore, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    The mango, Mangifera indica L., is a fruit with high levels of phytochemicals, suggesting that it might have chemopreventative properties. In this study, whole mango juice and juice extracts were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activity. Antioxidant activity of the mango juice and juice extracts was measured by 3 standard in vitro methods. The results of the 3 methods were in general agreement, although different radicals were measured in each. Anticancer activity was measured by examining the effect on cell cycle kinetics and the ability to inhibit chemically induced neoplastic transformation of mammalian cell lines. Incubation of HL-60 cells with whole mango juice and mango juice fractions resulted in an inhibition of the cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phase. A fraction of the eluted mango juice with low peroxyl radical scavenging ability was most effective in arresting cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Whole mango juice was effective in reducing the number of transformed foci in the neoplastic transformation assay in a dose-dependent manner. These techniques provide valuable screening tools for health benefits derived from mango phytochemicals.

  4. Bioactive components, antioxidative properties and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of mango peel as affected by the storage of mango fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetuyi O. Foluso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the bioactive components (total phenolics, vitamin C and flavonoid, antioxidant properties (FRAP, and hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of the peel of mango fruit stored at refrigeration temperature and room temperature. The peel of mango fruit stored at room temperature had significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher contents of total phenolic (13.61 mg GAE/g, vitamin C (12.98 mg AAE/g, total flavonoid (4.49 mg QE/g and non-flavonoid (9.12 mg Qe/g than the peel of freshly harvested mango fruit and the peel of mango fruit stored at refrigeration temperature. In consonance with the bioactive components, the peel of mango fruit stored at room temperature had a higher FRAP, and hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities than the others. The peel of mango fruit stored at room temperature showed stronger inhibition of Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation by exhibiting the least IC50 (1.44 mg/ml in brain, (1.43 mg/ml in pancreas and (1.88 mg/ml in kidney. Thus freshly harvested, matured, edible and just ripe mango fruit (Sheri Mango could be stored at room temperature and be consumed with the peel.

  5. Evolución nutrimental foliar en tres cultivares de mango en Nayarit, México Foliar nutrient evolution in three mango cultivars in Nayarit, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Guadalupe Castro-López

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Para desarrollar programas de fertilización de sitio específico en el cultivo del mango, es necesario disponer de información propia para cada región productora. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la evolución de macro- y micronutrimentos a través de la vida de las hojas de los flujos vegetativos de los cvs. Ataulfo, Kent y Tommy Atkins. Los huertos se localizaron en cuatro municipios del estado de Nayarit con clima cálido subhúmedo, en alturas de 11 a 601 m y temperatura media anual de 21.7 a 22.7 °C. En cada huerto se eligieron al azar 20 árboles y en cada uno de ellos fueron marcados 20 brotes recién emergidos de cada flujo vegetativo. Se realizaron muéstreos mensuales de hojas desde su nacimiento hasta la abscisión y se les determinaron en la materia seca las concentraciones de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn y B. Para describir la evolución de cada nutrimento se predijeron sus concentraciones para cada día de vida de la hoja mediante el uso de funciones matemáticas. Se registraron dos flujos de crecimiento vegetativo tanto en 'Ataulfo' y 'Kent' (primavera y verano como en 'Tommy Atkins' (primavera y otoño. La evolución de macro- y micronutrimentos varió entre cultivares y fue influido por el flujo vegetativo y la fase fenológica. En los tres cultivares estudiados, la evolución nutrimental del flujo de primavera fue más afectado por las últimas etapas del desarrollo floral (del estado coliflor a antesis. En el caso del segundo flujo vegetativo (verano u otoño la evolución nutrimental fue más afectada por el crecimiento del fruto.In order to develop site-specific fertilization programs for t mango production, it's necessary to have proper information for each producing-region. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of macro and micronutrients through the life of the leaves of the cultivars' vegetative flushes Ataulfo, Kent and Tommy Atkins. The orchards were located in four municipalities in

  6. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel...

  7. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Firdaus Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05. The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of mango after formalin treatment during preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Masud Parvez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are producing continuously inside the living cell as a part of normal metabolic process and responsible for the generation of various types of disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, nephropathy, ocular disease etc. Antioxidants are continuously counterbalancing the oxidative radical by breakdown or neutralizing the free radical. Various fruits and plant parts possesses antioxidant activity for example our studied sample mango has antioxidant property but when it treated with formalin it markedly reduces antioxidant potential of it. In phosphomolybdate assay it is found that normal mango peel contains more antioxidant activity than mango flesh, but treatment with formalin, antioxidant potential decreases in both peels and fleshes. Similar result was found in iron reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay where it is found that normal mango peel has almost similar scavenging property as compared to standard BHT. Normal mango peel (NP exhibits very high radical scavenging activity (IC50 is 4.2. At 100 μg/ml radical scavenging activity of normal mango peel (NP is 93.79%, but formalin treated mango peel (FP at same concentration possess scavenging property 76.36%, where as standard antioxidant scavenges about 93.95%. Scavenging power of normal mango flesh (NF is 39.57% and in formalin treated mango flesh (FF scavenging potential is only 7.12% at 100 μg/ml.

  9. 芒果加工技术研究进展%Research status of mango processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖必辉; 毕金峰; 庞杰; 丁媛媛; 王沛; 白沙沙

    2011-01-01

    The progress was summarized of mango processing technologies in recent years at home and abroad, which mainly involves the products of mango drinks, the products of mango dehydrated, the comprehensive utilization of mango peel and mango kernel and the new mango processing technology, etc., and aimed to provide theoreticsl help for the mango industry and mango processing technology.%对近年来国内外关于芒果加工技术的研究成果进行综述,主要涉及芒果饮品类、芒果干制品类、芒果皮和核的综合利用类及芒果加工新技术等方面,旨在为芒果产业与芒果加工技术的进一步结合提供理论帮助.

  10. Maturity assessment of harumanis mango using thermal camera sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'ad, F. S. A.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md.; Zakaria, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Ibrahim, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    The perceived quality of fruits, such as mangoes, is greatly dependent on many parameters such as ripeness, shape, size, and is influenced by other factors such as harvesting time. Unfortunately, a manual fruit grading has several drawbacks such as subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency. By automating the procedure, as well as developing new classification technique, it may solve these problems. This paper presents the novel work on the using Infrared as a Tool in Quality Monitoring of Harumanis Mangoes. The histogram of infrared image was used to distinguish and classify the level of ripeness of the fruits based on the colour spectrum by week. The approach proposed thermal data was able to achieve 90.5% correct classification.

  11. IMPACT INJURY DIAGNOSIS IN MANGO THROUGH STARCH DEGRADATION INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO DE ASSIS DE SOUSA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the use of starch degradation index (SDI in the diagnosis of areas of impact injuries in 'Tommy Atkins' mango, in different maturation stages. The experiment layout was a fully randomized factorial design (5 x 2, represented by five maturation stages and two handlings, with and without impact, with four replicates. SDI was determined through a subjective scale of scores indicating mango pulp darkened areas by reaction with iodine-potassium iodide solution. Subsequently, these scores were correlated with physicochemical quality variables. The results showed no influence of impact on fruit quality, in any of the studied maturation stages. Moreover, soluble solid contents increased throughout maturation stages, regardless of whether the fruits suffered impact or not. As a result, SDI is unsuitable to indicate fruit impact injury. However, there is a good correlation between SDI and pulp color, vitamin C, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/ TA ratio and non-reducing sugars.

  12. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  13. Induction of mutation in mango (Mangifera indica L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K.; Majumder, P.K.; Singh, R.N. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi)

    1983-03-01

    Studies on evolving of improved plant types through physical and chemical mutagens are, in general, lacking in tree fruits, more particularly in Mango. The present study showed that the LD/sub 50/ values (..gamma..-irradiation) for the mango cultivars Neelum, Dashehari and Mallika were 3.9, 2.9 and 2.4 Krad, respectively. The effective dosages of EMS and NMU for the cvs Dashehari and Neelum were 1.50 and 0.05 per cent, respectively. Primary effects of both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be more or less the same. Some interesting changes in vegetative characters have also been stabilised. Out of these a few plants appeared to be promising for dwarfness whereas in some others, fruit quality improved.

  14. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2).

  15. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2009-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  17. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Sayma Akhter; Morag A. McDonald; Ray Marriott

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that...

  18. Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Samiksha V. Ashtikar; Amruta D. Parkhi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in ...

  19. Preliminary investigation on the antibacterial activity of mango (Mangifera indica L:Anacardiaceae) seed kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasminder Kaur; Xavier Rathinam; Marimuthu Kasi; Khoo Miew Leng; Rajasekaran Ayyalu; Kathiresan S; Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera indicaL.) seed kernel.Methods: Chokanan mango seed kernel and seed kernels from assorted mango varieties were collected, cleaned, dried and powered. Crude methanolic extracts of mango seed kernel were analyzed for the phytochemical constituents. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion assay with three medically important bacterial pathogens such as methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)(MRSA),Escherichia coli (E. coli) andVibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus).Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of important phytochemical compounds such as glycosides, saponins, flavanoids, tannins and alkaloids. There was no significant difference in the phytochemical content between the single and assorted mango seed kernels. However, the free radical scavenging study indicated that the assorted mango kernels showed slightly higher activity than the single species (P<0.05). The crude methanolic extract of mango seed kernel at a concentration of100 mg/mL is found to have potential antimicrobial activity againstMRSA and E. coli compared toV. vulnificus. Study on the antibacterial activity also indicated that there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the single and assorted mango seed kernel extracts.Conclusions: The present study conclusively demonstrates the free radical scavenging activity and antibacterial activities of mango seed kernel. In addition, the results also indicated that there is no significant difference in the phytochemical content and biological activity of mango kernels from single and assorted mango varieties.

  20. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino

    Full Text Available The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD, also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing, by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1 predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2 identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3 identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs.

  1. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Kumar, Sunil; Oliveira, Leonardo S S; Alfenas, Acelino C; Neven, Lisa G; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs.

  2. Detection of artificially ripened mango using spectrometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithun, B. S.; Mondal, Milton; Vishwakarma, Harsh; Shinde, Sujit; Kimbahune, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral sensing has been proven to be useful to determine the quality of food in general. It has also been used to distinguish naturally and artificially ripened mangoes by analyzing the spectral signature. However the focus has been on improving the accuracy of classification after performing dimensionality reduction, optimum feature selection and using suitable learning algorithm on the complete visible and NIR spectrum range data, namely 350nm to 1050nm. In this paper we focus on, (i) the use of low wavelength resolution and low cost multispectral sensor to reliably identify artificially ripened mango by selectively using the spectral information so that classification accuracy is not hampered at the cost of low resolution spectral data and (ii) use of visible spectrum i.e. 390nm to 700 nm data to accurately discriminate artificially ripened mangoes. Our results show that on a low resolution spectral data, the use of logistic regression produces an accuracy of 98.83% and outperforms other methods like classification tree, random forest significantly. And this is achieved by analyzing only 36 spectral reflectance data points instead of the complete 216 data points available in visual and NIR range. Another interesting experimental observation is that we are able to achieve more than 98% classification accuracy by selecting only 15 irradiance values in the visible spectrum. Even the number of data needs to be collected using hyper-spectral or multi-spectral sensor can be reduced by a factor of 24 for classification with high degree of confidence

  3. Effect of commercial (vimang and hydroalcoholic extract of Mangifera indica (Mango on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Khajavi Rad

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: Mango products were able to improve kidney function in an established model of GM-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat. The beneficial effects of Mango on the rat kidney seem to be dose and time-dependent. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate Mango action on GM-induced renal toxicity.

  4. 75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of fresh mango fruit... importation of fresh mango fruits, Mangifera indica L., into the continental United States. Currently, fresh...

  5. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... issuing permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan... weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August 27, 2010...

  6. Las alteraciones posturales producidas por el gesto deportivo del patín carrera

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El patinaje es un deporte en el cual las lesiones son muy frecuentes y continuas. Entre los factores que contribuyen a esta problemática se encuentra la dificultad que conlleva el gesto deportivo, en el cual varias articulaciones del cuerpo se ven forzadas a una posición poco favorable para la biomecánica natural. Objetivo: Describir y analizar las desviaciones posturales más frecuentes en patinadores de la modalidad carrera y relacionarlas con la localización de lesiones y ...

  7. De-novo assembly of mango fruit peel transcriptome reveals mechanisms of mango response to hot water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luria, Neta; Sela, Noa; Yaari, Mor; Feygenberg, Oleg; Kobiler, Ilana; Lers, Amnon; Prusky, Dov

    2014-01-01

    Background The mango belongs to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family, Anacardiaceae. Postharvest treatment by hot water brushing (HWB) for 15–20 s was introduced commercially to improve fruit quality and reduce postharvest disease. This treatment enabled successful storage for 3–4 weeks at 12°C, with improved color and reduced disease development, but it enhanced lenticel discoloration on the fruit peel. We investigated global gene ...

  8. De-novo assembly of mango fruit peel transcriptome reveals mechanisms of mango response to hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Sela, Noa; Yaari, Mor; Feygenberg, Oleg; Kobiler, Ilana; Lers, Amnon; Prusky, Dov

    2014-11-05

    The mango belongs to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family, Anacardiaceae. Postharvest treatment by hot water brushing (HWB) for 15-20 s was introduced commercially to improve fruit quality and reduce postharvest disease. This treatment enabled successful storage for 3-4 weeks at 12°C, with improved color and reduced disease development, but it enhanced lenticel discoloration on the fruit peel. We investigated global gene expression induced in fruit peel by HWB treatment, and identified key genes involved in mechanisms potentially associated with fruit resistance to pathogens, peel color improvement, and development of lenticel discoloration; this might explain the fruit's phenotypic responses. The mango transcriptome assembly was created and characterized by application of RNA-seq to fruit-peel samples. RNA-seq-based gene-expression profiling identified three main groups of genes associated with HWB treatment: 1) genes involved with biotic and abiotic stress responses and pathogen-defense mechanisms, which were highly expressed; 2) genes associated with chlorophyll degradation and photosynthesis, which showed transient and low expression; and 3) genes involved with sugar and flavonoid metabolism, which were highly expressed. We describe a new transcriptome of mango fruit peel of cultivar Shelly. The existence of three main groups of genes that were differentially expressed following HWB treatment suggests a molecular basis for the biochemical and physiological consequences of the postharvest HWB treatment, including resistance to pathogens, improved color development, and occurrence of lenticel discoloration.

  9. 78 FR 8441 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of... provisions of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act). DATES: Comments must be received...

  10. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment... Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate on first... increase is permitted under the Order, which is authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research,...

  11. Varietal differences in the supply chain of two mango varieties in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudha, M.; Kruijssen, F.

    2008-01-01

    India accounts for approximately 38% of the world mango production and is a natural home for over 1,000 cultivars in this species. Among over 20 commercial cultivars, 'Totapuri' has the largest share, accounting for half of the mango area in South India. Due to a specific demand for each of these

  12. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  13. Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

  14. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  15. First report of mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium pseudocircinatum in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation disease (MMD) is one of the most important diseases affecting this crop worldwide, causing severe economic loss due to reduction of yield. Subsequent to the first report in India in 1891 (3), MMD has spread worldwide to most mango-growing regions. Several spe...

  16. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Eun Young; Choi, Goya; Hyun, Jin Won; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2013-04-01

    Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  18. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21 Section 305.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes....

  19. Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Bongers, F.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key message This phenological analysis of bitter and sweet bush mango trees is part of their biosystematics. It supports the species distinction hypothesis postulated by Harris (Bull J Bot Nat Belg 65(1-2):143-196, 1996 ) and Lowe et al. (Mol Ecol 9:831-841, 2000 ). African Bush Mango trees are

  20. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…

  1. Effect of technological processing on the allergenicity of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Mark; Zunker, Katy; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Steinhart, Hans; Paschke, Angelika

    2004-06-16

    In parallel with the rising popularity of exotic fruits in Europe, allergy against mango is of increasing importance. Because mangoes are also consumed as processed products such as chutneys or beverages, the influences of different process conditions on their allergenicity were investigated. Mango purees and nectars were manufactured at small pilot-plant scale, and the allergenic potencies of the resulting intermediate and final products were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting and inhibitive enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST-inhibition), using a pool serum of 9 individuals with manifest mango allergy. The mango allergens were shown to be very stable during technological processing. Irrespective of enzymatic matrix decomposition, mechanical tissue disintegration and heating during peeling, mash treatment, and pasteurization, significant loss of allergenicity could not be observed in the extracts of mango purees and nectars derived thereof. These results were confirmed by analogous investigation of commercial mango drinks and nectars. Hence, conventional mango processing into pulp-containing products typical for this species obviously does not allow complete elimination of the allergenic potency.

  2. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

  3. Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Bongers, F.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key message This phenological analysis of bitter and sweet bush mango trees is part of their biosystematics. It supports the species distinction hypothesis postulated by Harris (Bull J Bot Nat Belg 65(1-2):143-196, 1996 ) and Lowe et al. (Mol Ecol 9:831-841, 2000 ). African Bush Mango trees are prio

  4. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue distr

  5. Morphological Characterization of African Bush Mango trees (Irvingia species) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the morphological characters of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) was investigated in the Dahomey Gap which is the West African savannah woodland area separating the Upper and the Lower Guinean rain forest blocks. African bush mangoes have been rated as th

  6. Una propuesta integral de medición de las migraciones forzadas. El caso de la población de origen colombiano en el País Vasco (A comprehensive proposal to measure forced migration. The case of the Colombian population in the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraide Fernández Aragón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo planteamos una propuesta de medición de las migraciones forzadas que pueda trascender las limitaciones normativas que han hecho que en los últimos años el número de solicitudes de asilo se hayan visto reducidas drásticamente en la mayoría de países europeos. Para ello, se realiza un sondeo a la población de origen colombiano residente en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco (CAPV para detectar las vulneraciones de derechos y, a partir del trabajo de ponderación de un grupo de expertos en la materia, se ofrecen diferentes estimaciones para superar las limitaciones asociadas a la categoría jurídica de refugiado. Los resultados muestran que el número de personas de origen colombiano residiendo en la CAPV que manifiestan un desplazamiento forzado por circunstancias de vulneración de sus derechos es del 6% (Desplazamiento manifiesto. Sin embargo, creemos que esta aproximación invisibiliza parte del fenómeno, de hecho, las estimaciones realizadas a partir de los datos indicarían que entre un 17,2% y un 22,9% de las migraciones de origen colombiano podrían deberse a un desplazamiento forzado (Desplazamiento atribuido. | In this paper we propose a measurement of forced migration that can transcend the regulatory constraints that have caused the dramatic drop in asylum applications in most European countries. Regarding to measurement, we have developed a survey focused on people of Colombian origin resident in the Basque Country in order to detect rights violations based in the weighing done by a group of experts in different fields who have made various proposals to overcome the limitations associated with legal status of refugee. The results show that, the number of people from Colombia living in the Basque Country which states that has been displaced as a result of situations of violation of rights is 6% (Declared Displacement. We believe that this figure underestimates the size of the phenomenon, in fact, the

  7. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  9. Addition of dried ‘Ataulfo’ mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch molded mango snacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco Javier; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia Guadalupe; H. McHugh, Tara

    2015-01-01

    .... On the industrial processing of mango, 35–60 % of this fruit is discarded as waste, which originate significant amounts of by-products, mainly from seeds, peels, and paste, which are a source of DF and bioactive compounds...

  10. Seasonal Abundance of Mango Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Ecological Implications for Their Management in Mango and Cashew Orchards in Benin (Centre & North).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssières, J-F; De Meyer, M; Ouagoussounon, I; Sinzogan, A; Adandonon, A; Korie, S; Wargui, R; Anato, F; Houngbo, H; Didier, C; De Bon, H; Goergen, G

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a large-scale (six orchards) and long-term (5-yr) study on seasonal population fluctuations of fruit flies (Diptera Tephritidae) in mango (2005-2009) and cashew (2007-2009) orchards in the Borgou Department, Benin.During the five consecutive years of mango fruit fly monitoring, 25 tephritid species were captured including three species of Bactrocera, 11 of Ceratitis, and 11 of Dacus, which is represented by 2,138,150 specimens in mango orchards. We observed significant differences in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) counts between "high" and "low" mango production years from 2005 to 2008 but not in Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) counts. The native species, C. cosyra, the most abundant species during the dry season, peaked beginning of May, while the exotic species, B. dorsalis, the most abundant species during the rainy season, peaked in June. Preliminary results underlined the role of nine species of wild hosts and seven species of cultivated ones around mango orchards that played an important role in maintaining B. dorsalis in this Sudan zone all year round. The presence of C. cosyra stretched over 9 mo.During the first 14 wk of tephritid monitoring on cashew orchards situated near mango orchards, most flies (62%) were captured in traps positioned in cashew orchards, showing the strong interest of an early fly control on cashew before the mango season. According to these results, in the Sudan zone, effective and compatible control methods as proposed by the IPM package validated by the West African Fruit Fly Initiative project against mango fruit flies are proposed for a large regional tephritid control program in same zones of West Africa.

  11. Aislamiento de cepas de Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae asociadas a mango para su uso en análisis evolutivos y epidemiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Aprile, Francesca; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, J.A.; Arrebola, E.; Cazorla, F.M.; Vicente, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    La necrosis apical del mango (NAM) es una enfermedad que se ha observado en el litoral andaluz desde la implantación de este cultivo, y cuyo agente causal es la bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss). Esta enfermedad aparece principalmente asociada a climas con inviernos frescos y húmedos, tal y como ocurre en la cuenca mediterránea, donde, además de en España, se ha descrito en otros países (Israel, Portugal, Italia, Egipto), así como en otras áreas de cultivo con clima similar, co...

  12. ESTANDARIZACIÓN DE PROTOCOLOS PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN CROMOSÓMICO EN CEPAS DE colletotrichum gloeosporioides AISLADOS EN PLANTAS DE MANGO (Mangifera Indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés, Luis Alberto; Gómez, Adys; Carballo, María Elena; Capote, Maricela; González, Ingrid; Rohde W.

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc. es la especie responsable de la antracnosis en el mango; esta enfermedad afecta toda la parte aérea de la planta, produciendo pérdidas hasta de 12% de la producción. La identificación y caracterización microbiana es importante para la toma de medidas de prevención y control del patógeno en plantaciones. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estandarizar protocolos de aislamiento de ADN genómico en cepas de Colletotrichum gloeosporioi...

  13. Ethephon induced abscission in mango: physiological fruitlet responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Helmut Hagemann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruitlet abscission of mango is typically very severe, causing considerable production losses worldwide. Consequently, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of fruitlet abscission in mango is required to describe the onset and time-dependent course of this process. To identify the underlying key mechanisms of abscission, ethephon, an ethylene releasing substance, was applied at two concentrations (600 ppm, 7200 ppm during the midseason drop stage of mango. The abscission process is triggered by ethylene diffusing to the abscission zone where it binds to specific receptors and thereby activating several key physiological responses at the cellular level. The treatments reduced significantly the capacity of polar auxin transport through the pedicel at one day after treatment and thereafter when compared to untreated pedicels. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor genes MiETR1 and MiERS1 were significantly upregulated in the pedicel and pericarp at one, two and three days after the ethephon application with 7200 ppm, except for MiETR1 in the pedicel, when compared to untreated fruitlet. In contrast, ethephon applications with 600 ppm did not affect expression levels of MiETR1 in the pedicel and of MiERS1 in the pericarp; however, MiETR1 in the pericarp at day two and MiERS1 in the pedicel at days two and three were significantly upregulated over the controls. Moreover, two novel short versions of the MiERS1 were identified and detected more often in the pedicel of treated than untreated fruitlets at all sampling times. Sucrose concentration in the fruitlet pericarp was significantly reduced to the control at two days after both ethephon treatments. In conclusion, it is postulated that the ethephon-induced abscission process commences with a reduction of the polar auxin transport capacity in the pedicel, followed by an upregulation of ethylene receptors and finally a decrease of the sucrose concentration in the fruitlets.

  14. [Mango: agroindustrial aspects, nutritional/functional value and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Velderrain-Rodriguez, Gustavo R; González-Aguilar, A; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, Jose A; Álvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la información más reciente sobre el valor agroindustrial, funcional y nutricional de uno de los frutos de mayor cultivo, exportación y consumo en México: el Mango. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en diversas bases de datos (PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect) y documentos de libre acceso (Google Scholar) sobre Mangifera indica L. Esta información fue posteriormente sub-clasificada en aspectos agroindustriales, nutricionales, funcionales y efectos a la salud. Resultados: Uno de cada veinte mangos consumidos mundialmente, es mexicano. “Ataulfo” es la variedad la de mayor importancia agronómica. El procesamiento mínimo de su pulpa (MP) genera residuos de cáscara (MC) y semilla con alto potencial nutracéutico. MP y MC son buenas fuentes de ascorbato, fructosa, fibra dietarias soluble (MP, almidones y ramnogalacturonanos) e insoluble (MC, ligninas y hemicelulosa) y lípidos funcionales (MP). MP y MC poseen un perfil de compuestos fenólicos (CF) monoméricos (MP) como el acido gálico y el protocatehuico y poliméricos (MC) como la -PGG asociados con efectos anti-obesigénicos, anti-inflamatorios, anti-cancerigenos y anti-diabeticos. Estos beneficios son dependientes de la bioaccesibilidad (liberación de su matriz alimentaria) y destino metabólico (biodisponibilidad) de estos CF. Discusión: El mango resulta una valiosa fuente de compuestos antioxidantes con comprobado beneficio a la salud. Sin embargo, factores como la variedad, temporalidad de cultivos, tratamientos pre y post-cosecha, extracción de bioactivos y algunas barreras fisiológicas pueden modificar su potencial nutracéutico.

  15. MANGO,to Eat,Not to be Eaten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mcfashion,also could be defined as fast- fashion,has become a retailing phenomenon in the new century,as ever-increasing numbers of chain stores race to deliver definitive, on-trend looks in cost-effective clothing. In 22 years,owing 997 shops in 89 countries,with the expanding speed of three newly-opened stores per week:MANGO,as a family-run business,has become Spain’s second women’s fashion textile exporter, sharing the global fashion markets with other top brands enthusiastically,since its first shop established in Paseo de Gracia in Barcelona in 1984.

  16. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  17. First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ethylene in pure culture of F. mangiferae obtained from mango. The study also revealed that all the isolates dissected from mango acquire morphological features of F. mangiferae showing most similarity to the features of species with accepted standard features. The isolates of F. mangiferae from mango were observed to produce ethylene in significant amounts, ranging from 9.28–13.66 n mol/g dry wt/day. The findings presented here suggest that F. mangiferae could contribute to the malformation of mango by producing ethylene and probably stimulating stress ethylene production in malformed tissue of mango. Ethylene might be produced through 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase-type ethylene-forming-enzyme (EFE) pathway in Fusarium sp, which needs to be investigated. PMID:23221756

  18. Evaluation of the proximate composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of mango seed kernel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Jane K; Imathiu, Samuel; Owino, Willis

    2017-03-01

    After pulp extraction in fruit processing industry, a significant quantity of mango seed kernels are discarded as solid wastes. These seed kernels can be ideal raw materials for obtaining extracts rich in bioactive compounds with good antioxidant properties. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine their potential use, this study evaluated some of the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial potential of mango seed kernel extracts on medically important human bacterial and fungal pathogens. Four mango varieties (Apple, Ngowe, Kent and Sabine) from Makueni and Embu counties in Kenya were used for this study. The analyzed mango seed kernel powders were found to contain on average, 6.74-9.20% protein content. Apple and Ngowe mango seed kernels had significantly higher fat content of 13.04 and 13.08, respectively, while Sabine from Makueni had the least fat content of 9.84%. The ash, fiber, and carbohydrate contents ranged from 1.78 to 2.87%, 2.64 to 3.71% and 72.86 to 75.92%, respectively. The mean percentage scavenging ability of mango kernel extracts at the concentration of 20 mg/mL was 92.22%. Apple and Sabine mango kernel extracts had significantly high inhibition zones of 1.93 and 1.73 compared to Kent and Ngowe with 1.13 and 1.10, respectively, against E. coli. For C. albicans, the inhibition of Kent mango kernel extract, 1.63, was significantly lower than that of Ngowe, Apple, and Sabine with 2.23, 2.13, and 1.83, respectively. This study demonstrates that mango seed powder is an abundant and cost-effective potential natural antibiotic and antifungal that can be utilized in addressing the challenge of food poisoning and infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the food industry.

  19. Modular SoC-Design using the MANGO clockless NoC (Invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens; Mahadevan, Shankar

    2005-01-01

    solution space to emerging SoC design challenges. In MANGO (Message-passing Asynchronous Network-on-chip providing Guaranteed services over OCP interfaces) we address issues related to a modular and scalable system-on-chip (SoC) design flow. Key features of MANGO are (i) clockless implementation...... in system performance by reducing complex dynamic communication dependencies to static ones. This makes system analysis much easier, leading to advantages at all levels of SoC design. In this talk we present MANGO. We explain the basic architecture and argue how the above features are important...

  20. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Benita, Miri; Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Sharabi-Schwager, Michal; Rozen, Ada; Saada, David; Cohen, Yuval; Ophir, Ron

    2015-11-14

    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers. We describe a de novo transcriptome assembly from mango cultivar 'Keitt'. Variation discovery was performed using Illumina resequencing of 'Keitt' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars identified 332,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1903 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). Most of the SSRs (70.1%) were of trinucleotide with the preponderance of motif (GGA/AAG)n and only 23.5% were di-nucleotide SSRs with the mostly of (AT/AT)n motif. Further investigation of the diversity in the Israeli mango collection was performed based on a subset of 293 SNPs. Those markers have divided the Israeli mango collection into two major groups: one group included mostly mango accessions from Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia) and India and the other with mainly of Floridian and Israeli mango cultivars. The latter group was more polymorphic (FS=-0.1 on the average) and was more of an admixture than the former group. A slight population differentiation was detected (FST=0.03), suggesting that if the mango accessions of the western world apparently was originated from Southeast Asia, as has been previously suggested, the duration of cultivation was not long enough to develop a distinct genetic background. Whole-transcriptome reconstruction was used to significantly broaden the mango's genetic variation resources, i.e., SNPs and SSRs. The set of SNP markers described in this study is novel. A subset of SNPs was sampled to explore the Israeli mango collection and most of them were polymorphic in many mango accessions. Therefore, we believe that these SNPs will be valuable as they recapitulate and

  1. The Relationship Between Heat-induced Chilling Tolerance and Endogenous ABA Levels in Mangoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-jiang; JI Zuo-liang

    2002-01-01

    Heating "Zhihua" mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zhihua) in hot air at 38℃ for 12hours significantly reduced the development of chilling injury following storage for 12days at 2℃. Prolonging the heating up to 72hours acquired similar results. During the 12 days' storage at 2℃ following heating for 72hours, the membrane leakage of the mango peels showed little change, while it increased with time for the control fruits, and the endogenous ABA levels in the heated fruits were higher than that in the control. These results indicated that higher ABA rates were linked with stronger chilling tolerance in mangoes.

  2. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mango canning by-products (seed and peel together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM, ash, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, ether extract (EE, nitrogen-free extract (NFE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and peel silage is 4.68, 4.19 and 5.27% respectively. As expected, mango seed has a higher fibre content than mango peel and peel silage as indicated by NDF (53.01 vs 25.87 and 27.56% respectively and ADF (31.02 vs 19.14 and 17.68% respectively. However, mango seed also has greater GE than mango peel and peel silage (4,070 vs 3,827 and 3,984 kcal/g DM respectively, probably due partly to its high fat content.Four head of male native cattle were used to determine nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products by randomly allowing them to receive ensiled mango peel with rice straw (EMPR and different levels of Leucaena leaves. Treatments consisted of: 1 ensiled mango peel + rice straw (90:10; 2 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (85:10:5; 3 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (80:10:10; and 4 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (75:10:15. Addition of Leucaena leaves to silage increased apparent digestibility of DM (53.84, 55.43, 59.04 and 58.69% for the four formulations above respectively, probably because of increasing amounts of CP from Leucaena leaves, resulting in greater digestibility of NDF (39.11, 44.47, 47.12 and 43.32% for the four formulations above respectively. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy (DE showed the same trends as apparent digestibility of DM.

  3. Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac Tchoundjeu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

  4. Floral induction management in 'Palmer' mango using uniconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Sousa Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of uniconazole (UCZ on 'Palmer' mango vegetative and reproductive response and on fruit physical, chemical, and productive characteristics during the off-season in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment followed a randomized block design. UCZ was tested at the following doses applied to leaves and expressed in g of UCZ active ingredient (a.i. per tree: 0.0, 1.0, and 1.0+1.0 (2.0 after 30 days; 1.0+1.0+1.0 (3.0 subdivided into 30-day intervals; and 1.0+1.0+2.0 (4.0 subdivided into 30-day intervals. All of the UCZ treatments reduced branch elongation in the 'Palmer' mango trees, leading to a mean reduction of 81.6% compared to the control. However, the UCZ application of 1.0+1.0+2.0g a.i. per tree subdivided into 30-day intervals was efficient in promoting flowering during the off-season, enabling a 167% mean increase in the number of fruit per tree and a 9.78t ha-1 mean increase in productivity.

  5. MANGO: a new approach to multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task for biological sequence analysis. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state of the art multiple sequence alignment programs suffer from the 'once a gap, always a gap' phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? This paper introduces a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds are provably significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, Prob-ConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0 and Kalign 2.0.

  6. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  7. Determination of avocado and mango fruit properties by ultrasonic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrach, A

    2000-03-01

    A nondestructive ultrasonic measurement system was developed for the assessment of some transmission parameters which might have quantitative relations with the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties of avocado and mango fruits. The system utilizes a set of low-frequency probes arranged to measure the ultrasonic signal transmitted and received over a short distance across the peel. The attenuation of the ultrasonic waves, transmitted through the peel and the attached fruit tissue, changes as a result of the progressive ripening and softening of the fruit during the fruiting season and in the course of storage. The present study quantitatively addressed the linkage between the ultrasonic attenuation and the physiological parameters of the flesh of the fruits. Results were obtained in the time and frequency domain, and the data set was analyzed statistically to identify the relations between the major physiological indices and the ultrasonic parameters. Quantitative relations were developed to describe the linkage between ultrasonic parameters and the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties in mango and avocado fruits.

  8. TRATAMIENTOS PARA REDUCIR LOS DAÑOS POR LÁTEX EN MANGO (Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Montero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar tratamientos alternativos para reducir las manchas de látex en mango. Se utilizaron frutos del cultivar Amarilla y soluciones (1% en agua de eter lauril sulfonato de sodio (ELSS, ácido sulfónico (AS, amida de coco (AC y nonil fenol etoxilado (NFE; hipoclorito de sodio (100 y 200 mg l-1 en agua; agua; con 3 tratamientos testigo (deslechado en seco y manchado intencional con limpieza posterior y sin ella. Se midió la incidencia y severidad de las manchas sobre la cáscara y en las lenticelas. Los residuos de látex y las manchas sobre la cáscara generalmente cubrieron menos de 5% del área total; sin embargo, cuando los frutos se deslecharon en agua, en las soluciones con los tensoactivos,o al mancharlos intencionalmente, las manchas fueron severas. Los tensoactivos AS, AC y NFE provocaron oscurecimiento de las lenticelas en el 60-100% de la superficie, con grado de severidad alto (3,8-4,0, sin estar asociados a residuos de látex sobre la cáscara. La severidad de la mancha de látex resultó leve cuando la fruta se deslechó en seco (0,8 y fue moderada cuando se hizo en agua y en las soluciones de cloro con 100 y 200 mg l-1 (1,7, 1,6 y 1,3, respectivamente. El trata- miento posterior con fungicida y agua caliente hizo más visibles las manchas. Los 3 mejores tratamientos fueron el deslechado en ELSS al 1%, en la solución de hipoclorito de sodio (100 mg l-1 y en seco.

  9. Methyl jasmonate reduces chilling injury and maintains postharvest quality of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aguilar, G A; Fortiz, J; Cruz, R; Baez, R; Wang, C Y

    2000-02-01

    Exposure of mango (Mangifera indica cv. Tommy Atkins) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (10(-)(4) M) for 24 h at 25 degrees C reduced chilling injury during subsequent storage for 21 days at 7 degrees C and after 5 days of shelf life at 20 degrees C. The chilling tolerance induced by MJ was positively correlated with the reduction in the percent ion leakage of mango tissue. The overall quality of MJ-treated fruit was also better than that of control fruit. MJ treatment increased the total soluble solids but did not affect titratable acidity or pH. MJ also did not change the normal climacteric rise in respiration, water loss, and softening rates. The efficacy of MJ to reduce chilling injury and decay of mango could be related to the tolerance induced at low temperature. It was concluded that MJ treatment may prevent chilling injury symptoms of mango without altering the ripening process.

  10. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  11. Fruit fly infestation in mango: A threat to the Horticultural sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    conducted in the major mango producing areas of the country. Four fruit fly ... recognised worldwide as the most ... the developed countries has been severely ..... Solanacea spp. Yes. Yes. Banana. Yes. No. Cherimoya. Annona cherimola.

  12. Influence of irrigation during the growth stage on yield and quality in mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Guoyin; Liu, Debing; Chen, Yeyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although being one of the few drought-tolerant plants, mango trees are irrigated to ensure optimum and consistent productivity in China. In order to better understand the effects of soil water content on mango yield and fruit quality at fruit growth stage, irrigation experiments were investigated and the object was to determine the soil water content criteria at which growth and quality of mango would be optimal based on soil water measured by RHD-JS water-saving irrigation system through micro-sprinkling irrigation. Five soil water content treatments (relative to the percentage of field water capacity) for irrigation (T1:79%-82%, T2:75%-78%, T3:71%-74%, T4: 65%-70%, T5:63%-66%) were compared in 2013. Amount of applied irrigation water for different treatments varied from 2.93m3 to 1.08 m3. The results showed that mango fruit production and quality at fruit growth stage were significantly affected under different irrigation water amounts. Variation in soil water content not only had effects on fruit size, but also on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained from the T4 treatment. Irrigation water amount also affected fruit quality parameters like fruit total soluble solids, soluble sugar, starch, titratable acid and vitamin C content. Comprehensive evaluation of the effect of indexs of correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function showed that when the soil moisture content were controlled at about 65-70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango could be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit could be achieved. In conclusion, treatment T4 was the optimum irrigation schedule for growing mango, thus achieving efficient production of mango in consideration of the compromise among mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency.

  13. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07%) followed by peanut skin ...

  14. La autoría mediata: Una respuesta del derecho a la criminalidad organizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la toma del Palacio de Justicia ha sido a nivel histórico un hecho lamentable y generador de víctimas debido a la consumación del delito de desaparición forzada. Al Coronel (r Plazas Vega, quien en su momento era el encargado de liderar todas las fuerzas contra el M-19 para la restitución del orden nacional, se le ha seguido un proceso de gran relevancia en el país, por cuanto su papel dentro de la toma permitió sobrepasar límites preestablecidos siendo necesario analizar la teoría de la autoría mediata por dominio de la organización, la cual ha sido el fundamento primordial para procesar y castigar a los dirigentes que vulneraron derechos y garantías de los ciudadanos que allí se encontraban.

  15. Potassium-modulated physiological performance of mango plants infected by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Severino Cacique

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mango wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata, is an important disease affecting mango production. In view of the beneficial effects of potassium (K in other profitable crops and the lack of information about the effect of macronutrients on mango wilt development, the present study aimed to evaluate how mango plants supplied with K respond physiologically when infected by C. fimbriata. Mango plants (» 3 years old from cultivar Ubá were grown in plastic pots containing 58 mg of K·dm−3 (original K level based on the chemical analysis of the substrate or in plastic pots with substrate amended with a solution of 0.5 M potassium chloride (KCl to achieve the rate of 240 mg K·dm−3. Disease symptoms were more pronounced in inoculated plants grown at the lower K level. Substantial declines in stomatal conductance, in line with decreases in the internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio and the absence of detectable changes in the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, suggest that the decrease in the net carbon assimilation rate is due, at least initially, to stomatal limitations. High concentrations of K and manganese were found in the stem tissues of inoculated plants and supplied with the highest K rate, most likely due to the involvement of these tissues in the local development of defense mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that the supply of K favored the physiological performance of mango plants and their resistance against C. fimbriata infection.

  16. Behavior of Thiophanate Methyl and Propiconazole in Grape and Mango Fruits Under the Egyptian Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Amira Sh; Helmy, Rania M A; Nasr, Islam N; Abbas, Mohamed S; Mahmoud, Hend A; Jiang, Wayne

    2017-05-01

    This research aims at determining residues of thiophanate methyl and propiconazole in grape and mango fruits as an indication for their persistence in this environmental compartment. Fruit extracts were analyzed for thiophanate methyl using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and using Gas Chromatography Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD), respectively. The results indicated that propiconazole had a less environmental impact since propiconazole had shorter residue half-lives which were 1.24 and 1.19 days in grape and mango fruits, respectively, while thiophanate methyl had half-lives of 2.49 and 2.64 days in mango and grape, respectively. The degradation rates of propiconazole in grape and mango fruits did not change significantly and neither did those of thiophanate methyl. According to the maximum residue level, the pre-harvest intervals of propiconazole were set to be 3 and 7 days for grape and mango fruits, respectively, and the pre-harvest intervals for thiophanate methyl were 15 days for both grape and mango fruits. Propiconazole was generally considered to be less hazardous to humans and will leave the environment less altered because of its faster degradation than that of thiophanate methyl.

  17. Determining Sala mango qualities with the use of RGB images captured by a mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-04-01

    Sala mango (Mangifera indicia) is one of the Malaysia's most popular tropical fruits that are widely marketed within the country. The degrees of ripeness of mangoes have conventionally been evaluated manually on the basis of color parameters, but a simple non-destructive technique using the Samsung Galaxy Note 1 mobile phone camera is introduced to replace the destructive technique. In this research, color parameters in terms of RGB values acquired using the ENVI software system were linked to detect Sala mango quality parameters. The features of mango were extracted from the acquired images and then used to classify of fruit skin color, which relates to the stages of ripening. A multivariate analysis method, multiple linear regression, was employed with the purpose of using RGB color parameters to estimate the pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and firmness. The relationship between these qualities parameters of Sala mango and its mean pixel values in the RGB system is analyzed. Findings show that pH yields the highest accuracy with a correlation coefficient R = 0.913 and root mean square of error RMSE = 0.166 pH. Meanwhile, firmness has R = 0.875 and RMSE = 1.392 kgf, whereas soluble solid content has the lowest accuracy with R = 0.814 and RMSE = 1.218°Brix with the correlation between color parameters. Therefore, this non-invasive method can be used to determine the quality attributes of mangoes.

  18. Exploring the mango-poison ivy connection: the riddle of discriminative plant dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, Klilah; Weinberg, Ido; Ingber, Arieh

    2005-01-01

    A relationship between sensitivity to poison oak or poison ivy and mango dermatitis has been suggested by previous publications. The observation that acute allergic contact dermatitis can arise on first exposure to mango in patients who have been sensitized beforehand by contact with other urushiol-containing plants has been documented previously. We report 17 American patients employed in mango picking at a summer camp in Israel, who developed a rash of varying severity. All patients were either in contact with poison ivy/oak in the past or lived in areas where these plants are endemic. None recalled previous contact with mango. In contrast, none of their Israeli companions who had never been exposed to poison ivy/oak developed mango dermatitis. These observations suggest that individuals with known history of poison ivy/oak allergy, or those residing in area where these plants are common, may develop allergic contact dermatitis from mango on first exposure. We hypothesize that previous oral exposure to urushiol in the local Israeli population might establish immune tolerance to these plants.

  19. Effect of high-pressure processing on quality and stability of green mango blended mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Swati; Chauhan, O P; Anurag, Rahul K

    2017-07-01

    The present work was aimed to study and optimize the high pressure treated green mango blended mayonnaise in terms of oxidative and emulsion stability, as a function of technical parameters; pressure intensity, dwell period and level of green mango pulp. Mayonnaise samples were treated at different combinations of pressure (400-600 MPa), holding time (5-10 min) and level of green mango pulp (10-30%) following Box-Behnken design. Mayonnaise quality was evaluated in terms of oxidative stability and emulsion stability using response surface methodology to optimize the best possible combination among all. Analysis of variance showed that the second-order polynomial model fitted well with the experimental results. Pressure and time were the most important factors determining the oxidative stability (free fatty acids, peroxide value and anisidine value) whereas; the emulsion stability (creaming and thermal creaming) was most significantly affected by the level of green mango pulp. The optimized conditions for preparing green mango blended mayonnaise with high oxidative and emulsion stability were: 435 MPa pressure, 5 min of holding time with the addition of green mango pulp at the rate of 28%. The product prepared at optimum conditions showed good correlations between predicted and actual values.

  20. PRESENCIA DE Colletotrichum acutatum y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides EN HELECHO HOJA DE CUERO, LIMÓN CRIOLLO, PAPAYA, CARAMBOLA Y MANGO EN COSTA RICA Y FLORIDA (ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Barquero Quir\\u00F3s

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La antracnosis es una enfermedad causada por varias especies del género Colletotrichum en diferentes hospederos. C. acutatum y C. gloeosporioides son especies morfológicamente similares, que pueden causar síntomas similares en el mismo hospedero. Se colectaron 220 aislamientos de Colletotrichum de muestras con síntomas típicos de antracnosis en helecho hoja de cuero (Rumohra adiantiformis, limón criollo (Citrus aurantifolia, carambola (Averrhoa carambola, papaya (Carica papaya y mango (Mangifera indica en Costa Rica y Florida, Estados Unidos. Los aislamientos se caracterizaron por morfología de colonia, sensibilidad al benomil, y PCR con los iniciadores específicos para C. acutatum y C. gloeosporioides CaInt2 y Cg/fInt1, respectivamente; también se analizó la morfología de las colonias de ambas especies. De los 85 aislamientos obtenidos de mango, todos los aislamientos de Florida fueron identificados como C. acutatum, mientras que todos los aislamientos de Costa Rica fueron C. gloeosporioides. De los 60 aislamientos de carambola, 3 provenientes de Costa Rica fueron C. acutatum (primer informe y el resto fueron C. gloeosporioides. Todos los aislamientos de helecho hoja de cuero (25 aislamientos y de limón criollo (25 aislamientos se identificaron como C. acutatum. Los demás aislamientos de carambola y mango así como todos los aislamientos de papaya, se identificaron como C. gloeosporioides. No se encontró diferenciación de síntomas entre ambas especies sobre los hospederos donde se encontraron.

  1. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  2. OpenCV Based Disease Identification of Mango Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Sethupathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims in classifying and identifying the diseases of mango leaves for Indian agriculture. K-means algorithm is chosen for the disease segmentation, and the disease classification and identification is carried out using the SVM classifier. Disease identification based on analysis of patches or discoloring of leaf will hold good for some of the plant diseases, but some other diseases which will deform the leaf shape cannot be identified based on the same method. In this case leaf shape based disease identification has to be performed. Based on this analysis two topics are addressed in this research paper. (1 Disease identification using the OpenCV libraries (2 Leaf shape based disease identification.

  3. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  4. Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2012-12-01

    The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control.

  5. MANGO S.A.: Reinventando el sector de la moda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodríguez- Donaire

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available MaAngo se creó bajo tres premisas poco evidentes en su época: ropa para mujer joven y urbana, fabricación en países de costes de producción más competitivos por diferentes factores como precio, agilidad, proximidad geográfica, especialización técnica, etc. y moderación en los costes indirectos gracias a las tecnologías de la información. Una vez consolidadas estas premisas la organización ha desarrollado una serie de nuevos conceptos: imagen de marca global y eficiencia en los sistemas informáticos y logísticos, los cuales hacen de Mango un ejemplo de éxito empresarial.

  6. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-08-01

    Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. Bioactive components, antioxidative properties and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of mango peel as affected by the storage of mango fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Adetuyi O. Foluso; Akinlerye Makinde; Ifedayo Adeyemi; Victoria Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the bioactive components (total phenolics, vitamin C and flavonoid), antioxidant properties (FRAP, and hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities) and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of the peel of mango fruit stored at refrigeration temperature and room temperature. The peel of mango fruit stored at room temperature had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher contents of total phenolic (13.61 mg GAE/g), vitamin C (12.98 mg AAE/g), total flavonoid...

  8. Sequence diversity and differential expression of major phenylpropanoid-flavonoid biosynthetic genes among three mango varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van L T; Innes, David J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2015-07-30

    Mango fruits contain a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds which impart potential health benefits; their biosynthesis is catalysed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid (PF) pathway. The aim of this study was to reveal the variability in genes involved in the PF pathway in three different mango varieties Mangifera indica L., a member of the family Anacardiaceae: Kensington Pride (KP), Irwin (IW) and Nam Doc Mai (NDM) and to determine associations with gene expression and mango flavonoid profiles. A close evolutionary relationship between mango genes and those from the woody species poplar of the Salicaceae family (Populus trichocarpa) and grape of the Vitaceae family (Vitis vinifera), was revealed through phylogenetic analysis of PF pathway genes. We discovered 145 SNPs in total within coding sequences with an average frequency of one SNP every 316 bp. Variety IW had the highest SNP frequency (one SNP every 258 bp) while KP and NDM had similar frequencies (one SNP every 369 bp and 360 bp, respectively). The position in the PF pathway appeared to influence the extent of genetic diversity of the encoded enzymes. The entry point enzymes phenylalanine lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-mono-oxygenase (C4H) and chalcone synthase (CHS) had low levels of SNP diversity in their coding sequences, whereas anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) showed the highest SNP frequency followed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Quantitative PCR revealed characteristic patterns of gene expression that differed between mango peel and flesh, and between varieties. The combination of mango expressed sequence tags and availability of well-established reference PF biosynthetic genes from other plant species allowed the identification of coding sequences of genes that may lead to the formation of important flavonoid compounds in mango fruits and facilitated characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms between varieties. We discovered an association between the extent of sequence variation and

  9. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

  10. ESTIMACIÓN DE ÁREA FOLIAR EN POSTURAS DE MANGO (Manguifera indica L. Y AGUACATERO (Persea spp EN FASE DE VIVERO A PARTIR DE LAS MEDIDAS LINEALES DE LAS HOJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calderón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen distintos métodos diseñados para estimar la superficie foliar, clasificándose en destructivos, no destructivos y de estimación. Se propuso en este trabajo como objetivo establecer un método no destructivo para estimar el área foliar en posturas de mango (Manguifera indica L. y aguacatero (Persea spp, utilizando las medidas lineales de sus hojas. El trabajo se desarrolló en viveros dedicados a la producción y comercialización de posturas de frutales. Las plantas de aguacate y mango fueron muestreadas a la edad de 120 días después del trasplante (ddt a bolsas con sustratos compuestos por diferentes fuentes, al considerarse un momento adecuado para conocer la superficie foliar. Los análisis de regresión se efectuaron aplicando el modelo lineal Y= a+b*X y se empleó el programa Statgraphics 5.1 plus para windows, seleccionándose las ecuaciones de mayor ajuste. Tanto para el mango como para el aguacate se lograron relaciones moderadamente fuertes entre las variables analizadas, destacándose las correlaciones de la superficie foliar con el producto de la longitud por el ancho de las hojas, resultando estadísticamente significativas para un valor de P¿0.01**.

  11. Residues of {sup 14}C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes; Residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas irradiadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2000-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 {mu}g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 {mu}g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

  12. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Addition of dried 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch-molded mango snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing demand of healthier foods favors the consumption of natural bioactive compounds such as antioxidants and dietary fiber (DF) that confers protection against cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases. On the industrial processing of mango, 35-60 % of this fruit is discarde...

  14. Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (F.) in Philippine mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.) is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response stud...

  15. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from the mango (Mangiferaindica) transcriptome for mapping and estimation of genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of resources for genomic studies in Mangifera indica (mango) will allow marker-assisted selection and identification of genetically diverse germplasm, greatly aiding mango breeding programs. We report here a first step in developing such resources, our identification of thousands una...

  16. Irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica, Linn) carabao variety, for commercial export. Pt. 1 - Establishment of dose requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, A.O.; Pilola, M.K.; Roncal, R.A.; Singson, C.M.

    Studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs of Dacus dorsalis Hendel implanted on carabao mangoes packed in commercial boxes for export has been carried out. Irradiation of as low as 50 krad proved to be effective in disinfecting 5 kg batches of mature-green Carabao mangoes. In addition, the effect of irradiation on storage life and organoleptic properties are described.

  17. Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Luis Sánchez Arévalo; João Ricardo Ferreira de Lima; Adriano Firmino V. de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    .... En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realizadas por el Perú...

  18. Behavior of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in/on mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K

    2011-08-01

    Residue persistence of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid on mango was carried out after giving spray application of the combination formulation, beta cyfluthrin 9% + imidacloprid 21% (Solomon 300 OD) 3 times at the fruit formation stage. The treatments were, untreated control, standard dose of 75 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose of 150 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residues of beta cyfluthrin on mango fruits were 0.04 and 0.12 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 2.4 and 2.6 days and persisted for 5 days only. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits were 0.14 and 0.18 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. Imidacloprid residues degraded with the half-life of 3.06 and 4.16 days, respectively and persisted for 10 days. Mature mango fruits at harvest were free from residues of both insecticides. A safe pre-harvest interval of 8 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits after treatment of the combination formulation.

  19. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  20. Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danalache, Florina; Carvalho, Claudia Y; Alves, Vitor D; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Mata, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    The optimisation of an edible coating based on low acyl (L)/high acyl (H) gellan gum for ready-to-eat mango bars was performed through a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were the concentration of gellan (L/H90/10) and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the coating solution, as well as the storage time after coating application. The response variables studied were the coating thickness, mango bars firmness, syneresis, and colour alterations. Gellan concentration was the independent variable that most influenced the thickness of the coating. Syneresis was quite low for the conditions tested (mango bars. The release of eight volatile compounds from the uncoated and coated mango bars with the selected formulation was analysed by Headspace - Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography during 9 days of refrigerated storage. This work showed that the coating can improve mango bars sensory characteristics (appearance and firmness) and stability in terms of syneresis, colour and volatiles content during storage increasing the commercial value of the final product. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2011-08-01

    Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips.

  2. Effects of nisin-incorporated films on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of minimally processed mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Silva de Araújo, Hyrla Grazielle; Matos, Patrícia Nogueira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; Almeida de Castro, Alessandra

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nisin-incorporated cellulose films on the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of minimally processed mangoes. The use of antimicrobial films did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of mangoes and showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cereus. The mango slices were inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (10(7)CFU/g), and the viable cell numbers remained at 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/g, respectively, after 12days. In samples packed with antimicrobial films, the viable number of L. monocytogenes cells was reduced below the detection level after 4days. After 6days, a reduction of six log units was observed for S. aureus. In conclusion, nisin showed antimicrobial activity in mangoes without interfering with the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This result suggests that nisin could potentially be used in active packing to improve the safety of minimally processed mangoes.

  3. Alkaloids and phenolics biosynthesis increases mango resistance to infection by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mango wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most important diseases affecting mango yields in Brazil. Information regarding the biochemical mechanisms involved in mango resistance against C. fimbriata is absent in the literature. Thus, the present study determined and quantified alkaloids and phenolics in the stem tissue of mango plants from Palmer (susceptible and Ubá (resistant cultivars. Furthermore, it was examined the effect of these secondary metabolites against C. fimbriata growth in vitro. The high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the concentration of two alkaloids (theobromine and 7-methylxanthine and six phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin and epicatechin in the inoculated plants from cv. Ubá was higher in comparison with inoculated plants from cv. Palmer. The concentration of the secondary metabolites was higher in the non-inoculated plants from cv. Palmer than in the inoculated ones, while the opposite was observed for plants of cv. Ubá. Peaks in the concentrations of secondary metabolites in the inoculated plants from both cultivars occurred at 7 and 14 days after inoculation. The different concentrations (10 to 30 mg∙mL−1 of secondary metabolites added to the Petri dishes greatly inhibited C. fimbriata growth over time. These results suggest that secondary metabolites played an important role in the resistance of mango plants against C. fimbriata infection.

  4. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh-cut mango quality in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Narciso, Jan A; Rattanapanone, Nithiya; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Edible coatings may extend fresh-cut fruit storage by preventing moisture loss and decreasing gas exchange. This study evaluated the effect of an antibrowning dip (calcium ascorbate, citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine), followed or not with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or carrageenan coatings on quality of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 °C for up to 20 days. A fourth treatment, only used in one of four experiments, consisted of chitosan. Treatments were applied on 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent' and 'Keitt' mangoes harvested from Homestead (FL), and on imported store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning dips maintained the best visual quality during storage for all cultivars, as indicated by higher b*, hue and L*. The CMC coating maintained similar visual quality, but carrageenan or chitosan decreased L* and b*. The antibrowning dip containing calcium ascorbate reduced firmness loss on cut pieces of 'Keitt', 'Kent' and store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning treatment maintained higher titratable acidity for 'Kent' and 'Keitt', resulting in lower sensory sweetness. This study with repeated experiments showed that calcium ascorbate with citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine maintained cut mango slices attractiveness in storage by keeping light color in both varieties. The addition of a polysaccharide coating did not consistently improve quality.

  5. Isolation and evaluation of biocontrol agents in controlling anthracnose disease of mango in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungjindamai Nattawut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural based economy is a core business in Thailand and food export is one of the main sources of income for the Thai population. However, pesticides are overused and misused. As a result there is an urgent need to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Biological control offers an alternative to the use of pesticides. Mango (Mangifera indica L. is widely planted in Thailand and is one of the major cash crops for international export. However, mango suffers from various diseases especially anthracnose, a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. One hundred and twelve isolates of epiphytic microbes were isolated from healthy leaves and fruits of mangoes; this included 93 and 19 isolates of epiphytic bacteria and yeasts, respectively. They were screened for bioactivity against a pathogenic strain of C. gloeosporioides isolated from diseased mangoes using a dual culture technique. Out of 112 isolates, eight isolates exhibited at least 60% inhibition. These isolates were further screened for their inhibition on mango using fruit inoculation. Two isolates reduced the lesion sizes caused by C. gloeosporioides compared to control treatment. These two isolates, based on phenotypical and biochemical tests, were identified as Bacillus sp. MB61 and Bacillus sp. LB72.

  6. Selection of mango rosa genotypes in a breeding population using the multivariate-biplot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clideana Cabral Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mango ( Mangifera indica L. trees stand out among the main fruit trees cultivated in Brazil. The mango rosa fruit is a very popular local variety (landrace, especially because of their superior technological characteristics such as high contents of Vitamin C and soluble solids (SS, as well as attractive taste and color. The objective of this study was to select a breeding population of mango rosa (polyclonal variety; ≥5 individuals that can simultaneously meet the fresh and processed fruit markets, using the multivariate method of principal components and the biplot graphic. The principal components, biplot graphic, and phenotype correlations were obtained using the R (2012 software. Pulp percentage and the pulp, skin, and seed mass variables can be indirectly selected using the smallest fruit diameter, which allowed an easier measurement. The P23R AREA3, P30R AREA3, and P32R AREA3 genotypes are selection candidates due to the presence of alleles, which are important agro-technological traits for mango breeding. This study showed that the biplot analysis is a valuable tool for decision making and visualization of interrelationships between variables and genotypes, facilitating the mango selection process.

  7. Differentially expressed genes implicated in embryo abortion of mango identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J H; Ma, F W; Chen, Y Y; Shu, H R

    2012-11-14

    Embryo abortion in mango severely damages mango production worldwide. The mechanisms by which the mango embryos abort have long been an intriguing question. We used subtractive suppression hybridization to investigate the differentially expressed genes involved in this process. We generated 2 cDNA libraries from normal seed and aborted seed embryos of mango cultivar 'Jinhuang'. One thousand five hundred and seventy-two high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained, with 1092 from the normal seed tester library and 480 from the aborted seed tester library. These ESTs were assembled into 783 unigenes, including 147 contigs and 636 singletons in contigs; 297 singletons in gene ontology (GO) indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. Seven candidate genes from different categories were selected for semi-quantitative PCR analysis, and their possible functions in embryo abortion are discussed. These data provide new insight into the genetic regulation of embryo abortion in mango and may aid in further identification of novel genes and their functions.

  8. Draped heterogeneity, forced uniformity: when agro-environmental policies drive family development: The U Minh Thượng forest reserve, (Mekong delta, Vietnam Hétérogénéité cachée, uniformité forcée : quand les politiques agro-environnementales guident le développement familial – Cas de la réserve forestière de U Minh Thượng (delta du Mékong, Vietnam Heterogeneidad oculta, uniformidad forzada: cuando las políticas agro-ambientales impulsan el desarrollo familiar. La reserva del bosque de U Minh Thượng (delta del Mekong, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Saqalli

    2011-04-01

    ONG environnementalistes internationales a conforté une orientation pro-nature intransigeante qui a affecté les moyens de subsistance des agriculteurs. Cette expérience sociale « en vraie grandeur » renforce donc la nécessité d’intégrer au minimum les besoins et les contraintes à moindre échelle, en particulier sur un périmètre aussi large.La reserva natural de U Minh Thượng se creó en los años noventa con una zona de delimitación circundante en la que, entre 1992 y 1995, se asentaron 3.500 casas con un terreno de 4 hectáreas cada una. Desde el punto de vista social, los pobladores elegidos fueron “gente pobre" o veteranos de guerra. Poco a poco se fue suscitando una discriminación social a favor de los segundos. A pesar de una aparente homogeneidad, el entorno muestra ligeras variaciones que tienen enormes repercusiones sobre el potencial de los terrenos. Entre 1992 y 1998, el gobierno provincial aplicó políticas de gestión uniformemente diferentes, pese a que este repetido "nuevo trato" de la variabilidad entre casas y terrenos produjera distintos resultados que van desde la destrucción total a un verdadero apoyo a las casas. Finalmente, el apoyo de organizaciones no gubernamentales medioambientales e internacionales realzó una postura inflexible a favor de la naturaleza que ha afectado a los medios de subsistencia de los granjeros. Este experimento social del "mundo real" realza la necesidad de por lo menos comprender las necesidades y las limitaciones a menor escala, especialmente para un área tan amplia.

  9. Caracterización de alteraciones metabólicas y reproductoras en modelos de manipulación nutricional y gonadal aplicada en diversas etapas del desarrollo: impacto de la obesidad sobre el eje reproductor

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Garrido Nogueras, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral ha sido i) evaluar la influencia de la edad sobre el peso, el contenido lipídico y la respuesta a leptina en distintos órganos y tejidos, ii) evaluar estos mismos parámetros en ratones obesos, iii) definir las alter aciones conductuales y metabólicas que conllevan el incremento del peso corporal en estos ratones, iv) determinar si la sincronización forzada de la ingesta puede normalizar dichas alteraciones y v) caracterizar la posible relación entre la inhib...

  10. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB1=68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (pmycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs.

  11. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular diversity of Pakistani mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazish, T; Shabbir, G; Ali, A; Sami-Ul-Allah, S; Naeem, M; Javed, M; Batool, S; Arshad, H; Hussain, S B; Aslam, K; Seher, R; Tahir, M; Baber, M

    2017-04-05

    Understanding the genetic diversity of different Pakistani mango varieties is important for germplasm management and varietal characterization. Microsatellites are efficient and highly polymorphic markers for comparative genome mapping, and were used in the present study to determine the genetic relatedness and variability among 15 indigenous mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.). Overall, 181 bands were produced using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of the 12 primers used, 10 were polymorphic and two were monomorphic. Genetic relatedness among cultivars was assessed by constructing a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. The accessions exhibited coefficients of similarity ranging from 75 to 100%, indicating the frequent use of only a few parent cultivars and the presence of inbreeding. The primers used in the present study were found to be valuable for identifying genetic relationships among mango cultivars.

  13. Implementation of Guaranteed Services in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    the effects of scaling microchip technologies. Equally important, a NoC facilitates a truly modular and scalable design flow. The MANGO (message-passing asynchronous network-on-chip providing guaranteed services over open core protocol (OCP) interfaces) NoC is presented, and how its key characteristics...... (clockless implementation, standard socket access points, and guaranteed communication services) make MANGO suitable for a modular SoC design flow is explained. Among the advantages of using clockless circuit techniques are inherent global timing closure, low forward latency in pipelines, and zero dynamic...... idle power consumption. Time division multiplexing, generally used to provide bandwidth guarantees in clocked NoCs, however, is not possible in a clockless environment. MANGO provides an alternative, high-performance solution to providing hard, connection-oriented service guarantees, using clockless...

  14. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  16. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  17. Identification and characterization of Fusarium mangiferae as pathogen of mango malformation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fusarium mangiferae (=F. subglutinans isolates collect from malformed samples from major mango-growing area of North India. Molecular identification and characterization of eleven most virulent isolates of F. mangiferae, based on pathogenicity tests used for the present study. Species-specific, genus specific ITS-PCR and PCR-RFLP performed for the accurate and easy detection of F. mangiferae. The rDNA-ITS 28S region sequences used for phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium isolates from India and other countries for homology search between them. The phylogenetic tree divided the isolates into three clades (i.e., American, Asian and African and showed the high level of sequence based similarity (69-99% among all Fusarium sequences from Asia. Thus, claimed Fusarium mangiferae as dominant pathogen of mango malformation. Furthermore, we conclude that exploiting the nested PCR coupled with PCR-RFLP will help in rapid and accurate detection of F. mangiferae pathogen of mango malformation.

  18. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  19. Abscission of mango fruitlets as influenced by enhanced ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Elisea, R; Davenport, T L

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on developing fruitlet explants of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars to establish the source and dynamics of ethylene production prior to and during fruitlet abscission. Abscission of all fruits in the samples occurred at approximately 86 and 74 hours postharvest in ;Keitt' and ;Tommy Atkins,' respectively. Increased abscission began 26 hours from harvest and was preceded by enhanced ethylene synthesis. Enhanced ethylene production initiated approximately 48 hours prior to abscission and increased to a maximum near the time of fruitlet abscission. The seed produced the highest amount of ethylene on a per gram fresh weight basis. The pericarp, however, was the main source of ethylene on an absolute basis, since it represented more than 85% of total fruitlet weight. Pedicels containing the abscission zone produced no detectable ethylene prior to or at the moment of abscission. Fumigation of ;Tommy Atkins' fruitlets with 1, 15, or 100 microliters per liter ethylene accelerated abscission by 24 to 36 hours in comparison with unfumigated controls. Diffusion of ethylene from distal fruitlet tissues to the abscission zone triggers the events leading to separation of the fruit from the tree.

  20. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

  1. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with H-NMR based metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-05-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of (1)H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake.

  2. Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

  3. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H{sup 1}) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H{sup 1} indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  4. 芒果面包的研制%Development of Mango Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云; 华海霞; 陈学祥

    2013-01-01

    通过在普通面包原料中加入芒果浆的方法,研制具有芒果营养和保健功能的面包.结果表明,采用先添加芒果浆进行搅打的方法,制作出的面包在外观形状、内部组织结构及色泽与口感为好;通过正交试验,筛选出芒果面包的最佳工艺配方为:芒果浆添加量(以面粉质量计)40%,奶粉20%,白砂糖10%,水32%,再配以20%的黄油,经酵母发酵,可生产出营养丰富、色泽诱人、风味独特的芒果面包.%The bread which had nutrition the health care function of mango was made by the method of adding mango pulp to ordinary bread ingredients. The results showed that, the appearance and shape, internal organizational structure and color and mouthfeel of bread were good by the method of adding the mango pulp before whipping. By orthogonal test, the optimum formulation for mango bread was as follow, additive amount of mango pulp (to flour weight) was 40%, milk powder was 20%, sugar was 10%, water was 32%, butter was 20%, and then through yeast fermentation, the mango bread with rich nutrition, attractive color and unique flavor was produced.

  5. Los Procuradores de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid y su Montepío. Dificultades y problemas de una fórmula de previsión y sociabilidad forzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita TORREMOCHA HERNÁNDEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Los ilustrados promovieron la desaparición de las cofradías gremiales y profesionales, para dejar paso a fórmulas nuevas de carácter laico denominadas Montepíos. Los profesionales de los tribunales reales instituyeron estas fórmulas de previsión; establecidas fundamentalmente para el socorro tras la defunción a viudas y huérfanos. Estas nuevas asociaciones carecían de la condición socio-religioso de las anteriores, y no desarrollaron el carácter de cultura social de las posteriores asociaciones de socorros mutuos. Tales lagunas contribuyeron a su corta existencia, pero sobre todo fue el factor económico lo que condujo a no pocos Montepíos a su desaparición. Los Procuradores y Agentes de la real Chancillería fundaron en 1780 un Montepío que antes de terminar la década ya tenía problemas para sobrevivir. Las medidas adoptadas para subsanar las quiebras económicas y las defecciones humanas, dicen mucho sobre las deficiencias de esta fórmula de sociabilidad forzada.

  6. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (pmangoes exhibited significantly (pmango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MANGO - A Magnetogram Analysis Service for Enhancement of the Heliophysics Data Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Heliophysics Data Environment Enhancement program supports efforts to integrate data services for conducting research of solar-terrestrial interactions. MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is a service that is directed at Heliophysics researchers interested in processing magnetic field data from ground magnetometers. Ground magnetograms are essential for monitoring the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. For instance, it is difficult to understand how spacecraft particle and field variations fit in context of activity throughout the global magnetospheric system without using ground magnetic field data. The MANGO service package allows one to decompose ground magnetic field variations and estimate the relative contributions from secular, diurnal, ring current, and auroral current systems. The MANGO service package leverages the SPASE metadata registries of the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to compile a list of available magnetogram data products. Currently, MANGO provides access to over 900 data products from about 350 ground magnetic field stations located around the globe. The VMO SPASE Granule registry contains ~150,000 files that comprise the MANGO relevant data products. And, the VMO Granule registry count is steadily increasing as more data products are described and ingested. Data selection from the distributed network of stations is naturally aided by using a world map to display the set of observatories. The MANGO web site (http://mango.igpp.ucla.edu), plots stations on a map that have data products, which meet user-defined criteria based on time of observation, station location, time cadence, magnetometer chain, etc. Note that Many of the ground magnetogram and geomagnetic index data products relevant to the MANGO effort are only available from their data providers in formats that allow the data to be packed. The formats used, and there are many types, save time in file retrieval and

  8. The effectiveness of weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) biocontrol in Southeast Asian citrus and mango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim; Cuc, Nguyen Thi Thu; Wiwatwitaya, Decha

    2013-01-01

    % increase in the Vietnamese plantation was statistically significant. In contrast, ant protection was ineffectual in Thai mango. Here, the profit in ant plots was negative, and 125 % higher than in chemical plots, due to failed fruit set on ant-trees. This was mainly due to the leafhopper Idioscopus...... plantation and in a Thai mango plantation. In Thai pomelo and Vietnamese mixed pomelo/orange, ants and chemical pesticides lead to equal fruit yields. Lower costs in ant treatments, though, generated profit increases of 15 and 47 %, respectively, in ant plots compared with pesticide plots, though only the 47...

  9. Gamma irradiation: an answer to the mango grower's prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, A.C.

    1975-11-01

    Problems of shipping and marketing mangoes grown in South Africa are described. Severe losses are caused by the mango weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae, and the fungus diseases, anthracnose and soft brown rot. Effects of 50 to 200 krad of gamma radiation on the weevils and fungal diseases were studied. Synergistic effects of hot water on the fungi were also studied. Organoleptic properties of the fruit were not affected by radiation treatment. Shipping studies indicated that irradiated fruit was in a marketable condition up to four days, as compared to only one day for unirradiated fruit. Cost estimation studies showed that the radiation treatment is commercially feasible. (HLW)

  10. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-01-01

    Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

  11. Cinética de la diferencia de color y croma en el proceso térmico de pulpa de mango (Mangifera indica L. variedad Haden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Manayay Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la cinética de la diferencia de color y croma en el proceso térmico de pulpa simple (16°Brix y concentrada (28°Brix de mango Haden, a diferentes temperaturas, el ajuste estadístico de la variación de los parámetros colorimétricos L*, ΔE* y ΔC* con respecto al tiempo, y los resultados de energías de activación mayores en el análisis del efecto de la temperatura sobre las constantes cinéticas, condujeron a concluir que corresponden a una cinética de reacción de orden cero.

  12. Mango: ¿un caso de glocalización? Análisis de su estrategia y política de marketing-mix internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Arteaga Ortiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available MANGO es una multinacional dedicada al diseño, fabricación y comercialización de prendas de vestir y complementos, destinados fundamentalmente a la mujer. En la actualidad, es la segunda empresa exportadora del sector textil español y líder del mercado en el segmento de moda femenina. Desde sus comienzos, ha tenido un crecimiento continuo, lo que le ha permitido abordar nuevos mercados. Quizás un factor de su rápida expansión haya sido la utilización, principalmente, de un determinado modo de entrada: la franquicia. También su política de comunicación ha sido muy eficaz. Para llegar a su target ha contado con la participación de celebrities en su política de marketing internacional, permitiendo un mayor reconocimiento de la firma. Ello, además, ha repercutido en su política de producto, al reforzar la imagen de la marca. A pesar de su alto grado de internacionalización, MANGO actúa localmente, por ejemplo, adaptando hasta el 20% de sus colecciones en cada mercado. También se adapta a los nuevos tiempos y a las necesidades de sus clientes. Por eso, en 2008 lanzó al mercado su primera colección para hombres. En cuanto a su política de precios internacionales, MANGO aplica, en general, una política de precios medios-altos, que acompaña a su política de producto de calidad media-alta, haciendo que, si bien los precios de la firma sean asequibles para el gran público, se sitúen en un nivel superior a su rival directo, Zara. La estrategia de rentabilidad de la cadena se basa en el ingreso por rotación más que por margen. En cierta medida, su expansión internacional y su crecimiento ha sido posible gracias a su estrategia de mercadeo internacional (en algunas de sus políticas, bajo el denominado marco conceptual de la glocalización: “Piensa globalmente, actúa localmente”. En este artículo se analiza y estudia su estrategia y política de marketing- mix internacional, desde un punto de vista teórico y práctico.

  13. Factores de riesgo laboral para tenosinovitis del miembro superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mevic Garrafa Núñez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo desencadenantes de tenosinovitis en los trabajadores verificando qué casos pueden ser considerados de origen laboral y reconocer las formas de presentación más frecuentes en relación al ámbito laboral. Metodología: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura científica publicada en Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CISDOC-ILO/OSH UPDATE, Scopus, LILACS e IBECS en el período comprendido entre 2007 a 2014. Resultados: Se obtiene un total de 14 artículos entre los cuales 10 eran transversales y 4 son casos y controles. Todos ellos muestran una elevada probabilidad de desarrollar tenosinovitis en el ámbito laboral. La relación con movimientos repetitivos fue el factor de riesgo más importante con OR > 2, seguido de posturas forzadas y el uso de herramientas vibratorias. Respecto a los factores psicosociales la depresión presenta una OR = 3,04 (IC95% 2,43-3,81 y la combinación de movimiento repetitivo y el estrés, OR = 4,94 (IC95% 3,532-6,91. Conclusión: Movimientos repetitivos, posturas forzadas y mantenidas, herramientas vibratorias, edad, ser mujer, raza blanca, estrés fueron los factores de riesgo encontrados sin poder demostrar en ninguno causalidad, siendo los trastornos musculoesqueléticos más prevalentes el síndrome del manguito de los rotadores, la enfermedad de De Quervain, dedo en gatillo y la epicondilitis lateral y medial.

  14. CARACTERÍSTICAS FISICOQUÍMICAS DE LA GRASA DE SEMILLA DE VEINTE CULTIVARES DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA DEL PILAR LÓPEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En la presente investigación se evaluó el rendimiento de extracción y propiedades fisicoquímicas de la grasa de semilla de 20 cultivares de mango ( LMangifera Indica. en Colombia. Se emplearon semillas de frutos en estado maduro, procesadas en harina con el siguiente rango de composición proximal: grasa 6.73 % - 11.8 %; proteína 4.3 % - 6.9 %; fibra cruda 2.6 % - 6.1 % y cenizas 2.12 % - 3.9 %. Las características fisicoquímicas determinadas en el aceite crudo mostraron los siguientes rangos: índice de acidez 0.78 % ácido oleico - 1.83 % ácido oleico; índice de saponificación 121.77 mg de KOH/g - 233.88 mg de KOH/g; índice de peróxidos 0.76 meq O2/kg - 3.19 meq O2/kg; índice de iodo 22.94 g de I2/100 g - 32.52 g de I2/100 g. El perfil de ácidos grasos presentó, en promedio, al ácido oleico (46.46 % y el ácido esteárico (37.58 % como componentes mayoritarios. La grasa obtenida no presentó un contenido considerable de fenoles totales. El estudio realizado demostró que la obtención de grasa comestible a partir de subproductos del mango, constituye una alternativa viable del aprovechamiento de recursos naturales pues los rendimientos en algunos cultivares fue alto y su composición química posibilita su aplicación en la sustitución de grasas vegetales o la posible generación de nuevos productos.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E

    2017-04-20

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit Epidermal Peel to Identify Putative Cuticle-Associated Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafolla-Arellano, Julio C.; Zheng, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Ruiz-May, Eliel; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel A.; González-León, Alberto; Báez-Sañudo, Reginaldo; Fei, Zhangjun; Domozych, David; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín E.

    2017-04-01

    Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) are highly perishable and have a limited shelf life, due to postharvest desiccation and senescence, which limits their global distribution. Recent studies of tomato fruit suggest that these traits are influenced by the expression of genes that are associated with cuticle metabolism. However, studies of these phenomena in mango fruit are limited by the lack of genome-scale data. In order to gain insight into the mango cuticle biogenesis and identify putative cuticle-associated genes, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peels from ripe and overripe mango fruit using RNA-Seq. Approximately 400 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 107,744 unigenes, with a mean length of 1,717 bp and with this information an online Mango RNA-Seq Database (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/mango/index.cgi) which is a valuable genomic resource for molecular research into the biology of mango fruit was created. RNA-Seq analysis suggested that the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cuticle component, cutin, is up-regulated during overripening. This data was supported by analysis of the expression of several putative cuticle-associated genes and by gravimetric and microscopic studies of cuticle deposition, revealing a complex continuous pattern of cuticle deposition during fruit development and involving substantial accumulation during ripening/overripening.

  17. Determinación de zonas agroclimáticas para la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L. “Manila” en Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Martínez Fonseca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El mango (Mangifera indica L. es un frutal de importancia económica en México, en el 2004 se reportaron 166 000 ha plantadas en más de once estados del país, en el estado de Veracruz 25 550 ha, donde el 85% es de la variedad “Manila”. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las regiones agroclimáticas para el cultivo de mango “Manila” en el estado de Veracruz, México, por medio del Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP con variables climatológicas (temperatura, precipitación, evaporación y radiación solar, además se elaboraron gráficas hidro-termales (relacionando: precipitación total y temperatura mínima mensual. Del ACP se derivaron dos vectores asociados con la temperatura mínima anual y precipitación total anual, que juntos explican el 83% de la variación climática total entre las localidades productoras de mango “Manila”; se definieron dos grupos de localidades con agroclimas diferentes, mismos que se confirmaron con las gráficas hidro-termales; con apoyo de información bibliográfica y de productividad, se definieron tres zonas de aptitud agroclimáticas para el cultivo de mango “Manila”, con los siguientes intervalos de variación de la temperatura mínima anual: zona 1 (No Apta menor de 13.5° C; zona 2 (Apta de 13.5 a 17.5° C; zona 3 (Moderadamente Apta de 17.5 a 23.0° C. Con un modelo empírico de temperatura mínima y un modelo de elevación digital, por medio de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG, se realizó la cartografía de las zonas geográficas con diferente grado de aptitud Agroclimática.

  18. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  19. Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres M Tuates jr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. It is use as food and fruits packaging, fruit bag, food container, seedling bag, mulching film, protective for greenhouse, dryer shed and among others. However, this generates higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose by farmers. The plastic residues remain on the soil for some years as large pieces and they are impediment to plant growth and also a potential hazard to animals if the land is subsequently put down to grass. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. Cassava starch and polybutylene succinate (PBS was used in the development biodegradable film. The PBS and starch was melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition.  The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. However, it has higher density, thickness swelling and absorbed more water. It is projected that after thirty six (36 weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing shows that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag  and old newspaper.  

  20. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    budget analysis shows that a change from chemical insecticides treatment to weaver ants returned net benefits greater than zero by Tsh. 692 923 and Tsh.1019665 in cashew and mango plantations respectively. Similarly, positive net benefits was obtained when growers change from control to weaver ants...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  1. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Bernard, L.; Jobin, M.; Milot, S.; Gagnon, M. (Centre d' Irradiation du Canada, Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p{le}0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author).

  2. Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexposed side. It is concluded that sunlight increases red colour development of the mango exocarp by inducing PAL activity. Exposure to sunlight also enhances endogenous sugar accumulation in mango fruit.

  3. Grower Perception of the Significance of Weaver Ants as a Fruit Fly Deterrent in Tanzanian Smallholder Mango Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Managed populations of weaver ants in mango trees have been used successfully in Australia, SE Asia and parts of Western Africa to deter fruit flies from ovipositing in ripening fruits. The presence of indigenous weaver ants in mango trees of smallholder growers in Tanzania offers the possibility...... of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...

  4. Metodología en operaciones de cementación priMaría y forzada utilizando nuevas tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Isrrael; Armas, Diego; Guecara, Dani; Vargas, Javier; Tapia, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad mostrar el diseño de la cementación del pozo arcángel 1D, En la primera parte planteamos brevemente, los diferentes tipos de Cementaciones que son aplicadas en la terminación de una fase en un pozo petrolero, así como, herramientas usadas, técnicas aplicadas y el uso de diferentes tipos de revestidores según la profundidad alcanzada en cada sección. Luego se presentara una descripción litológica de la zona en la cual se ha planificado la pe...

  5. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  6. Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

  7. Low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in stored mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengke; Zhu, Qinggang; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; An, Feng; Li, Min; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-03-15

    In this study, mango fruit were pre-treated with low-temperature conditioning (LTC) at 12°C for 24h, followed by refrigeration at 5°C for 25days before removal to ambient temperature (25°C) to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LTC on chilling injury (CI). The results showed that LTC effectively suppressed the development of CI in mango fruit, accelerated softening, and increased the soluble solids and proline content. Furthermore, LTC reduced electrolyte leakage, and levels of malondialdehyde, O2(-) and H2O2, maintaining membrane integrity. To reveal the molecular regulation of LTC on chilling tolerance in mango fruit, a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) gene, MiCBF1, was identified and its expression in response to LTC was examined using RT-qPCR. LTC resulted in a higher MiCBF1 expression. These findings suggest that LTC enhances chilling tolerance in mango fruit by inducing a series of physiological and molecular responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

  9. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-01

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m2/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  10. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  11. Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M. Alayne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

  12. Measurement of mango firmness by non-destructive limited compression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Srilaong, V.; Kanlayanarat, S.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Tansakul, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thai mango 'Nam Dok Mai Si-Thong' has an attractive golden yellow skin colour even in immature fruit, not ready for consumption. Firmness becomes an important quality attribute to assess the ripening stage of the fruit during storage. In this study, the possibility of a non-destructive method

  13. Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

  14. Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.

  15. Measurement of mango firmness by non-destructive limited compression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Srilaong, V.; Kanlayanarat, S.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Tansakul, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thai mango 'Nam Dok Mai Si-Thong' has an attractive golden yellow skin colour even in immature fruit, not ready for consumption. Firmness becomes an important quality attribute to assess the ripening stage of the fruit during storage. In this study, the possibility of a non-destructive method usi

  16. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ali, Umi Fazara Md [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  17. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh cut mango quality in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings prevent moisture loss and may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor of fresh-cut fruit. Previous experiments showed that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with added maltodextrin maintained visual quality of stored mango slices also treated with calcium ascorbate an...

  18. A Case Study of a Decision Support System on Mango Fruit Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, K.B.; Subedi, P.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mango fruit maturity can be difficult to determine from external attributes. Assessment of parameters of fruit on tree (dry matter, internal flesh colour) relevant to estimation of fruit maturity was undertaken with a handheld (near infrared spectroscopic) system. Measurement error on dry matter was

  19. Differential leaf gas exchange performance of mango cultivars infected by different isolates of Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilka Messner da Silva Bispo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Caused by the vascular fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata, mango wilt is considered to be one of the most serious threats in mango-producing regions worldwide. However, changes in leaf gas exchange level and the mechanisms underlying host responses to this fungal infection remain poorly described. This study aimed to evaluate potential changes in the leaf gas exchange of different mango cultivars (Ubá, Espada, Haden and Tommy Atkins in response to two Brazilian isolates of C. fimbriata (CEBS15 and MSAK16 to non-invasively assess cultivar variability in relation to the basal level of resistance to mango wilt. Both isolates, regardless of the cultivar, caused reductions in stomatal conductance and, thus, a reduction in CO2 assimilation via diffusive limitations. Taking into account the full length of the internal lesion and the radial colonization of the stem tissues, both isolates showed equivalent aggressiveness when inoculated into the Haden and Tommy Atkins cultivars. Conversely, when compared to the CEBS15 isolate of C. fimbriata, the MSAK16 isolate was more aggressive in cv. Espada and less aggressive in cv. Ubá.

  20. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of O-Methyltransferase from Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica cv. Alphonso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Deshpande, Ashish B; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-05-01

    Flavour of ripe Alphonso mango is invariably dominated by the de novo appearance of lactones and furanones during ripening. Of these, furanones comprising furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone) are of particular importance due to their sweet, fruity caramel-like flavour characters and low odour detection thresholds. We isolated a 1056 bp complete open reading frame of a cDNA encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase from Alphonso mango. The recombinantly expressed enzyme, MiOMTS showed substrate specificity towards furaneol and protocatechuic aldehyde synthesizing mesifuran and vanillin, respectively, in an in vitro assay reaction. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed fruit-specific expression of MiOMTS transcripts. Quantitative real-time PCR displayed ripening-related expression pattern of MiOMTS in both pulp and skin of Alphonso mango. Also, early and significantly enhanced accumulation of its transcripts was detected in pulp and skin of ethylene-treated fruits. Ripening-related and fruit-specific expression profile of MiOMTS and substrate specificity towards furaneol is a suggestive of its involvement in the synthesis of mesifuran in Alphonso mango. Moreover, a significant trigger in the expression of MiOMTS transcripts in ethylene-treated fruits point towards the transcriptional regulation of mesifuran biosynthesis by ethylene.

  2. The Struggle for Self-Identity-Analysis on The House on Mango Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2014-01-01

    Sandra Cisneros is a distinguished Chicano and Latina writer whose novel entitled The House on Mango Street focuses on identity construction. The paper will interpret Esperanza’s struggle for self-identity in the process of her growth both physi⁃cally and psychologically.

  3. Measurement of mango firmness by non-destructive limited compression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Srilaong, V.; Kanlayanarat, S.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Tansakul, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thai mango 'Nam Dok Mai Si-Thong' has an attractive golden yellow skin colour even in immature fruit, not ready for consumption. Firmness becomes an important quality attribute to assess the ripening stage of the fruit during storage. In this study, the possibility of a non-destructive method usi

  4. Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in mango pest management in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, van P.; Cuc, N.T.T.; Huis, van A.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of mango farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in pest management was conducted during the dry season of 1998 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Identification and control of pests was often based on damage symptoms, rather than on recording of causal agents. Damage caused by the seed-bo

  5. Evaluation of four protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, D J; Lu, X P; Chen, H S; Lu, Y; Mo, Z Y

    2016-08-30

    The peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a special plant tissue that contains many compounds that interfere with protein extraction. A successful separation with Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is the key step for proteomic analysis. To evaluate the efficiencies of mango peel protein extraction for 2-DE, four extraction methods were tested: 1) 2-D clean-up kit, 2) trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation, 3) phenol extraction, 4) phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. The results showed that the phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation produced the best quality protein extraction and separation. Proteins were separated in 30-70 and >70 kDa ranges better than with the other methods. Acidic proteins had better resolution with fewer horizontal and vertical streaks. Sixteen proteins were identified by maxtrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS). The result demonstrated that each of these four methods can be used to prepare mango peel proteins. The phenol with methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation was the best choice for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

  6. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha⁻¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg⁻¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹.

  7. A Long-term Ring Current Measure Created by Using the VMO MANGO Service Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; King, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO (Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geomagnetic Observatories) is utilized to calculate a new measure of magnetic storm activity for the years 1932 to the near present. The MANGO routines are part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The community can utilize MANGO to derive value-added data products and images suitable for publication via the VMO web site. MANGO routines will be demonstrated through their application to study magnetic storms, a field of research that began in 1828 when von Humboldt launched an investigation of observations taken simultaneously from magnetic field stations spread around the Earth. The defining signature of magnetic storms is a worldwide decrease of the horizontal component of the magnetic field caused by fluctuations in the strength of the ring current. In the 1940's, Bartel pushed for deriving an index to measure the strength of magnetic storms. Progress intensified during the International Geophysical Year leading to the definition of the Dst index. The definitive Dst index is calculated at WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism in Kyoto by using a derivation scheme certified by Division V of IAGA. The Dst index time series spans the years 1957 to present with a cadence equal to 1-hr. The new data set we will present is a magnetic storm measure that is similar to the Dst index though it is calculated by using MANGO and a method that differs slightly from the official scheme. The MANGO data service package is based on a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of the magnetic field station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"- style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to

  8. Análisis del Informe del Comité contra la Tortura de Naciones Unidas de 2009 sobre Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Escribano Úbeda-Portugués

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Comité contra la Tortura de Naciones Unidas en su Informe de 2009 sobre Colombia valora positivamente algunos avances del Estado colombiano en la ratificación de las normas del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, aunque el Informe 2009 señala varios motivos de preocupación y recomendaciones para Colombia en temas como el reforzamiento de la independencia del Fiscal General de la Nación; la amnistía de facto; la amenaza a la independencia del Poder Judicial; las ejecuciones extrajudiciales; las desapariciones forzadas; la erradicación de detenciones masivas; la práctica de la tortura en centros penitenciarios; la violencia sexual como arma de guerra; la utilización militar de niños y niñas en el conflicto armado; o la reparación integral para las víctimas de tortura y otros tratos crueles, inhumanos o degradantes.

  9. Testing and Performance Evaluation of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator for Mango Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor P. Kolhe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops is quite difficult due to their tallness. There are small hand tools available for harvesting and pruning. But these tools of harvesting and pruning are restricted due tree height, unavailability of trained labours for climbing and cost of operation etc. The mechanized machines are available; these are heavy and costly and are not suitable for low land holding, Indian marginal famers. Harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops with the available hand tool is very difficult. The labor has to climb on the tree by carrying these hand tools, which requires skill too. To overcome the above problems a Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator (TMHE powered by tractor PTO, was tested for the mechanical harvesting and pruning of mango orchards using digital load cell, digital Vibration meter and digital Techometer for elevator stability study and pruner engine RPM measurements while in branch cutting respectively. The field performance of the above machine was carried out on plane mango plot, at Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist: -Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India. The machine was tested for the better stability at maximum reach position for harvesting and pruning of various mango varieties, like Alphanso, Totapuri etc. Approach: To reduce the harvesting /pruning cost, increase the harvesting/pruning efficiency and enhance the overall productivity of mango orchards. Also to use the traditional mechanized/ manual pruning tools with the developed tractor mounted hydraulic elevator. To develop and refine the power operated mechanism for marginal farmers. This stability study was carried out, by using strain gauge load cell (S-beam, having capacity of 2000 kg. The load cell guiding device was designed and fabricated for conducting the above experiments following standard material specifications of American society of testing material. The reaction on

  10. Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Khairul

    2013-12-15

    An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

  11. Cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant major mango allergen Man i 1 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Che; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Wen, Hsiao-Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the number of people around the world who suffer from fruit allergies has increased. Mango can induce anaphylaxis, and two major mango allergens have been identified - Man i 1 and Man i 2. Apart from their molecular weights and pI values, no other information about them is known. This work identifies the DNA and amino acid sequences of Man i 1 and constructs an expression system for recombinant Man i 1 (rMan i 1). Firstly, 3' and 5' RACE assays were used to identify the cDNA fragment of Man i 1. Subsequently, the full length of Man i 1 cDNA was inserted into a pET-21a(+) vector, and the inserted plasmid was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to express rMan i 1. The conditions for the expression of rMan i 1, including IPTG concentration, induction temperature, and induction time, were optimized. The highest amount of soluble rMan i 1 was obtained after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG at 16 °C for 20 h. The His-tagged rMan i 1 was purified using Ni-NTA agarose and its identity was verified using an anti-histidine antibody and the serum of a mango-allergic person. Additionally, rMan i 1 was identified as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and shared 86.2% identity in amino acid sequence of GAPDH from wheat. Finally, an E. coli expression system of rMan i 1 was established, with the potential to be used in immunotherapy against mango allergy or the development of assays for detecting the residues of mango allergens.

  12. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  13. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 μg mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 μg mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

  14. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment.

  15. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and hot water quarantine treatment on quality of "Keitt" mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamchuachit, Panita; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-01

    The optimal 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to slow ripening of whole "Keitt" mangos, either alone or in combination with hot water treatment (HWT) (prior to or post 1-MCP) was identified. USDA-APHIS mandates that HWT can be used for control of fruit flies, but this may affect fruit response to 1-MCP. Mangos were evaluated by repeated measurement of nondestructive firmness, peel color, and ethylene production on the same mango fruits during 2 wk of ripening at 20 °C after treatment. The magnitude of ethylene production increased as a result of both 1-MCP and HWT. With softer mangos (65 N), treatment with 1-MCP alone delayed fruit softening and extended the number of days to full-ripeness (25 N) from 5 d in untreated fruit to 11 d. For these riper fruit, application of 1-MCP prior to HWT extended the days to full-ripeness to 9 d compared with 7 d when 1-MCP was applied after HWT. With firmer mangos (80 N), 1-MCP treatments alone prolonged the days to full-ripeness to 13 d as compared to 11 d for the untreated fruit. There was no significant concentration effect on firmness retention among 1-MCP treatments (0.5, 1.0, or 10.0 μL/L). HWT resulted in a faster rate of fruit softening, taking only 7 d to reach full-ripeness. Combining 1-MCP with HWT reduced the rate of softening compared to HWT alone, resulting in 9 to 11 d to full-ripeness. Application of 1-MCP before HWT showed a greater ability to reduce the rate of fruit softening compared with 1-MCP treatment after HWT.

  16. Urinary metabolites from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Keitt) galloyl derivatives and in vitro hydrolysis of gallotannins in physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ryan C; Krenek, Kimberly A; Meibohm, Bernd; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Talcott, Stephen T

    2016-03-01

    The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives (GD) has not yet been investigated in humans, and studies investigating repeated dosages of polyphenols are limited. In this human pilot trial, healthy volunteers (age = 21-38 y, n = 11) consumed 400 g/day of mango-pulp (cv. Keitt) for 10 days, and seven metabolites of gallic acid (GA) were characterized and quantified in urine excreted over a 12 h period. Pyrogallol-O-sulfate and deoxypyrogallol-O-sulfate were found to be significantly more excreted between days 1 and 10 (p mango consumption. Mango GTs were also found to release free GA in conditions similar to the intestines. GTs may serve as a pool of pro-GA compounds that can be absorbed or undergo microbial metabolism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Beyond the borderland: Incursion of the State-Nation, NAFTA and external control within the Mexican-American mango industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Álvarez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the case of the US-Mexico Mango Industry this paper explores the engagement of the nation-state in transnational activity through the activities of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA. US control and certification of mangos imported into the United States is part of a broader system that includes NAFTA and historic labor immigration inducing new markets for “ethnic products”. This is part of a broader hemispheric system linked to US prerogatives. Although the USDA (like other border agencies controls the entrance of commodities at the US-Mexico geopolitical border, the encroachment of this agency into Mexico and its offshore control of commodity production and deistribution is not often a subject of investigation. This paper traces the development of the current USDA certification of mangos for US import, focusing on the hot water treatment of mangos and its controlling effects at local sites of production and distribution.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

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    Omotioma M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

  19. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit.

  20. Mango starch degradation. II. The binding of alpha-amylase and beta-amylase to the starch granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Koike, Claudia; Louro, Ricardo Pereira; Purgatto, Eduardo; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2008-08-27

    During mango ripening, soluble sugars that account for mango sweetening are accumulated through carbon supplied by both photosynthesis and starch degradation. The cultivar Keitt has a characteristic dependence on sugar accumulation during starch degradation, which takes place during ripening, only a few days after detachment from the tree. Most knowledge about starch degradation is based on seeds and leaves currently used as models. However, information about the mango fruit is scarce. This work presents the evaluation of alpha- and beta-amylases in the starch granule surface during fruit development and ripening. Extractable proteins were assayed for amylase activity and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and correlated to gene expression. The results suggest that both amylases are involved in starch degradation during mango ripening, probably under the dependence of another signal triggered by the detachment from the mother-plant.

  1. Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

    2013-12-01

    Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 μmol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation combined with hot water treatment on the texture, pulp color and sensory quality of ''Nahng Glahng Wahn'' mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Jobin, M.; Beliveau, M.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) from Thailand of the 'Nahng Glahng Wahn' variety were irradiated with a [sup 60] Co source at a dose of 0.63 kGy and a dose rate of 9.23 kGy/hr, with or without a hot water treatment prior to irradiation. The irradiation treatment had little effect on the texture and preserved the yellow color in the pulp. Test of sensory evaluation revealed that irradiated mango pulp was preferred for overall appearance, taste, texture and palatability. The appearance of whole irradiated mangoes was also preferred over that of the control mangoes. However, no significant differences were observed between irradiated and hot water dipped irradiated mangoes for all characteristics studied in mangoes pulp. The results showed that these treatments (hot water dip plus irradiation or irradiation alone) are useful and non-destructive methods to preserve consumer acceptability.

  3. The effect of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the size and weight of mangos (Mangifera indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Shafqat; NAQQASH, Muhammad Nadir; Jaleel, Waqar; Saeed, Qamar; Ghouri, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pollination has a great effect on the yield of fruit trees. Blow flies are considered as an effective pollinator compared to hand pollination in fruit orchards. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of different pollination methods in mango orchards. Methodology: The impact of pollination on quantity and quality of mango yield by blow flies was estimated by using three treatments, i.e., open pollinated trees, trees were covered by a net in the presence of blow ...

  4. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Mehmood Abbasi; Xinbo Guo; Xiong Fu; Lin Zhou; Youngsheng Chen; Yong Zhu; Huaifeng Yan; Rui Hai Liu

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Ta...

  5. Deshidratación Osmótica de Láminas de Mango cv. Tommy Atkins Aplicando Metodología de Superficies de Respuesta Osmotic Dehydration of Mango Pieces cv. Tommy Atkins Applying Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata Montoya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se aplicó el método de superficies de respuesta para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura y la concentración de ácido cítrico sobre la deshidratación osmótica de láminas de mango cv. Tommy Atkins. La deshidratación osmótica se evaluó en términos del porcentaje de pérdida de peso (%PP, ganancia de sólidos (%GS, pérdida de humedad (%PH, y pérdida de actividad acuosa (%PAw. Los resultados indicaron que tanto la temperatura como la concentración de ácido cítrico, tuvieron efectos significativos sobre el %PP, %PH, y %PAw, en el rango de condiciones evaluado (25 ºC - 45 ºC y (1% - 3% respectivamente. La adición de ácido cítrico en la solución osmodeshidratante redujo de forma significativa los recuentos de microorganismos, sin afectar las características sensoriales del producto. Los niveles máximos de los parámetros cinéticos se consiguen después de 4 h de proceso, con temperaturas de 45 ºC y concentraciones de ácido cítrico de 3% p/p, siendo 47,62%, 53,07% y 6,04%, los valores óptimos para %PP, %PH y %PAw respectivamente, con aceptación sensorial del 100 % y reducciones en los recuentos microbianos de más de dos ciclos logarítmicos.Abstract. The response surface methodology was applied to study the effect of temperature and concentration of citric acid in osmotic dehydration of cv. Tommy Atkins mango pieces. Osmotic dehydration was evaluated in terms of the percentage of weight reduction (%WR, solid gain (%SG, water loss (%WL and reduction of water activity (%RWA. The results indicated that the temperature and the concentration of citric acid had significant effects on the (%WR, (%WL and (%RWA in the range of conditions evaluated (25 °C- 45 ºC and (1% - 3% respectively. The addition of citric acid in the osmodehydrating solution significantly reduced the microorganism recount without affecting the sensory characteristics of the product. The maximum values of kinetic parameter are reached after 4 h of

  6. El reconocimiento jurisprudencial de la tortura y de la desaparición forzada de personas como normas imperativas de derecho internacional público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características más sobresalientes de la realidad jurídica del mundo moderno consiste en la presencia creciente del Derecho Internacional contemporáneo al momento de adoptar decisiones legislativas o jurisprudenciales en el ámbito de la jurisdicción interna de los Estados. Una de las principales normas que aparecen como cruciales en este aspecto son aquellas llamadas normas de ius cogens. Tanto tribunales internacionales como regionales y nacionales están reconociendo y recurriendo cada vez más a estas normas imperativas e inderogables. Debido a los acontecimientos ocurridos en el mundo, especialmente en el último tiempo, ciertas normas imperativas, como la prohibición de la tortura, adquieren para los órganos legislativos, ejecutivos y judiciales de los Estados una función inspiradora y orientadora fundamental. La actividad jurisprudencial desarrollada por los órganos jurisdiccionales tanto internacionales como extranjeros, constituye una demostración de que, debido a la interacción e interdependencia creciente entre el derecho interno y el Derecho Internacional, sin lugar a dudas, estas normas jugarán un rol mayor en el ámbito interno de los EstadosOne of the most outstanding features of the modern world legal current issues consists in increasing presence of the contemporary international law at the moment of adopting law making or judicial decisions within states domestic jurisdiction. One of the main provisions that appear to be crucial in this aspect is those called imperative or ius cogens. International, regional and national tribunals are increasingly recognizing and applying these imperative and non derogable norms. Due to the world events especially in recent times, some peremptory norms like the prohibition of torture provide legislative, executive and judicial state's bodies with a major inspiring and guiding role. As a result of the hierarchy of these norms and the increasing interaction and

  7. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makawy Aida I. El

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg were used to evaluate their role against the toxicity of Pb-acetate (500 ppm. Mice given mango extracts with Pb-acetate had significantly lower plasma MDA, AST and ALT and higher glutathione than mice given Pb-acetate alone. Mango extracts prevented the histopathological changes in liver induced by Pb-acetate and decreased the cytotoxicity of lead by increasing the ratio of PCE/NCE. Mango extract treatment reduced the DNA damage induced by Pb-acetate in liver as demonstrated by a reduction in micronuclei and decrease in tail length, tail DNA% and Olive tail moment. It can be concluded that mango by-product extracts have potential to protect from oxidative stress and genotoxicity of lead.

  8. Quantitative determination of beta-carotene stereoisomers in fresh, dried, and solar-dried mangoes (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Isabell; Marx, Michaela; Neidhart, Sybille; Mühlbauer, Werner; Carle, Reinhold

    2003-07-30

    A rapid method for quantitative determination of beta-carotene, including cis-isomers, in dried mango has been developed. Applicability of available methods to dried products was limited because of formation of artifacts caused by extraction and preparation. The analytical procedure was based on the extraction of carotenoids from dried mango mesocarp using a mixture of methanol and acetone/hexane, allowing the separation of disturbing fibers. No saponification was required. Furthermore, carotenoid determination by HPLC on a C30 stationary phase was achieved. This method was applied to determine beta-carotene and its stereoisomers in fresh, dried, and solar-dried mango slices of four cultivars. Drying resulted in a complete and partial degradation of xanthophylls and all-trans-beta-carotene, respectively. Isomerization was shown to depend on the drying process. Whereas conventionally dried mangoes were characterized by elevated amounts of 13-cis-beta-carotene, solar-dried mango slices contained additional amounts of the 9-cis-isomer. Calculation of vitamin A values was based on the real amount of the beta-carotene stereoisomers and ranged from 113 to 420 and from 425 to 1010 RE/100 g for fresh and dried mango slices, respectively.

  9. Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa.

  10. Diseño y construcción de un biodigestor anaeróbica vertical semicontinua para la obtención de gas metano y biol apartir de las cáscaras de naranja y mango.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzabay Valdiviezo, Anthony William; Suárez Monroy, Pablo Moises

    2016-01-01

    En la elaboración del presente proyecto se pretende realizar el diseño y construcción de un biodigestor anaeróbico vertical semicontinuo para la obtención de gas metano y biol a partir de las cáscaras de naranja y mango. Esto se logrará al estimar los parámetros de diseño del Biodigestor anaeróbico, calculando la cantidad de gas metano y biol estimado que podría generar el biodigestor, además de construirlo y operarlo para la obtención de gas metano y biol. In the production of the presen...

  11. Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of thiamethoxam and dimethoate in mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, A K; Dikshit, Abhay

    2016-03-01

    Thiamethoxam and dimethoate are two insecticides used to control hoppers and inflorescence midges in mango. Thiamethoxam (0.008 and 0.016%) and dimethoate (0.06 and 0.12%) were sprayed on Dashehari mango trees during the pre-mature stage of fruit (first week of May) to study their dissipation kinetics and risk assessment in mango fruit. Thiamethoxam dissipated in fruit from 1.93 and 3.71 mg kg(-1) after 2 h of spraying to 0.08 and 0.13 mg kg(-1) after 20 days of spraying at single and double doses, respectively. Its residue did not persist beyond 20 days in fruit. Dimethoate dissipated in fruit from 2.81 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) after 2 h of application to 0.12 and 0.19 mg kg(-1) after 10 days of application at single and double doses, respectively. No residue was detected in fruit beyond 10 days after its application. Both ready-to-harvest mature mango fruit and pulp (after 40 days of spraying) were free from any residues of these insecticides at both the concentration levels. The rate of dissipation of these insecticides followed first-order kinetics in fruit with residual half-lives of 4.0 to 4.5 days for thiamethoxam and 2 days for dimethoate. Based on their MRL values of 0.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) in mango, pre-harvest intervals of 7 and 11 days, and 6 and 7 days were suggested for thiamethoxam and dimethoate, respectively, after spraying at single and double doses. The theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values for both the insecticides, calculated for residues corresponding to each sampling date, were found to be below the maximum permissible intake (MPI) values on mango fruit (except for dimethoate double dose up to 3 days); hence, both thiamethoxam and dimethoate could be considered non-hazardous to consumers at the above doses and time intervals.

  12. La controversia sobre la legalidad del Decreto reglamentario de la Ley de Tasas de Interés y Usura: una cuestión de interpretación de la Ley N° 18.212

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez Russo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En anterior oportunidad publicamos en el Blog de Derecho y Actualidad un pequeño trabajo con las primeras reflexiones sobre el Decreto 344/009, Reglamentario de la Ley de Tasas de Intereses y Usura N° 18.2121, en el que en lo medular destacábamos su legalidad, puesto que, al amparo de lo dispuesto por el inciso 3° del artículo 10 de la Ley, vino a establecer las condiciones para que algunas cláusulas penales quedaren excluidas del cálculo de la Tasa de Interés Implícita de la operación, tanto en la opción por la ejecución forzada, como en la resolución del contrato por incumplimiento.

  13. La controversia sobre la legalidad del Decreto reglamentario de la Ley de Tasas de Interés y Usura: una cuestión de interpretación de la Ley N° 18.212

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez Russo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En anterior oportunidad publicamos en el Blog de Derecho y Actualidad un pequeño trabajo con las primeras reflexiones sobre el Decreto 344/009, Reglamentario de la Ley de Tasas de Intereses y Usura N° 18.2121, en el que en lo medular destacábamos su legalidad, puesto que, al amparo de lo dispuesto por el inciso 3° del artículo 10 de la Ley, vino a establecer las condiciones para que algunas cláusulas penales quedaren excluidas del cálculo de la Tasa de Interés Implícita de la operación, tanto en la opción por la ejecución forzada, como en la resolución del contrato por incumplimiento.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-27

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.

  15. Development of new microsatellite markers from Mango (Mangifera indica) and cross-species amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Kundapura Venkataramana; Mani, Bellam Hanumantha-Reddy; Anand, Lalitha; Dinesh, Makki Ramachandra

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to assess the genetic diversity among mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars and to test their amplification in closely related species. Thirty-six microsatellite (simple sequence repeats; SSR) loci were isolated by a microsatellite-enriched partial genomic library method. Primers designed for these loci were characterized using 30 diverse mango cultivars. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 19 with an average of 9.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.185 to 0.920 with a mean of 0.687. The total value for the probability of identity was 2.42 × 10(-31). The newly identified SSRs would be useful in genetic diversity studies, finger-printing, and mapping. Loci from five related species, M. odorata, M. anadamanica, M. zeylanica, M. camptosperma, and M. griffithii, were successfully amplified using these SSR primers, showing their potential utility across species.

  16. Mathematical modelling of the thin layer solar drying of banana, mango and cassava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koua, Kamenan Blaise; Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody- Abidjan, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Gbaha, Prosper [Laboratoire d' Energie Nouvelle et Renouvelable, Institut National Polytechnique, Felix HOUPHOUET - BOIGNY de Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast)

    2009-10-15

    The main objectives of this paper are firstly to investigate the behaviour of the thin layer drying of plantain banana, mango and cassava experimentally in a direct solar dryer and secondly to perform mathematical modelling by using thin layer drying models encountered in literature. The variation of the moisture content of the products studied and principal drying parameters are analysed. Seven statistical models, which are empirical or semi-empirical, are tested to validate the experimental data. A non-linear regression analysis using a statistical computer program is used to evaluate the constants of the models. The Henderson and Pabis drying model is found to be the most suitable for describing the solar drying curves of plantain banana, mango and cassava. The drying data of these products have been analysed to obtain the values of the effective diffusivity during the falling drying rate phase. (author)

  17. Composition by LC-MS/MS of New Carotenoid Esters in Mango and Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Fabiane C; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2016-11-02

    Interest in the composition of carotenoid esters of fruits is growing because esterification may affect their bioavailability. Thus, the aim was to provide a detailed identification of carotenoid esters in citrus and mango. Orange cv. 'Valencia' and cv. 'Pera' presented 9 free carotenoids, 38 monoesters, and 60 diesters. Violaxanthin and luteoxanthin derivatives were the major ones, followed by antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin esters, many of them reported for the first time in orange pulp. The carotenoid ester composition of tangor cv. 'Murcott', reported for the first time, showed 8 free carotenoids, 34 monoesters, and 33 diesters, with β-cryptoxanthin esters as major compounds, followed by violaxanthin and zeaxanthin esters. In citrus, carotenoids were acylated mainly with capric, lauric, myristic, myristoleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. In mango, 5 free carotenoids, 2 monoesters, and 19 diesters were identified, from which many violaxanthin and neoxanthin esters were reported for the first time.

  18. Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation; Simulacao do transporte de mangas irradiadas para exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe

    2007-07-01

    It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

  19. Hot-water phytosanitary treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Ataulfo' mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Emilio; Rivera, Pedro; Bravo, Bigail; Toledo, Jorge; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48 degrees C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1 degrees C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28, 92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that 'Ataulfo' mangoes weighing capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d.

  20. Implementation of Guaranteed Services in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    the effects of scaling microchip technologies. Equally important, a NoC facilitates a truly modular and scalable design flow. The MANGO (message-passing asynchronous network-on-chip providing guaranteed services over open core protocol (OCP) interfaces) NoC is presented, and how its key characteristics......Shared, segmented, on-chip interconnection networks, known as networks-on-chip (NoC), may become the preferred way of interconnecting intellectual property (IP) cores in future giga-scale system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A NoC can provide the required communication bandwidth while accommodating...... (clockless implementation, standard socket access points, and guaranteed communication services) make MANGO suitable for a modular SoC design flow is explained. Among the advantages of using clockless circuit techniques are inherent global timing closure, low forward latency in pipelines, and zero dynamic...

  1. Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, E; González, M; Lobo, M G; Laich, F

    2015-11-26

    The antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (Mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. Nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. Significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera Candida, Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. All mango extracts showed antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were lower for seed than for peel extracts. MICs and MFCs ranged from values 30 mgGAE/mL, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between antifungal activity, the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and total phenol content. These properties were associated with high levels of proanthocyanidins, gallates and gallotannins in the extracts.

  2. Studies on the key odorants formed by roasting of wild mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    2000-06-01

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a concentrate of volatiles obtained by solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation from roasted seeds (180 degrees C; 15 min) of wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) revealed 32 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 (low odor activity) to 2048 (high odor activity). The identification experiments based on the use of reference odorants revealed methional (cooked potato-like) followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), butan-2,3-dione, pentan-2,3-dione, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine as the key aroma compounds among the 27 odorants identified. All odorants are reported for the first time as components of roasted wild mango seeds.

  3. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

  4. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Moreno-Sánchez, Diana; Nieblas, Bianca; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza M; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of fruits; however, healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects receive conflicting messages regarding ingestion of fruits, such as mango, because of its sugar content. We investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of fresh mango puree (MP) on the glycemic indexes (GIs) and postprandial glycemic responses of 38 healthy Mexican subjects in a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Physicochemical characterization of MP included sugar profiles by HPLC-ELSD, starch, fibers, moisture, viscosity, swelling capacity and solubility properties of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR). The mean GI for HHP-MP was significantly lower (32.7 ± 13.4) than that of unprocessed-MP (42.7 ± 19.5). A significantly higher proportion of subjects showed a low GI following the consumption of HHP-MP compared to unprocessed-MP and none of them showed a high GI for the HHP-MP, compared to a significantly higher proportion for the unprocessed-MP. The viscosity and AIR solubility values of HHP-MP samples were significantly higher, which influenced glucose peaking later (Tmax) at 45 minutes and induced 20% lower AUC values than unprocessed-MP, corresponding to greater retardation indexes. The study findings support data stating that low GI fruits are appropriate for glycemic control and that mango may be included as part of healthy subjects' diets and potentially T2DM subjects' diets. Furthermore, HHP processing of mango may offer additional benefits for glycemic control, as its performance regarding GI, AUC and Tmax was significantly better than that of the unprocessed-MP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of this commercial non-thermal pasteurization technology on glucose metabolism.

  5. Comparison of quarantine treatments on skin and pulp color of mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Caruso, Marcel Wilke; Sabato, Susy Frey, E-mail: juliananc@ig.com.b, E-mail: macaruso_98@hotmail.co, E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) has shown the highest growth rates among the fruit exported by Brazil. This exportation implies specific treatments to attend phytosanitary requirements to attend USA and Europe market. Among them there are thermal treatments (hot water dip or vapor treatment) or irradiation witch it has ability to promote disinfestations and delaying the ripening of the mango. The main objective of this paper was to report the color behavior among treatments covering irradiation alone, thermal treatment combined with irradiation and control. The mangoes were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP and divided in four groups - the control (C) , dose 0,75 KGy (I), dose 0,75 KGy with hot water dip (46 deg C during 70 min) (2A) and dose 0,75KGy with hot water dip (52 deg C during 5 min) (2B). All fruits were stored at 11 deg C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days, after this period the fruits were kept at environmental conditions (25 deg C) during more 14 days. The results showed that the group 2A had the color of the skin delayed by treatment, not reaching stage 4 on the 26th. This group showed significant difference compared to groups C (p <= 0.05) however there was no difference among the others groups (2B and I). In general, these results indicate that the group 2A showed satisfactory results, concluding that combined treatment was beneficial for the mango, prolonging the process of development of its color. (author)

  6. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  7. Microbial Spoilage, Actions of Preservatives and Phytochemical Screening of Mango (Mangifera indica Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Olusegun AREKEMASE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out to determine the organisms responsible for the microbial spoilage of kernels of Mangifera indica. A specialized kit was employed to confirm the Gram negative organisms present in the spoilt kernels of M. indica. The effects of chemical preservatives such as sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, citric acid and sodium chloride at different concentrations on the microbial counts and pH of mango seed powder stored at room temperature over a period of 12 weeks were studied. The mango seed kernel powder (MSK was screened for phytochemicals. The bacteria isolated include: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter clocae, Enterobacter asburiae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The Gram negative organisms confirmed were Enterobacter clocae, Enterobacter asburiae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The isolated fungus was Aspergillus niger. In the analysis of different chemical preservatives on mango seed powder, the most effective preservative was 3.0% sodium benzoate followed by 5% sodium acetate and 5% common salt. Citric acid was the least effective of all the preservatives used at equal concentrations. Sodium benzoate at 3% had the least bacterial count of 0.8 x 103 CFU/ml which was maintained from the 8th week to the last week of storage. Citric acid at 0.1% and 1.0% concentrations had bacterial counts of 3.50 x 103 CFU/ml and 2.0 x 103 CFU/ml respectively at the end of the 12 weeks of storage. The pH of the chemically preserved powdered kernels of M. indica from the 1st to the 12th week ranged from 2.70-6.01. The phytochemicals present in the mango seed powder included tannins, saponnins, polyphenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids.

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries bananas, avocado, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer S.A.S-Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRLs for spirodiclofen in strawberries and bananas and set import tolerances for papaya, avocado and mango. The Netherlands proposed to decrease the existing MRL for strawberries from 2 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg and to increase the MRL for banana from the limit of quantification 0.02* mg/kg to 0.3mg/kg. In order to accommodate the import of produce, the Netherlands proposed to set the MRL for papaya, mangos and avocados at 1.0 mg/kg. The Netherlands drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.3 mg/kg for the proposed use in banana and 1.5 mg/kg to accommodate the reported use in the USA on avocado, noting that the MRL in the country of origin is set at the level of 1 mg/kg. EFSA has some reservations regarding the proposal that the residue trial results for avocado might be extrapolated to propose MRLs on papaya and mango. The intended use on strawberries is not adequately supported by residue data. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of spirodiclofen on strawberry, banana, avocado, mango and papaya will not result in consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  9. Mango variation in vitamin C and beta carotene with cultivar and country of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos (Mangifera indica) are a traditional fruit in the Caribbean countries and Southeast Asia, but have been imported in to the U.S. on a large scale only in the last few years. Fruit of cultivars ‘Ataulfo,' ‘Kent,’ ‘Tommy Atkins,’ ‘Keitt,’ and ‘Haden’ were obtained from shipments from Mexico, Pe...

  10. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular do...

  11. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Patchreenart Saparpakorn; Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear coppe...

  12. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  13. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, P.; Muthuvelayudham, R.; Viruthagiri, T.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2 ·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The com...

  14. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of 'Keitt' mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  15. Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel

    OpenAIRE

    Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Junior,José P.; Maria José de Carvalho Costa; Margareth de Fátima F. Melo Diniz

    2011-01-01

    In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-in...

  16. TRANSCRIPTOME DYNAMICS IN MANGO FRUIT PEEL REVEALS MECHANISMS OF CHILLING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C and suboptimal (5°C cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during chilling injury by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  17. Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, A K

    2013-02-01

    Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides.

  18. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

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    Gilberto Costa Braga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07% followed by peanut skin (15.17% and grape marc (7.92%. In terms of lyophilized sample, total phenolics did not vary significantly among the residues evaluated (average of 60.33mg EAG g-1; however, when they were expressed as dry extract grape marc exhibited the highest total phenolic (768.56±116.35mg GAE g-1, followed by peanut skin (404.40±13.22mg GAE g-1 and mango bagasse (160.25±4.52mg GAE g-1, Peanut skin exhibited the highest content of total flavonoids (2.44mg QE g-1, while grape marc (1.76mg QE g-1 and mango bagasse (1.70 mg QE g-1 showed no significant differences. The extraction yield showed strong negative linear correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoid. This study showed that peanut skin was the sample with the highest antioxidant activity and it was strongly influenced by total flavonoids. All extracts of byproducts showed antioxidant activity comparable to α-tocopherol, and they can be a source of natural compounds with potential to replace synthetic antioxidants such as BHT.

  19. Describing Quality and Sensory Attributes of 3 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars at 3 Ripeness Stages Based on Firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; González-Moscoso, Sara; Crisosto, Gayle M; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2015-09-01

    To determine the ideal ripening stage for consumption of the mango cultivars, "Ataulfo," "Haden," and "Tommy Atkins"; fruits at 3 flesh firmness levels (ripeness stages) were evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive analysis after instrumental measurements were made. After harvest, all fruits were ripened to allow softening and quality and sensory attribute changes. Ripening changes during softening of Ataulfo mangos were expressed by a characteristic increase in the perception of "tropical fruit" and "peach" aromas, an increase in "juiciness," "sweetness," and "tropical fruit" flavor, while "fibrousness," "chewiness," and "sourness" decreased. Similar desirable sensory changes were also detected during softening of Haden mangos; an increase in tropical fruit and peach aromas, sweetness and tropical fruit flavor, and a decrease in chewiness, sourness, and bitterness. Softening of Tommy Atkins mangos was followed by reduced chewiness and sourness and increased peach aroma. Softening of all cultivars was followed by decreased sourness and titratable acidity (TA) and increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC:TA ratio. The results indicate that mango ripening leads to increased expression of sensory attributes such as tropical fruit and peach aromas, tropical flavor, and sweetness that have been related to improved eating quality and these final changes in sensory quality attributes are specific for each cultivar. For example, Ataulfo and Haden mangos had greater improvement in quality and sensory attributes related to fruit eating quality during ripening-softening than Tommy Atkins. In our consumer test, these quality-sensory attributes expressed during ripening that were perceived by the trained panel were also validated, supporting the need for a controlled ripening protocol in mangos. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

    2013-05-30

    Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant.

  1. Quality characteristics of no added sugar ready to drink milk supplemented with mango pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Mittal, Shikha

    2015-04-01

    Removal of sugar as a sweetener and its replacement by a high potency sweetener introduces a number of sensory and technical challenges particularly diminution in mouthfeel. Thick consistency of pulpy fruits could be exploited to compensate for the loss of viscosity and mouthfeel in sugar substituted beverages. The investigation was undertaken to study the effect of mango pulp supplementation on the quality of flavoured low calorie milk drinks using sucralose as sugar substitute. The effect of 0.0 to 100 % sugar replacement on total solids (TS), total soluble solids (TSS), specific gravity, viscosity and sensory scores was studied. Sugar replacement considerably decreased TS, TSS, viscosity and sensory scores. The mango flavoured milk drinks(MFDs) prepared by replacing sugar with sucralose and adding 10 % mango pulp in milk of 0.5 % fat and 8.5 % milk solid-not-fat. MFD were pasteurized and stored at refrigeration temperature for shelf life studies. A significant (p Standard plate count and yeast and mold count of MFDs increased during storage. The shelf life of the pasteurized MFD was found to be 8 days at 5.0 ± 0.1 °C.

  2. Novel strategies for capturing health-protective mango phytochemicals in shelf stable food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Ivette; Grace, Mary H; Yousef, Gad G; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Cost-effective methods for concentration and stabilization of otherwise perishable mango fruit phytoactives into shelf stable high protein ingredients were developed to combat stunting (malnutrition) in rural Africa. Mango juices complexed with sunflower oil and protein-rich legume flours yielded carotenoid-enriched oils and pelleted polyphenol-enriched flour matrices. Carotenoids from juices were concentrated 9-10 times in the fortified sunflower oil. Protein-rich soy and peanut flours captured 2.2-3.2 mg/g polyphenols from the juices. Alternatively, mango juice was sorbed and co-dried with flours, which stably bound the polyphenols, carotenoids, and natural sugars in soy or peanut protein-rich matrices. The concentration of provitamin A carotenoids was almost doubled and total polyphenols were enriched 4-5 times higher in the matrices compared to fresh pureed juice. Both strategies require minimal instrumentation, are compatible with rural village dietary practices; and capture the benefits of otherwise perishable seasonal resources by complexing healthful proteins together with phytoactive compounds.

  3. Benzophenones from Mango Leaves Exhibit α-Glucosidase and NO Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; Chen, Guisi; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-10-12

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a succulent tropical fruit. Bioactive phytochemical investigation has been carried out to the leaves of mango. Three new benzophenone glycosides, along with 14 known compounds, were purified and identified. The novel benzophenones were elucidated to be 2,4,4',6-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxybenzophenone-3-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 4,4',6-trihydroxybenzophenone-2-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (7), and 4',6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-(2″),3-C-(1″)-1″-desoxy-α-l-fructofuranoside (11). The α-glucosidase inhibitory, NO production inhibitory, and antioxidant activities were assessed for the purified benzophenones and triterpenoids. Some benzophenones showed moderate α-glucosidase and NO inhibitory activities. The IC50 value of the α-glucosidase inhibitory of isolated compounds 1, 13, and 14 were 284.93 ± 20.29, 239.60 ± 25.00, and 297.37 ± 8.12 μM, respectively. Most compounds showed moderate effects to reduce the NO content in 50 and 100 μM. The above results of bioactivity powerfully demonstrated the phytochemicals from mango, especially benzophenones, probably partially rational for its antidiabetes and anti-inflammatory.

  4. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  6. Use of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starters to ferment mango juice for promoting its probiotic roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xue-Yi; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Qiu, Ling-Yan; Gu, Feng-Wei; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2016-05-18

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were identified from mango fruits by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence. Based on the ability of producing mannitol and diacetyl, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MPL18 and MPL39 were selected within the lactic acid bacteria isolates, and used as mixed starters to ferment mango juice (MJ). Both the autochthonous strains grew well in fermented mango juice (FMJ) and remained viable at 9.81 log cfu mL(-1) during 30 days of storage at 4°C. The content of total sugar of FMJ was lower than that of MJ, while the concentration of mannitol was higher than that of MJ, and the concentration of diacetyl was 3.29 ± 0.12 mg L(-1). Among detected organic acids including citric acid, gallic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, only citric acid and gallic acid were found in MJ, while all detected organic acids were found in FMJ. The concentration of lactic acid of FMJ was the highest (78.62 ± 13.66 mM) among all detected organic acids. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of FMJ was higher than that of MJ. Total phenolic compounds were better preserved in FMJ. The acidity and sweetness had a noticeable impact on the overall acceptance of the treated sample.

  7. Vinegar production from Togolese local variety Mangovi of Mango mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Y; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Karou, Simplice D; Bouix, M; Sossou, Seyram K; De Souza, C

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed to access for the physiochemical parameters of vinegar production through Togolese local variety Mangovi of mango Mangifera indica juice fermentation. The juice was fermented successively by Saccharomyces cerevisisae and acetic bacteria. The levels of ethanol and acetic acid in the juice during the production of vinegar were monitored by gas chromatography and titrimetry methods, respectively. The physiological state of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2056 was determined by flow cytometry using a dual fluorescent labeling of diacetate carboxy-fluorescein (CFDA) and propidium iodide. The results indicated that 200 mL of mango juice, sugar content 20 Brix, set in alcoholic fermentation with 10(6) yeast cells produced 22.4 g L(-1) ethanol in 72 h. Acetic fermentation transformed 93% of this ethanol to acetic acid in 288 h. Twenty-four hours after the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, 91% of cells were viable, 8.85% were stressed and 0.05% died. After 24 h of acetic fermentation, viable, stressed and dead cells were 45, 12 and 39%, respectively; corresponding to the passage of acetic vinegar level from 0.9 to 2.1 degrees. At the end of the acetic fermentation, dead cells were estimated to 98% at and acetic acid to 4.7 degrees. Using consecutive fermentations is suitable technique for vinegar production from mango juice. The application of the present results may contribute to avoid fruits post harvest losses.

  8. Evaluation of quality of mango cultivar Tommy Atkins radiated with greater degree of maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda M. da, E-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marilia C.G. dos; Maciel, Maria Ines S., E-mail: marines@ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Villar, Heldio P., E-mail: hpvillar@cnen.gov.br [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy were evaluated in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when harvested at maturation stage showing yellow flesh and skin color more red than green, representing four degree of maturation at commercial scale. The fruits were stored for 21 days at 12 degree C and sensory evaluated after that period as its external appearance, internal appearance, acidic taste, sweet taste, mellow flavor, aroma, texture and succulence of the flesh, by a team of ten trained judges. Physic chemical analysis of the main characteristics of fruits quality were also performed in the pulp at the end of storage. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the doses used did not damaged the sensory characteristics of mango fruit and that they received a dose of 0.5 kGy showed higher acceptance for most sensory attributes evaluated. The physic chemical characteristics showed no significant differences between the doses, except the amount of ascorbic acid that decreased progressively with increasing doses. Application of this method is viable for mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when taken with a higher degree of maturity and was safe for the external market and sensory acceptable. (author)

  9. Morphological and organoleptic description of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cultivated in Jipijapa canton in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Ortega Julio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2016, seventeen cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L. were collected in local markets and farmers' field of Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, with the aim of describing and analyzing mango fruits due to their morphological characteristics of sugars (°Brix and total solids. Collections were carried out by stu-dents and teachers of the Research Methodologies course of the Agricultural Engineering Career, of the Southern State University of Manabí (UNESUM. The fruits were characterized by using 16 qualitative and quantitative variables for fruit and seed recommended by UPOV and IPGRI. The percentage of total solids and Brix grades of each harvested crop were also analyzed in the UNESUM bromatology laboratory. Results showed that in the Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, there is a great biodiversity of native mangoes, which were not characterized. Fruit shapes, pulp color and variable fiber contents were observed. The length of fruit was 6.33 to 12.50 cm, and the width was 5.27 to 8.50 cm, with a length/width ratio between 0.77 and 1.83 cm. The fruit weight was 63.3 to 500 g. No significant differences were observed in the sugars content (°Brix. Finally, it was observed that the range of consumable pulp was 63 to 94% in native cultivars and 86% to 97% in the improved ones.

  10. Evaluation of Bubbler Irrigation System at Different Emission Flow Rates for Young Mango Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Soothar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted on evaluating performance of bubbler irrigation system under young mango plant rows at the Higher Education Commission, research station at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. The experimental station possesses more than 70 mango plants, irrigated by micro and traditional irrigation methods fed by tubewell with average water static level of 9 ft below ground surface. Bubbler irrigation system was designed to irrigate 12 mango plants. The aim of study was to assess the performance of the bubbler irrigation system at different emission flow rates with an installed bubbler irrigation system to improve water distribution uniformity. The result of this study showed that the high pressure losses and the system operated on one gallon per minute flow rate of each bubbler, water distribution uniformity was low, with an average of 68 %. Other hand, comparison with emission (bubbler flow rate was adjusted at half gallon per minute has shown high water emission uniformity of system performed with an average of 92 % distribution uniformity. The reasons for the minimum distribution uniformity of bubblers were observed at one gallon per minute emission flow and this study recommended to improve the bubbler irrigation at dissimilar flow rates.

  11. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms.

  12. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  13. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  14. Fruit Quality Characters and Their Relation With Weight Per Fruit in Mango Over Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Yadav

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight genotypes including 31 landraces of Bhopal division, 15 commercial varieties and 2 hybrids were evaluated for quality traits in mango in two subsequent years. Amrapali, Dashehari, Alphonso, Mallika, Chousa, Bombay Green, Sehroli, SBM 01-1, SBM 01-9, SBM 01-10, SBM 01-11, SBM 01-12, SBM 01-35, SBM 01-36 possessed better skin and pulp colour, high total soluble solids, reducing and non-reducing sugars, low acidity and high ascorbic acid contents, thus, appeared promising for table consumption. SBM 01-2, SBM 01-3, SBM 01-4, SBM 01-20 and SBM 01-22 having high total acidity and high total chlorophylls were found suitable for pickle purpose. Reducing sugar and total soluble solids were positive and significantly correlated with fruit weight. Similarly, total soluble solids were positively and significantly associated with reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, total sugars and total sugars to total acidity ratio. Reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and total sugars were also positively and significantly associated among themselves. Among these characters, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, total sugars to total acidity ratio exerted direct positive bearing on the fruit weight in mango. Thus, these quality traits can be modified genetically and simultaneously along with fruit weight in mango.

  15. Species composition and population dynamics of thrips (Thysanoptera) in mango orchards of northern peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, H; Che Salmah, M R; Dieng, H

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are key pests of mango, Mangifera indica (L.), in Malaysia, including the Northern Peninsular. As Penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. With a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in Penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through two flowering seasons of 2009 using CO(2) collection technique. Larval population falling into the ground to pupate and adults emerging from the soil were investigated in both orchards. Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) were the most prevalent species in the sprayed and the unsprayed orchards, respectively. The abundance of thrips was high during the flowering period of the dry season and decreased during the flowering period of the rainy season. This latter period coincided with decreased temperature and increased relative humidity. Percentage of adult emergence from the soil was lower in the rainy season than recorded in the dry season in both orchards. Taken together, these observations suggest that T. hawaiiensis and S. dorsalis are the main thrips species pests of mango panicles in Penang. Direct control with insecticides focusing on these two species may help to reduce cosmetic injuries and other damages on mango fruits.

  16. An overnight chill induces a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis at midday in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D J; Ratner, K; Giller, Y E; Gussakovsky, E E; Shahak, Y; Ort, D R

    2000-11-01

    The effect of a cold night on photosynthesis in herbaceous chilling-sensitive crops, like tomato, has been extensively studied and is well characterized. This investigation examined the behaviour of the sub-tropical fruit tree, mango, to enable comparison with these well-studied systems. Unlike tomato, chilling between 5 degrees C and 7 degrees C overnight produced no significant inhibition of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A:) during the first hours following rewarming, measured either under controlled environment conditions or in the field. By midday, however, there was a substantial decline in A:, which could not be attributed to photoinhibition of PSII, but rather was associated with an increase in stomatal limitation of A: and lower Rubisco activity. Overnight chilling of tomato can cause severe disruption in the circadian regulation of key photosynthetic enzymes and is considered to be a major factor underlying the dysfunction of photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive herbaceous plants. Examination of the gas exchange of mango leaves maintained under constant conditions for 2 d, demonstrated that large depressions in A: during the subjective night were primarily the result of stomatal closure. Chilling did not disrupt the ability of mango leaves to produce a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the midday increase in stomatal limitation of A: appeared to be the result of altered guard cell sensitivity to CO(2) following the dark chill.

  17. Image Based Mango Fruit Detection, Localisation and Yield Estimation Using Multiple View Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Stein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel multi-sensor framework to efficiently identify, track, localise and map every piece of fruit in a commercial mango orchard. A multiple viewpoint approach is used to solve the problem of occlusion, thus avoiding the need for labour-intensive field calibration to estimate actual yield. Fruit are detected in images using a state-of-the-art faster R-CNN detector, and pair-wise correspondences are established between images using trajectory data provided by a navigation system. A novel LiDAR component automatically generates image masks for each canopy, allowing each fruit to be associated with the corresponding tree. The tracked fruit are triangulated to locate them in 3D, enabling a number of spatial statistics per tree, row or orchard block. A total of 522 trees and 71,609 mangoes were scanned on a Calypso mango orchard near Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia, with 16 trees counted by hand for validation, both on the tree and after harvest. The results show that single, dual and multi-view methods can all provide precise yield estimates, but only the proposed multi-view approach can do so without calibration, with an error rate of only 1.36% for individual trees.

  18. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  19. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  20. Effects of storage period and mass on seed germination of the Carabao mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Altafin Galli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mango is a species that produces recalcitrant seeds, which can be difficult to store. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of storage period and mass on the germination of Carabao mango seeds. The fruits were picked and the pits were dried. The seeds were weighed and separated in two classes: I with a mass up to 19.0g, and II above 19.0g. The seeds were treated with 60% thiabendazol, wrapped in perforated transparent polyethylene bags, maintained in a laboratory, and germinated directly in the plastic bags. The statistical analysis used a randomized block design, with four repetitions, that consisted of five storage periods: 0 (zero, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. A regression analysis was made. Due to the small number of seeds with a mass less than 19.0g, the germination tests using two classes were done only for the periods of zero and the first seven days of storage. It was found that the seeds of Carabao mango, when treated with fungicide, performed best when sown after seven days of storage in polyethylene bags, and that the mass of the seeds positively influenced germination.

  1. Cytokinins of the Developing Mango Fruit : Isolation, Identification, and Changes in Levels during Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W S

    1983-02-01

    The cytokinin activity has been isolated and identified from extracts of immature mango (Mangifera indica L.) seeds. The structures of zeatin, zeatin riboside, and N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine riboside were confirmed on the basis of their chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives. Both trans and cis isomers of zeatin and zeatin riboside were also identified by the retention times of high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, an unidentified compound appeared to be a cytokinin glucoside.The concentration of cytokinins in the panicle and pulp of mango reached a maximum 5 to 10 days after full bloom and decreased rapidly thereafter. The cytokinin level in the seed remained high until the 28th day after full bloom. The quantity of cytokinins in pulp per fruit increased from the 10th day after full bloom, the maximum being attained around the 50th day after full bloom. Similarly, the amount of cytokinins per seed increased from the 10th day after full bloom, reaching a peak on the 40th day and decreasing gradually thereafter.A high percentage of fruit set in mango was persistently maintained by supplying 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5 x 10(3) micromolar) onto the panicle at the anthesis stage and by supplying gibberellic acid (7.2 x 10(2) micromolar) and naphthalene acetamide (3.1 x 10 micromolar) at the young fruit stage.

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  3. Production and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulase from Paenibacillus polymyxa using mango peel as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Ashfaque, Mohd; Muthukumar, M; Singh, Munna; Garg, Neelima

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel, a solid mango processing waste, comprises 15-20% of total fruit weight. This, being a rich source of lignocelluloses, was used as substrate for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) production using Paenibacillus polymyxa. Maximum CMCase production (7.814 U mg(-1)) was observed in a medium containing 7% mango peel (w/v) with 1.5% ammonium sulphate (w/v) at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5. Purification to an extent of 28.24 fold was achieved by affinity column chromatography. Bands corresponding to 26.5 and 34.0 kDa molecular sizes were observed on 12% denaturing Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while of 72 kDa on 10% non-denaturing Native-PAGE, proving its heteromeric multienzyme nature. The enzyme was stable over a range of 20-60 degrees C and pH of 4.0-7.5. Michaelis-Menten equation constant (Km and Vmax) values of purified CMCase were 8.73 mg ml(-1) and 17.805 mM ml(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  4. Study on Production Technology of Mango Microcapsule from Mango Peel%用芒果皮制备天然芒果微胶囊的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋维春; 徐云升; 颜宪法; 孙忠华

    2012-01-01

    In this study , ultrasonic was used in extraction process of mango peel fragrance, and its microcapsule was prepared by coagulation of gelatin and alginate, the results showed that the suitable conditions of extraction are as follow: that power 840W, time 40min , the ratio of ethanol and mango peel 3 ml/g , and the yield was 13.6 % on this condition. ; when mierocapsule was prepared by coagulation of gelatin and alginate, both solution is 33% ,and its ratio is 1:1.%用超声波辅助萃取法提取了芒果皮中的香味物质,并用明胶和海藻酸钠复合凝聚制备了芒果微胶囊.结果表明:超声波辅助萃取的适宜提取条件为:液料比3 ml/g、超声波功率840W、萃取时间40min.该条件下芒果浸膏的提取率为13.6%;用明胶和海藻酸钠进行复合凝聚制备芒果微胶囊时,明胶溶液和海藻酸钠溶液的浓度为33%、配比为1:1较为合适.

  5. Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of mango peel and comparative analysis of the chemical constitutes of mango peel and flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonji; Kim, Hana; Mosaddik, Ashik; Gyawali, Rajendra; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Cho, Somi Kim

    2012-07-15

    The underlying mechanisms of the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of mango peel (EEMP) and its constituents were investigated. EEMP induced death of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells through apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased cell population in the sub-G1 phase and the appearance of fragmented nuclei. Treatment of the cells with EEMP also downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, resulting in the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. The major components of mango peel were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that EEMP is an excellent source of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, mangiferin gallate, isomangiferin gallate, quercetin-3-O-arabinopyranoside, and mangiferin along with unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid, linoleic acid, and ethyl linoleate, which may help to prevent cervical cancer and may be a useful agent for the treatment of some other malignancies.

  6. Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Wong, Lee Min; Bhat, Rajeev; Cheng, Lai Hoong

    2012-02-01

    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption. In the present study, the chemical composition, bioactive/antioxidant compounds and functional properties of green and ripe mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) peel and pulp flours were evaluated. Compared to commercial wheat flour, mango flours were significantly low in moisture and protein, but were high in crude fiber, fat and ash content. Mango flour showed a balance between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber proportions, with total dietary fiber content ranging from 3.2 to 5.94 g kg⁻¹. Mango flours exhibited high values for bioactive/antioxidant compounds compared to wheat flour. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of mango flours ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 g kg⁻¹ and from 0.18 to 0.22 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed mango peel flour to be a rich source of dietary fiber with good antioxidant and functional properties, which could be a useful ingredient for new functional food formulations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-04-01

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Unique Fusarium sp. nov. ex Mangifera indica L. Causing Mango Malformation Disease in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we characterized fusaria that were associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. From 2002 to 2009, 141 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically diverse states. Initially, isolates ...

  9. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  10. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  11. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-β-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-β-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango.

  12. Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of the 25 EST-SSR markers exhibited polymorphisms, identifying a total of 86 alleles with an average of 5.38 alleles per locus, and distinguished between all Mangifera selections. Private alleles were identified for Mangifera species. These newly developed EST-SSR markers enhance the current 11 SSR mango genetic identity panel utilized by the Australian Mango Breeding Program. The current panel has been used to identify progeny and parents for selection and the application of this extended panel will further improve and help to design mango hybridization strategies for increased breeding efficiency.

  13. Bioactive compound from mangoes leaves extract as potential soil bioherbicide to control amaranth weed (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifauldin Syahri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth. Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S as the main plot; S1 (Mangifera odorata Griff., S2 (Mangifera foetida Lour and S3 (Mangifera indica L.. While the sub plots were concentrations of mango’s leaf extract (K, that included 0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm. Results of the research showed that all parameters of weed growth (amaranth were inhibited along with the increase of concentration of the mango’s leaf extract. The results also showed the significant inhibition of amaranth’s dry weight. Among three species of mangoes, M. indica L. showed the best inhibition mechanism to the amaranth weed, which significantly suppressed the weed growth on just 1000 ppm concentration.

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Cassava starch coating and citric acid to preserve quality parameters of fresh-cut "Tommy Atkins" mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pereira, Leila M; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Sarantópoulos, Claire I G L; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-06-01

    Combination of citric acid dipping (5 g/L) and cassava starch coating (10 g/L), with and without glycerol (10 g/L), was studied to verify the effectiveness of these treatments to inhibit enzymatic browning, to reduce respiration rate, and to preserve quality parameters of "Tommy Atkins" fresh-cut mangoes during storage at 5 degrees C. Color characteristics (L and C), mechanical properties (stress at failure), weight loss, beta-carotene content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated during 15 d. The respiration rate of fruit subjected to the treatments was also analyzed. Nontreated fresh-cut mango was used as a control sample. Cassava starch edible coatings and citric acid dipping promoted a decrease in respiration rate of mango slices, with values up to 41% lower than the control fruit. This treatment also promoted better preservation of texture and color characteristics of mangoes and delayed carotenoid formation and browning reactions during storage. Moreover, the treated fruit showed great sensory acceptance by consumers throughout the whole storage period. However, the use of glycerol in the coating formulation was not efficient in the maintenance of quality parameters of fresh-cut mangoes, promoting a higher weight loss of samples, impairing fruit texture characteristics, increasing carotenogenesis, and favoring microbial growth during storage.

  16. Processing ‘Ataulfo’ Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Quirós-Sauceda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD. Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax occurred 2–4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8–24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%, mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%. Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice.

  17. Physico chemical characterization and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics of Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayanand, P; Deepu, E; Kulkarni, S G

    2015-02-01

    Mango (Magnifera indica L) is grown in the tropical and sub tropical regions of India. The fruit has a high commercial value depending on the color, flavor and pulp characteristics of the cultivar. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri cultivars grown in southern Karnataka were investigated for the physical chemical characteristics and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars had significantly different physico chemical and compositional characteristics. Sindura cultivar had a characteristic red color in the peel with high carotenoid content and slightly lower pulp content. Mallika contained higher pulp content with a pale yellow color in the peel and higher total soluble solids. Totapuri contained slightly lower pulp content than Mallika, lower total soluble solids and lower carotenoids among the cultivars. Sindura and Mallika pulps had significantly higher viscosity than Totapuri. Processing of the pulps resulted in significant decrease of carotenoids irrespective of the cultivar. Sensory quality of canned mango slices showed higher acceptability for Mallika followed by Sindura and Totapuri. Mango nectar prepared from Sindura was highly acceptable followed by Totapuri and Mallika. Processing of these underutilized mango cultivars into puree, nectar, juice beverages and slices, can result in value addition and popularization.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN CHIPS MANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOLEKTOR SURYA KACA GANDA [Characteristics of Mango Chips Drying Using a Double Plated Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the characteristics of mango chips drying using a double plated solar collector. The materials used were sliced mangoes with the thickness of 3, 6, and 8 mm. The equipments used for this research were double plated solar collector, thermocouple, digital balance, thermometer, vacuum oven, and desiccators. The research parameters included the rate of heat energy absorbed by the double plated solar collector, the heat energy losses, the efficiency of the double plated solar collector and the moisture content of the chips. The results of this study suggested that the use of double plated solar collector could increase the temperature and the amount of heat energy, thus speed up the drying process of the mango chips. The energy needed to evaporate the moisture content in mango decreased in proportion to the increase in drying time. The difference in mango chips’ thickness resulted in different decrease rate in water content until it reached a constant state. The efficiency of the double plated solar collector was 77.82%.

  19. Enhancing antioxidant activity, microbial and sensory quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice by γ-irradiation and its in vitro radioprotective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Kondapalli; Varakumar, Sadineni; Variyar, Prasad Shekhar; Sharma, Arun; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-07-01

    Gamma irradiation is an effective method currently being used for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestations of foods. In the present study, mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice was irradiated at doses of 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy and microbial load, total polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activities, colour and sensory properties were evaluated immediately after irradiation and also during storage. Microbiological assay of the fresh and stored mango juice showed better quality after γ-irradiation. The total polyphenols and flavonoids were significantly (p mango juice without any adverse changes in the sensory qualities. Significant in vitro plasmid DNA protection was observed in the presence of mango juice against radiation induced damage, even at the dose of 5 kGy. This study confirmed the potential of γ-irradiation as a method for microbial decontamination and improving the quality of the mango juice without compromising on the sensory attributes.

  20. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. FENOLOGÍA, PRODUCCIÓN Y CONTENIDO DE ALMIDÓN EN ÁRBOLES DE MANGO EN GUANACASTE, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy R. Gamboa-Porras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fenología, producción y contenido de almidón en árboles de mango en Guanacaste, Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la variación estacional del contenido de almidón en árboles de mango y relacionarla con sus patrones fenológicos y de producción. Se estudiaron árboles de las variedades Tommy Atkins (TA y Keitt (K, en Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Los estados fenológicos evaluados fueron: (1 aparición de brotes vegetativos, (2 brotes fl orales y (3 producción de frutos. Esta última se registró como peso de frutos por árbol. El almidón se determinó mediante hidrólisis enzimática de madera de raíces, troncos y ramas en cuatro estados fenológicos durante 2004 y 2005. Además se registró la temperatura y la precipitación. Los contenidos de almidón fl uctuaron a través del período analizado. Se observó que estuvieron infl uenciados por las etapas fenológicas de producción de fl ores y frutos. El contenido de almidón presentó concentraciones más altas (TA: 11,7%, K: 14,4% en la etapa de reposo y prefl oración, entre agosto y noviembre. Los menores niveles (6,1% se observaron en poscosecha en mayo para las dos variedades. La variedad Tommy Atkins presentó la mayor producción en el 2006 con 208,5 kg/árbol y la menor producción en 2005 con 34,9 kg, mientras que en la variedad Keitt, la mayor producción fue en el 2005 con 212,1 kg y la menor se registró en el 2004 con 36,7 kg/árbol. Los años de mayor producción en las dos variedades pueden corresponder a años "on" (media o alta producción, los de menor producción a años "off" (baja o mala producción y el 2004 en la variedad Tommy Atkins presentó una cosecha intermedia de 86,7 kg/árbol.

  2. Evaluación sensorial de láminas de mango (Manguifera indica L. cv. Keitt fortificadas con cloruro de calcio mediante deshidratación osmótica con pulsos de vacío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alejandro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la fortificación con cloruro de calcio (CaCl2 de láminas de mango por medio de la deshidratación osmótica con pulsos de vacío, sobre los atributos sensoriales color, sabor y textura (dureza. Se utilizaron frutos de mango del cultivar Keitt cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica a partir de los cuales se obtuvieron láminas de 4 x 4 x 0,5 cm. Las láminas de mango se sometieron a 4 tratamientos osmóticos que incluían distintas soluciones con concentraciones de CaCl2 (0; 0,5; 1,5 y 2,5 %, durante 24 horas, aplicando pulsos de vacío. La preferencia de las láminas de mango fortificadas se determinó utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos (desde 9: ‘gusta extremadamente’, pasando por 5: ‘ni gusta ni disgusta’, hasta 1: ‘disgusta extremadamente’. En la prueba participó un panel de 100 consumidores no entrenados, de ambos sexos y con edades entre 18 y 50 años. A cada panelista se les entregó simultáneamente 4 muestras codificadas con números aleatorios de tres dígitos y se les pidió que probaran y calificaran los atributos color, sabor y textura (dureza, según su apreciación y de acuerdo a la escala. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el análisis no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos se determinaron mediante una prueba de rangos. Se aplicó un análisis de correlación entre las variables sensoriales a través de la prueba de rangos de Spearman. El panel detectó que el color de las láminas sometidas al tratamiento con 2,5 % CaCl2 varió significativamente (p ≤ 0,01 con relación a los demás. Un aumento de la concentración de CaCl2 hizo más amargas y duras las láminas de mango. Hubo correlación altamente positiva entre la preferencia del sabor y la dureza y con el color de las muestras. Las láminas con 0 % CaCl2 fueron las más aceptadas a nivel sensorial, pero para la fortificación con calcio las de mayor aceptabilidad fueron las

  3. Evaluación sensorial de láminas de mango (Manguifera indica L. cv. Keitt fortificadas con cloruro de calcio mediante deshidratación osmótica con pulsos de vacío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alejandro Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la fortificación con cloruro de calcio (CaCl2 de láminas de mango por medio de la deshidratación osmótica con pulsos de vacío, sobre los atributos sensoriales color, sabor y textura (dureza. Se utilizaron frutos de mango del cultivar Keitt cosechados en estado de madurez fisiológica a partir de los cuales se obtuvieron láminas de 4 x 4 x 0,5 cm. Las láminas de mango se sometieron a 4 tratamientos osmóticos que incluían distintas soluciones con concentraciones de CaCl2 (0; 0,5; 1,5 y 2,5 %, durante 24 horas, aplicando pulsos de vacío. La preferencia de las láminas de mango fortificadas se determinó utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos (desde 9: 'gusta extremadamente', pasando por 5: 'ni gusta ni disgusta', hasta 1: 'disgusta extremadamente'. En la prueba participó un panel de 100 consumidores no entrenados, de ambos sexos y con edades entre 18 y 50 años. A cada panelista se les entregó simultáneamente 4 muestras codificadas con números aleatorios de tres dígitos y se les pidió que probaran y calificaran los atributos color, sabor y textura (dureza, según su apreciación y de acuerdo a la escala. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el análisis no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos se determinaron mediante una prueba de rangos. Se aplicó un análisis de correlación entre las variables sensoriales a través de la prueba de rangos de Spearman. El panel detectó que el color de las láminas sometidas al tratamiento con 2,5 % CaCl2 varió significativamente (p ≤ 0,01 con relación a los demás. Un aumento de la concentración de CaCl2 hizo más amargas y duras las láminas de mango. Hubo correlación altamente positiva entre la preferencia del sabor y la dureza y con el color de las muestras. Las láminas con 0 % CaCl2 fueron las más aceptadas a nivel sensorial, pero para la fortificación con calcio las de mayor aceptabilidad fueron las sometidas a los

  4. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  5. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  7. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    N. Saleh; K.M. Bello

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM) in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76), daily weight gain (8.75-9.72) and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19) ob...

  8. Las obras de acondicionamiento del Salto del Mont-Cenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, Georges

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The new dam at Mont Cenis has increased to water volume in the reservoir from 32 to 320 million m3 and provides a potential energy of 650.000 million Mp x m. This article describes the work involved in the construction of this project. Among other features, the water has been led to the reservoir along a network of varying cross-section, and of 28 km total length. The pressure conduit has been designed for a flow rate of 51 m3/s, its diameter varying between 4 and 5 m. The new power stations at Villarodin are fed by a pipe 3.6 km in length and 3 m in diameter. This conduit runs along a trench and is isolated from the ground, because of the gypsum and anhydrites contained in the soil. Its weight is 10.000 Mp, which is a European record. The power station comprises to vertical Pelton turbines of 195 MVA each, and a yearly output of 485 kWh.La capacidad de la nueva presa del Mont-Cenis ha aumentado con estas obras desde 32 hasta 320 millones de m3, permitiendo el abastecimiento de una energía potencial de 650.000 millones de Mp x m. En el artículo se describen las obras y operaciones necesarias para ello; entre otras, que las aguas captadas han sido llevadas al embalse por una red de galerías de sección variable de 28 km de longitud; y que la conducción forzada, de 18 km de longitud, fue dimensionada para un caudal de 51 m3/s, con un diámetro comprendido entre 4 y 5 metros. Las nuevas centrales de Villarodin están alimentadas por una desviación de 3,6 km de longitud y 3 m de diámetro. Este conducto, colocado en un foso inclinado para aislarlo del ter reno, en esa zona de yesos y anhidritas, principalmente, tiene un peso de 10.000 Mp, lo que constituye un récord europeo. La Central comprende dos grupos verticales de turbinas Pelton de 195 MVA cada uno, con una productividad de 485 millones de kWh.

  9. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Ridoutt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg−1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg−1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  10. Simple models for predicting leaf area of mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghoreishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L., one of the most popular tropical fruits, is cultivated in a considerable part of southern Iran. Leaf area is a valuable parameter in mango research, especially plant physiological and nutrition field. Most of available methods for estimating plant leaf area are difficult to apply, expensive and destructive which could in turn destroy the canopy and consequently make it difficult to perform further tests on the same plant. Therefore, a non-destructive method which is simple, inexpensive, and could yield an accurate estimation of leaf area will be a great benefit to researchers. A regression analysis was performed in order to determine the relationship between the leaf area and leaf width, leaf length, dry and fresh weight. For this purpose 50 mango seedlings of local selections were randomly took from a nursery in the Hormozgan province, and different parts of plants were separated in laboratory. Leaf area was measured by different method included leaf area meter, planimeter, ruler (length and width and the fresh and dry weight of leaves were also measured. The best regression models were statistically selected using Determination Coefficient, Maximum Error, Model Efficiency, Root Mean Square Error and Coefficient of Residual Mass. Overall, based on regression equation, a satisfactory estimation of leaf area was obtained by measuring the non-destructive parameters, i.e. number of leaf per seedling, length of the longest and width of widest leaf (R2 = 0.88 and also destructive parameters, i.e. dry weight (R2 = 0.94 and fresh weight (R2= 0.94 of leaves.

  11. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  12. Mango Tree为迪拜注入泰式风韵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志天; 陈一峰; 梁永贤; 阿芒

    2008-01-01

    这家最新的Mango Tree餐厅位于迪拜市中心的Old Town Island.眺望着全球最高的大厦Burj Dubai。设计师将这壮丽迷人的景观与泰国的建筑美学相结合,令餐厅的室内设计既拥有传统泰式建筑的神韵.又带有现代高贵的味道.为食客提供味觉与视觉的双重享受。

  13. Molecular docking studies and anti-tyrosinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-07

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.

  14. Conversion of mango kernel starch to glucose syrups by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velan, M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Krishnan, M.R.V. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lakshmanan, C.M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-05-01

    In the present investigation, the possibility of utilizing the starch present in mango seed (which are thrown away as waste) kernels for the production of glucose syrups by enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis has been studied. Under the conditions of operation, particles less than 90 microns in size showed maximum conversion at (i) {alpha}-amylase concentration = 0.06% (v/v), pH = 6.5 and temperature 95 C and (ii) glucoamylase concentration = 0.8% (v/v), pH = 4.5 and temperature = 60 C. (orig.)

  15. Seed germination and seedling development in the mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbineau, F; Kanté, M; Côme, D

    1986-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L., cv Ruby) seeds taken from ripe fruit showed no dormancy. They germinated at temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C, but germination was most rapid near the upper end of this range (25-40 degrees C). The fresh seeds had a high moisture content (85%, dry weight basis) and quickly died on dehydration. The optimal temperature for growth of the seedlings was close to 30 degrees C. High temperatures (40 degrees C) and temperatures below 15 degrees C were lethal. Growth of the stem occurred in successive flushes separated by rest periods. When the leaves of the preceding flush finished growing, the axis lengthened beneath the apical bud.

  16. Indigenous weaver ants and fruit fly control in Tanzanian smallholder mango production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Offenberg, Joachim; Msogoya, Theodosy

    2016-01-01

    mango growers in Tanzania, where typical practice is to harvestmature, but not ripe, fruits for local sale. Initial interviews with growers provide an estimate of 10-25% crop losses due to fruit fly infestation and no strong perception of any significant impact of weaver ant colonisation on these losses....... However, direct observation shows a reduction in fruit fly landings on fruits in the presence of ants, confirming earlier observations, but analysis of volatile emissions from fruits using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy has not identified compounds that consistently reflect the presence of weaver...

  17. Studies on Shelf-Life of Six Promising Mango (Mangiferindica L.) Cultivars under Favorable Condition

    OpenAIRE

    K. Venkat Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Six mango hybrids, Amrapali, Mallika, Neeleshan, Prabhashankar, Ratna, Sabri and Langra were taken as local check to study their shelf life. The PLW and spoilage of fruit increased with prolongation of storage period, regardless of cultivars. On termination day of storage (10th day) the minimum PLW (16.65%) and spoilage (28.36%) was noted in Mallika while highest PLW (32.85%) and spoilage (42.67%) were obtained in check variety Langra. TSS content in fruits increased up to 8 th day and ...

  18. Composition of the mango seed's stubble and performance of mango fiber%芒果种子茎须的成分分析及芒果纤维性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储长流; 赵堃; 毕松梅; 闫红芹; 孙妍妍

    2012-01-01

    首次提出芒果纤维的概念,对芒果种子茎须的化学成分进行测试分析,提取并制备芒果纤维,并对其形态结构、基本性能进行测试分析.结果表明,芒果种子茎须组成成分中,纤维素的含量最高,达到41.12%,木质素次之,再次为半纤维素及水溶物,这4种组分组成了芒果种子茎须主体.芒果纤维外观呈现明显的竖纹沟槽状,外观粗糙,极不光滑.芒果纤维长度离散性较大,单根纤维粗,断裂强度38.3—43.8cN·tex-1,高于棉纤维、黄麻纤维,略低于苎麻纤维,断裂伸长率1.6%~2.7%,远低于棉纤维,略低于苎麻纤维以及黄麻纤维,回潮率9.12%.%The concept of Mango fiber was brought forward for the first time, chemical composition of the seed's stubble was analysed and tested, Mango fiber was extracted and prepared, morphology structure and basic performance of Mango fiber were tested. The results showed that cellulose content of Mango fiber was the highest(41.12 %) and lignin was the second whereas semicelluloses and water soluble were the third, which constitutes the main components of Mango fiber. The length direction of mango fiber displays obvious lines and grooves, and rough surface. Mango fiber showed relatively large length dispersion and coarse fineness,tensile strength 38.3-43.8 cN · tex-1 ,higher than cotton fiber,jute fiber,and a little less than ramie fiber, little breaking elongation1.6 %-2.7 %, far lower than cotton fiber, slightly below than ramie fiber and jute fiber,moisture regain is 9.12%.

  19. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activity of a novel molecule isolated and characterized from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; K Rehna; L Jaganmohan Rao; S M Aradhya

    2010-06-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome is used in the manufacture of pickles and other food preparations due to its unique raw mango flavour. The chloroform extract of mango ginger rhizome was subjected to antibacterial activity-guided purification by repeated silica gel column chromatography to obtain a pure compound. The structure of the isolated compound was deduced by analysing UV, IR, LC-MS and 2D-HMQCT NMR spectral data, and named it as amadaldehyde, a novel compound. It exhibited a wide range of antibacterial activity with potential bactericidal activity against several bacteria. The purified compound also exhibited antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory activities.

  20. UV-B irradiation alleviates the deterioration of cold-stored mangoes by enhancing endogenous nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiazhao; Li, Mengya; Jin, Haihong; Sun, Lina; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Maojun; Dong, Jufang

    2015-02-15

    Effects of UV-B radiation on chilling injury, ripening and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels in mango fruit were evaluated. Chilling injury index, ion leakage, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the fruit pretreated with 5kJm(-2) UV-B for 4h were significantly lower than those of the control during fruit ripening at ambient temperature following cold storage at 6°C for 10days. Fruit firmness of the mangoes irradiated with UV-B was significantly higher than the control during the ripening period. Endogenous NO levels of the UV-B-irradiated fruit were rapidly increased after UV-B treatment. Pre-treatment of mangoes with the NO specific scavenger, not only abolished UV-B-triggered NO accumulation, but also suppressed the UV-B-reduced chilling injury, oxidative damage, and ripening delay of the fruit. Together, the results suggest that UV-B treatment may enhance chilling tolerance and delay fruit ripening of mangoes by triggering endogenous NO generation in the fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity of Fusarium tupiense, the main causal agent of mango malformation disease in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango malformation disease (MMD) has become an important global disease affecting this crop. The aim of this study was to identify the main causal agents of MMD in the Axarquía region of southern Spain and determine their genetic diversity. Fusarium mangiferae was previously described in the Axarquí...

  2. Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

  3. Effect of postharvest ultraviolet-C treatment on the proteome changes in fresh cut mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dominic Soloman; Razali, Zuliana; Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Somasundram, Chandran

    2016-06-01

    Postharvest treatments of fruits using techniques such as ultraviolet-C have been linked with maintenance of the fruit quality as well as shelf-life extension. However, the effects of this treatment on the quality of fruits on a proteomic level remain unclear. This study was conducted in order to understand the response of mango fruit to postharvest UV-C irradiation. Approximately 380 reproducible spots were detected following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Through gel analysis, 24 spots were observed to be differentially expressed in UV-C treated fruits and 20 were successfully identified via LCMS/MS. Postharvest UV-C treatment resulted in degradative effects on these identified proteins of which 40% were related to stress response, 45% to energy and metabolism and 15% to ripening and senescence. In addition, quality and shelf-life analysis of control and irradiated mangoes was evaluated. UV-C was found to be successful in retention of quality and extension of shelf-life up to 15 days. Furthermore, UV-C was also successful in increasing antioxidants (total flavonoid, reducing power and ABTS scavenging activity) in mangoes. This study provides an overview of the effects of UV-C treatment on the quality of mango on a proteomic level as well as the potential of this treatment in shelf-life extension of fresh-cut fruits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. "Writing Will Keep You Free": Allusions to and Recreations of the Fairy Tale Heroine in "The House on Mango Street"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how Sandra Cisneros alludes to and recasts popular fairy tales in "The House on Mango Street" to reveal their troubled legacy in the lives of many women in the novel. Drawing upon Latina feminist theory and Cisneros's autobiographical writing, this article posits that the main character Esperanza's alternative "happily ever…

  5. Manual de calidad para la producción y exportación de mango fresco en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Leyla Solórzano

    2009-01-01

    Este manual incluye un plan de manejo de cosecha integrado, un plan de manejo fitosanitario para la producción y exportación de mango fresco en el Ecuador hacia el mercado de los Estados Unidos, Unión Europea y los demás mercados de destino de la fruta

  6. Handling of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) for ripe and ready to eat markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, demand for ripe and ready to eat mango (RRTEM) has increased, offering an interesting possibility for Mexican producers because of geographic closeness from the production sites to the USA markets. The objectives were to determine the optimum fruit ripening stage at harvest and to delimit ...

  7. The influence of pulsed light exposure mode on quality and bioactive compounds of fresh-cut mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, Mônica Maria; Silva, Ebenezer Oliveira; Laurent, Sandrine; Charles, Florence; Urban, Laurent; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pulsed light (PL) on the respiratory rate, quality (firmness, color and soluble solid content), bioactive compounds (ascorbate and carotenoid) and total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut "Tommy Atkins" mangoes. Fresh-cut mangoes were subjected to PL treatments: control (0P), 1 pulse (1P; 0.7 J cm(-2)), 4 successive pulses (4P; 2.80 J cm(-2)) and 1 pulse per day for 4 days (1P4D; 2.80 J cm(-2)) before storage for 7 days at 6 °C. The 1P and the 4P treatments reduced fresh mass loss during storage, while 4P-treated samples also showed a slower decline of yellow color, as shown by parameter b and overall better visual appearance. After 7 days of storage, total ascorbate content was 40% higher in the 1P4D treatment than in control, whereas total carotenoid content (0.894 mg g(-1) FM) and total antioxidant activity (144 μmol trolox 100 g(-1) FM) were the highest in the 4P-treated samples. Results suggest that PL mode of application is more important than the fluence or final dose received by fresh-cut mangoes; moreover, 4P is an effective method to preserve, or even improve quality of fresh-cut mangoes.

  8. Effect of soaking in noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice on the microbiological and color behavior of Haden minimally processed mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, José Armando; González Tapia, Noemí T; Rosas Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa Rangel, Blanca E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P < 0.05) affecting the CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values, in comparison with the control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces.

  9. Quality of fresh-cut 'Kent' mango slices prepared from hot water or non hot water treated fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quarantine heat treatment consisting of exposure to 46°C water for 65 to 110 minutes (depending on cultivar and fruit size) is mandated by USDA-APHIS for all mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) entering the United States. Heat treatments may affect ripening processes and induce resistance to chilling in...

  10. Assessment of the Genetic Relationship and Diversity of Mango and Its Relatives by cpISSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xin-hua; GUO Yong-ze; LI Yang-rui; OU Shi-jin

    2007-01-01

    Chloroplast inter-simple sequence repeat markers in mango were developed and used to analyze the genetic relationship and diversity of mango and its relatives. Thirty-six mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.) and its relative species collected from the fruit germplasm collection in the Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China, were examined by ISSR-PCR with chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). Eight better primers for chloroplast DNA that provided reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns were screened from 50 ISSR primers and used for UPGMA analysis. According to the band patterns with 8 primers for chloroplast DNA, all cultivars tested were distinguished from each other and these showed ample genetic diversity; the average percentage of polymorphism was 77.2%. The 36 samples could be clustered into four groups by UPGMA analysis at the coefficient 0.74. The results indicated that the cpISSR marker was a new powerful tool for the identification of mango cultivars or its relative species, and their genetic relationship analysis and diversity evaluation.

  11. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  12. A biochemical model of photosynthesis for mango leaves: evidence for the effect of fruit on photosynthetic capacity of nearby leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, L; Le Roux, X; Sinoquet, H; Jaffuel, S; Jannoyer, M

    2003-04-01

    Variations in leaf nitrogen concentration per unit mass (Nm) and per unit area (Na), mass-to-area ratio (Ma), total nonstructural carbohydrates (Ta), and photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate, electron transport capacity, rate of phosphate release in triose phosphate utilization and dark respiration rate) were studied within the digitized crowns of two 3-year-old mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) on La Réunion Island. Additional measurements of Nm, Na, Ma, Ta and photosynthetic capacities were performed on young, fully expanded leaves of 11-year-old mango trees. Leaves of similar gap fractions were taken far from and close to developing fruits. Unlike Nm, both Na and Ta were linearly correlated to gap fraction. Similar relationships were found for all leaves whatever their age and origin, except for Ta, for which we found a significant tree effect. Photosynthetic capacity was nonlinearly correlated to Na, and a unique relationship was obtained for all types of leaves. Photosynthetic acclimation to light was mainly driven by changes in Ma, but allocation of total leaf N between the different photosynthetic functions also played a substantial role in acclimation to the lowest irradiances. Leaves close to developing fruits exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity than other leaves, but similar Ta. Our data suggest that Ta does not control photosynthetic capacity in mango leaves. We used the data to parameterize a biochemically based model of photosynthesis and an empirical stomatal conductance model, allowing accurate predictions of net photosynthesis of leaves in field-grown mango trees.

  13. Consumption of a Mango Fruit Powder Protects Mice from High-Fat Induced Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Fat Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Agustín G; Ribot, Joan; Priego, Teresa; Vazquez, Itxaso; Frank, Sonja; Palou, Andreu; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the beneficial effects of mango fruit powder on the early metabolic adverse effects of a high-fat diet. The progressive dose-response effects of mango fruit powder on body composition, circulating parameters, and the expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity in key tissues were studied in mice fed a moderate (45%) high-fat diet. Findings suggest that mango fruit powder exerts physiological protective effects in the initial steps of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Moreover, AMPK and SIRT1 appear as key regulators of the observed improvement in fatty acid oxidation capacity, as well as of the improved insulin sensitivity and the increased glucose uptake and metabolism through the glycolytic pathway capacity in liver and skeletal muscle. In summary, this study provides evidence that the functional food ingredient (CarelessTM) from mango fruit prevents early metabolic alterations caused by a high-fat diet in the initial stages of the metabolic syndrome. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76, daily weight gain (8.75-9.72 and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19 obtained were not significantly (P<0.05 affected by the dietary levels of mango seed kernel meal. Carcass yield and weight of organs expressed as percentage of live weight did not significantly differ between the treatment means. The cost in naira per kilogram gain was highest on diet 1 (0%MSKM and lowest on diet 4 (100% MSKM having N338.84 and 245.58 respectively. The result indicates that mango seed kernel meal can replace maize at 100% level in the diet of Weaner rabbit with better performance and tremendous reduction in feed cost.

  15. Mango Fruit Extracts Differentially Affect Proliferation and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Wong Taing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of human cancer cell proliferation is a common approach in identifying plant extracts that have potential bioactive effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanolic extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars, Irwin (IW, Nam Doc Mai (NDM, and Kensington Pride (KP, differentially affect proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I signalling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Mango flesh extracts from all three cultivars did not inhibit cell growth, and of the peel extracts only NDM reduced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Mango cultivar peel and flesh extracts did not significantly change ERK phosphorylation compared to controls; however, some reduced relative maximal peak [Ca2+]I after adenosine triphosphate stimulation, with NDM peel extract having the greatest effect among the treatments. Our results identify mango interfruit and intrafruit (peel and flesh extract variability in antiproliferative effects and [Ca2+]I signalling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and highlight that parts of the fruit (such as peel and flesh and cultivar differences are important factors to consider when assessing potential chemopreventive bioactive compounds in plants extracts.

  16. Antropometría del trabajador minero de la altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto V Ramírez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La antropometría trata de las medidas del cuerpo humano y es base fundamental para la ergonomía. La minería peruana se localiza casi siempre en la gran altura, hábitat del hombre andino, que tiene características antropométricas diversas al hombre del llano. Objetivo: Caracterizar antropométricamente a una población andina de trabajadores mineros en la sierra central del Perú. Diseño: El estudio fue descriptivo, tipo prospectivo y observacional. Lugar: Servicio de Salud Ocupacional, Centromin-Perú, en La Oroya, y 4 de sus hospitales mineros satélites. Participantes: Tres mil trabajadores mineros, sanos, de sexo masculino, de 21 a 60 años, nativos-residentes alturas superiores a 3 500 msnm. Intervenciones: La muestra la generamos con un modelo aleatorio polietápico de conglomerados. El estudio se realizó entre 1984-1994; obtuvimos media, rango desviación estándar de la media. Para la certeza estadística de la hipótesis de normalidad, aplicamos la prueba de significancia de Shapiro - Wilk, para dos colas. Principales medidas de los resultados: Medidas morfológicas, macroscópicas, fenotípicas y de superficie, realizadas con un protocolo medición y según técnica reconocida en el ámbito científico. Resultados: De los parámetros estudiados destacaron: de pie, estatura 151,2 a 154,6, altura piso-ojos, 1,481 m; sentado, asiento-codo 0,243 m, a vértex y altura ojos, 1,155 y 1,095 m; mano, ancho y largo, 0,104 a 0,171 m; pie, ancho y largo, 0,92 y 0,239 m; perímetro tórax, reposo 98,16, inspiración forzada, 105,3, espiración forzada 94,3 cm. Los resultados fueron validados con la prueba de Shapiro Wilk que, para aceptación, valora entre 0,01 y 0,099. Del total (47, tres parámetros fueron rechazados totalmente: alcance vertical máximo de brazo, ancho de caderas y perímetro de cráneo, cuyo valor de x en los tres casos 0,50. Conclusiones: La caracterización antropométrica del trabajador minero andino

  17. The species and cultivars of mango in Madiun and its surroundings; the development and its problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL SUMIASRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The East Java province is one of distribution areas of mango in Indonesia. These plants can be found almost in all areas in that province. The central distribution in some regency namely Probolinggo, Pasuruan, Banyuwangi, Kediri and Tulungagung. The aim of this research was to know species diversities among diversity within species (cultivar which was planted recently since the genetic erosion was going fast. Therefore several areas in Madiun and its surroundings (Ngawi, Nganjuk, Kediri, and Tulungagung were selected for this study. The results as follows: there were two species mango planted in those areas namely Mangifera indica L. (14 cultivars and Mangifera odorata Griff. (2 cultivars. According to the taste, can be classified into good (for example ‘arumanis’, ‘santog’,’madu’, ‘manalagi’, ‘golek’ and not too good taste (for example ‘kopyor’, ‘kelem’, ‘dodonilo’, ‘cempuro’. According to the diversity status,the following cultivars could be classified as endangered (i.e. pakel, madu, kopyor, santog gunung, dodonilo, cempuro and pelem lanang. Aside of those cultivars, however, we might find some cultivars which are commonly abundance (i.e. gadung, podang, podang gunung and podang sawahan. Besides that developing, marketing and processing still need to be developed to increase its added value, because in practice the marketing and processing still traditionally system.

  18. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Kalra, Neetu; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-03-01

    To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight) consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  19. Calcium carbide related ocular burn injuries during mango ripening season of West Bengal, eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Saha, M; Biswas, S; Ranjan, A; Naskar, A K; Bandyopadhyay, L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbide used in fruit ripening industry as a cheap alternative to natural plant hormone ethylene produces highly inflammable acetylene gas. Inadvertent ignition of this gas can cause severe ocular burn injury with unilateral or bilateral blindness. To determine the characteristics and visual outcome of ocular burn injuries from calcium carbide during mango ripening season of West Bengal, eastern India. A prospective study of all cases of calcium carbide related ocular burn injury attending a tertiary care hospital during mango ripening season was carried out. The demographic features, characteristics of the injury, management and outcomes were recorded. Fifty five eyes of 33 patients were studied. Males were more commonly affected (20 patients, 60.6%) than females. The injury was bilateral in 22 patients (66.66%). Seventeen patients (51.51%) were below 20 years of age. Ten eyes had open globe injuries and 45 eyes had closed globe injuries. One eye of a patient had to be enucleated (3%). Children below 14 years of age were mainly injured while playing with indigenous fireworks of shooting carbide. Middle aged women were affected particularly during ignition of evening lamps. Carbide lamp was another source of injury. Males are more commonly affected by calcium carbide related ocular injuries. Children and young adults are the common victims. Such injuries can involve both the eyes and cause a permanent visual disability. © NEPjOPH.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of lupeol and mango pulp extract of carcinogen induced alteration in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Kalra, Neetu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2007-03-01

    Lupeol, a triterpene present in mango and other fruits, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antilithiatic, and antidiabetic effects. In the present study, chemopreventive properties of lupeol and mango pulp extract (MPE) were evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced alteration in liver of Swiss albino mice. Lupeol (25 mg/kg body weight, bw) or 1 mL of 20% w/v aqueous MPE/mouse were daily given once for 1 wk after a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg bw). Lupeol/MPE supplementation effectively influenced the DMBA induced oxidative stress, characterized by restored antioxidant enzyme activities and decrease in lipid peroxidation. A reduction of apoptotic cell population in the hypodiploid region was observed in lupeol and MPE supplemented animals. The inhibition of apoptosis was preceded by decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and restoration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential followed by decreased DNA fragmentation. In DMBA treated animals, downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulation of proapoptotic Bax and Caspase 3 in mouse liver was observed. These alterations were restored by lupeol/MPE, indicating inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, lupeol/MPE was found to be effective in combating oxidative stress induced cellular injury of mouse liver by modulating cell-growth regulators.

  1. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  2. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  4. Simplified optical fiber RGB system in evaluating intrinsic quality of Sala mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an alternative approach for the nondestructive assessment of fruit quality parameters with the use of a simplified optical fiber red-green-blue system (OF-RGB). The optical sensor system presented in this work is designed to rapidly measure the firmness, acidity, and soluble solid content of an intact Sala mango on the basis of color properties. The system consists of three light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 635 (red), 525 (green), and 470 nm (blue), as well as a single photodetector capable of sensing visible light. The measurements were conducted using the reflectance technique. The analyses were conducted by comparing the results obtained through the proposed system with those measured using two commercial spectrometers, namely, QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. The developed RGB system showed satisfactory accuracy in the measurement of acidity (R2=0.795) and firmness (R2=0.761), but a relatively lower accuracy in the measurement of soluble solid content (R2=0.593) of intact mangoes. The results obtained through OF-RGB are comparable with those measured by QE65000 and FieldSpec 3. This system is a promising new technology with rapid response, easy operation, and low cost with potential applications in the nondestructive assessment of quality attributes.

  5. Comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (Mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, E O S; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Souza, A M; Santos, C A F; Lima Neto, F P; Corrêa, R X

    2012-03-14

    We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ≤ rs ≤ 0.63), high and significant (rs ≥ 0.91; P < 0.001). Regardless of the origin of the distance matrix, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping method proved to be the most adequate. The various distance measurements and grouping methods gave different values for distortion (-116.5 ≤ D ≤ 74.5), cophenetic correlation (0.26 ≤ rc ≤ 0.76) and stress (-1.9 ≤ S ≤ 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the.

  6. Influence of particle size on physical and sensory attributes of mango pulp powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Kadam, D. M.; Chadha, S.; Wilson, R. A.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was aimed to observe the effect of particle size on physical, sensory and thermal properties of foam-mat dried mango pulp powder. Mango pulp of Dussehri variety was foam-mat dried using 3% egg white at 65ºC. Dried foam-mats were pulverized and passed through a sieve shaker for obtaining three grades of powder with 50, 60, and 85 mesh size sieves. The particle size of these samples measured using laser diffraction particle size analyzer ranged from 191.26 to 296.19 μm. The data was analysed statistically using ANOVA of SAS. There was a linear increase in lightness (`L' value) with a decrease in particle size, however, `a' value decreased with a decrease in particle size, indicating the decrease in redness. An increase in bulk density and decrease in water solubility index and water absorption index % were observed with a decrease in particle size. Particle size had a significant effect on sensory parameters. Particle size in the range of 258.01 to 264.60μmwas found most acceptable with respect to sensory characteristics. This finding can be exploited for various commercial applicationswhere powder quality is dependent on the particle size and has foremost priority for end users.

  7. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahdeo Prasad; Neetu Kalra; Madhulika Singh; Yogeshwer Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Methods: Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight)consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase,glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). Results: In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  8. Fruit yield and root system distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango under different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the fruit yield and the distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango root system under different irrigation regimes in the semiarid region of Bahia. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and three replicates: 1 - Irrigation supplying 100% of ETc in phases I, II and III; 2 - Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI supplying 50% of ETc in phase I (beginning of flowering to early fruit growth; 3 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase II (start of expansion until the beginning of physiological maturity; 4 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase III (physiological mature fruits; 5 - No irrigation during all three phases. The regulated deficit irrigation supplying 50% of the ETc during phase I and II provided larger root length density of 'Tommy Atkins' mango. Regardless of management strategy, the roots were developed in all evaluated soil volume and the highest density is concentrated from 0.50 to 1.50 m distance from the trunk and in 0.20 to 0.90 m depth in the soil, that suggests this region to be the best place for fertilizer application as well for soil water sensor placement. The application of RDI during fruit set does not influence either root distribution or production. Root system and crop production is significantly reduced under no irrigation conditions.

  9. Study of influence on harvesting point in Brazilian Tommy Atkins mangoes submitted to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Cruz, J. N.; Rela, P. R.; Broisler, P. O.

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is a great producer of tropical fruits including mangoes. Among several purposes gamma radiation can be applied as phytosanitary treatment. This is well studied in scientific papers and more recently demonstrated through commercial advances like bilateral protocols established between India and USA. The whole experiment evolved two parts where each of them used fruits from different maturity stages (stages 2 and 3). This experiment was carried out with around 300 fruits in each part of the study. The main objective was to get the experience close to commercial conditions. The irradiation was realized in Multipurpose Cobalt-60 source belonging to IPEN-CNEN/SP (developed in house by own technology). The absorbed doses were 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75 kGy. After irradiation all fruits were kept at 12 °C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days. After this period the fruits were brought to environmental conditions (25 °C) for around 14 more days of duration. These conditions were established to simulate the exportation conditions from Brazil to distant countries. Physical-chemical analysis (pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids (°Brix) and texture) as well as visual observation (mass loss, rotting, internal and skin color) were evaluated. The results from this experiment could demonstrate that the characteristics of the mangoes are more dependent on time and temperature storage rather than irradiation.

  10. Influence of polysaccharides and storage during processing on the properties of mango seed kernel extract (microencapsulation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2012-10-01

    Extracts from mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) cultivar Chok-Anan seed kernels were studied as active substances, since they are known as a good source of phenolic antioxidants with metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of a combination of polysaccharides selected from gum arabic, maltodextrin and alginate on droplet size distribution, encapsulation efficiency (EE), stability and viscosity of W/O/W emulsions. In addition, the effects of stored emulsion on the properties of the encapsulated powder were studied. The results showed that there were interactions between polysaccharides which affected droplet size distribution, stability, viscosity and EE of multiple emulsions. The RSM showed a good fit to the proposed model with R(2)>0.83, 0.79 and 0.69 for viscosity, stability and EE, respectively, with significant correlations (pcoating material was also a suitable coating mixture for preparation of encapsulated mango seed kernel extract powder. Moreover, if the polysaccharide combination is not appropriate for coating, the storage after emulsion preparation will have a greater effect on the properties of the encapsulated emulsion and powder.

  11. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  12. [Food allergy: the celery-mugwort-spice syndrome. Association with mango allergy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Hofer, T

    1984-06-22

    Celery allergies are commonly observed in mugwort pollen-allergic patients. This situation is frequently associated with an allergy to spices of the umbelliferous family. Thus a "celery-mugwort-spice syndrome" has been established. In 31 patients (27 females, 4 males) allergy to celery was diagnosed between 1978 and 1982. They were followed up in 1983 and complementary tests (skin and RAST) with various raw vegetables, spices and mugwort pollen were done. For specific diagnosis of allergy to celery skin testing (scratch or prick) with fresh celery bulb was reliable. In contrast, RAST was not sufficiently sensitive, 87% of patients allergic to celery had pollinosis in the form of mugwort pollen sensitisation established by skin testing and RAST. Allergy to carrots was clinically and by testing currently associated in 52%. In contrast, a clinically relevant hypersensitivity to caraway (26%), parsley (16%), fennel (13%), green pepper (10%) and aniseed (3%) was found less frequently although these allergens showed a much larger positivity in skin testing. This signifies group sensitisation within the umbelliferous plants. The association of celery-mugwort allergy with allergy to mango fruit described here for the first time cannot be explained as group sensitisation within a botanic relation, as mango, and pistachio-nut, belong to the family of anacardiaceae.

  13. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

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    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  14. Evaluation of Elemental Contents of Wild Mango (Irvingia gabonensis Fruit in Ghana

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    J.E. Ayivor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study to provide information on the elemental composition of the Irvingia gabonensis which is used for various purposes such as cooking, medicine, soap and as fresh fruit was conducted in Ghana. Elements determined includes Aluminium (Al, Arsenic (As, Chlorine (Cl, Cobalt (Co, Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe, Iodine (I, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Sodium (Na, and Zinc (Zn. Samples from multiple locations in the southern part of Ghana were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA. The seed cover (endocarp presented the highest concentrations of all the elements except Mg and Cu. Toxic and potentially toxic elements including Al and As were detected at average concentrations of 37.78±1.36 and 9.34±0.66. Iron had the hight concentration in all the parts of the fruit analyzed in this study with its highest concentration at 1730±180.83 in the seed coat (endocarp of the wild mango fruit. The results of this present investigation show that all the parts of the wild mango a rich source of many important elements that have a very positive effect on human health.

  15. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J P; Tai, C Y; Chen, B H

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Initially, the peel and seed of mangoes were removed, the pulps were cut into pieces, freeze-dried, ground into powder, extracted and subjected to HPLC analysis. A mobile phase of methanol-isopropanol (99:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) with the following gradient elution was developed: 100% A and 0% B in the beginning, maintained for 15 min, decreased to 70% A in 45 min, maintained for 15 min and returned to 100% A in 65 min. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 53 min by using a C-30 column with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. alpha-Carotene was used as an internal standard to quantify all the carotenoids. All-trans-beta-carotene was present in largest amount (29.34 microg/g), followed by cis isomers of beta-carotene (9.86 microg/g), violaxanthin and its cis isomers (6.40 microg/g), neochrome (5.03 microg/g), luteoxanthin (3.6 microg/g), neoxanthin and its cis isomers (1.88 microg/g), zeaxanthin (1.16 microg/g) and 9- or 9'-cis-lutein (0.78 microg/g).

  16. Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE.

  17. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method.

  18. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  19. Survival analysis applied to the sensory shelf-life dating of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado and mango pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Ramos-Parra, P A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2010-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pasteurized and refrigerated avocado and mango pulps contain lower microbial counts and thus are safer and acceptable for human consumption for a longer period of time, when compared to fresh unprocessed pulps. However, during their commercial shelf life, changes in their sensory characteristics take place and eventually produce the rejection of these products by consumers. Therefore, in the present study, the use of sensory evaluation was proposed for the shelf-life determinations of HHP-processed avocado and mango pulps. The study focused on evaluating the feasibility of applying survival analysis methodology to the data generated by consumers in order to determine the sensory shelf lives of both HHP-treated pulps of avocado and mango. Survival analysis proved to be an effective methodology for the estimation of the sensory shelf life of avocado and mango pulps processed with HHP, with potential application for other pressurized products. Practical Application: At present, HHP processing is one of the most effective alternatives for the commercial nonthermal pasteurization of fresh tropical fruits. HHP processing improves the microbial stability of the fruit pulps significantly; however, the products continue to deteriorate during their refrigerated storage mainly due to the action of residual detrimental enzymes. This article proposes the application of survival analysis methodology for the determination of the sensory shelf life of HHP-treated avocado and mango pulps. Results demonstrated that the procedure appears to be simple and practical for the sensory shelf-life determination of HHP-treated foods when their main mode of failure is not caused by increases in microbiological counts that can affect human health.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Contents of Some Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica in Kaduna Metropolis-Nigeria

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    S. Sarkiyayi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three varieties of mangoes (Mangifera indica namely; Adansonia digitata (Durshea big seed, Durio zubethinus murr (Peter middle seeded, Foetide lour (Julie collected within Kaduna metropolis were subjected to proximate analysis. Analysis of the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the three varieties of mangoes revealed that moisture content, crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fat, ash content and vitamin c were 79.17, 1.97, 7.16, 1.89, 9.81 and 34.12% respectively for Durshea variety. The findings revealed that Peter (Middle Seeded mango proximate values for all the nutrients analyzed were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the values obtained from Durshea result. The Julie (Small Seeded mango’s moisture content (72.04% and carbohydrate contents (16.59 mg/100 g were significantly (p<0.05 different from Durshea and Peter varieties. The findings also revealed that calcium contents were 0.15, 0.10 and 0.13% for durshea, peter and Julie, respectively. Iron and magnesium contents were present in small amount for all the three variaties. The contents of cyanogenic glycosides (0.28 mg/100 g, oxalates (1.60 mg/100 g and phytate (0.62 mg/100 g for durshea were not significantly different from peter and jullie varieties of the mango. The findings revealed that the three varieties of mango contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that the body required for its normal metabolic functions .The anti nutrients contents is negligible. The Durshea variety is the most recommended for human consumption because of its high lipids and calcium contents.

  1. Mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzuko eDautt-Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L. mesocarp cv. Kent was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango (1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR≤0.05. The expression of ten genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R=0.97, validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like cell wall, carbohydrate catabolic process and starch and sucrose metabolic process among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  2. Alteraciones espirométricas en pacientes asmáticos del municipio Majibacoa, 2009-2013

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    Mailin Molina Leyva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con el objetivo de identificar alteraciones espirométricas en pacientes asmáticos del municipio Majibacoa, en el período comprendido desde enero del 2009 a enero del 2013. La muestra se integró por cincuenta pacientes asmáticos con más de 20 años de evolución de la enfermedad. Se les realizó previo consentimiento informado y una prueba espirométrica. Predominó el sexo femenino y las edades comprendidas entre 35 y 54 años. Prevalecieron los pacientes en la categoría de asma persistente severa. El volumen espiratorio forzado del primer segundo se comportó patológico en el mayor por ciento de los pacientes y la capacidad vital forzada mostró alteración en un menor número de pacientes. El patrón espirométrico obstructivo fue el más frecuente en los pacientes estudiados

  3. Metabolite profiling of the ripening of Mangoes Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins' by real-time measurement of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Iain R; Blake, Robert S; Taylor, Andrew J; Monks, Paul S

    Real-time profiling of mango ripening based on proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) of small molecular weight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is demonstrated using headspace measurements of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes. VOC metabolites produced during the ripening process were sampled directly, which enabled simultaneous and rapid detection of a wide range of compounds. Headspace measurements of 'Keitt' mangoes were also conducted for comparison. A principle component analysis of the results indicated that several mass channels were not only key to the ripening process but could also be used to distinguish between mango cultivars. The identities of 22 of these channels, tentatively speciated using contemporaneous GC-MS measurements of sorbent tubes, are rationalized through examination of the biochemical pathways that produce volatile flavour components. Results are discussed with relevance to the potential of headspace analysers and electronic noses in future fruit ripening and quality studies.

  4. Utilization of physicochemical variables developed from changes in sensory attributes and consumer acceptability to predict the shelf life of fresh-cut mango fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salinas-Hernández, Rosa María; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    ...*, chroma and hue angle), total soluble solids (TSS), firmness (F), pH, acidity, and the sensory attributes of appearance, brightness, browning, odor, flavor, texture, color, acidity and sweetness were evaluated in fresh cut mangoes (FCM...

  5. Response of Some Biochemical and Mineral Constituents of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L. Influenced by Different Levels of Bavistin DF

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    M. Khairul Islam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM for obtaining results on the biochemical and mineral content changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of crude fiber, lipid, water-soluble protein, phosphorus, and potassium constituents over the Khirshapat. It is revealed that the expansion of mineral contents in the mango was intimately associated with ripening during storage. The results also noticed to be an increasing trend of lipid and protein content in mango pulp with the advance of storage period using Bavistin DF.

  6. Antifungal activity of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in postharvest mango fruit and its possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbin; Lei, Huanhuan; Ma, Xiuyan; Lai, Tongfei; Song, Hongmiao; Shi, Xuequn; Li, Jiangkuo

    2017-01-16

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important postharvest diseases in mango fruit, often causing huge economic losses. In this study, the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) against anthracnose in postharvest mango fruit and the mechanisms involved were investigated. 1-MCP induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, damaged the mitochondria and destroyed the integrity of plasma membrane of spores of C. gloeosporioides, significantly suppressing spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. 1-MCP also decreased the decay incidence and lesion expansion of mango fruit caused by C. gloeosporioides. For the first time this study demonstrated that 1-MCP suppressed anthracnose of postharvest mango fruit by directly inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, thus providing a promising strategy for disease control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mango Polyphenolics Reduce Inflammation in Intestinal Colitis—Involvement of the miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Axis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyemee; Banerjee, Nivedita; Barnes, Ryan C.; Pfent, Catherine M.; Talcott, Stephen T.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) polyphenolics containing gallic acid and gallotanins, and the role of the miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in vitro and in vivo. Polyphenolics extracted from mango (var. Keitt) were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated CCD-18Co cells. Rats received either a beverage with mango polyphenolics or a control beverage, and were exposed to three cycles of 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) followed by a 2-wk recovery period. The mango extract (10 mg GAE/L) suppressed the protein expression of NF-κB, p-NF-κB, PI3K (p85β), HIF-1α, p70S6K1, and RPS6 in LPS-treated CCD-18Co cells. LPS reduced miR-126 expression, whereas, the mango extract induced miR-126 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The relationship between miR-126 and its target, PI3K (p85β), was confirmed by treating cells with miR-126 antagomiR where mango polyphenols reversed the effects of the antagomiR. In vivo, mango beverage protected against DSS-induced colonic inflammation (47%, P = 0.05) and decreased the Ki-67 labeling index in the central and basal regions compared to the control. Mango beverage significantly attenuated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, the expression of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR was reduced, whereas, miR-126 was upregulated by the mango treatment. These results suggest that mango polyphenols attenuated inflammatory response by modulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway at least in part through upregulation of miRNA-126 expression both in vitro and in vivo; thus, mango polyphenolics might be relevant as preventive agents in ulcerative colitis. PMID:27061150

  8. Mango polyphenolics reduce inflammation in intestinal colitis-involvement of the miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyemee; Banerjee, Nivedita; Barnes, Ryan C; Pfent, Catherine M; Talcott, Stephen T; Dashwood, Roderick H; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) polyphenolics containing gallic acid and gallotanins, and the role of the miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in vitro and in vivo. Polyphenolics extracted from mango (var. Keitt) were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated CCD-18Co cells. Rats received either a beverage with mango polyphenolics or a control beverage, and were exposed to three cycles of 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) followed by a 2-wk recovery period. The mango extract (10 mg GAE/L) suppressed the protein expression of NF-κB, p-NF-κB, PI3K (p85β), HIF-1α, p70S6K1, and RPS6 in LPS-treated CCD-18Co cells. LPS reduced miR-126 expression, whereas, the mango extract induced miR-126 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The relationship between miR-126 and its target, PI3K (p85β), was confirmed by treating cells with miR-126 antagomiR where mango polyphenols reversed the effects of the antagomiR. In vivo, mango beverage protected against DSS-induced colonic inflammation (47%, P = 0.05) and decreased the Ki-67 labeling index in the central and basal regions compared to the control. Mango beverage significantly attenuated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, the expression of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR was reduced, whereas, miR-126 was upregulated by the mango treatment. These results suggest that mango polyphenols attenuated inflammatory response by modulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway at least in part through upregulation of miRNA-126 expression both in vitro and in vivo; thus, mango polyphenolics might be relevant as preventive agents in ulcerative colitis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio eFernández-Suárez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens, were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P<0.05 among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive.

  10. Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Rocío; Ramírez-Villatoro, Guadalupe; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Eslava, Carlos; Calderón, Montserrat; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Trejo-Márquez, Andrea; Wacher, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive.

  11. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found.

  12. Stabilization of a functional refreshment from mango nectar and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius through spray drying encapsulation

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    Torres-Valenzuela Laura Sofía

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yacon syrup (YS may be implemented as a functional sweetener because of its concentration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, which are sugars that are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis in the human digestive tract. Additionally, health benefits related to the consumption of FOS have been reported, such as preventing constipation and reducing blood sugar and lipid levels in diabetic patients. Yacon is a tuber from the South American Andes region, and its nutraceutical effects have been researched. Objective: The effect of YS as sweetener in a Mango Nectar (MN stabilized through SD (which is? and encapsulated with maltodextrin and Arabic gum (AG was evaluated as a natural and alternative beverage for diabetic patients. Methods: A sequential experimental design was used. First, mangoes were characterized into three ripening stages, evaluating pH, TSS, WC, WA, and TTA of each stage. Then, four formulations of MN with YS with concentrations of 33.3, 66.6, and 99.9% yacon-to-juice ratio were evaluated according to the quantity of TSS, which were analyzed over the acceptance of untrained judges. Later on, the formulation with the best acceptance was chosen and evaluated based on the performance of the encapsulation of components through SD using maltodextrin and AG with a 30% concentration and tricalcium phosphate (TP with a 0.15% concentration. Lastly, the encapsulation process with maltodextrin with a 30% concentration was analyzed at temperatures of 100, 105, 110, and 130°C over the rehydration, evaluating WA, TSS, and Vitamin C. Results: The mango with 12°Brix was selected for the formulation. The YS addition to MN generated significant differences (p<0.001 in the flavor because of the concentration with the addition of a 33.3% enhancing the flavor. As a result, the 33.3% concentration was selected for further testing. The final stage showed significant differences in the performance of the processFunctional Foods in Health and Disease

  13. Efectos del retardo del asentamiento en las expectativas de vida del briozoo Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata Effects of delaying settlement on the life expectancy of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata

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    JUAN M CANCINO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En presencia de un substrato adecuado las larvas lecitotróficas del briozoo Bugula flabellata se asientan preferentemente durante las primeras seis horas luego de su liberación desde las cámaras de incubación, mientras que un porcentaje marginal (1 % pospone el asentamiento entre 6 y 24 h. En este trabajo se demuestra que las larvas de B. flabellata forzadas, por agitación mecánica, al posponer el asentamiento entre 6 y 54 h reducen significativamente su adecuación biológica. Las larvas mantienen su capacidad para asentarse en un nivel cercano al 95 % durante las primeras 24 h de natación. Posteriormente solo un 30 % de las larvas forzadas a retrasar el asentamiento por 24 a 48 h fueron capaces de asentarse. Más aún, la capacidad para metamorfosear disminuye desde casi un 100 % inicial a menos de un 50 % a partir de las 6 h de retardo del asentamiento. Colonias derivadas de larvas que han sido forzadas a retrasar el asentamiento entre 48-54 h tienen al cabo de 21 días un menor número de zooides (7,6 ± 1,88 que colonias generadas por larvas que se asentaron entre 1-6 h después de la liberación (12,7 ± 1,02. Los efectos letales y subletales que genera el retardar el asentamiento larval sobre la capacidad para metamorfosear en B. flabellata, concuerdan con el patrón de asentamiento larval temprano descrito anteriormente para esta especie. Los efectos letales y subletales de retrasar el asentamiento en especies con larvas lecitotróficas, podrían ser una importante fuerza selectiva que favorecería la liberación larval en condiciones de bajo movimiento de agua.In the presence of a suitable substratum the lecithotrophic larvae of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata preferentially settle within the first six hours after hatching, whereas a marginal percentage of them (1 % delay settlement between 6 and 24 h after larval release. In the present study we report that larvae of B. flabellata forced, by mechanical water shaking, to delay

  14. Effects of Microwave Thawing on Quality of Mango%微波解冻对芒果品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭郁; 赵金红; 倪元颖

    2015-01-01

    研究不同微波功率解冻对芒果品质以及解冻时间的影响. 先将样品置于-40℃条件下冻结24 h, 然后采用100、200 W和300 W 3种功率的微波和常温空气解冻方法对芒果进行解冻.试验结果证明:常温空气解冻所需解冻时间较长,解冻后芒果品质显著下降,而300 W微波解冻既能达到快速解冻的作用,又能较好保持芒果品质,为最优条件.%This article studied the quality of mango and thaw time processed by different microwave power . Took mango as raw materials, storaged at -40 ℃ for 24 hours first,and then used different microwave power including 100, 200 W and 300 W and air thawing to thaw mango . The main results were made as follows:air thawing took a long time to thaw the samples , the quality of mango declined markedly , and microwave thawing of 300 W not only could achieve the rapid-thawing , but also had no great damage to the quality of mango. Therefore this method was the best choice for thawing mango.

  15. Leaf Transcriptome Sequencing for Identifying Genic-SSR Markers and SNP Heterozygosity in Crossbred Mango Variety ‘Amrapali’ (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Akshay; Srivastav, Manish; Jaiprakash; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anand Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is called “king of fruits” due to its sweetness, richness of taste, diversity, large production volume and a variety of end usage. Despite its huge economic importance genomic resources in mango are scarce and genetics of useful horticultural traits are poorly understood. Here we generated deep coverage leaf RNA sequence data for mango parental varieties ‘Neelam’, ‘Dashehari’ and their hybrid ‘Amrapali’ using next generation sequencing technologies. De-novo sequence assembly generated 27,528, 20,771 and 35,182 transcripts for the three genotypes, respectively. The transcripts were further assembled into a non-redundant set of 70,057 unigenes that were used for SSR and SNP identification and annotation. Total 5,465 SSR loci were identified in 4,912 unigenes with 288 type I SSR (n ≥ 20 bp). One hundred type I SSR markers were randomly selected of which 43 yielded PCR amplicons of expected size in the first round of validation and were designated as validated genic-SSR markers. Further, 22,306 SNPs were identified by aligning high quality sequence reads of the three mango varieties to the reference unigene set, revealing significantly enhanced SNP heterozygosity in the hybrid Amrapali. The present study on leaf RNA sequencing of mango varieties and their hybrid provides useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of mango. PMID:27736892

  16. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  17. Factores laborales y extralaborales de floricultores con Síndrome del Túnel del Carpo: cundinamarca-Colombia 2013

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    Alfonso Hernández D. Wilder

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal y alcance correlacional sobre condiciones laborales y extralaborales de trabajadores con diagnóstico de Síndrome del Túnel del Carpo que laboran en cultivos de flores en la región de Cundinamarca (Colombia. Método: Se hizo un muestreo por conveniencia y a disponibilidad en tres empresas de cultivo de flores afiliadas a la Asociación Colombiana de Exportadores de Flores (ASOCOLFLORES. Se analizaron características sociodemográficas, antecedentes ocupacionales y actividades extraocupacionales. Se realizó la evaluación de puestos de trabajo mediante la utilización del método OCRA. Resultados: el total de los casos diagnosticados afecta a mujeres que realizan actividades laborales con alta demanda de movimientos repetitivos, agarres con requerimientos de fuerza, posturas forzadas de miembros superiores por periodos prolongados y alta exigencia en el ritmo de trabajo. Se identificaron actividades extralaborales con jornadas prolongadas dedicadas a la realización de labores domésticas que evidencian una correlación estadísticamente significativa con factores de riesgo presentes en las condiciones de trabajo (RHO de Spearman. Discusión: los hallazgos pueden estar relacionados con la denominada situación de segregación laboral y la prolongada exposición a factores de riesgo presentes en las condiciones de trabajo y los que se derivan de las actividades domésticas que deben desarrollar las mujeres.

  18. HPLC-DAD-q-TOF-MS as a powerful platform for the determination of phenolic and other polar compounds in the edible part of mango and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Free and bound phenolic and other polar compounds in mango edible fraction and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk) have been determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-qTOF-MS. This analytical technique has demonstrated to be a valuable platform for the identification and quantification of these compounds in mango. In fact, UV-Vis and mass spectra data allowed the determination of 91 free compounds and 13 bound (cell wall linked) compounds taking into account the four fractions of mango. To our knowledge, this is the first time that mango seed husk has been studied regarding its phenolic compounds. The method proposed showed LODs between 0.006 and 0.85 μg/mL and accuracy ranged from 94.8 and 100.7%. Mango peel presented the highest concentration of free polar compounds followed by seed, pulp, and seed husk. It is also important to highlight that bound phenolic compounds had never been determined in mango pulp, seed, and seed husk before. Furthermore, ellagic acid was the most abundant bound compound in the four mango fractions analyzed. These results show that mango pulp and its by-products are a good source of phenolic and other polar compounds. In particular, mango seed contains a high total concentration of ellagic acid (650 mg/100 g dry weight).

  19. La producción de la renta en la esfera de la encomienda (el caso de Iguaque, del Nuevo Reino de Granada, en la fase de tránsito

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    Heraclio Bonilla

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo efectúa un análisis local de la extracción de renta a los indios de la encomienda de Iguaque, provincia de Tunja, y la composición de su población en el último tercio del siglo XVI. Utiliza varias visitas, renumeraciones y retasas de la encomienda para mostrar las variaciones en el monto y la composición de la renta que debían pagar los indios tributarios, resaltando las diferencias entre la tasa oficial y los montos realmente cobrados. En ese contexto, señala las tensiones entre caciques, encomenderos y tributarios, así como la expansión mercantil de las economías nativas, la monetización forzada de la renta, la caída demográfica y, en definitiva, el proceso de transición al sistema colonial.

  20. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

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    Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’ (Anacardiaceae and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.