WorldWideScience

Sample records for forty percent methionine

  1. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films (here...

  2. Percent Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Percent Coverage is a spreadsheet that keeps track of and compares the number of vessels that have departed with and without observers to the numbers of vessels...

  3. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  4. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  5. Scattered light characterization of FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Carter, Anna; Redwine, Keith; Teste, Stephane; Pelton, Russell; Hagopian, John; Kutyrev, Alexander; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2017-08-01

    We describe our efforts to build a Wide-Field Lyman alpha Geocoronal simulator (WFLaGs) for characterizing the end-to-end sensitivity of FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) to scattered Lyman α emission from outside of the nominal (1/2 degree)2 field-of-view. WFLaGs is a 50 mm diameter F/1 aluminum parabolic collimator fed by a hollow cathode discharge lamp with a 80 mm clear MgF2 window housed in a vacuum skin. It creates emission over a 10 degree FOV. WFLaGS will allow us to validate and refine a recently developed scattered light model and verify our scatter light mitigation strategies, which will incorporate low scatter baffle materials, and possibly 3-d printed light traps, covering exposed scatter centers. We present measurements of scattering intensity of Lyman alpha as a function of angle with respect to the specular reflectance direction for several candidate baffle materials. Initial testing of WFLaGs will be described.

  6. Getting started with FortiGate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Rosato

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  7. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop…

  8. ROE Fish Faunal Percent Loss

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Percent reduction is based on the number of native species determined to be present as of 2015, compared with historical numbers documented prior to 1970. Data are...

  9. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiolabeling of methionine containing proteins and peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, R.K.; Jirousek, L.

    1986-01-01

    A process for radiolabeling methionine-containing peptides and proteins is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of oxidizing the protein or peptide, radiolabeling and reducing the radiolabeled protein or peptide. (author)

  11. The first forty years, 1947-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

  12. The first forty years, 1947-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward

  13. Forty Ninth Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This forty-ninth Course will be held from 6 to 21, June 2013, at its premises in Bangalore. Participants in this course will gain hands-on experience with about 25 experiments, some at the BSc. level and some at the MSc. level with a low cost kit developed for the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, and manufactured by ...

  14. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  15. How to Obtain Forty Percent Less Environmental Impact by Healthy, Protein-Optimized Snacks for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Henrik; Loftager Okkels, Signe; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2017-12-06

    It is well known that meals containing less meat are more sustainable, but little is known about snack-meals, which typically do not contain meat. This study investigates the diversity in environmental impacts associated with snack production based on 20 common recipes optimized for protein content, energy content and sensory aspects for older adults. The purpose is to improve sustainability of public procurement by serving more sustainable snack-meals. Public procurement serves Danish older adults over millions of snack-meals every year, and millions more are served in countries with a similar social service. The environmental impact of snack production was estimated by consequential life cycle assessment. The average impact of producing the 10 least environmentally harmful snacks was 40% less than the average impact of producing the 10 most harmful snacks. This is true whether the functional unit was mass, energy, or protein content, and whether the environmental impact was measured as global warming potential or the monetized value of 16 impact categories. We conclude that large-scale public procurement of snack-meals by private and municipal kitchens can be reduced by up to 40% if the kitchens evaluate the environmental impact of all their snacks and serve the better half more frequently.

  16. How to Obtain Forty Percent Less Environmental Impact by Healthy, Protein-Optimized Snacks for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Saxe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that meals containing less meat are more sustainable, but little is known about snack-meals, which typically do not contain meat. This study investigates the diversity in environmental impacts associated with snack production based on 20 common recipes optimized for protein content, energy content and sensory aspects for older adults. The purpose is to improve sustainability of public procurement by serving more sustainable snack-meals. Public procurement serves Danish older adults over millions of snack-meals every year, and millions more are served in countries with a similar social service. The environmental impact of snack production was estimated by consequential life cycle assessment. The average impact of producing the 10 least environmentally harmful snacks was 40% less than the average impact of producing the 10 most harmful snacks. This is true whether the functional unit was mass, energy, or protein content, and whether the environmental impact was measured as global warming potential or the monetized value of 16 impact categories. We conclude that large-scale public procurement of snack-meals by private and municipal kitchens can be reduced by up to 40% if the kitchens evaluate the environmental impact of all their snacks and serve the better half more frequently.

  17. How to Obtain Forty Percent Less Environmental Impact by Healthy, Protein-Optimized Snacks for Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Okkels, Signe Loftager; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2017-01-01

    unit was mass, energy, or protein content, and whether the environmental impact was measured as global warming potential or the monetized value of 16 impact categories. We conclude that large-scale public procurement of snack-meals by private and municipal kitchens can be reduced by up to 40......% if the kitchens evaluate the environmental impact of all their snacks and serve the better half more frequently....

  18. Effect of two types of methionine supplement on performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of two types of synthetic methionine supplement (Dl methionine and MHA FA; Methionine Hydroxyl Analogue Free Acid, also known as Alimet) on performance of finisher broiler. Two hundred and thirty four (234) day old Hubbard Flex broilerschicks were allotted to six ...

  19. Abnormal maternal biomarkers of homocysteine and methionine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... heart defects. In both groups women will be excluded: If they were pregnant or taking folate antagonist medications (antiepileptic drugs) or vitamin supplementations at the time of the study. Measurement of plasma concentration of: Vitamin B-12, folic acid, Homocysteine, Methionine, S-adenosylmethionine.

  20. Influence of Methionine Supplementation on Nicotine Teratogenicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human and animal studies have shown that maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy adversely affects pre and postnatal growth and increases the risk of fetal mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of nicotine and protective effect of methionine on the toxic effects of nicotine. Pregnant ...

  1. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary methionine supplementation at varying levels on the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey was investigated. Four Isocaloric and Isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diets were supplemented with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% respectively.

  2. Secretion Of Methionine By Microorganisms Associated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methionine were secreted after 96 hours and 72 hours respectively by the lactobacilli and Leuconostoc sp. Since lactic acid bacteria are micro-aerophilic, it is suggested that lactic acid bacteria (the two lactobacilli and Leuconostoc sp.), which are the major organisms involved in cassava fermentation for garri production, ...

  3. Forty cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Go; Yamada, Shoichiro; Sawatsubashi, Motohiro; Miyazaki, Junji; Tsuda, Kuniyoshi; Inokuchi, Akira [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Forty patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the maxillary sinus were investigated between 1989 and 1999. They consisted of 28 males and 12 females. Their ages ranged from 18 to 84 years (mean 62 years). According to the 1987 UICC TNM classification system, 3 patients were classified as stage II, 3 were stage III and 34 were stage IV. The overall three-year and five-year survival rates were 52% and 44%, respectively. Local recurrence was observed in 11 stage IV cases and 10 of them were not controlled. For further improving the prognosis of such patients, new techniques such as skull base surgery, super selective intraarterial chemotherapy, and concurrent chemo-radiation should be included in the treatment regimen. (author)

  4. Physiological and biochemical aspects of methionine isomers and a methionine analogue in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Saremi, Behnam; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Wong, Eric A

    2017-02-01

    Methionine is the first limiting amino acid in all poultry corn-soybean based diets. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation of L-methionine (L-Met), DL-methionine (DL-Met), and the methionine analogue, DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA), on biochemical and physiological parameters of broiler chickens. Male Cobb-500 broilers were fed from day of hatch (d 0) to d 35 posthatch using a basal diet deficient in methionine plus cysteine (Met + Cys) (control), or the basal diet supplemented with 0.22% DL-Met, 0.22% L-Met, or 0.31% DL-HMTBA to meet the Met + Cys requirements. Tissue (liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and blood samples were collected at various ages, from d 0 to d 35. Performance of the birds, blood parameters (e.g., acute phase proteins, white blood cell counts), mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters and DNA methylation properties of liver tissues were examined. Both body weight and feed efficiency were improved in methionine supplemented groups compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed among DL-Met, L-Met, and DL-HMTBA for growth performance parameters. L-Met and DL-Met supplementation decreased the acute phase protein, serum amyloid A, while DL-HMTBA had no effect. Methionine supplementation had no effect on white blood cell differentiation count, hepatic total DNA methylation, or DNA methyltransferase activity. L-Met and DL-Met, but not DL-HMTBA, supplementation, resulted in enhanced expression of the ATB 0,+ and B 0 AT transporters in various small intestinal segments. All methionine sources increased expression of MCT1 in the jejunum. In conclusion, methionine supplementation improved growth performance of male broilers. Methionine supplementation was also associated with changes in intestinal nutrient transporter gene expression in certain segments and ages, suggesting that intestinal amino acid absorptive function can be regulated by the source of

  5. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  6. Methionine metabolism after portacaval shunt in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, L.E.; Steele, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of portacaval shunt (PCS) on methionine metabolism in the rat was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to PCS and maintained on an 18% casein diet. Growth curves of operated rats were similar to controls. PCS rats excreted more urinary 35 SO 4 and less [ 35 S]taurine than controls after intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mmol/100 g [ 35 S]methionine or [ 35 S]cysteine. Total urinary taurine excretion was similar in PCS and control rats after a methionine or cysteine load; however, under basal conditions PCS rats had higher urinary taurine levels than controls, indicating that PCS may cause the taurine pool to be expanded. Hepatic methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and cysteine pools were significantly decreased in PCS rats, while S-adenosylhomocysteine levels were unchanged. Relative rates of transsulfuration in PCS and control rats were studied by following the decrease in the 3 H-to- 35 S ratio in liver protein after injection of [methyl-3H]methionine and [ 35 S]methionine, and no difference in flux of 35 S from [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]cysteine was found. Similarly, total hepatic activities of methionine adenosyltransferase, cystathionine synthase, and cystathionine gamma-lyase were unchanged in PCS rats. These results indicate that altered methionine metabolism in PCS rats is not explained by changes in conversion of methionine to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway

  7. Bacterial variations on the methionine salvage pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thiomethyl group of S-adenosylmethionine is often recycled as methionine from methylthioadenosine. The corresponding pathway has been unravelled in Bacillus subtilis. However methylthioadenosine is subjected to alternative degradative pathways depending on the organism. Results This work uses genome in silico analysis to propose methionine salvage pathways for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Leptospira interrogans, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis and Xylella fastidiosa. Experiments performed with mutants of B. subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa substantiate the hypotheses proposed. The enzymes that catalyze the reactions are recruited from a variety of origins. The first, ubiquitous, enzyme of the pathway, MtnA (methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase, belongs to a family of proteins related to eukaryotic intiation factor 2B alpha. mtnB codes for a methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase. Two reactions follow, that of an enolase and that of a phosphatase. While in B. subtilis this is performed by two distinct polypeptides, in the other organisms analyzed here an enolase-phosphatase yields 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In the presence of dioxygen an aci-reductone dioxygenase yields the immediate precursor of methionine, ketomethylthiobutyrate. Under some conditions this enzyme produces carbon monoxide in B. subtilis, suggesting a route for a new gaseous mediator in bacteria. Ketomethylthiobutyrate is finally transaminated by an aminotransferase that exists usually as a broad specificity enzyme (often able to transaminate aromatic aminoacid keto-acid precursors or histidinol-phosphate. Conclusion A functional methionine salvage pathway was experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, in P. aeruginosa. Apparently, methionine salvage pathways are frequent in Bacteria (and in Eukarya, with recruitment of different polypeptides to perform the needed reactions (an ancestor of a translation initiation factor and Ru

  8. Comparison of methionine sources around requirement levels using a methionine efficacy method in 0 to 28 day old broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, P S; Dalibard, P; Mercier, Y; Van der Aar, P; Van der Klis, J D

    2016-03-01

    The addition of methionine in the poultry feed industry is still facing the relative efficacy dilemma between DL-methionine (DLM) and hydroxy-methionine (HMTBA). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary DLM and HMTBA on broiler performance at different levels of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA). The treatments consisted of a basal diet without methionine addition, and 4 increasing methionine doses for both sources resulting in TSAA/Lysine ratios from 0.62 to 0.73 in the starter phase and 0.59 to 0.82 in the grower phase. The comparison of product performance was performed by three-way ANOVA analysis and by methionine efficacy calculation as an alternative method of comparison. Growth results obtained during the starter phase with the different methionine supplementations did not show significant growth responses to TSAA levels, indicating a lower methionine requirement in the starter phase than currently assumed. However, a significant methionine dose effect was obtained for the period 10 to 28 day of age and for the entire growth period of 0 to 28 day of age. Excepting a significant gender effect, the statistical analysis did not allow for the discrimination of methionine sources, and no interaction between source and dose level was observed up to 28 days of age. A significant interaction between source and dose level was observed for methionine efficacy for the grower phase, and the total growth period showed better HMTBA efficacy at higher TSAA value. The exponential model fitted to each methionine source for body weight response depending on methionine intake or for feed conversion ratio (FCR) depending on methionine doses did not allow the methionine sources to be distinguished. Altogether, these results conclude that methionine sources lead to similar performances response when compared at TSAA values around the broiler requirement level. These results also showed that at TSAA values above requirement, HMTBA had a better methionine efficacy

  9. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sean X.; Stevens, Jeff W.

    2015-01-01

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis. PMID:25900980

  10. Dietary Methionine Restriction: Novel Treatment for Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epner, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... We used Southern blot analysis with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, western blot analysis, and RT-PCR to determine whether methionine restriction restored expression of growth inhibitory...

  11. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  12. Methionine Metabolites in Patients With Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Orren; Gough, Michael S; Morgan, Mary Anne M; Mack, Cynthia M; Apostolakos, Michael J; Doolin, Kathleen P; Mooney, Robert A; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pietropaoli, Anthony P

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by microvascular dysfunction and thrombophilia. Several methionine metabolites may be relevant to this sepsis pathophysiology. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) serves as the methyl donor for trans-methylation reactions. S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is the by-product of these reactions and serves as the precursor to homocysteine. Relationships between plasma total homocysteine concentrations (tHcy) and vascular disease and thrombosis are firmly established. We hypothesized that SAM, SAH, and tHcy levels are elevated in patients with sepsis and associated with mortality. This was a combined case-control and prospective cohort study consisting of 109 patients with sepsis and 50 control participants without acute illness. The study was conducted in the medical and surgical intensive care units of the University of Rochester Medical Center. Methionine, SAM, SAH, and tHcy concentrations were compared in patients with sepsis versus control participants and in sepsis survivors versus nonsurvivors. Patients with sepsis had significantly higher plasma SAM and SAH concentrations than control participants (SAM: 164 [107-227] vs73 [59-87 nM], P sepsis patients compared to healthy control participants (4 [2-6]) vs 7 [5-9] μM; P = .04). In multivariable analysis, quartiles of SAM, SAH, and tHcy were independently associated with sepsis ( P = .006, P = .05, and P Sepsis nonsurvivors had significantly higher plasma SAM and SAH concentrations than survivors (SAM: 223 [125-260] vs 136 [96-187] nM; P = .01; SAH: 139 [81-197] vs 86 [55-130] nM, P = .006). Plasma tHcy levels were similar in survivors vs nonsurvivors. The associations between SAM or SAH and hospital mortality were no longer significant after adjusting for renal dysfunction. Methionine metabolite concentrations are abnormal in sepsis and linked with clinical outcomes. Further study is required to determine whether these abnormalities have pathophysiologic significance.

  13. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  14. Molecular flexibility and structural instabilities in crystalline L-methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Jennifer; Lima, Jose A.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Melo, Francisco E. A.; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Mendes Filho, Josue; Broer, Ria; Eckert, Juergen; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics in polycrystalline samples of L-methionine related to the structural transition at about 307 K by incoherent inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering, X-ray powder diffraction as well as ab-initio calculations. L-Methionine is a sulfur amino acid which can be

  15. Comparative efficacy of herbal and synthetic methionine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HM) compared to synthetic methionine (SM) in the diets of domestic laying hens. The herbal methionine (Meth-o-Tas®) was supplied by Intas Pharmaceutical Limited, India. The HM and SM were added to a standard diet at 0.5 and 1.0 kg per ...

  16. Influence of Supplemental Methionine on Growth Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were fed diets containing 0 (control), 2 and 4g/kg methionine. Results indicated significant differences (P<0.05) between treatment means in terms of feed intake and live weight changes. Animals fed diets containing 2g/ kg methionine were better (P <0.05) compared to other treatments in terms of feed intake ...

  17. Molecular mechanism of methionine differentiation in high and low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since maize is a primary food stuff for humans and livestock, its amino acid balance is important for proper nutrition. Methionine, an essential amino acid and a primary source of sulfur, is lacking in maize endosperm. Several maize populations were developed through breeding with enhanced methionine content in ...

  18. Methionine as a Precursor of Ethylene—Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman et al. showed in a 1966 publication of Plant Physiology that methionine is a precursor of ethylene. It was the first paper that showed ethylene carbons are derived from carbons 3 and 4 of methionine. This paper catalyzed remarkable interest among plant biologists to elucidate the biosynth...

  19. The effects of an L-methionine combination supplement on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one ultramarathon runners (17 males, 4 females) preparing for participation in an 87.3 km ultramarathon. Interventions. L-methionine combination supplement (L-methionine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid and magnesium) or placebo containing potato starch. Main outcome measures. Incidence of URTS was ...

  20. Acute Administration of Methionine Affects Performance of Swiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetylcholinesterase activities in all groups were not statistically significant. It can be concluded that acute methionine administration has some benefits in memory enhancement. However, a short course folate supplementation impairslearning and working memory especially when combined with methionine which may be ...

  1. S-adenosyl-L-methionine for alcoholic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver disease and disrupts methionine and oxidative balances. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) acts as a methyl donor for methylation reactions and participates in the synthesis of glutathione, the main cellular antioxidant. Randomised clinical trials have addressed...... the question whether SAMe may benefit patients with alcoholic liver diseases....

  2. Oxidation Resistance of the Sulfur Amino Acids: Methionine and Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur amino acids are a kind of amino acids which contain sulfhydryl, and they play a crucial role in protein structure, metabolism, immunity, and oxidation. Our review demonstrates the oxidation resistance effect of methionine and cysteine, two of the most representative sulfur amino acids, and their metabolites. Methionine and cysteine are extremely sensitive to almost all forms of reactive oxygen species, which makes them antioxidative. Moreover, methionine and cysteine are precursors of S-adenosylmethionine, hydrogen sulfide, taurine, and glutathione. These products are reported to alleviate oxidant stress induced by various oxidants and protect the tissue from the damage. However, the deficiency and excess of methionine and cysteine in diet affect the normal growth of animals; thereby a new study about defining adequate levels of methionine and cysteine intake is important.

  3. Detection and Measurement of Methionine Oxidation in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, K Ilker; Hepler, Robert; Nanda, Hirsh

    2017-02-02

    Methionine oxidation is a prevalent modification found in proteins both in biological settings and in the manufacturing of biotherapeutic molecules. In cells, the oxidation of specific methionine sites can modulate protein function or promote interactions that trigger signaling pathways. In biotherapeutic development, the formation of oxidative species could be detrimental to the efficacy or safety of the drug product. Thus, methionine oxidation is a critical quality attribute that needs to be monitored throughout development. Here we describe a method using LC/MS/MS to identify site-specific methionine modifications in proteins. Antibodies are stressed with hydrogen peroxide, and the level of Met oxidation is compared to that of reference molecules. The protocols presented here are not specific to methionine and can be used more generally to identify other PTM risk sites in molecules after various types of treatments. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Potential role of cysteine and methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazolidone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Aziem, Sekena H Abd; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2008-01-14

    The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs has been banned in the EU since 1993 due to doubts on the safety of the protein-bound residues of these drugs in edible products. Furazolidone (FUZ) is a nitrofuran drug, which has been used for many years as an antibacterial drug in veterinary practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of L-cysteine and L-methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and the genotoxicity induced by FUZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis in female rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups included the untreated control group; a group treated with FUZ (300 mg/kg b.w.); a group treated with a mixture of L-cysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) and L-methionine (42.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group treated with FUZ plus the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine for 10 days. The results indicated that FUZ induced hormonal disturbances involving thyroid, ovarian and adrenal hormones. Moreover, FUZ increased the micronucleus formation and induced changes in polymorphic band patterns. The combined treatment with FUZ and the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine succeeded to prevent or diminish the endocrine disturbance and the clastogenic effects of FUZ. The current study is casting new light on the complex mechanisms underlying the ameliorating action of dietary L-cysteine and L-methionine against FUZ toxicity in experimental animals.

  5. Potential role of cysteine and methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazolidone in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H.; El-Aziem, Sekena H. Abd; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs has been banned in the EU since 1993 due to doubts on the safety of the protein-bound residues of these drugs in edible products. Furazolidone (FUZ) is a nitrofuran drug, which has been used for many years as an antibacterial drug in veterinary practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of L-cysteine and L-methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and the genotoxicity induced by FUZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis in female rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups included the untreated control group; a group treated with FUZ (300 mg/kg b.w.); a group treated with a mixture of L-cysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) and L-methionine (42.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group treated with FUZ plus the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine for 10 days. The results indicated that FUZ induced hormonal disturbances involving thyroid, ovarian and adrenal hormones. Moreover, FUZ increased the micronucleus formation and induced changes in polymorphic band patterns. The combined treatment with FUZ and the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine succeeded to prevent or diminish the endocrine disturbance and the clastogenic effects of FUZ. The current study is casting new light on the complex mechanisms underlying the ameliorating action of dietary L-cysteine and L-methionine against FUZ toxicity in experimental animals

  6. Role of Methionine Adenosyltransferase Genes in Hepatocarcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, Komal [Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases & Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, California 90033 (United States); Mato, José M. [CIC bioGUNE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Technology, Park of Bizkaia, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia (Spain); Lu, Shelly C., E-mail: shellylu@usc.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases & Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, California 90033 (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Detection of HCC can be difficult, as most of the patients who develop this tumor have no symptoms other than those related to their longstanding liver disease. There is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this disease so that appropriate therapies can be designed. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme required for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), an important methyl donor in the cell. Alterations in the expression of MAT genes and a decline in AdoMet biosynthesis are known to be associated with liver injury, cirrhosis and HCC. This review focuses on the role of MAT genes in HCC development and the scope for therapeutic strategies using these genes.

  7. A machine learning approach for predicting methionine oxidation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledo, Juan C; Cantón, Francisco R; Veredas, Francisco J

    2017-09-29

    The oxidation of protein-bound methionine to form methionine sulfoxide, has traditionally been regarded as an oxidative damage. However, recent evidences support the view of this reversible reaction as a regulatory post-translational modification. The perception that methionine sulfoxidation may provide a mechanism to the redox regulation of a wide range of cellular processes, has stimulated some proteomic studies. However, these experimental approaches are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computational methods designed to predict methionine oxidation sites are an attractive alternative. As a first approach to this matter, we have developed models based on random forests, support vector machines and neural networks, aimed at accurate prediction of sites of methionine oxidation. Starting from published proteomic data regarding oxidized methionines, we created a hand-curated dataset formed by 113 unique polypeptides of known structure, containing 975 methionyl residues, 122 of which were oxidation-prone (positive dataset) and 853 were oxidation-resistant (negative dataset). We use a machine learning approach to generate predictive models from these datasets. Among the multiple features used in the classification task, some of them contributed substantially to the performance of the predictive models. Thus, (i) the solvent accessible area of the methionine residue, (ii) the number of residues between the analyzed methionine and the next methionine found towards the N-terminus and (iii) the spatial distance between the atom of sulfur from the analyzed methionine and the closest aromatic residue, were among the most relevant features. Compared to the other classifiers we also evaluated, random forests provided the best performance, with accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 0.7468±0.0567, 0.6817±0.0982 and 0.7557±0.0721, respectively (mean ± standard deviation). We present the first predictive models aimed to computationally detect methionine sites that

  8. effect of supplementation of soyabea~ diet with l-asd d,l-methionine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    metliionine degradation tn its derivative such as taurine and methionine sulfoxidc as reported by Mmai. '/al., (1989) for young carp fed crystalline methionine. This would render methionine unavailable for protein syntliesis. The growth rat..: of mudfish fed soyahean diets supplemented with crystalline L-methionine was.

  9. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe): An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplement. SAMe was discovered in the early 1950s. It’s made in the body from methionine, an ... of Health & Human Services , National Institutes of Health , USA.gov National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health ( ...

  10. The biology of memory: a forty-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R

    2009-10-14

    In the forty years since the Society for Neuroscience was founded, our understanding of the biology of memory has progressed dramatically. From a historical perspective, one can discern four distinct periods of growth in neurobiological research during that time. Here I use that chronology to chart a personalized and selective course through forty years of extraordinary advances in our understanding of the biology of memory storage.

  11. High-coverage proteomics reveals methionine auxotrophy in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanxia; Shen, Pan; Lan, Qiuyan; Deng, Chen; Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yihao; Su, Na; He, Fuchu; Xie, Qiong; Lyu, Zhitang; Yang, Dong; Xu, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is a robust bacterium best known for its capacity to resist to radiation. In this study, the SDS-PAGE coupled with high-precision LC-MS/MS was used to study the D. radiodurans proteome. A total of 1951 proteins were identified which covers 63.18% protein-coding genes. Comparison of the identified proteins to the key enzymes in amino acid biosyntheses from KEGG database showed the methionine biosynthesis module is incomplete while other amino acid biosynthesis modules are complete, which indicated methionine auxotrophy in D. radiodurans. The subsequent amino acid-auxotrophic screening has verified methionine instead of other amino acids is essential for the growth of D. radiodurans. With molecular evolutionary genetic analysis, we found the divergence in methionine biosynthesis during the evolution of the common ancestor of bacteria. We also found D. radiodurans lost the power of synthesizing methionine because of the missing metA and metX in two types of methionine biosyntheses. For the first time, this study used high-coverage proteome analysis to identify D. radiodurans amino acid auxotrophy, which provides the important reference for the development of quantitative proteomics analysis using stable isotope labeling in metabolomics of D. radiodurans and in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanism of radiation resistance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Prediction of Methionine and Homocysteine levels in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a T2DM animal model after consumption of a Methionine-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Nayoung; Chae, Jung-woo; Jeon, Jihyun; Lee, Jaeyeon; Back, Hyun-moon; Song, Byungjeong; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum; Yun, Hwi-yeol

    2018-01-01

    Background Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fat...

  13. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  14. Detection of oxidized methionine in selected proteins, cellular extracts, and blood serums by novel anti-methionine sulfoxide antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, Derek B.; Canello, Tamar; Gabizon, Ruth; Gasset, Maria; Lundquist, Brandi L.; Burns, Jeff M; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) is a common posttranslational modification to proteins occurring in vivo. These modifications are prevalent when reactive oxygen species levels are increased. To enable the detection of MetO in pure and extracted proteins from various sources, we have developed novel antibodies that can recognize MetO-proteins. These antibodies are polyclonal antibodies raised against an oxidized methionine-rich zein protein (MetO-DZS18) that are shown to recognize methionine oxidation in pure proteins and mouse and yeast extracts. Furthermore, mouse serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG) were shown to accumulate MetO as function of age especially in serums of methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice. Interestingly, high levels of methionine-oxidized IgG in serums of subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease were detected by western blot analysis using these antibodies. It is suggested that anti-MetO-DZS18 antibodies can be applied in the identification of proteins that undergo methionine oxidation under oxidative stress, aging, or disease state conditions. PMID:19388147

  15. Engineering of methionine chain elongation part of glucoraphanin pathway in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Nadia Muhammad Akram; Crocoll, Christoph; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    in Escherichia coli cytosol. Introduction of two plasmids encoding the methionine chain elongation pathway into E. coli resulted in production of 25mgL(-1) of dihomo-methionine. In addition to chain-elongated methionine products, side-products from chain elongation of leucine were produced. Methionine...... supplementation enhanced dihomo-methionine production to 57mgL(-1), while keeping a steady level of the chain-elongated leucine products. Engineering of the de-compartmentalized pathway of dihomo-methionine in E. coli cytosol provides an important first step for microbial production of the health...

  16. French in Lesotho schools forty years after independence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most independent African states are now, like Lesotho, about forty years old. What has become of foreign languages such as French that once thrived under colonial rule albeit mostly in schools targeting non-indigenous learners? In Lesotho French seems to be the preserve of private or “international” schools. Can African ...

  17. Institute of fundamental research: forty years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document is aimed at illustration of forty years of fundamental research at CEA. It has not been conceived to give an exhaustive view of current research at IRF, but to give an illustration of these researches to non-specialists, and even to non-scientifists [fr

  18. Radiation stability of methionine-35S and selenomethionine-75Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galateanu, I.; Lungu, V.V.; Viorel, D.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation stability of methionine- 35 S and selenomethionine 75 Se was investigated using the methods of thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and ESR. Radiation decomposition of methionine- 35 S mainly consists in an oxidation process and in the release of volatile products. The ESR-spectra of irradiated DL-methionine indicated a strong localization of the unpaired electrons on sulfur atoms. Radiation damage to selenomethionine- 75 Se as a function of radiation dose proved an increased stability of this compound and its radiation decomposition consists in the formation of oxidized products and by direct rupture of the selenium bounds accompanied by the formation of volatile compounds like CH 3 SEH and SeH 2 . The self-radiolysis of the aqueous solution of selenomethionine- 75 Se during its storage in air leads, however, to a lower decomposition rate which consists in the release of inorganic selenium and in an oxidation process. (author)

  19. Characterisation of methionine adenosyltransferase from Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knodel Marvin H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a serious world-wide health threat which requires the characterisation of novel drug targets for the development of future antimycobacterials. One of the key obstacles in the definition of new targets is the large variety of metabolic alterations that occur between cells in the active growth and chronic/dormant phases of tuberculosis. The ideal biochemical target should be active in both growth phases. Methionine adenosyltransferase, which catalyses the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP, is involved in polyamine biosynthesis during active growth and is also required for the methylation and cyclopropylation of mycolipids necessary for survival in the chronic phase. Results The gene encoding methionine adenosyltransferase has been cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the model organism M. smegmatis. Both enzymes retained all amino acids known to be involved in catalysing the reaction. While the M. smegmatis enzyme could be functionally expressed, the M. tuberculosis homologue was insoluble and inactive under a large variety of expression conditions. For the M. smegmatis enzyme, the Vmax for S-adenosylmethionine formation was 1.30 μmol/min/mg protein and the Km for methionine and ATP was 288 μM and 76 μM respectively. In addition, the enzyme was competitively inhibited by 8-azaguanine and azathioprine with a Ki of 4.7 mM and 3.7 mM respectively. Azathioprine inhibited the in vitro growth of M. smegmatis with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 500 μM, while the MIC for 8-azaguanine was >1.0 mM. Conclusion The methionine adenosyltransferase from both organisms had a primary structure very similar those previously characterised in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The kinetic properties of the M. smegmatis enzyme were also similar to known prokaryotic methionine adenosyltransferases. Inhibition of the enzyme by 8-azaguanine and azathioprine provides a starting

  20. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  1. Absorption of l-methionine from the human small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Harold P.; Pierce, Charles E.; Rider, Alan; Clifton, James A.

    1968-01-01

    Absorption of L-methionine was measured in all parts of the human small intestine using transintestinal intubation and perfusion. In four normal subjects, adsorption was higher in the proximal than in the distal intestine. In two patients with nontropical sprue in relapse, there was a proximal zone of low absorption with higher absorption distally. In all parts of the small intestine, absorption showed rate-limiting kinetics as methionine concentration was increased. In normal subjects, the proximal Km (Michaelis constant) was more than 3 times higher than the distal, which suggests a difference in transport mechanisms between the two segments. PMID:12066784

  2. Traumatic brain injury alters methionine metabolism: implications for pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K Dash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid that is obtained from the diet. In addition to its requirement for protein biosynthesis, methionine is metabolized to generate metabolites that play key roles in a number of cellular functions. Metabolism of methionine via the transmethylation pathway generates S-adenosylmethionine (SAM that serves as the principal methyl (-CH3 donor for DNA and histone methyltransferases to regulate epigenetic changes in gene expression. SAM is also required for methylation of other cellular proteins that serve various functions and phosphatidylcholine synthesis that participate in cellular signaling.. Under conditions of oxidative stress, homocysteine (which is derived from SAM enters the transsulfuration pathway to generate glutathione, an important cytoprotective molecule against oxidative damage. As both experimental and clinical studies have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI alters DNA and histone methylation and causes oxidative stress, we examined if TBI alters the plasma levels of methionine and its metabolites in human patients. Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n = 20 and patients with mild TBI (GCS > 12; n = 20 or severe TBI (GCS < 8; n = 20 within the first 24 hours of injury. The levels of methionine and its metabolites in the plasma samples were analyzed by either liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS or GC-MS. Severe TBI decreased the levels of methionine, SAM, betaine and 2-methylglycine as compared to healthy volunteers, indicating a decrease in metabolism through the transmethylation cycle. In addition, precursors for the generation of glutathione, cysteine and glycine were also found to be decreased as were intermediate metabolites of the gamma-glutamyl cycle (gamma-glutamyl amino acids and 5-oxoproline. Mild TBI also decreased the levels of methionine, α-ketobutyrate, 2 hydroxybutyrate and glycine, albeit to lesser

  3. Seleno methionine-75 as a scanning agent for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covington, E.E.; D'Angio, G.J.; Helson, L.; Romano, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a functioning tumor and patients with this tumor are known to excrete vanilmandelic acid and other degradation products of norepinephrine. It also accumulates and produces excess cystathionine for which methionine is a precursor in the normal anabolic pathway. This was the rationale for testing 75 Se-methionine as a possible scanning agent in patients with neuroblastoma. D'Angio et al reported the results of a preliminary investigation in which 3 of 4 patients with neuroblastoma, all with known metastases of the skull, had positive scans correctly localizing the disease. These preliminary data seemed encouraging, and further investigation was undertaken. The results are reported

  4. Forty Percent of Czech Households Cannot Afford a Week’s Holiday! Material Deprivation in the Czech Republic and European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysíková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, 7-8 (2011), s. 13-15 ISSN 1214-1720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : inequalities * Europe * leisure time Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/192_SOCIOWEB_07_08_2011.pdf

  5. Synthesis of the elements in stars: forty years of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallerstein, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Iben, I. Jr. [University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Parker, P. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States); Boesgaard, A.M. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Hale, G.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Champagne, A.E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27594 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27706 (United States); Barnes, C.A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Kaeppeler, F. [Forschungzentrum, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Smith, V.V. [University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968-0515 (United States); Hoffman, R.D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Timmes, F.X. [University of California at Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Sneden, C. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Boyd, R.N. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Meyer, B.S. [Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29630 (United States); Lambert, D.L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Forty years ago Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler, and Hoyle combined what we would now call fragmentary evidence from nuclear physics, stellar evolution and the abundances of elements and isotopes in the solar system as well as a few stars into a synthesis of remarkable ingenuity. Their review provided a foundation for forty years of research in all of the aspects of low energy nuclear experiments and theory, stellar modeling over a wide range of mass and composition, and abundance studies of many hundreds of stars, many of which have shown distinct evidence of the processes suggested by B{sup 2}FH. In this review we summarize progress in each of these fields with emphasis on the most recent developments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. The use of low protein liquid diets to determine the methionine requirement and the efficacy of methionine hydroxy analogue for the three-week-old pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifsnyder, D H; Young, C T; Jones, E E

    1984-09-01

    A mechanical feeding device that dispenses liquid diets hourly was developed to feed 3-week-old pigs under carefully controlled and sanitary conditions. Pigs were weaned at 19-21 days of age, placed in individual cages of the automatic feeder, and trained to eat low protein (9%) milk diets, which were supplemented with essential amino acids, glutamic acid and monosodium glutamate so as to be equivalent to 14% protein nitrogen. The basal 9% protein diet contained 0.25% L-methionine and 0.08% L-cysteine and was supplemented with L- or DL-methionine or DL-methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) at various levels for evaluation of the methionine requirement. Pigs fed the basal diet showed a significant decrease in gain, feed efficiency and plasma urea (P less than 0.05) relative to animals that received supplemental methionine or MHA. The plasma methionine concentration remained below 0.2 mumol/ml plasma when pigs were fed diets containing 0.25-0.51% methionine; however, a significant increase in plasma methionine (P less than 0.05) was seen when pigs were fed diets that contained greater than 0.51% methionine activity in the form of L- or DL-methionine or DL-MHA. The highest average daily gain (470 g) obtained with a diet containing 0.51% methionine was significantly better (P less than 0.05) than diets containing more or less L- or DL-methionine, and the feed efficiency of this diet (1.58 kg feed per kilogram gain) was also significantly better (P less than 0.05) than the feed efficiency obtained with other dietary methionine levels. MHA (0.17%) added to the basal diet significantly improved the average daily gain (P less than 0.05) and lead to a significant decrease in plasma urea (P less than 0.05) relative to pigs that received the basal diet. Supplemental MHA (greater than 0.51% methionine level) produced significant increases (P less than 0.05) in plasma methionine. These data show that the methionine requirement of the 3-week-old pig can be satisfied with L- or DL-methionine

  7. Evaluation of Four Commercial Sources of Synthetic Methionine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 252 day old Ross broiler chicks was used in a feeding trial to evaluate the effect of four different commercial brands of synthetic methionine supplement on the performance of broiler chickens. The chicks were distributed into four dietary treatments each with three replicates and 21 chicks/replicate; in a Completely ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.372 - N-Acetyl-L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.372 N-Acetyl-L-methionine. The food additive N-acetyl-L... in paragraph (d) of this section. The minimum amount of the additive to achieve the desired effect...

  9. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  10. 10597 influence of hypo and hyper methionine supplementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    It is therefore important to ensure that poultry diets contain enough methionine to ensure the desired growth, feed conversion and immune response, but not too much so as to be toxic to the birds. Newcastle disease is one of the most rampant viral diseases of poultry with a prevalence rate of 28.9% in Nigeria [10]. Two of the ...

  11. Biological activity of maleic methionine and methyl maleic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nificantly increased wool growth. On the other hand,. Landman (1981) was unable to detect any beneficial effect of this product on hair growth of Angora goats. As far as could be established from the literature,. C5MM has not been tested as a methionine source for ruminants. Due to the fact that experiments of this nature in.

  12. Effects of infused methionine, lysine and rumen-protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratin contains about l}Vo arginine, thus a lysine-induced arginine deficiency may depress fibre production as in the study of Sahlu & Fernandez (1992) with. Angora goats. Supply of both methionine and lysine appeared to limit wool growth of sheep limit fed high roughage diets contain- ing non-protein nitrogen as the ...

  13. Effect of methionine and glucosamine conjugation on the anticancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... methionine conjugated aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustard of 2-chlorobenzoic acid is the most effective one. It acts by inducing apoptosis through G2/M phase arrest and encouragingly, is much less toxic to nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines in vitro.

  14. The effects of an L-methionine combination supplement on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    -factors for the remethylation of L-homo- cysteine to L-methionine. SAH can be converted by 3 enzy- ... tion with vitamins E and C decreases exercise-induced oxidative ..... Rowbottom D, Green K. Acute exercise effects on the immune system.

  15. Utilization of 35S methionine by the goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champredon, C.; Pion, R.

    1977-01-01

    A mixture of 2.5 g of D,L-methionine and 2.1 mCi of L- 35 S methionine is injected into the rumen of two young dry goats. Abomasal contents and blood are sampled for 4 days after intraruminal injection of the tracer. Total radioactivity and specific activity of sulfur amino acids are measured in free- and protein-bound fractions of abomasal contents and blood. The radioactivity of the abomasal content soluble fraction (TCA) increases very rapidly. The main labelled compound in the TCA extract during the first hour is methionine. Total plasma radioactivity increases during the 9 hours following the injection, then decreases slowly. It is mainly found in the extract during the first hours of the experiment, but is almost totally recovered in the protein-bound fraction 48 hours after the injection. It is concluded that a part of the 35 S is absorbed directly from the rumen as unidentified sulfur-labelled compounds and is carried by the bloodstream, but a significant proportion of the 35 S introduced into the rumen as methionine is incorporated into microbial protein or enters the intestine directly [fr

  16. Methionine metabolism and phenotypic variability in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnebank, M.; Kemp, S.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Kleijer, W. J.; van der Sterre, M. L. T.; Gärtner, J.; Fliessbach, K.; Semmler, A.; Sokolowski, P.; Köhler, W.; Schlegel, U.; Schmidt, S.; Klockgether, T.; Wüllner, U.

    2006-01-01

    A combined genotype of polymorphisms of methionine metabolism has been associated with CNS demyelination in methotrexate-treated patients. Within a sample of 86 patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, this genotype was overrepresented in a subgroup of 15 patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy

  17. Effect of Low Protein-Methionine-and-Lysine-Supplemented Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing low CP diets with methionine and lysine on broiler performance, carcass measure and their immune response against Infectious Bursa Disease (IBD) virus. In Experiment 1, ten diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control diet) contained 23.0% CP and ...

  18. Nucleotide variation at the methionine synthase locus in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleotide variation at the methionine synthase (MetE) locus within and among populations of an endangered forest tree Fokienia hodginsii in Vietnam was investigated in the present study. A total of 12 populations were sampled across Vietnam. The length of the sequenced locus varied from 1567 to 1559 bp. A total of 42 ...

  19. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) (DBT) and diphenyltin(IV) (DPT) was investigated at 25 °C and 0.1 mol dm–3 ionic strength in water for dimethyltin(IV) and in 50 % dioxane–water mixture for dibutyltin(IV) and diphenyltin(IV). Methionine methyl ester forms1:1 and 1:2 ...

  20. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria and Displacement by DNA Constituents. M.M. Shoukry1,2,* Ayser Al-Alousi2 and Sameya M. Tarek. 1Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic University, Madina, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, ...

  1. How I Love My 80 Percenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Don't ever take your support staff for granted. By support staff, I mean the people in personnel, logistics, and finance; the ones who can make things happen with a phone call or a signature, or by the same token frustrate you to no end by their inaction; these are people you must depend on. I've spent a lot of time thinking about how to cultivate relationships with my support staff that work to the advantage of both of us. The most important thing that have learned working with people, any people--and I will tell you how I learned this in a minute--is there are some folks you just can't motivate, so forget it, don't try; others you certainly can with a little psychology and some effort; and the best of the bunch, what I call the 80 percenters, you don't need to motivate because they're already on the team and performing beautifully. The ones you can't change are rocks. Face up to it, and just kick them out of your way. I have a reputation with the people who don't want to perform or be part of the team. They don't come near me. If someone's a rock, I pick up on it right away, and I will walk around him or her to find someone better. The ones who can be motivated I take time to nurture. I consider them my projects. A lot of times these wannabes are people who want to help but don't know how. Listen, you can work with them. Lots of people in organizations have the mindset that all that matters are the regulations. God forbid if you ever work outside those regulations. They've got one foot on that regulation and they're holding it tight like a baby holds a blanket. What you're looking for is that first sign that their minds are opening. Usually you hear it in their vocabulary. What used to sound like "We can't do that ... the regulations won't allow it ... we have never done this before," well, suddenly that changes to "We have options ... let's take a look at the options ... let me research this and get back to you." The 80 percenters you want to nurture too, but

  2. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after “Historicity”, Hjelm and Thompson argue that a ‘crisis’ broke in the 1970s, when several new studies of biblical history and archaeology were published, questioning the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship. The crisis formed...... articles from some of the field’s best scholars with comprehensive discussion of historical, archaeological, anthropological, cultural and literary approaches to the Hebrew Bible and Palestine’s history. The essays question: “How does biblical history relate to the archaeological history of Israel...

  3. Efficiency: 117 percent; Virkningsgrad: 117 prosent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovland, Kjetil Malkenes

    2011-07-01

    Akershus Energi Park supply district heating of both wood chips, bio-oil, sewage piping, landfill gas and solar collectors. Wood chips heating: Two chip boilers produce about 16-20 MW. 100 G Wh of heat in the winter. About 1000 semi-trailers come here each year with chips, a total of 140,000 cubic meters annually (at 100 G Wh of production). The plant uses local chips from the airport, residue from timber and logging waste. The temperature in the combustion chamber is 900 degrees. The smoke is 180-250 degrees and after condensing 80-90 degrees. After absorption, the temperature is around 50 degrees. Water to customers holds 100 degrees, and return water holds 60 degrees. Solar heating: a large-scale solar collector facility for a total of 10,000 square meters will make 4 G Wh of electricity annually, mostly in the summer. This should be completed in 2012-2013 and is spread out over an area of 4 hectares. Accumulator: One of the largest hot water tanks in Norway. The 18 meter high 'thermos' of 1.2 million gallons have a coating of 30 cm insulation. Stores up to 45 MWh hot water when demand is low and drained when consumption is high, as in the morning. The tank is especially important to store solar energy from the planned collectors from 2012-2013. Landfill gas: Boehler landfill will produce gas for 20 years and supplies gas through a five-km long gas pipeline to the Akershus Energy Park. Some of this gas will be used to produce hydrogen. The gas contains 45 percent methane. Heat pumps: sewage from Skedsmo, Loerenskog and Raelingen produce heat. After the sewage is cleaned, it is still warm. This heat is harvested with heat pumps for heating and cooling, and helps with landfill gas to avoid combustion of wood chips at the park in summer. Bio-oil: Oil from slaughterhouse waste and fisheries account for 10 percent of the energy from the plant and used as tip load on the coldest days of winter. Currently boilers are fired with salmon oil. (AG)

  4. A matter of meaning: reflections on forty years of JCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    The entry into language via first words and, the acquisition of word meanings is considered from the perspective of publications in the Journal of Child Language over the past forty years. Problems in achieving word meanings include the disparate and sparse concepts available to the child from past prelanguage experience. Variability in beginning word learning and in its progress along a number of dimensions suggests the problems that children may encounter, as well as the strategies and styles they adopt to make progress. Social context and adult practices are vitally involved in the success of this process. Whereas much headway has been made over the past decades, much remains to be revealed through dynamic systems theory and developmental semiotic analyses, as well as laboratory research aimed at social context conditions.

  5. Forty years of training program in the JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report is to compile the past training program of researchers, engineers and regulatory members at the NuTEC (Nuclear Technology and Education Center) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the past basic seminars for the public, in addition to advice and perspective on the future program from relevant experts, in commemoration of the forty years of the NuTEC. It covers the past five years of educational courses and seminars in utilization of radioisotopes and nuclear energy for domestic and for international training provided at Tokyo and Tokai Education Centers and covers the activity of the Asia-Pacific nuclear technology transfer, including the activity of various committees and meetings. Especially, fifty six experts and authorities have contributed to the report with positive advice and perspective on the training program in the 21st century based on their reminiscences. (author)

  6. A kinetic and mechanistic study on the oxidation of l-methionine and N-acetyl l-methionine by cerium(IV in sulfuric acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sumathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of l-methionine and N-acetyl l-methionine by Ce(IV in sulfuric acid–sulfate media in the range of 288.1–298.1 K has been investigated. The major oxidation products of methionine and N-acetyl l-methionine have been identified as methionine sulfoxide and N-acetyl methionine sulfoxide. The major oxidation products have been confirmed by qualitative analysis and boiling point. The reaction was first order with respect to l-methionine, N-acetyl l-methionine and Ce(IV. Increase in [H+], ionic strength and HSO4- did not affect the reaction rate. Under the experimental conditions, Ce4+ was the effective oxidizing species of cerium. Increase in dielectric constant of the medium decreased the reaction rate. Under nitrogen atmosphere, the reaction system can initiate polymerization of acrylonitrile, indicating the generation of free radicals. Activation parameters associated with the overall reaction have been calculated.

  7. Effect of cysteine on methionine production by a regulatory mutant of Corynebacterium lilium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Subramanian, Kartik; Bisaria, Virendra S.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.; Gomes, James [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India)

    2005-02-01

    The production of methionine by submerged fermentation using a mutant strain of Corynebacterium lilium was studied to determine suitable conditions for obtaining high productivity. The mutant strain resistant to the methionine analogues ethionine, norleucine, methionine sulfoxide and methionine methylsulfonium chloride produced 2.34 g l{sup -1} of methionine in minimal medium containing glucose as carbon source. The effect of cysteine on methionine production in a 15 l bioreactor was studied by supplementing cysteine intermittently during the course of fermentation. The addition of cysteine (0.75 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) every 2 h to the production medium increased the production of methionine to 3.39 g l{sup -1}. A metabolic flux analysis showed that during cysteine supplementation the ATP consumption reduced by 20%. It also showed that the increase in flux from phosphoenol pyruvate to oxaloacetate leads to higher methionine production. Results indicate that controlling the respiratory quotient close to 0.75 will produce the highest amount of methionine and that regulatory mutants also resistant to analogues of cysteine would be better methionine over producers. (Author)

  8. Comparison of L-(1-/sup 11/C)methionine and L-methyl-(/sup 11/C)methionine for measuring in vivo protein synthesis rates with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, K.; Vaalburg, W.; Elsinga, P.H.; Paans, A.M.; Woldring, M.G.

    1988-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using either L-(1-11C)-methionine or L-(methyl-11C)methionine for measuring protein synthesis rates by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal and neoplastic tissues, distribution and metabolic studies with 14C- and 11C-labeled methionines were carried out in rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. The tissue distributions of the two 14C-labeled methionines were similar except for liver tissue. Similar distribution patterns were observed in vivo by PET using 11C-labeled methionines. The highest 14C incorporation rate into the protein-bound fraction was found in the liver followed by tumor, brain, and pancreas. The incorporation rates in liver and pancreas were different for the two methionines. By chloroform-methanol fractionation of these four tissues, in liver significantly different amounts of 14C were observed in macromolecules. Also in brain tissue slight differences were found. By HPLC analyses of the protein-free fractions of plasma, tumor, and brain tissue at 60 min after injection, for both methionines several 14C-labeled metabolites in different amounts, were detected. About half of the 14C-labeled material in the protein-free fraction was found to be methionine. In these three tissues the amount of nonprotein metabolites and (14C)bicarbonate amount ranged from 10% to 17% and 12% to 15% for L-(1-14C)methionine and L-(methyl-14C)methionine, respectively. From these results it can be concluded that the minor metabolic pathways have to be investigated in order to quantitatively model the protein synthesis by PET.

  9. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

  10. Antenatal glucocorticoids: where are we after forty years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, C J D; Dalziel, S R; Harding, J E

    2015-04-01

    Since their introduction more than forty years ago, antenatal glucocorticoids have become a cornerstone in the management of preterm birth and have been responsible for substantial reductions in neonatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical trials conducted over the past decade have shown that these benefits may be increased further through administration of repeat doses of antenatal glucocorticoids in women at ongoing risk of preterm and in those undergoing elective cesarean at term. At the same time, a growing body of experimental animal evidence and observational data in humans has linked fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoids with increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and other disorders in later life. Despite these concerns, and somewhat surprisingly, there has been little evidence to date from randomized trials of longer-term harm from clinical doses of synthetic glucocorticoids. However, with wider clinical application of antenatal glucocorticoid therapy there has been greater need to consider the potential for later adverse effects. This paper reviews current evidence for the short- and long-term health effects of antenatal glucocorticoids and discusses the apparent discrepancy between data from randomized clinical trials and other studies.

  11. Canada's uranium future, based on forty years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, N.; Dakers, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    Canada's role as a major supplier of uranium has matured through the cyclical markets of the past forty years. Present resource estimates would support a potential production capability by the late 1980s 50 per cent greater than the peak production of 12 200 tonnes uranium in 1959. New and improved exploration techniques are being developed as uranium deposits become more difficult to discover. Radiometric prospecting of glacial boulder fields and the use of improved airborne and ground geophysical methods have contributed significantly to recent discoveries in Saskatchewan. Advances have also been made in the use of airborne radiometric reconnaissance, borehole logging, emanometry (radon and helium gas) and multi-element regional geochemistry techniques. Higher productivity in uranium mining has been achieved through automation and mechanization, while improved ventilation systems in conjunction with underground environmental monitoring have contributed to worker health and safety. Improved efficiency is being achieved in all phases of ore processing. Factors contributing to the increased time required to develop uranium mines and mills from a minimum of three years in the 1950s to the ten years typical of today, are discussed. The ability of Canada's uranium refinery to manufacture ceramic grade UO 2 powder to consistent standards has been a major factor in the successful development of high density natural uranium fuel for the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. Over 400 000 fuel assemblies have been manufactured by three companies. The refinery is undertaking a major expansion of its capacity

  12. Evidence for participation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase repair system in plant seed longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Châtelain, Emilie; Satour, Pascale; Laugier, Edith; Ly Vu, Benoit; Payet, Nicole; Rey, Pascal; Montrichard, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are in a natural oxidative context leading to protein oxidation. Although inevitable for proper progression from maturation to germination, protein oxidation at high levels is detrimental and associated with seed aging. Oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide is a common form of damage observed during aging in all organisms. This damage is reversible through the action of methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs), which play key roles in lifespan control in yeast and animal cells. ...

  13. Higher endogenous methionine in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds affects the composition of storage proteins and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Pajak, Agnieszka; Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Amir, Rachel; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies demonstrate that exogenous application of the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine into cultured soybean cotyledons and seedlings reduces the level of methionine-poor storage proteins and elevates those that are methionine-rich. However, the effect of higher endogenous methionine in seeds on the composition of storage products in vivo is not studied yet. We have recently produced transgenic Arabidopsis seeds having significantly higher levels of methionine. In the present work we used these seeds as a model system and profiled them for changes in the abundances of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, the two major groups of storage proteins, using 2D-gels and MALDI-MS detection. The findings suggest that higher methionine affects from a certain threshold the accumulation of several subunits of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, regardless of their methionine contents, resulting in higher total protein contents. The mRNA abundances of most of the genes encoding these proteins were either correlated or not correlated with the abundances of these proteins, implying that methionine may regulate storage proteins at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The elevations in total protein contents resulted in reduction of total lipids and altered the fatty acid composition. Altogether, the data provide new insights into the regulatory roles of elevated methionine levels on seed composition.

  14. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  15. Prediction of Methionine and Homocysteine levels in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a T2DM animal model after consumption of a Methionine-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nayoung; Chae, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Jihyun; Lee, Jaeyeon; Back, Hyun-Moon; Song, Byungjeong; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Kyum; Yun, Hwi-Yeol

    2018-01-01

    Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, as a representative T2DM animal model. The model building and simulation were performed using NONMEM® (ver. 7.3.0) assisted by Perl-Speaks-NONMEM (PsN, ver. 4.3.0). Model parameters were derived using first-order conditional estimation method with interactions permitted among the parameters (FOCE-INTER). NCA was conducted using Phoenix (ver. 6.4.0). For all tests, we considered a P -value < 0.05 to reflect statistical significance. Our model featured seven compartments that considered all parts of the cycle by applying non-linear mixed effects model. Conversion of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) to homocysteine increased and the metabolism of homocysteine was reduced under diabetic conditions, and consequently homocysteine accumulated in the elimination phase.Using our model, we performed simulations to compare the changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations between ZDF and normal rats, by multiple administrations of the methionine-rich diet of 1 mmol/kg, daily for 60 days. The levels of methionine and homocysteine were elevated approximately two- and three-fold, respectively, in ZDF rats, while there were no changes observed in the normal control rats. These results can be interpreted to mean that both methionine and homocysteine will accumulate in patients with T2DM, who regularly consume high-methionine foods.

  16. 18 Percent of Pregnant Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health (NSDUH) show that 8.5 percent of pregnant women aged 15 to 44 drank alcohol in the ... 7 percent binge drank. Most alcohol use by pregnant women occurred during the first trimester. Alcohol use was ...

  17. Characterization of the uranium--2 weight percent molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    The uranium-2 wt percent molybdenum alloy was prepared, processed, and age hardened to meet a minimum 930-MPa yield strength (0.2 percent) with a minimum of 10 percent elongation. These mechanical properties were obtained with a carbon level up to 300 ppM in the alloy. The tensile-test ductility is lowered by the humidity of the laboratory atmosphere

  18. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle ... Key words: Fat percent, Iranian Holstein cattle, microsatellites, milking days, protein percent, quantitative trait locus (QTL).

  19. Insights into the reactivation of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Smith, Janet L.; Matthews, Rowena G.; (Michigan)

    2009-12-10

    Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) is a modular protein that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate. The cobalamin cofactor, which serves as both acceptor and donor of the methyl group, is oxidized once every {approx}2,000 catalytic cycles and must be reactivated by the uptake of an electron from reduced flavodoxin and a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). Previous structures of a C-terminal fragment of MetH (MetH{sup CT}) revealed a reactivation conformation that juxtaposes the cobalamin- and AdoMet-binding domains. Here we describe 2 structures of a disulfide stabilized MetH{sup CT} ({sub s-s}MetH{sup CT}) that offer further insight into the reactivation of MetH. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sup CT} with cob(II)alamin and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine represents the enzyme in the reactivation step preceding electron transfer from flavodoxin. The structure supports earlier suggestions that the enzyme acts to lower the reduction potential of the Co(II)/Co(I) couple by elongating the bond between the cobalt and its upper axial water ligand, effectively making the cobalt 4-coordinate, and illuminates the role of Tyr-1139 in the stabilization of this 4-coordinate state. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sub CT} with aquocobalamin may represent a transient state at the end of reactivation as the newly remethylated 5-coordinate methylcobalamin returns to the 6-coordinate state, triggering the rearrangement to a catalytic conformation.

  20. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  1. Effect of Different Levels of Methionine on Performance of Khorasan Station Native Hens at Different Production Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hesabi Nameghi

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different levels of the amino acid methionine(Met on performance of birds native Khorasan province, an experiment using 300 pieces of chicken native Station Native chickens Khorasan in the form of designs completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 5 replicates and 10 chickens in each replicate from age 26 till 52 weeks implemented. 6 treatments follows that the first treatment of Met to 0.22% received the basal diet( control and other treatments to Met level of 0.1% in each treatment and were increased so that the six birds different Met (0.22,0.32,0.42,0.52,0.62 and 0.72 percent received. The results showed that the Met levels increase the total weight of eggs produced in the experimental period (P

  2. Methionine-Capped Gold Nanoclusters as a Fluorescence-Enhanced Probe for Cadmium(II Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs have been considered as novel heavy metal ions sensors due to their ultrafine size, photo-stability and excellent fluorescent properties. In this study, a green and facile method was developed for the preparation of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoclusters with methionine as a stabilizer. The nanoclusters emit orange fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 420/565 nm and a quantum yield of about 1.46%. The fluorescence of the Au NCs is selectively and sensitively enhanced by addition of Cd(II ions attributed to the Cd(II ion-induced aggregation of nanoclusters. This finding was further used to design a fluorometric method for the determination of Cd(II ions, which had a linear response in the concentration range from 50 nM to 35 μM and a detection limit of 12.25 nM. The practicality of the nanoprobe was validated in various environmental water samples and milk powder samples, with a fairly satisfactory recovery percent.

  3. Relative bioavailability of manganese in a manganese-methionine complex for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P R; Ammerman, C B; Miles, R D

    1989-01-01

    The relative bioavailability of Mn from reagent grade Mn monoxide and feed grade Mn-methionine was compared with that from reagent grade Mn sulfate using 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks. The basal corn-soybean meal diet (93 ppm Mn dry matter basis) was supplemented with 0, 700, 1,400, and 2,100 ppm Mn as Mn sulfate monohydrate, Mn oxide, or Mn-methionine. Additional diets contained 700, 1,400, and 2,100 ppm Mn as sulfate or oxide in combination with .16, .32, or .48% added DL-methionine, respectively, to equalize methionine concentrations in Mn-methionine-containing diets. Diets were fed ad libitum for 3 wk. Tibia and kidney Mn concentrations increased linearly (P less than .001) as dietary Mn increased. Addition of methionine to diets containing sulfate and oxide did not influence (P greater than .10) tissue Mn concentrations. Based on slope ratios from multiple linear regression of bone and kidney Mn concentrations on added dietary Mn from various sources, the respective relative bioavailability values were 96 and 86% from Mn oxide and 108 and 132% from Mn-methionine compared with 100% from Mn sulfate. Except for the first, all values were significantly different from 100%. Thus, Mn from Mn oxide is significantly less available and Mn from Mn-methionine is significantly more available than that from Mn sulfate monohydrate.

  4. Oxidation of protein tyrosine or methionine residues: From the amino acid to the peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, J [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, 75005 Paris (France); Trouillas, P [EA 4021 Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Rue du Dr. Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Houee-Levin, C, E-mail: jb@lct.jussieu.fr, E-mail: patrick.trouillas@unilim.fr, E-mail: chantal.houee@u-psud.fr [Universite Paris Sud, UMR 8000, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, 91405 Orsay (France) (France)

    2011-01-01

    Methionine and tyrosine are competing targets of oxidizing free radicals in peptides or proteins. The first step is the addition of OH radicals either on the sulphur atom of methionine, followed by OH{sup -} elimination, or on the aromatic cycle of tyrosine. The next step can be stabilization of methionine radical cation by a two centre-three electron bond, or intramolecular electron transfer from tyrosine to the methionine radical cation. In this latter case a tyrosine radical is formed, which appears deprotonated. In a first step we have compared the stability of the OH radical adducts on Methionine or on Tyrosine. In agreement with experimental results, the thermodynamical data indicate that the OH adduct on Tyrosine and the radical cation are more stable than those on methionine. In a second step we have investigated the stabilization of the radical cations of Methionine by formation of intramolecular S:X two-center three-electron bond (X=S, N, O). Finally we have compared the spin densities on separated amino acids to that in a radical pentapeptide, methionine enkephalin. One observes a delocalisation of the orbital of the odd electron on the sulfur atom of Met and on the cycle of Tyr. The peptidic chain is also concerned.

  5. Efficient production of methionine from 2-amino-4-methylthiobutanenitrile by recombinant Escherichia coli harboring nitrilase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qun; Li, Zong-Tong; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2014-10-01

    Methionine as an essential amino acid has been attracting more attention for its important applications in food and feed additives. In this study, for efficient production of methionine from 2-amino-4-methylthiobutanenitrile, a codon-optimized nitrilase gene was newly synthesized and expressed, and the catalytic conditions for methionine production were studied. The optimal temperature and pH for methionine synthesis were 40 °C and 7.5, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase was thermo-stable with half-life of 5.52 h at 40 °C. The substrate loading was optimized in given amount of catalyst and fixed substrate/catalyst ratio mode to achieve higher productivity. Methionine was produced in 100 % conversion within 120 min with a substrate loading of 300 mM. The production of methionine with the immobilized resting cells in packed-bed reactor was investigated. The immobilized nitrilase exhibited good operation stability and retained over 80 % of the initial activity after operating for 100 h. After separation, the purity and the total yield of methionine reached 99.1 and 97 %, respectively. This recombinant nitrilase could be a potential candidate for application in production of methionine.

  6. Influence of dietary methionine on the metabolism of selenomethionine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.A.; Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the influence of methionine on selenomethionine (SeMet) metabolism, weanling male rats were fed for 8 wk a basal diet marginally deficient in sulfur amino acids, containing 2.0 micrograms selenium (Se)/g as DL-SeMet and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2% DL-methionine. Increased dietary methionine caused decreased selenium deposition in all tissues examined but increased glutathione peroxidase activity in testes, liver and lungs. A positive correlation was found between dietary methionine and the calculated percentage of selenium associated with GSHPx. In a second experiment, 75 SeMet was injected into weanling male rats which had been fed the basal diet containing 2.0 micrograms selenium as DL-SeMet with or without the addition of 1.0% methionine. The selenoamino acid content of tissues and the distribution of 75 Se in erythrocyte proteins were determined. In comparison to the rats fed the basal diet without added methionine, significantly more 75 Se-selenocysteine was found in liver and muscle, more 75 Se was found in erythrocyte GSHPx and less 75 Se was found in erythrocyte hemoglobin of rats fed 1.0% methionine. These data suggest that methionine diverts SeMet from incorporation into general proteins and enhances its conversion to selenocysteine for specific selenium-requiring proteins, such as GSHPx

  7. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  8. Genetic and biochemical differences in populations bred for extremes in maize grain methionine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Vogel, Karla E; Adams, Marie; Aydin, Nevzat; Bodnar, Anastasia L; Ali, Muhammad; Lauter, Adrienne N Moran; Scott, M Paul

    2014-02-19

    Methionine is an important nutrient in animal feed and several approaches have been developed to increase methionine concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) grain. One approach is through traditional breeding using recurrent selection. Using divergent selection, genetically related populations with extreme differences in grain methionine content were produced. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling grain methionine content, we examined seed proteins, transcript levels of candidate genes, and genotypes of these populations. Two populations were selected for high or low methionine concentration for eight generations and 40 and 56% differences between the high and low populations in grain methionine concentration were observed. Mean values between the high and low methionine populations differed by greater than 1.5 standard deviations in some cycles of selection. Other amino acids and total protein concentration exhibited much smaller changes. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to these differences, we compared transcript levels of candidate genes encoding high methionine seed storage proteins involved in sulfur assimilation or methionine biosynthesis. In combination, we also explored the genetic mechanisms at the SNP level through implementation of an association analysis. Significant differences in methionine-rich seed storage protein genes were observed in comparisons of high and low methionine populations, while transcripts of seed storage proteins lacking high levels of methionine were unchanged. Seed storage protein levels were consistent with transcript levels. Two genes involved in sulfur assimilation, Cys2 and CgS1 showed substantial differences in allele frequencies when two selected populations were compared to the starting populations. Major genes identified across cycles of selection by a high-stringency association analysis included dzs18, wx, dzs10, and zp27. We hypothesize that transcriptional

  9. Metabolic changes associated with methionine stress sensitivity in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Stacey L; Fahrmann, Johannes; Datta, Rupsa; Stringari, Chiara; Grapov, Dmitry; Zeller, Michael; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping; Baldi, Pierre; Gratton, Enrico; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaiser, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cancer cells have a unique metabolic requirement for methionine that is not observed in normal, non-tumorigenic cells. This phenotype is described as "methionine dependence" or "methionine stress sensitivity" in which cancer cells are unable to proliferate when methionine has been replaced with its metabolic precursor, homocysteine, in cell culture growth media. We focus on the metabolic response to methionine stress in the triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 and its methionine insensitive derivative cell line MDA-MB-468res-R8. Using a variety of techniques including fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and extracellular flux assays, we identified a metabolic down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in both MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-468res-R8 cell types when cultured in homocysteine media. Untargeted metabolomics was performed by way of gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry on both cell types cultured in homocysteine media over a period of 2 to 24 h. We determined unique metabolic responses between the two cell lines in specific pathways including methionine salvage, purine/pyrimidine synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Stable isotope tracer studies using deuterium-labeled homocysteine indicated a redirection of homocysteine metabolism toward the transsulfuration pathway and glutathione synthesis. This data corroborates with increased glutathione levels concomitant with increased levels of oxidized glutathione. Redirection of homocysteine flux resulted in reduced generation of methionine from homocysteine particularly in MDA-MB-468 cells. Consequently, synthesis of the important one-carbon donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was decreased, perturbing the SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio in MDA-MB-468 cells, which is an indicator of the cellular methylation potential. This study indicates a differential metabolic response between the methionine sensitive MDA-MB-468 cells and the methionine insensitive

  10. Prediction of the Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Methionine Oxidation Propensity in Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neeraj J; Dykstra, Andrew; Yang, Jane; Yue, Hai; Nguyen, Xichdao; Kolvenbach, Carl; Angell, Nicolas

    2018-01-08

    Methionine oxidation in therapeutic antibodies can impact the product's stability, clinical efficacy, and safety and hence it is desirable to address the methionine oxidation liability during antibody discovery and development phase. Although the current experimental approaches can identify the oxidation-labile methionine residues, their application is limited mostly to the development phase. We demonstrate an in silico method that can be used to predict oxidation-labile residues based solely on the antibody sequence and structure information. Since antibody sequence information is available in the discovery phase, the in silico method can be applied very early on to identify the oxidation-labile methionine residues and subsequently address the oxidation liability. We believe that the in silico method for methionine oxidation liability assessment can aid in antibody discovery and development phase to address the liability in a more rational way. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal digestive enzyme activity under the influence of different dietary supplements methionine and lysine in the diet of Sparidentex hasta

    OpenAIRE

    Movahedian, R.; Zakeri, M.; Kochanian, P.; Mousavi, S.M.; Taghavi Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary methionine and lysine supplementation on digestive enzymes activity in juvenile Sobaity, Sparidentex hasta. For this purpose, 180 juvenile fish with an initial average weight of 31.38 ± 1.4 g were distributed randomly in eighteen (300 L) polyethylene tanks. 6 experimental diets were prepared with different levels of methionine and lysine including control diet (without dietary methionine and lysine), Diet 1: 100% methionine; Diet 2:...

  12. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S.; Palmquist, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-[ 14 C]palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO 2 were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min -1 ; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO 2 were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased 14 C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO 2 , and percent of CO 2 from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected

  13. diet with l-asd d,l-methionine on the growth of yiudfish clar/as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Almough the meal contains all me essential amino acids in its protein, me amoW1t of memionine present ... more amino acids is to supplement the protein with appropriate amounts of the amino acid in question. ;.,:aneko (1969) ..... sulfur compounds by fingerlings channel catfish L-methionine, D-L-, methionine, methionine ...

  14. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  15. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Pagan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  16. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Anatahan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  17. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Asuncion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  18. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Sarigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  19. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Zealandia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  20. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Wen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48% and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg, was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05. In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05. Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05. At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of

  1. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  2. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  3. The Illusory Home, or the 24 Percent Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsinas, Joan; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Although many elderly people live for years in nursing homes, death certificates routinely obliterate nursing home residence. Data from records of 1 proprietary nursing home showed that of 128 residents, from 45 percent to 66 percent could be classified as permanent residents, depending on definition. Death certificates for those 128 residents…

  4. Vibrational and thermal study of l-methionine nitrate polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, F.M.S.; Ribeiro, L.H.L.; Facanha Filho, P.F.; Santos, C.A.S.; Soares, R.A.; Abreu, D.C.; Sousa, J.C.F.; Carvalho, J.O.; Santos, A.O. dos [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), MA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Intensified in studies of nonlinear optical materials has been observed over the past two decades for its wide application in telecommunications, optical modulation and optical signal processing. The goal of this work is the thermal and vibrational study of L-methionine nitrate polycrystalline. The polycrystals were obtained by the method of slow evaporation of solvent at ambient temperature of 25 ° C. The X-ray diffraction was performed to confirm the structure of the material, which has monoclinic structure (space group P21) with four molecules per unit cell structure. Refinement by Rietveld method has been optimized and good quality parameters Rwp = 7.97% , Rp = 5.74 and S = 1.92%. The thermal stability of the material was verified from Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The measures showed a possible phase transition event at about 107°C before the melting point of the material, which took place at about 127°C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed two mass loss events of 61.5% and 30.4%. The vibrational modes of the L-methionine nitrate molecule were identified by Raman spectroscopy in the spectral range between 35cm-1 and 3500 cm-1, the scattering measurements were made from room temperature up to the melting temperature of the material (140 ° C ) in which the disappearance of bands was found in the region of normal modes at 130 ° C, thus demonstrating a irreversible structural phase transition, because the spectrum obtained after returning the sample to ambient temperature is typical of amorphous material. (author)

  5. Methionine restriction alters bone morphology and affects osteoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Ouattara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methionine restriction (MR extends the lifespan of a wide variety of species, including rodents, drosophila, nematodes, and yeasts. MR has also been demonstrated to affect the overall growth of mice and rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of MR on bone structure in young and aged male and female C57BL/6J mice. This study indicated that MR affected the growth rates of males and young females, but not aged females. MR reduced volumetric bone mass density (vBMD and bone mineral content (BMC, while bone microarchitecture parameters were decreased in males and young females, but not in aged females compared to control-fed (CF mice. However, when adjusted for bodyweight, the effect of MR in reducing vBMD, BMC and microarchitecture measurements was either attenuated or reversed suggesting that the smaller bones in MR mice is appropriate for its body size. In addition, CF and MR mice had similar intrinsic strength properties as measured by nanoindentation. Plasma biomarkers suggested that the low bone mass in MR mice could be due to increased collagen degradation, which may be influenced by leptin, IGF-1, adiponectin and FGF21 hormone levels. Mouse preosteoblast cell line cultured under low sulfur amino acid growth media attenuated gene expression levels of Col1al, Runx2, Bglap, Alpl and Spp1 suggesting delayed collagen formation and bone differentiation. Collectively, our studies revealed that MR altered bone morphology which could be mediated by delays in osteoblast differentiation. Keywords: Methionine restriction, Aged mice, Micro-computed tomography, Nanoindentation, MC3T3-E1 subclone 4

  6. Sulphur Atoms from Methionines Interacting with Aromatic Residues Are Less Prone to Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledo, Juan C.; Cantón, Francisco R.; Veredas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine residues exhibit different degrees of susceptibility to oxidation. Although solvent accessibility is a relevant factor, oxidation at particular sites cannot be unequivocally explained by accessibility alone. To explore other possible structural determinants, we assembled different sets of oxidation-sensitive and oxidation-resistant methionines contained in human proteins. Comparisons of the proteins containing oxidized methionines with all proteins in the human proteome led to the conclusion that the former exhibit a significantly higher mean value of methionine content than the latter. Within a given protein, an examination of the sequence surrounding the non-oxidized methionine revealed a preference for neighbouring tyrosine and tryptophan residues, but not for phenylalanine residues. However, because the interaction between sulphur atoms and aromatic residues has been reported to be important for the stabilization of protein structure, we carried out an analysis of the spatial interatomic distances between methionines and aromatic residues, including phenylalanine. The results of these analyses uncovered a new determinant for methionine oxidation: the S-aromatic motif, which decreases the reactivity of the involved sulphur towards oxidants. PMID:26597773

  7. Rhizobitoxine-induced Chlorosis Occurs in Coincidence with Methionine Deficiency in Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shin; Sugawara, Masayuki; Yuhashi, Ken-Ichi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhizobitoxine, produced by the legume symbiont Bradyrhizobium elkanii, inhibits cystathionine-β-lyase (EC 4·4·1·8) in methionine biosynthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC) in ethylene biosynthesis. Rhizobitoxine production by B. elkanii enhances nodulation of host legumes via the inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but causes foliar chlorosis in susceptible soybeans, though how it does so remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological basis of rhizobitoxine-induced chlorosis in soybeans. Methods Wild-type B. elkanii and a rhizobitoxine-deficient mutant were inoculated in Glycine max ‘Lee’. Thirty days after inoculation, the upper parts of soybean shoots were analysed for amino acid contents. Chlorotic soybeans inoculated with wild-type B. elkanii were treated with methionine and ACC to assess the effects of the chemicals on the chlorosis. Key Results Chlorotic upper shoots of soybeans inoculated with wild-type B. elkanii had a lower methionine content and higher accumulation of the methionine precursors than those with the rhizobitoxine-deficient mutant. In addition, the foliar chlorosis was alleviated by the application of methionine. Conclusions Rhizobitoxine-induced chlorosis occurs in coincidence with methionine deficiency as a result of cystathione-β-lyase inhibition during methionine biosynthesis. PMID:17525098

  8. Methionine-oxidized horse heart cytochrome c. III. Ascorbate reduction and the methionine-80-sulfur-iron linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Y P; Kumar, S

    1989-02-01

    The ascorbate reduction of the CT-cytochromes--two chemically generated forms of horse heart cytochrome c, FIII and FII, with both methionines, 80 and 65, as methionine sulfoxides, no iron-sulfur linkage, and potentiometric and physiological oxidoreduction properties distinct from those of the native protein and one another (J. Pande et al., 1987)--has been investigated using a stopped-flow technique. The reaction was monitored at 550 nm, and studies were conducted in 10 mM phosphate + 0.17 M NaCl buffer, pH 7.4. Both CT-cytochromes are reduced by triphasic profiles, a faster and an intermediate ascorbate-dependent reaction and a slow, ascorbate-independent process. Both CT-cytochromes contain three molecular forms in slow equilibrium, two reducing directly by reaction with ascorbate and a third through conversion to one of the reducible forms. Like the reaction of the native protein, the ascorbate dependence of both the rapid and the intermediate process is nonlinear, approaching saturation values at high concentrations. The ascorbate profiles of the pseudo-first-order reduction constants are typical of the model for the reduction reaction of the unmodified protein, binding followed by a first-order reduction reaction (Myer et al., 1980; Myer and Kumar, 1984), but with distinct kinetic parameters, the first-order reduction constants and the protein-ascorbate stability constants. It has been concluded that the functional-conformational differences between the two CT-cytochromes are not operational to any significant extent in the reduction reaction with ascorbate. The methionine-80-sulfur-iron linkage of the protein is not a crucial requirement for the ascorbate reduction of the protein. The mechanism of the reaction in the main is also insensitive to the replacement of Met-80-S from heme coordination and/or the associated conformational-oxidoreduction properties of the protein. Of the two aspects of the reaction, the efficiency of the electron-transfer reaction

  9. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the oligomerization

  10. Dietary Methionine Requirement for Growth of Juvenile Humpback Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to find out amino acid methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate 100 L tanks. Each tank was equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (5.6 ± 0.7 g each were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Juveniles humpback grouper for the experiment were purchased from back yard hatchery in Gondol. Fish fed test diets twice everyday at satiation level for 49 days. Test diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, supplemented with the mixture of crystalline L-amino acids to correspond to the amino acid pattern found in the whole body protein of the juvenile humpback grouper, except methionine. Basal diet (diet-1 containing 0.86% methionine was supplied from casein and fish meal. Graded level (0.3% of L-methionine was added to the basal diet to get the final methionine level in each test diet of 0.86%, 1.16%, 1.46%, 1.76%, 2.06%, and 2.36 %. The experiment was designed according to completely random design (CRD with 6 treatments (methionine levels and three replicates for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that dietary methionine content influenced final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, and body protein content of juvenile humpback grouper. Optimum dietary methionine for juvenile humpback grouper was calculated using broken line regression analysis.  Optimum dietary methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper was 1.18% (2.41% of dietary protein and 1.16% (2.37% of dietary protein based on weight gain data and feed efficiency, respectively.

  11. Thermal-shock Resistance of a Ceramic Comprising 60 Percent Boron Carbide and 40 Percent Titanium Diboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, C M; Hoffman, C A

    1953-01-01

    Thermal-shock resistance of a ceramic comprising 60 percent boron carbide and 40 percent titanium diboride was investigated. The material has thermal shock resistance comparable to that of NBS body 4811C and that of zirconia, but is inferior to beryllia, alumina, and titanium-carbide ceramals. It is not considered suitable for turbine blades.

  12. High-Methionine Diet Attenuates Severity of Arthritis and Modulates IGF-I Related Gene Expressions in an Adjuvant Arthritis Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis, a synthesized form of adjuvant arthritis exhibited throughout many animal species, inhibits liver function and circulation of IGF-I and contributes to the degradation of skeletal muscle mass. One of the primary goals of the present study is determining whether a high-Methionine (high-Met diet is capable of reducing the adverse effects of arthritis, namely, loss of body mass. Following adjuvant injection, forty arthritic rats were randomly assigned to either a control group with a basal diet or a high-Met group with the same basal diet + 0.5% Methionine. After 14 days all rats were terminated. The high-Met group exhibited an increase in body weight and food intake in comparison with the control group (P<0.05. High-Met diet debilitated arthritis-induced surges in the gastrocnemius in both atrogin-1 and the MuRF1 expressions; however, it was observed to have little to no effect on atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression in soleus. At the same time, high-Met diet rats experienced a rise in IGF-I, with lowering of IGFBP-3 gene expression in the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These data suggest that arthritis severity can be partly attenuated by high-Met diet.

  13. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  14. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P cows were improved after parturition (P cows. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows.

  15. Exigência de metionina mais cistina para codornas japonesas em crescimento Methionine plus cystine requirement for growing Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Pinto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 540 codornas fêmeas, com idade inicial de sete dias e peso médio de 21,50 g, durante 35 dias. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e 18 aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis relações metionina mais cistina digestível: lisina digestível (0,48, 0,53, 0,58, 0,63, 0,68 e 0,75. Foram estudadas as variáveis peso final (g, ganho de peso (g, consumo alimentar (g, conversão alimentar (g/g, empenamento (%, composição química corporal (matéria seca, água, proteína e extrato etéreo e deposição de proteína e gordura corporais. Os tratamentos influenciaram de forma quadrática o consumo alimentar, a conversão alimentar, o empenamento, a composição química (matéria seca, água, proteína e extrato etéreo e a deposição de proteína corporal, e linearmente o peso final e o ganho de peso das codornas. A melhor relação metionina mais cistina digestível: lisina digestível para as codornas japonesas em crescimento foi de 0,66, sendo a exigência em metionina mais cistina digestível estimada em 0,758%, para consumo de 91,43 mg de metionina mais cistina digestível.Five hundred and forty 7-days old female quails, averaging 21.50 g, were used during 35 days. A completely randomized blocks design with five replicates and 18 females per experimental unity was used to study the effect of six digestible methionine plus cystine: digestible lysine ratios (0.48, 0.53, 0.58, 0.63, 0.68 and 0.75 on the traits evaluated during the growing period. Final weight (g, weight gain (g, feed intake (g, feed conversion (g/g, feather rate (%, chemical composition (% (dry matter, water, crude protein and ether extract and body protein and fat deposition (g. The effect of the amino acids on feed intake (g, feed conversion (g/g, feather rate (%, chemical composition (% (dry matter, water, crud protein and ether extract and protein deposition was quadratic and the effect on final body weight

  16. Ferulic acid depletion by cultured soybean seedlings under action of glucose and methionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrig Vanessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultured soybean seedlings were used to investigate how glucose or methionine influenced depletion of ferulic acid. Three-day-old seedlings were grown in hydroponic solution containing ferulic acid plus glucose or methionine, and the level of the phenolic acid were monitored in the nutrient culture. The results showed that ferulic acid depletion was more rapid in the presence of those compounds. After 6 h, the increase caused by glucose (0.01 and 0.05 mM was more pronounced than methionine in the same concentrations. On the other hand, methionine (0.1 and 0.2 mM increased depletion more significantly than glucose. Results suggested that both compounds might to increase the allelopathic effects of ferulic acid in the seedlings.

  17. Simultaneous determination of plasma total homocysteine and methionine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Mistretta, Brandon; Elsea, Sarah; Sun, Qin

    2017-01-01

    The sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine is a cardiac risk factor and a biomarker for several inborn errors of metabolism in methionine synthesis. A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of homocysteine and methionine in human plasma. Rapid separation was achieved using a reverse phase liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry identification was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode for homocysteine and methionine. Accuracy, precision, linearity, recovery and sample stability were evaluated in the method validation. The test is applied in diagnosis of homocystinuria and monitoring total homocysteine levels. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of methionine helps in the differentiation of homocystinuria and some cobalamin disorders (such as cblC and cblD defects) without additional amino acid testing. Lastly, this assay is sensitive to detect reduced total homocysteine levels that are possibly seen in sulfocysteinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiencies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Methionine and Choline Supply during the Periparturient Period Alter Plasma Amino Acid and One-Carbon Metabolism Profiles to Various Extents: Potential Role in Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to profile plasma amino acids (AA and derivatives of their metabolism during the periparturient period in response to supplemental rumen-protected methionine (MET or rumen-protected choline (CHOL. Forty cows were fed from −21 through 30 days around parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design a diet containing MET or CHOL. MET supply led to greater circulating methionine and proportion of methionine in the essential AA pool, total AA, and total sulfur-containing compounds. Lysine in total AA also was greater in these cows, indicating a better overall AA profile. Sulfur-containing compounds (cystathionine, cystine, homocystine, and taurine were greater in MET-fed cows, indicating an enriched sulfur-containing compound pool due to enhanced transsulfuration activity. Circulating essential AA and total AA concentrations were greater in cows supplied MET due to greater lysine, arginine, tryptophan, threonine, proline, asparagine, alanine, and citrulline. In contrast, CHOL supply had no effect on essential AA or total AA, and only tryptophan and cystine were greater. Plasma 3-methylhistidine concentration was lower in response to CHOL supply, suggesting less tissue protein mobilization in these cows. Overall, the data revealed that enhanced periparturient supply of MET has positive effects on plasma AA profiles and overall antioxidant status.

  19. miR-210 expression is associated with methionine-induced differentiation of trout satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Mary; Sabin, Nathalie; Le Cam, Aurélie; Seiliez, Iban; Biga, Peggy; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2017-08-15

    In fish, data on microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in myogenesis are scarce. In order to identify miRNAs involved in satellite cell differentiation, we used a methionine depletion/replenishment protocol to synchronize myogenic cell differentiation. Our results validated that methionine removal (72 h) from the medium strongly decreased myoD1 and myogenin expression, indicating differentiation arrest. In contrast, methionine replenishment rescued expression of myoD1 and myogenin , showing a resumption of differentiation. We performed a miRNA array analysis of myogenic cells under three conditions: presence of methionine for 72 h (control), absence of methionine for 72 h (Meth-) and absence of methionine for 48 h followed by 24 h of methionine replenishment (Meth-/+). A clustering analysis identified three clusters: cluster I corresponds to miRNA upregulated only in Meth-/+ conditions; cluster II corresponds to miRNA downregulated only in Meth-/+ conditions; cluster III corresponds to miRNAs with high expression in control, low expression in Meth- conditions and intermediate expression after methionine replenishment (Meth-/+). Cluster III was very interesting because it fitted with the data obtained for myoD1 and myogenin (supporting an involvement in differentiation) and contained seven miRNAs with muscle-related function (e.g. miR-133a) and one (miR-210) with unknown function. Based on our previously published miRNA repertoire ( Juanchich et al., 2016), we confirmed miR-133a was expressed only in white muscle and showed that miR-210 had strong expression in white muscle. We also showed that miR-210 expression was upregulated during differentiation of satellite cells, suggesting that miR-210 was potentially involved in the differentiation of satellite cells. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Safety of methionine, a novel biopesticide, to adult and larval honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Emma N I; Schmehl, Daniel R; Baniszewski, Julie; Tomé, Hudson V V; Cuda, James P; Ellis, James D; Stevens, Bruce R

    2018-03-01

    Methionine is an essential/indispensible amino acid nutrient required by adult and larval honey bees (Apis mellifera L. [Hymenoptera: Apidae]). Bees are unable to rear broods on pollen deficient in methionine, and reportedly behaviorally avoid collecting pollen or nectar from florets deficient in methioinine. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that methionine is toxic to certain pest insects; thus it has been proposed as an effective biopesticide. As an ecofriendly integrated pest management agent, methionine boasts a novel mode of action differentiating it from conventional pesticides, while providing non-target safety. Pesticides that minimize collateral effects on bees are desirable, given the economic and ecological concerns about honey bee health. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential impact of the biopesticide methionine on non-target adult and larval honey bees. Acute contact adult toxicology bioassays, oral adult assessments and chronic larval toxicity assessments were performed as per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. Our results demonstrated that methionine fits the U.S. EPA category of practically nontoxic (i.e. lethal dose to 50% mortality or LD 50 > 11µg/bee) to adult honey bees. The contact LD 50 was > 25µg/bee and the oral LD 50 was > 100µg/bee. Mortality was observed in larval bees that ingested DL-methionine (effective concentration to 50% mortality or EC 50 560µg/bee). Therefore, we conclude that methionine poses little threat to the health of the honey bee, due to unlikely exposure at concentrations shown to elicit toxic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Utility of “1”1C -methionine PET/CT in neuro-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Parera, I.; Igirio Gamero, J.L.; Báez, A.; Tafur Canabal, J.G.; Báez, M.; Kuchkaryan, V.; B lumenkrantz, Y.; Bruno, G.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with “1”1C-methionine (“1”1C-methionine PET/CT) is a new technique used to evaluate primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We describe our experience regarding the first 4 patients with glial tumors and “1”1C-methionine PET/CT. This is a descriptive, observational and prospective study of 4 patients between 38-50 years of age, with different gliomas (WHO classification). MRI and “1”1C-methionine PET/CT were performed in all cases. Case 1, gliomatosis cerebri grade II post-radiotherapy. Case 2, oligodendroglioma grade II diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy in 1993. Case 3, glioblastoma grade IV post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. Case 4, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma grade III post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. The pattern of “1”1C-methionine uptake compared with MRI showed tumor progression in cases 1, 3 and 4, and in case 2 showed uptake although the final diagnosis was pseudoprogression. Unlike “1”8fluordeoxiglucose PET/TC, “1”1C-methionine uptake in normal brain tissue and pseudoprogression is low, and gliomas are displayed as metabolically active areas. The “1”1C-methionine PET/CT provided valuable information on the tumoral behavior and extension, although in one case presented did not differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression. “1”1C-methionine PET/CT could be a useful tool in the study and follow-up to patients with gliomas. (authors) [es

  2. Impact of methionine oxidation on calmodulin structural dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Megan R.; Thompson, Andrew R.; Nitu, Florentin [Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Moen, Rebecca J. [Chemistry and Geology Department, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001 (United States); Olenek, Michael J. [Biology Department, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); Klein, Jennifer C., E-mail: jklein@uwlax.edu [Biology Department, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States); Thomas, David D., E-mail: ddt@umn.edu [Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • We measured the distance distribution between two spin labels on calmodulin by DEER. • Two structural states, open and closed, were resolved at both low and high Ca. • Ca shifted the equilibrium toward the open state by a factor of 13. • Methionine oxidation, simulated by glutamine substitution, decreased the Ca effect. • These results have important implications for aging in muscle and other tissues. - Abstract: We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to examine the structural impact of oxidizing specific methionine (M) side chains in calmodulin (CaM). It has been shown that oxidation of either M109 or M124 in CaM diminishes CaM regulation of the muscle calcium release channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), and that mutation of M to Q (glutamine) in either case produces functional effects identical to those of oxidation. Here we have used site-directed spin labeling and double electron–electron resonance (DEER), a pulsed EPR technique that measures distances between spin labels, to characterize the structural changes resulting from these mutations. Spin labels were attached to a pair of introduced cysteine residues, one in the C-lobe (T117C) and one in the N-lobe (T34C) of CaM, and DEER was used to determine the distribution of interspin distances. Ca binding induced a large increase in the mean distance, in concert with previous X-ray crystallography and NMR data, showing a closed structure in the absence of Ca and an open structure in the presence of Ca. DEER revealed additional information about CaM’s structural heterogeneity in solution: in both the presence and absence of Ca, CaM populates both structural states, one with probes separated by ∼4 nm (closed) and another at ∼6 nm (open). Ca shifts the structural equilibrium constant toward the open state by a factor of 13. DEER reveals the distribution of interprobe distances, showing that each of these states is itself partially disordered, with the width of each

  3. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Shelley... Adjustment Assistance on July 3, 2012, applicable to workers and former workers of workers of Fortis Plastics...

  4. Methionine restriction activates the retrograde response and confers both stress tolerance and lifespan extension to yeast, mouse and human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Johnson

    Full Text Available A methionine-restricted diet robustly improves healthspan in key model organisms. For example, methionine restriction reduces age-related pathologies and extends lifespan up to 45% in rodents. However, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain largely unknown. We tested whether the yeast chronological aging assay could model the benefits of methionine restriction, and found that this intervention extends lifespan when enforced by either dietary or genetic approaches, and furthermore, that the observed lifespan extension is due primarily to reduced acid accumulation. In addition, methionine restriction-induced lifespan extension requires the activity of the retrograde response, which regulates nuclear gene expression in response to changes in mitochondrial function. Consistent with an involvement of stress-responsive retrograde signaling, we also found that methionine-restricted yeast are more stress tolerant than control cells. Prompted by these findings in yeast, we tested the effects of genetic methionine restriction on the stress tolerance and replicative lifespans of cultured mouse and human fibroblasts. We found that such methionine-restricted mammalian cells are resistant to numerous cytotoxic stresses, and are substantially longer-lived than control cells. In addition, similar to yeast, the extended lifespan of methionine-restricted mammalian cells is associated with NFκB-mediated retrograde signaling. Overall, our data suggest that improved stress tolerance and extension of replicative lifespan may contribute to the improved healthspan observed in methionine-restricted rodents, and also support the possibility that manipulation of the pathways engaged by methionine restriction may improve healthspan in humans.

  5. Selective Oxidation of Methionine and Tryptophan Residues in a Therapeutic IgG1 Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folzer, Emilien; Diepold, Katharina; Bomans, Katrin; Finkler, Christof; Schmidt, Roland; Bulau, Patrick; Huwyler, Jörg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Koulov, Atanas V

    2015-09-01

    Oxidation of methionine and tryptophan are common degradation pathways for monoclonal antibodies and present major analytical challenges in biotechnology. Generally, protein oxidation is detectable in stability and/or stressed samples (e.g., exposed to hydrogen peroxide, UV light, or metal ions). The induced chemical modifications may impact the biological activity of antibodies and may have biological consequences. However, these effects and the contribution of individual protein modifications are difficult to delineate as different amino acids are often oxidized simultaneously and accompanied by other degradants such as aggregates, especially in forced degradation studies. Here, we report a new method to obtain selective oxidation of methionine or tryptophan by using oxidation reagents combined with large excess of free tryptophan or methionine, correspondingly. More specifically, using hydrogen peroxide or tert-butyl hydroperoxide in combination with addition of free tryptophan allowed for selective oxidation of methionine. Conversely, the use of 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride in combination with free methionine resulted in selective tryptophan oxidation, whereas methionine oxidation was not significantly altered. This novel stress model system may prove to be valuable tool in future mechanistic studies of oxidative degradation of protein therapeutics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  7. Dysregulated Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Drives Homocysteine Elevation in Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacana, Tommy; Cazanave, Sophie; Verdianelli, Aurora; Patel, Vaishali; Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Quinlivan, Eoin; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2015-01-01

    Methionine metabolism plays a central role in methylation reactions, production of glutathione and methylarginines, and modulating homocysteine levels. The mechanisms by which these are affected in NAFLD are not fully understood. The aim is to perform a metabolomic, molecular and epigenetic analyses of hepatic methionine metabolism in diet-induced NAFLD. Female 129S1/SvlmJ;C57Bl/6J mice were fed a chow (n = 6) or high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet (n = 8) for 52 weeks. Metabolomic study, enzymatic expression and DNA methylation analyses were performed. HFHC diet led to weight gain, marked steatosis and extensive fibrosis. In the methionine cycle, hepatic methionine was depleted (30%, phomocysteine (25%, phomocysteine remethylation and transsulfuration, was depleted (45%, phomocysteine methyltransferase, and methionine synthase remained unchanged. Although gene expression of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a decreased, the global DNA methylation was unaltered. Among individual genes, only HMG-CoA reductase (Hmgcr) was hypermethylated, and no methylation changes were observed in fatty acid synthase (Fasn), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (Nfκb1), c-Jun, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Caspase 3. NAFLD was associated with hepatic methionine deficiency and homocysteine elevation, resulting mainly from impaired homocysteine remethylation, and aberrancy in methyltransferase reactions. Despite increased PRMT1 expression, hepatic ADMA was depleted while circulating ADMA was increased, suggesting increased export to circulation. PMID:26322888

  8. Methionine oxidation activates a transcription factor in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazic, Adrian; Miura, Haruko; Peschek, Jirka; Le, Yan; Bach, Nina C; Kriehuber, Thomas; Winter, Jeannette

    2013-06-04

    Oxidant-mediated antibacterial response systems are broadly used to control bacterial proliferation. Hypochlorite (HOCl) is an important component of the innate immune system produced in neutrophils and specific epithelia. Its antimicrobial activity is due to damaging cellular macromolecules. Little is known about how bacteria escape HOCl-inflicted damage. Recently, the transcription factor YjiE was identified that specifically protects Escherichia coli from HOCl killing. According to its function, YjiE is now renamed HypT (hypochlorite-responsive transcription factor). Here we unravel that HypT is activated by methionine oxidation to methionine sulfoxide. Interestingly, so far only inactivation of cellular proteins by methionine oxidation has been reported. Mutational analysis revealed three methionines that are essential to confer HOCl resistance. Their simultaneous substitution by glutamine, mimicking the methionine sulfoxide state, increased the viability of E. coli cells upon HOCl stress. Triple glutamine substitution generates a constitutively active HypT that regulates target genes independently of HOCl stress and permanently down-regulates intracellular iron levels. Inactivation of HypT depends on the methionine sulfoxide reductases A/B. Thus, microbial protection mechanisms have evolved along the evolution of antimicrobial control systems, allowing bacteria to survive within the host environment.

  9. Methionine Uptake and Required Radiation Dose to Control Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Toshihiko, E-mail: tiuchi@chiba-cc.jp [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hatano, Kazuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Bay Advanced Imaging and Radiation Oncology Clinic, Makuhari, Chiba (Japan); Uchino, Yoshio [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Chiba Ryogo Center, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Makiko [Division of Surgical Pathology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa [Division of Neurological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Hara, Ryusuke [Division of Radiation Oncology, Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility of radiation therapy planning for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on the use of methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET), and the correlation among MET uptake, radiation dose, and tumor control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GBM who underwent MET-PET prior to radiation therapy were enrolled. MET uptake in 30 regions of interest (ROIs) from 22 GBMs, biologically effective doses (BEDs) for the ROIs and their ratios (MET uptake:BED) were compared in terms of whether the ROIs were controlled for >12 months. Results: MET uptake was significantly correlated with tumor control (odds ratio [OR], 10.0; P=.005); however, there was a higher level of correlation between MET uptake:BED ratio and tumor control (OR, 40.0; P<.0001). These data indicated that the required BEDs for controlling the ROIs could be predicted in terms of MET uptake; BED could be calculated as [34.0 × MET uptake] Gy from the optimal threshold of the MET uptake:BED ratio for tumor control. Conclusions: Target delineation based on MET-PET was demonstrated to be feasible for radiation therapy treatment planning. MET-PET could not only provide precise visualization of infiltrating tumor cells but also predict the required radiation doses to control target regions.

  10. Oxidation of multiple methionine residues impairs rapid sodium channel inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassmann, Mario; Hansel, Alfred; Leipold, Enrico; Birkenbeil, Jan; Lu, Song-Qing; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) readily oxidize the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine (Met). The impact of Met oxidation on the fast inactivation of the skeletal muscle sodium channel NaV1.4 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells was studied by applying the Met-preferring oxidant chloramine-T (ChT) or by irradiating the ROS-producing dye Lucifer Yellow in the patch pipettes. Both interventions dramatically slowed down inactivation of the sodium channels. Replacement of Met in the Ile-Phe-Met inactivation motif with Leu (M1305L) strongly attenuated the oxidizing effect on inactivation but did not eliminate it completely. Mutagenesis of conserved Met residues in the intracellular linkers connecting the membrane-spanning segments of the channel (M1469L and M1470L) also markedly diminished the oxidation sensitivity of the channel, while that of other conserved Met residues (442, 1139, 1154, 1316) were without any noticeable effect. The results of mutagenesis of results, assays of other NaV channel isoforms (NaV1.2, NaV1.5, NaV1.7) and the kinetics of the oxidation-induced removal of inactivation collectively indicate that multiple Met target residues need to be oxidized to completely impair inactivation. This arrangement using multiple Met residues confers a finely graded oxidative modulation of NaV channels and allows organisms to adapt to a variety of oxidative stress conditions, such as ischemic reperfusion. PMID:18369661

  11. Expression of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus possesses three MsrA enzymes (MsrA1, MsrA2, MsrA3 that reduce the S-epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetO and an MsrB enzyme that reduces R-MetO. The four msr genes are expressed from three different promoters. The msrA1/msrB genes are coexpressed. To determine the expression pattern of msr genes, three independent reporter strains were constructed where msr promoter was cloned in front of a promoterless lacZ and the resulting construct was integrated in the chromosome. Using these strains, it was determined that the msrA1/B expression is significantly higher in S. aureus compared to msrA2 or msrA3. Expression of msrA1/B was highest during stationary phase growth, but the expression of msrA2 and msrA3 was highest during the early to midexponential growth phase. Expression of msrA1/B was induced by oxacillin and the expression of msrA3 was upregulated by salt. Expression of msrA2 remained unchanged under all tested conditions.

  12. 1-13C; methyl-2H3 methionine kinetics in humans: Methionine conservation and cystine sparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, K.J.; Wagner, D.A.; Burke, J.F.; Young, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Methionine (Met) conservation in healthy young adult men (4/diet group) was explored by supplying one of the following three L-amino acid based diets: (1) adequate Met but no cystine; (2) neither Met nor cystine; or (3) no Met but cystine supplementation. After 5 days, subjects received a continuous intravenous infusion of L-[1-13C; methyl-2H3]Met for 5 h while the diet was given as small isocaloric isonitrogenous meals. Estimates were made of rates of Met incorporation into protein synthesis (S) and release from body proteins (B), transmethylation (TM), remethylation of homocysteine (RM), and transsulfuration (TS). For the adequate Met diet, the rates were S = 24 +/- 2, B = 18 +/- 1, TM = 12.4 +/- 1.7, RM = 4.7 +/- 1.1, and TS = 7.6 +/- 0.6 (SE) mumol.kg-1.h-1. The sulfur amino acid-devoid diet significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced S, TM, RM, and TS. Supplementation of this diet with cystine reduced Met oxidation (P = 0.05). Therefore, two loci are quantitatively important regulatory points in Met conservation in vivo: (1) the distribution of Met between the pathways of protein anabolism and TM (Met locus) and (2) the distribution of homocysteine between RM and TS (homocysteine locus)

  13. Modulation of cell cycle and gene expression in pancreatic tumor cell lines by methionine deprivation (methionine stress): implications to the therapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinakis, Demetrius M; Liu, Xiaoyan; Neuner, Russell D

    2005-09-01

    The effect of methionine deprivation (methionine stress) on the proliferation, survival, resistance to chemotherapy, and regulation of gene and protein expression in pancreatic tumor lines is examined. Methionine stress prevents successful mitosis and promotes cell cycle arrest and accumulation of cells with multiple micronuclei with decondensed chromatin. Inhibition of mitosis correlates with CDK1 down-regulation and/or inhibition of its function by Tyr(15) phosphorylation or Thr(161) dephosphorylation. Inhibition of cell cycle progression correlates with loss of hyperphosphorylated Rb and up-regulation of p21 via p53 and/or transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activation depending on p53 status. Although methionine stress-induced toxicity is not solely dependent on p53, the gain in p21 and loss in CDK1 transcription are more enhanced in wild-type p53 tumors. Up-regulation of SMAD7, a TGF-beta signaling inhibitor, suggests that SMAD7 does not restrict the TGF-beta-mediated induction of p21, although it may prevent up-regulation of p27. cDNA oligoarray analysis indicated a pleiotropic response to methionine stress. Cell cycle and mitotic arrest is in agreement with up-regulation of NF2, ETS2, CLU, GADD45alpha, GADD45beta, and GADD45gamma and down-regulation of AURKB, TOP2A, CCNA, CCNB, PRC1, BUB1, NuSAP, IFI16, and BRCA1. Down-regulation of AREG, AGTR1, M-CSF, and EGF, IGF, and VEGF receptors and up-regulation of GNA11 and IGFBP4 signify loss of growth factor support. PIN1, FEN1, and cABL up-regulation and LMNB1, AREG, RhoB, CCNG, TYMS, F3, and MGMT down-regulation suggest that methionine stress sensitizes the tumor cells to DNA-alkylating drugs, 5-fluorouracil, and radiation. Increased sensitivity of pancreatic tumor cell lines to temozolomide is shown under methionine stress conditions and is attributed in part to diminished O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and possibly to inhibition of the cell cycle progression.

  14. Structural and functional characteristics of cGMP-dependent methionine oxidation in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-01-05

    Background: Increasing structural and biochemical evidence suggests that post-translational methionine oxidation of proteins is not just a result of cellular damage but may provide the cell with information on the cellular oxidative status. In addition, oxidation of methionine residues in key regulatory proteins, such as calmodulin, does influence cellular homeostasis. Previous findings also indicate that oxidation of methionine residues in signaling molecules may have a role in stress responses since these specific structural modifications can in turn change biological activities of proteins. Findings. Here we use tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics to show that treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana cells with a non-oxidative signaling molecule, the cell-permeant second messenger analogue, 8-bromo-3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), results in a time-dependent increase in the content of oxidised methionine residues. Interestingly, the group of proteins affected by cGMP-dependent methionine oxidation is functionally enriched for stress response proteins. Furthermore, we also noted distinct signatures in the frequency of amino acids flanking oxidised and un-oxidised methionine residues on both the C- and N-terminus. Conclusions: Given both a structural and functional bias in methionine oxidation events in response to a signaling molecule, we propose that these are indicative of a specific role of such post-translational modifications in the direct or indirect regulation of cellular responses. The mechanisms that determine the specificity of the modifications remain to be elucidated. 2013 Marondedze et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Attitudes of women in their forties toward the 2009 USPSTF mammogram guidelines: a randomized trial on the effects of media exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, AuTumn S; Liao, Xun; Magee, B Dale

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess women's attitudes toward 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force mammography screening guideline changes and evaluate the role of media in shaping opinions. Two hundred forty-nine women, aged 39-49 years, presenting for annual examinations randomized to read 1 of 2 articles, and survey completion comprised the design of the study. Eighty-eight percent overestimated the lifetime breast cancer (BrCa) risk. Eighty-nine percent want yearly mammograms in their 40s. Eighty-six percent felt the changes were unsafe, and even if the changes were doctor recommended, 84% would not delay screening until age 50 years. Those with a friend/relative with BrCa were more likely to want annual mammography in their forties (92% vs 77%, P = .001), and feel changes unsafe (91% vs 69%, P ≤ .0001). Participants with previous false-positive mammograms were less likely to accept doctor-recommended screening delay until age 50 years (8% vs 21%, P = .01). Women overestimate BrCa risk. Skepticism of new mammogram guidelines exists, and is increased by exposure to negative media. Those with prior false-positive mammograms are less likely to accept changes. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  17. Percent Grammatical Responses as a General Outcome Measure: Initial Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This report investigated the validity of using percent grammatical responses (PGR) as a measure for assessing grammaticality. To establish construct validity, we computed the correlation of PGR with another measure of grammar skills and with an unrelated skill area. To establish concurrent validity for PGR, we computed the correlation of…

  18. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 20 in Iranian Holstein cattle using ten micro ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  19. Plasma methionine depletion and pharmacokinetic properties in mice of methionine γ-lyase from Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium sporogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, E A; Anufrieva, N V; Davydov, D Zh; Komarova, M V; Dyakov, I N; Rodionov, A N; Demidkina, T V; Pokrovsky, V S

    2017-04-01

    PK studies were carried out after a single i.v. administration of 500 and 1000 U/kg by measuring of MGL activity in plasma samples. L-methionine concentration was measured by mass spectrometry. After single i.v. injection of 500U/kg the circulating T 1/2 of enzymes in mice varies from 73 to 123min. The AUC 0-tinf values determined for MGL 500U/kg from C. freundii, C. tetani and C. sporogenes are 8.21±0.28, 9.04±0.33 and 13.88±0.39U/(ml×h), respectively. Comparison of PK parameters of three MGL sources in the dose of 500U/kg indicated the MGL C. sporogenes to have better PK parameters: clearance 0.83(95%CI: 0.779-0.871) - was lower than C. tetanii 1.27(95%CI: 1.18-1.36) and C. freundii 1.39(95%CI: 1.30-1.49). Mice plasma methionine decreased to undetectable level 10min after MGL 1000 U/kg injection. After MGL C. sporogenes 500U/kg injection plasma methionine level completely omitted after 10min till 6h, assuming the sustainability of negligible levels of methionine (tetani. There are no significant differences between methionine cleavage after MGL C. tetani and MGL C. sporogenes i.v. injection at all doses. MGL from C. sporogenes may be considered as promising enzyme for further investigation as potential anticancer agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The relative contribution of genes operating in the S-methylmethionine cycle to methionine metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Salmon, Asaf; Tietel, Zipora; Hacham, Yael; Amir, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Enzymes operating in the S -methylmethionine cycle make a differential contribution to methionine synthesis in seeds. In addition, mutual effects exist between the S -methylmethionine cycle and the aspartate family pathway in seeds. Methionine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a key metabolite in plant cells. The previous lines of evidence proposed that the S-methylmethionine (SMM) cycle contributes to methionine synthesis in seeds where methionine that is produced in non-seed tissues is converted to SMM and then transported via the phloem into the seeds. However, the relative regulatory roles of the S-methyltransferases operating within this cycle in seeds are yet to be fully understood. In the current study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis seeds with altered expression of three HOMOCYSTEINE S-METHYLTRANSFERASEs (HMTs) and METHIONINE S-METHYLTRANSFERASE (MMT), and profiled them for transcript and metabolic changes. The results revealed that AtHMT1 and AtHMT3, but not AtHMT2 and AtMMT, are the predominant enzymes operating in seeds as altered expression of these two genes affected the levels of methionine and SMM in transgenic seeds. Their manipulations resulted in adapted expression level of genes participating in methionine synthesis through the SMM and aspartate family pathways. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the regulatory roles of the SMM cycle and the mutual effects existing between the two methionine biosynthesis pathways, highlighting the complexity of the metabolism of methionine and SMM in seeds.

  1. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S. [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Robert E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Scoccimarro, Roman, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: dpotter@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: stadel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: julian.onions@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: reed@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: r.e.smith@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: volker.springel@h-its.org, E-mail: Frazer.Pearce@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: rs123@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, NY 10003, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc{sup −1} and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc{sup −1}. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc{sup −1}. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h {sup −1}Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M {sub p}=10{sup 9} h {sup −1}M{sub ⊙} is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  2. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S.; Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc −1 and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc −1 . We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc −1 . In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h −1 Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M p =10 9 h −1 M ⊙ is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.

  3. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  4. Transgenic tobacco plants having a higher level of methionine are more sensitive to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacham, Yael; Matityahu, Ifat; Amir, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid the low level of which limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ-SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes. FA plants exhibit slightly reduced growth, and metabolic profiling analysis shows that they have higher contents of stress-related metabolites. Despite this, FA plants were more sensitive to short- and long-term oxidative stresses. In addition, compared with WT plants and transgenic plants expressing an empty vector, the primary metabolic profile of FA was altered less during oxidative stress. Based on morphological and metabolic phenotypes, we strongly proposed that FA plants having higher levels of methionine suffer from stress under non-stress conditions. This might be one of the reasons for their lesser ability to cope with oxidative stress when it appeared. The observation that their metabolic profiling is much less responsive to stress compared with control plants indicates that the delta changes in metabolite contents between non-stress and stress conditions is important for enabling the plants to cope with stress conditions. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on bacterial dihydrofolate reductase containing (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakley, R.L.; Cocco, L.; London, R.E.; Walker, T.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1978-06-13

    (methyl-/sup 13/C)Methionine has been incorporated with high efficiency by Streptococcus faecium var. Durans strain A into dihydrofolate reductase isoenzyme 2. In the /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of the purified enzyme the resonances corresponding to the seven methionine residues are partially resolved into three composite peaks. Denaturation with urea collapses these into a single peak centered at 15.32 ppm, whereas the resonance of free methionine is at 15.04 ppm. Spectra of the free enzyme, its complex with methotrexate, and its complex with methotrexate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) have been simulated, permitting more accurate estimates of line widths and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) values. These, together with the T/sub 1/ values, cannot be explained solely by the effects of macromolecular tumbling and very rapid rotation of the methionine methyl group about its axis. A model assuming, in addition, the occurrence of free rotation about the methionine CH/sub 2/-S bond is also unsatisfactory, and it is concluded that internal rotation about the CH/sub 2/-S bond is highly restricted so that the methyl group oscillates through a relatively narrow angular range. Complex formation with NADPH produced rather small changes in the spectrum of the native enzyme, probably due to conformational transitions in the enzyme. However, NADP/sup +/ produced several changes,including movement of one resonance downfield by at least 1.7 ppM.

  6. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to...

  7. Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droessler, P.; Holzer, W.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form

  8. Crystal structure of a new homochiral one-dimensional zincophosphate containing l-methionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet Chouat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available catena-Poly[[(l-methionine-κOzinc]-μ3-(hydrogen phosphato-κ3O:O′:O′′], [Zn{PO3(OH}(C5H11NO2S]n, a new one-dimensional homochiral zincophosphate, was hydrothermally synthesized using l-methionine as a structure-directing agent. The compound consists of a network of ZnO4 and (HOPO3 tetrahedra that form ladder-like chains of edge-fused Zn2P2O4 rings propagating parallel to [100]. The chains are decorated on each side by zwitterionic l-methionine ligands, which interact with the inorganic framework via Zn—O coordination bonds. The structure displays interchain N—H...O and O—H...S hydrogen bonds.

  9. Effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Peñagaricano

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition exclusively during the periconceptional period can induce remarkable effects on both oocyte maturation and early embryo development, which in turn can have lifelong consequences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos. Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments differing in level of dietary methionine (1.89 Met vs. 2.43 Met % of metabolizable protein from calving until embryo flushing. High quality preimplantation embryos from individual cows were pooled and then analyzed by RNA sequencing. Remarkably, a subtle difference in methionine supplementation in maternal diet was sufficient to cause significant changes in the transcriptome of the embryos. A total of 276 genes out of 10,662 showed differential expression between treatments (FDR <0.10. Interestingly, several of the most significant genes are related to embryonic development (e.g., VIM, IFI6, BCL2A1, and TBX15 and immune response (e.g., NKG7, TYROBP, SLAMF7, LCP1, and BLA-DQB. Likewise, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that several Gene Ontology terms, InterPro entries, and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR <0.05 with differentially expressed genes involved in embryo development and immune system. The expression of most genes was decreased by maternal methionine supplementation, consistent with reduced transcription of genes with increased methylation of specific genes by increased methionine. Overall, our findings provide evidence that supplementing methionine to dams prior to conception and during the preimplantation period can modulate gene expression in bovine blastocysts. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes for subsequent development of the pregnancy and physiology of the offspring warrant further investigation in future studies.

  10. Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauber Polese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.

  11. Methionine Induces LAT1 Expression in Dairy Cow Mammary Gland by Activating the mTORC1 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyu; Lin, Ye; Lv, He; Yang, Yang; Jiao, Hongtao; Hou, Xiaoming

    2017-12-01

    Methionine is the limiting amino acid for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. The effect of methionine availability on milk protein synthesis is dependent on its active transport into cells through amino acid transporters. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), which induces the transport of neutral amino acids, is highly expressed in lactating mammary gland. However, the effect of methionine on LAT1 expression and the mechanism governing this process in dairy cow mammary gland are poorly understood. In this study, we show that treatment of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells with increasing concentrations of methionine for 24 h resulted in increased expression of LAT1 and its associated protein 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc). Maximal expression levels occurred after treatment with 0.6 mM methionine. Methionine treatment also increased cell viability and β-casein synthesis. Western blots showed that methionine induced LAT1 and 4F2hc expression by activating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin or raptor siRNA prevented the upregulation of LAT1 and 4F2hc. These results indicate that methionine may activate the mTORC1 signaling pathway and further increase LAT1 and 4F2hc expression in dairy cow mammary gland, thus affecting milk protein synthesis.

  12. Analytical protein a chromatography as a quantitative tool for the screening of methionine oxidation in monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Caroline; Knoblich, Constanze; Fichtl, Jürgen; Alt, Nadja; Diepold, Katharina; Bulau, Patrick; Goldbach, Pierre; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Grauschopf, Ulla

    2012-11-01

    The presence of oxidized methionine residues in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can potentially impact drug efficacy, safety, as well as antibody half-life in vivo. Therefore, methionine oxidation of antibodies is a strong focus during pharmaceutical development and a well-known degradation pathway. The monitoring of methionine oxidation is currently routinely performed by peptide mapping/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques, which are laborious and time consuming. We have established analytical protein A chromatography as a method of choice for fast and quantitative screening of total Fc methionine oxidation during formulation and process development. The principle of this method relies on the lower binding affinity of protein A for immunoglobulin G-Fc domains containing oxidized methionines, compared with nonoxidized Fc domains. Our data reveal that highly conserved Fc methionines situated close to the binding site to protein A can serve as marker for the oxidation of other surface-exposed methionine residues. In case of poor separation of oxidized species by protein A chromatography, analytical protein G chromatography is proposed as alternative. We demonstrate that analytical protein A chromatography, and alternatively protein G chromatography, is a valuable tool for the screening of methionine oxidation in therapeutic antibodies during formulation and process development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine...... concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were......Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works...

  14. Creep behaviour of Cu-30 percent Zn at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present, intermediate-temperature (573-823 K) range investigation of creep properties for single-phase Cu-30 percent Zn alpha-brass observed inverse, linear, and sigmoidal primary-creep transients above 573 K under stresses that yield minimum creep rates in the 10 to the -7th to 2 x 10 to the -4th range; normal primary creep occurred in all other conditions. In conjunction with a review of the pertinent literature, a detailed analysis of these data suggests that no clearly defined, classes M-to-A-to-M transition exists in this alloy notwithstanding the presence of both classes' characteristics under nominally similar stresses and temperatures.

  15. Bioavailability of D-methionine relative to L-methionine for nursery pigs using the slope-ratio assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsu Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of D-methionine (Met relative to L-Met for nursery pigs using the slope-ratio assay. A total of 50 crossbred barrows with an initial BW of 13.5 kg (SD = 1.0 were used in an N balance study. A Met-deficient basal diet (BD was formulated to contain an adequate amount of all amino acids (AA for 10–20 kg pigs except for Met. The two reference diets were prepared by supplementing the BD with 0.4 or 0.8 g L-Met/kg at the expense of corn starch, and an equivalent concentration of D-Met was added to the BD for the two test diets. The pigs were adapted to the experimental diets for 5 d and then total but separated collection of feces and urine was conducted for 4 d according to the marker-to-marker procedure. Nitrogen intakes were similar across the treatments. Fecal N output was not affected by Met supplementation regardless of source and consequently apparent N digestibility did not change. Conversely, there was a negative linear response (P < 0.01 to Met supplementation with both Met isomers in urinary N output, which resulted in increased retained N (g/4 d and N retention (% of intake. No quadratic response was observed in any of the N balance criteria. The estimated bioavailability of D-Met relative to L-Met from urinary N output (g/4 d and N retention (% of intake as dependent variables using supplemental Met intake (g/4 d as an independent variable were 87.6% and 89.6%, respectively; however, approximately 95% of the fiducial limits for the relative bioavailability estimates included 100%. In conclusion, with an absence of statistical significance, the present study indicated that the mean relative bioequivalence of D- to L-Met was 87.6% based on urinary N output or 89.6% based on N retention.

  16. Hydrogeological characterization of Back Forty area, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.; Smith, W.H.

    1983-12-01

    Radiological surveys were conducted to determine the potential migration of radionuclides from the waste area to the area commonly referred to as the Back Forty, located in the southern portion of the ARC site. The survey results indicated that parts of the Back Forty contain soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and their associated decay products. A hydrogeologic characterization study was conducted at the Back Forty as part of an effort to more thoroughly assess radionuclide migration in the area. The objectives of the study were: (1) to define the soil characteristics and stratigraphy at the site, (2) to describe the general conditions of each geologic unit, and (3) to determine the direction and hydraulic gradient of areal groundwater flow. The site investigation activities included literature review of existing hydrogeological data for the Albany area, onsite borehold drilling, and measurement of groundwater levels. 7 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  17. Effect of dietary nutrients on ileal endogenous losses of threonine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, leucine and protein in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C

    2018-04-01

    An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This

  18. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  19. Levels of Key Enzymes of Methionine-Homocysteine Metabolism in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Pérez-Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the role of key enzymes in the methionine-homocysteine metabolism (MHM in the physiopathology of preeclampsia (PE. Methods. Plasma and placenta from pregnant women (32 controls and 16 PE patients were analyzed after informed consent. Protein was quantified by western blot. RNA was obtained with RNA purification kit and was quantified by reverse transcritase followed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Identification of the C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and A2756G methionine synthase (MTR SNP was performed using PCR followed by a high-resolution melting (HRM analysis. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH were measured in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS. The SNP association analysis was carried out using Fisher’s exact test. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test. Results. RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR was significantly higher in patients with PE as compared with controls. Protein, SAM, and SAH levels showed no significant difference between preeclamptic patients and controls. No statistical differences between controls and PE patients were observed with the different SNPs studied. Conclusion. The RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR is elevated in placentas of PE patients, highlighting a potential compensation mechanism of the methionine-homocysteine metabolism in the physiopathology of this disease.

  20. Effect of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide on signal transduction in human T-lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR/CD3) induced fluctuations in intracellular free ionizied calcium, [Ca2+]i, was analysed in the human T leukemia cell clone, Jurkat, cultured in the presence of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide (Met-Enk) in titrated concentrations (10[-7] to 10[-15] M) or saline (PBS...

  1. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phenanthroline complex have been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order each in iron(III) and methionine. Increase in [phenanthroline] increases the rate while increase in [HClO4] decreases it. While the reactive species of the ...

  2. Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, J K; Hodge, A M; English, D R; Baglietto, L; Hopper, J L; Giles, G G; Severi, G

    2012-02-01

    B vitamins and related enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism are necessary for DNA replication, DNA repair and regulation of gene expression. Disruption of one-carbon mechanism may affect cancer risk. We investigated prospectively the relationship between dietary intakes of methionine, B vitamins associated with one-carbon metabolism and risk of lung cancer. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study recruited 41,514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. During follow-up of 14,595 men and 22,451 women for an average of 15 years, we ascertained 348 incident lung cancers. Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine was estimated from a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. In current smokers, dietary intake of riboflavin was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94, fifth versus first quintile; P-linear trend=0.01). No associations were found for former or never smokers or for dietary intake of any of the other B vitamins or methionine. Overall, we found little evidence of an association between B vitamins or methionine and lung cancer risk. The weak inverse association between riboflavin and lung cancer risk in current smokers needs further investigation.

  3. The First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene eAbles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been 20 years since the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, under the leadership Dr. Norman Orentreich, first reported that low methionine (Met ingestion by rats extends lifespan [1]. Since then, several studies have replicated the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MR in delaying age-related diseases [2–5]. We report the abstracts from the First International Mini-Symposium on Methionine Restriction and Lifespan held in Tarrytown, NY last September 2013. The goals were 1 to gather researchers with an interest in methionine restriction and lifespan, 2 to exchange knowledge, 3 to generate ideas for future investigations, and 4 to strengthen relationships within this community. The presentations highlighted the importance of research on cysteine, growth hormone (GH, and ATF4 in the paradigm of aging. In addition, the effects of dietary restriction or MR in the kidneys, liver, bones and the adipose tissue were discussed. The symposium also emphasized the value of other species, e.g. the naked mole rat, Brandt’s bat and drosophila in aging research. Overall, the symposium consolidated scientists with similar research interests and provided opportunities to conduct future collaborative studies.

  4. Investigation of the metal binding site in methionine aminopeptidase by density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Techau; Norrby, Per-Ola; Liljefors, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    All methionine aminopeptidases exhibit the same conserved metal binding site. The structure of this site with either Co2+ ions or Zn2+ ions was investigated using density functional theory. The calculations showed that the structure of the site was not influenced by the identity of the metal ions...

  5. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  6. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASEStephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  7. Acute Administration of Methionine Affects Performance of Swiss Mice in Learning and Memory Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi, I; Magaji, R A; Magaji, M G

    2015-12-20

    Methionine, an essential amino acid, plays an essential role in the central nervous system CNS development. It serves as a crucial intermediate in the methylation, trans-sulfuration and amino- phosphorylationpathways,necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids, phospholipids, hormones, neurotransmitters, antioxidants, polyamines, catecholamines and other biogenic amines. The effect of methionine on learning and memory in mice was investigated using Morris water maze (MWM), Elevated plus maze(EPM) and Y maze (YM). Animals were administered with distilled water (control), methionine (1,700mg/kg); folate (3mg/kg) or methionine (1700mg/kg) plus folate (3mg/kg) for 14 days. Escape latency and time spent in target quadrants; transfer latency and percentage spontaneous alternations were measured in the MWM, EPM and YM respectively. The animals were anaesthetized with inhalational chloroform and their brains subsequently harvested, homogenized and assayed for acetylcholinesterase24 hours after the experiment.Folate significantly(pmemory enhancement. However, a short course folate supplementation impairslearning and working memory especially when combined with methioninewhich may be as a result of sudden overwhelming of the methylation cycle, leading to homocysteinemia which is pro-dementia.

  8. Nonnatural amino acid incorporation into the methionine 214 position of the metzincin Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honek John F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AprA is a member of the metzincin superfamily of metalloendoproteases. A key feature of these proteases is a conserved methionine-containing 1,4-tight β turn at the base of the active site zinc binding region. Results To explore the invariant methionine position in this class of protease, incorporation of a nonnatural fluorinated methionine, L-difluoromethionine (DFM, into this site was accomplished. Although overproduction of the N-terminal catalytic fragment of AprA resulted in protein aggregates which could not be resolved, successful heterologous production of the entire AprA was accomplished in the presence and absence of the nonnatural amino acid. DFM incorporation was found to only slightly alter the enzyme kinetics of AprA. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry indicated no significant alteration in the thermal stability of the modified enzyme. Conclusion Although invariant in all metzincin proteases, the methionine 214 position in AprA can be successfully replaced by the nonnatural amino acid DFM resulting in little effect on protein structure and function. This study indicates that the increased size of the methyl group by the introduction of two fluorines is still sufficiently non-sterically demanding, and bodes well for the application of DFM to biophysical studies of protein structure and function in this class of protease.

  9. Nonnatural amino acid incorporation into the methionine 214 position of the metzincin Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Paula; Honek, John F

    2005-01-01

    Background The alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AprA) is a member of the metzincin superfamily of metalloendoproteases. A key feature of these proteases is a conserved methionine-containing 1,4-tight β turn at the base of the active site zinc binding region. Results To explore the invariant methionine position in this class of protease, incorporation of a nonnatural fluorinated methionine, L-difluoromethionine (DFM), into this site was accomplished. Although overproduction of the N-terminal catalytic fragment of AprA resulted in protein aggregates which could not be resolved, successful heterologous production of the entire AprA was accomplished in the presence and absence of the nonnatural amino acid. DFM incorporation was found to only slightly alter the enzyme kinetics of AprA. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry indicated no significant alteration in the thermal stability of the modified enzyme. Conclusion Although invariant in all metzincin proteases, the methionine 214 position in AprA can be successfully replaced by the nonnatural amino acid DFM resulting in little effect on protein structure and function. This study indicates that the increased size of the methyl group by the introduction of two fluorines is still sufficiently non-sterically demanding, and bodes well for the application of DFM to biophysical studies of protein structure and function in this class of protease. PMID:16221305

  10. Methionine synthase A2756G and reduced folate carrier1 A80G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: To analyze the effect of methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and reduced folate carrier (RFC1) A80G gene polymorphisms on the maternal risk for DS. Patients: This study was conducted in the Medical Genetics Center, Ain-Shams University hospitals, on a total of 170 mothers of children, diagnosed with ...

  11. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1,10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    stand for 2 h at 50°C. Thereafter 10 cm3 of 0⋅4 mol dm–3 sodium bicarbonate was added and the solution stirred vigorously, followed by dropwise addition of benzoyl chloride solution until precipitation was complete. The precipitate obtained was identified as N- benzoyl methionine sulphoxide (m.p. 183°C), a derivative of ...

  12. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.

  13. Methionine synthase A2756G and reduced folate carrier1 A80G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism have long been hypothesized to be maternal risk factors for Down syndrome, however, results are conflicting and inconclusive. Aim of the study: To analyze the effect of methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and reduced folate carrier ...

  14. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb performance and ... successful, presumably because the diets were based on low-quality forage with inadequate lysine (Lys) and ... experiments with dairy cows showed that dietary supplementation with RPM and RPC alleviated negative ...

  15. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron (III)-1, 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phenanthroline complex have been studied in perchloric acid medium. The reaction is first order each in iron(III) and methionine. Increase in [phenanthroline] increases the rate while increase in [HClO4] decreases it. While the reactive species of the ...

  16. Promoting Educational Success Forty-Five Years after "Brown." Special Issue on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Changes, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision, the United States still faces the realities of institutional resistance to change. This special issue reviews the past decade of work by the Southern Regional Council to overcome inequality in education in the context of that organization's long struggle. Selections…

  17. Methionine adenosyltransferases in cancers: Mechanisms of dysregulation and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lauren Y; Arsene, Diana; Mato, José M; Lu, Shelly C

    2018-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase genes encode enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, the principal biological methyl donor and precursor of polyamines and glutathione. Mammalian cells express three genes - MAT1A, MAT2A, and MAT2B - with distinct expression and functions. MAT1A is mainly expressed in the liver and maintains the differentiated states of both hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells. Conversely, MAT2A and MAT2B are widely distributed in non-parenchymal cells of the liver and extrahepatic tissues. Increasing evidence suggests that methionine adenosyltransferases play significant roles in the development of cancers. Liver cancers, namely hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, involve dysregulation of all three methionine adenosyltransferase genes. MAT1A reduction is associated with increased oxidative stress, progenitor cell expansion, genomic instability, and other mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis. MAT2A/MAT2B induction confers growth and survival advantage to cancerous cells, enhancing tumor migration. Highlighted examples from colon, gastric, breast, pancreas and prostate cancer studies further underscore methionine adenosyltransferase genes' role beyond the liver in cancer development. In this subset of extra-hepatic cancers, MAT2A and MAT2B are induced via different regulatory mechanisms. Understanding the role of methionine adenosyltransferase genes in tumorigenesis helps identify attributes of these genes that may serve as valuable targets for therapy. While S-adenosylmethionine, and its metabolite, methylthioadenosine, have been largely explored as therapeutic interventions, targets aimed at regulation of MAT gene expression and methionine adenosyltransferase protein-protein interactions are now surfacing as potential effective strategies for treatment and chemoprevention of cancers. Impact statement This review examines the role of methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) in human cancer development

  18. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Marcolin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. METHODS: Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15 were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. CONCLUSION: The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in

  19. [11C] Methionine as PET radiopharmaceutical produced at CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Carvalho, Tiago F.; Silva, Juliana B. da, E-mail: mbs@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-11 ({sup 11}C) is an attractive radionuclide used in positron emission tomography (PET) since carbon is a ubiquitous element in biomolecules. Positron emitter-labeled amino acids are being widely used as indicators of tumor activity due to enhanced expression of amino acid transporter systems in cancer cells. L-[Methyl-({sup 11}C)] Methionine or [{sup 11}C]Methionine is being used in neuro-oncology and, unlike 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG), gives more contrast images and improves brain tumor diagnosis. The aim of this work was to develop the synthesis and quality control of [{sup 11}C]Methionine at the Radiopharmaceuticals Research and Production Facility (UPPR) of CDTN/CNEN. The synthesis of [{sup 11}C] Methionine was performed using two Sep-Pak tC18 plus cartridges one as solid support for the {sup 11}C-methylation of the precursor L-homocysteine thiolactone hydrochloride and another for purification. The pH, radionuclidic identity and purity, residual solvents, radiochemical and chemical purity of the final product were evaluated as described on the European Pharmacopoeia 7.0 monograph. Total synthesis time was 18 minutes, the radiochemical yield was approximately 15% (non-decay corrected) and radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. [{sup 11}C]Methionine was successfully synthesized at CDTN using the described procedures and complied with quality requirements. Due to the rapid growth of oncologic PET scans in last decade, {sup 11}C labelling holds great promises in the next few years with the application of other tracers beyond {sup 18}FDG. This pioneering work of UPPR/CDTN represents a response to the demands of a growing nuclear medicine in the country focused on achieving better diagnostic imaging. (author)

  20. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-01-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 o C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  1. Antioxidants L-carnitine and D-methionine modulate neuronal activity through GABAergic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Calvin; Gopal, Kamakshi V; Moore, Ernest J; Gross, Guenter W

    2014-07-01

    Antioxidants are well known for their neuroprotective properties against reactive oxygen species in cortical neurons and auditory cells. We recently identified L-carnitine and D-methionine to be among agents that provide such protection. Here, we investigated their neuronal modulatory actions. We used cultured neuronal networks grown on microelectrode arrays to assess the effects of L-carnitine and D-methionine on network function. Spike production and burst properties of neuronal networks were used as parameters to monitor pharmacological responses. L-Carnitine and D-methionine reduced spike activity with 100% efficacy with EC50 values of 0.22 (± 0.01) mM and 1.06 (± 0.05) mM, respectively. In the presence of 1.0-40 μM of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, the sigmoidal concentration-response curves of both compounds exhibited stepwise shifts, without a change in efficacy. Under a maximal bicuculline concentration of 40 μM, the EC50 increased to 3.57 (± 0.26) mM for L-carnitine and to 10.52 (± 0.97) mM for D-methionine, more than a tenfold increase. The agonist-antagonist interactions with bicuculline were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses to be competitive, corroborated by the computed dissociation constants of bicuculline. For both compounds, the effects on the network burst pattern, activity reversibility, and bicuculline antagonism resembled that elicited by the GABAA agonist muscimol. We showed that the antioxidants L-carnitine and D-methionine modulate cortical electrical spike activity primarily through GABAA receptor activation. Our findings suggest the involvement of GABAergic mechanisms that perhaps contribute to the protective actions of these compounds.

  2. Functional identification of APIP as human mtnB, a key enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mary

    Full Text Available The methionine salvage pathway is widely distributed among some eubacteria, yeast, plants and animals and recycles the sulfur-containing metabolite 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA to methionine. In eukaryotic cells, the methionine salvage pathway takes place in the cytosol and usually involves six enzymatic activities: MTA phosphorylase (MTAP, EC 2.4.2.28, 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (mtnA, EC 5.3.1.23, 5'-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase (mtnB, EC: 4.2.1.109, 2,3-dioxomethiopentane-1-phosphate enolase/phosphatase (mtnC, EC 3.1.3.77, aci-reductone dioxygenase (mtnD, EC 1.13.11.54 and 4-methylthio-2-oxo-butanoate (MTOB transaminase (EC 2.6.1.-. The aim of this study was to complete the available information on the methionine salvage pathway in human by identifying the enzyme responsible for the dehydratase step. Using a bioinformatics approach, we propose that a protein called APIP could perform this role. The involvement of this protein in the methionine salvage pathway was investigated directly in HeLa cells by transient and stable short hairpin RNA interference. We show that APIP depletion specifically impaired the capacity of cells to grow in media where methionine is replaced by MTA. Using a Shigella mutant auxotroph for methionine, we confirm that the knockdown of APIP specifically affects the recycling of methionine. We also show that mutation of three potential phosphorylation sites does not affect APIP activity whereas mutation of the potential zinc binding site completely abrogates it. Finally, we show that the N-terminal region of APIP that is missing in the short isoform is required for activity. Together, these results confirm the involvement of APIP in the methionine salvage pathway, which plays a key role in many biological functions like cancer, apoptosis, microbial proliferation and inflammation.

  3. Functional identification of APIP as human mtnB, a key enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Camille; Duek, Paula; Salleron, Lisa; Tienz, Petra; Bumann, Dirk; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

    2012-01-01

    The methionine salvage pathway is widely distributed among some eubacteria, yeast, plants and animals and recycles the sulfur-containing metabolite 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) to methionine. In eukaryotic cells, the methionine salvage pathway takes place in the cytosol and usually involves six enzymatic activities: MTA phosphorylase (MTAP, EC 2.4.2.28), 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (mtnA, EC 5.3.1.23), 5'-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase (mtnB, EC: 4.2.1.109), 2,3-dioxomethiopentane-1-phosphate enolase/phosphatase (mtnC, EC 3.1.3.77), aci-reductone dioxygenase (mtnD, EC 1.13.11.54) and 4-methylthio-2-oxo-butanoate (MTOB) transaminase (EC 2.6.1.-). The aim of this study was to complete the available information on the methionine salvage pathway in human by identifying the enzyme responsible for the dehydratase step. Using a bioinformatics approach, we propose that a protein called APIP could perform this role. The involvement of this protein in the methionine salvage pathway was investigated directly in HeLa cells by transient and stable short hairpin RNA interference. We show that APIP depletion specifically impaired the capacity of cells to grow in media where methionine is replaced by MTA. Using a Shigella mutant auxotroph for methionine, we confirm that the knockdown of APIP specifically affects the recycling of methionine. We also show that mutation of three potential phosphorylation sites does not affect APIP activity whereas mutation of the potential zinc binding site completely abrogates it. Finally, we show that the N-terminal region of APIP that is missing in the short isoform is required for activity. Together, these results confirm the involvement of APIP in the methionine salvage pathway, which plays a key role in many biological functions like cancer, apoptosis, microbial proliferation and inflammation.

  4. Bio-efficacy comparison of herbal-methionine and DL-methionine based on performance and blood parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hadinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the bio-efficacy of herbal methionine (H-Met relative to DL-methionine (DL-Met on 160 “Ross 308” broiler chickens. DL-Met and H-Met were added to the basal diet in eight experimental treatments with three and four concentrations respectively in starter, grower and finisher period. Blood parameters which were measured at 24 and 42 days of age consisted of: serum proteins (total protein, albumin and globulin, serum uric acid, serum fats (low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride and cholesterol and serum enzymes (alanine amino transaminase and aspartate amino transaminase. Completely randomized design, multi-exponential and multilinear regressions were used to determine bio-efficacy of H-Met in terms of performance and blood parameters of broilers. The results showed that supplemented methionine (Met sources had no significant effect on blood parameters at 24 day of age. At 42 day of age the amounts of globulin and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL increased with supplemented Met, (p < 0.05. Regression analysis revealed that H-Met was 55.00, 71.00, 78.00, 47.00, 58.00 and 73.00% as efficacious as DL-Met for body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, albumin, globulin and high density lipoprotein criteria, respectively. The average of bio-efficacy of H-Met compared to DL-Met was 67.00% and 59.00% on average across performance criteria and blood criteria respectively and was 63.00% across these two criteria tested. The results of the present study indicated that H-Met can be administered as a new and a natural source of Met in poultry industry.

  5. Methionine + cystine levels and vitamin B6 supplementation on performance and enzyme expression of methionine metabolism of gilts from 75 to 100 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Pagliari Sangali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of standardized ileal digestible (SID methionine + cystine (Met+Cys and vitamin B6 supplementation on the performance, blood variables, and gene expression of enzymes involved in methionine metabolism in female pigs between 75 and 100 kg. Fifty six female pigs were used (Talent × Topigs 20, averaging 75.06±1.68 kg in initial weight, allotted in a completely randomized block design arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme, composed of two vitamin B6 supplementation levels (1.58 and 3.58 mg/kg and four levels of SID Met+Cys (0.370, 0.470, 0.570, and 0.670%, with seven replicates and one animal per experimental unit. No interactions between vitamin B6 supplementation and SID Met+Cys levels were observed. The levels of SID Met+Cys and vitamin B6 supplementation did not affect animal performance. Triacylglycerols showed a quadratic response to the SID Met+Cys levels, in which the lowest plasma concentration was estimated as 0.575%. Treatments did not affect the expression of the methionine synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase enzymes or serum homocysteine levels. The SID Met+Cys requirement for female pigs from 75 to 100 kg is equal to or lower than 10.60 g/day, which corresponds to the level of 0.370% Met+Cys in the diet and a relationship 0.48% with the SID lysine.

  6. FORTY PLUS CLUBS AND WHITE-COLLAR MANHOOD DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As scholars of gender and labor have argued, chronic unemployment during the Great Depression precipitated a “crisis” of masculinity, compelling men to turn towards new industrial unions and the New Deal as ways to affirm work, breadwinning, and patriarchy as bases for manhood. But did all men experience this crisis? During the late 1930s, white-collar men organized groups called “Forty Plus Clubs” in response to their worries about joblessness and manhood. The clubs made it possible for unemployed executives to find new jobs, while at the same time recreating the male-dominated culture of the white-collar office. For male executives, Forty Plus Clubs precluded the Depression-era crisis of manhood, challenging the idea that the absence ofpaid employment was synonymous with the loss of masculinity.

  7. Risoe National Laboratory - Forty years of research in a changing society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.; Nielsen, K.; Petersen, F.; Siggaard Jensen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The creation of Risoe forty years ago was one of the largest, single investments in Danish research. The intention was to realise Niels Bohr's visions of the peaceful use in Denmark og nuclear energy for electricity production and other purposes. Risoe decided to take the opportunity of its 40th anniversary in 1998 to have its history written in a form that would contribute to the history of modern Denmark. The result was a book in Danish entitled Til samfundets tarv - Forskningscenter Risoes historie. The present text is a slightly reworked translation of the last chapter of that book. It contains a summary of Risoe's history and some reflections on forty years of change. Change in Danish society at large, in research policy, in energy policy, in technological expectations. Changes at Risoe, in leadership, in organisational structure, in strategy and in fields of research. Some of Risoe's largest projects are briefly characterised. (LN)

  8. Soil Fertility Management a Century Ago in Farmers of Forty Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Heckman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published just over a century ago, Farmers of Forty Centuries or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea, and Japan, served to document the viability and productivity of traditional agricultural systems that relied on composting, and complete recycling of all types of natural waste materials, as a means of sustaining soil fertility. This cardinal rule of waste management and organic soil husbandry became known as “the law of return” to organic farming. With regards to nutrient management, organic farming methods uses restorative cultural practices that include the law of return principle which encourages the closure of nutrient cycles. In these respects, organic farming methods are arguably more firmly grounded in ecology and sustainability than the promotions of the chemical fertilizer industry which has largely displaced traditional soil fertility practices. Farmers of Forty Centuries is a classic with valuable lessons and experience to offer towards teaching modern concepts in sustainable agriculture.

  9. Forty years on and still going strong : the use of hominin-cercopithecid comparisons in palaeoanthropology.

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, S.

    2006-01-01

    Hominin-cercopithecid comparisons have been used in palaeoanthropology for over forty years. Fossil cercopithecids can be used as a ‘control group’ to contextualize the adaptations and evolutionary trends of hominins. Observations made on modern cercopithecids can also be applied to questions about human evolution. This article reviews the history of hominin-cercopithecid comparisons, assesses the strengths and weaknesses of cercopithecids as comparators in studies of human evolution, and use...

  10. Forty Four Years of Debate: The Impact of Race, Community and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Moore

    2011-01-01

    Race, Community and Conflict by John Rex and Robert Moore was published in 1967 and had a considerable public impact through press and TV. Forty four years later it is still widely cited in research on British urban society and 'race relations'. It is used in teaching research methods, theory, urban sociology and 'race relations' to undergrad-uates. This article describes and explains the immediate impact of the book and its more lasting contribution to sociology. Race, Community and Conflict...

  11. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Enzyme kinetic modelling and analytical solution of nonlinear rate equation in the transformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in batch reactor using the new homotopy perturbation method

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasamy, Pavithra; Ganapathy, Jansi Rani Palaniyandi; Thinakaran, Iswarya; Lakshmanan, Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model of biotransformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in the cascade of the enzymes such as, D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO), L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase (L-PheDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is discussed. The model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction equations under non steady-state conditions for biochemical reactions occurring in the batch reactor that describes the substrate and product concentration within the catalyst. Simple analytical expression...

  13. Rocket and Laboratory Experiments in Astrophysics— Validation and Verification of the Next Generation FORTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan

    We submit herein a proposal describing plans for further development of a Next Generation Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS). The goal of the proposal is to demonstrate the scientific utility of multiobject spectroscopy over wide angular fields in the far-UV with investigations of: the blue straggler population in the Globular Cluster M10; low metallicity star formation in the Magellanic Bridge; shock structures Cygnus Loop supernova remnant; a search for unidentified emissions in star-forming galaxies; and potentially an, as yet, unnamed comet as a target of opportunity. FORTIS is a pathfinder for developing the technologies necessary to enable far-UV spectroscopic surveys. Such surveys will allow us to probe problems relevant to the formation of large scale structures, the origin and evolution of galaxies, and the formation and evolution of stars from interstellar gas. In combination with existing and future spectroscopic surveys, they will provide a complete and compelling panchromatic picture of the observable universe. Next generation FORTIS will fly as a sounding rocket borne instrument and incorporate a number of unique technologies, including the Next Generation MicroShutter Array (NGMSA), which provides for the simultaneous acquisition of spectra from multiple objects within a wide angular field. The NGMSA will be controlled by an autonomous targeting system capable of identifying multiple objects on-the-fly for further spectral analysis in the short time afforded to far-UV observations from a sounding rocket 400 seconds. We will also incorporate long life microchannel plate (MCP) detectors that have have high open area ratios, providing for increased quantum efficiency, and improved resistance to gain sag, allowing operation at higher count rate. Recent flight experience with the first generation FORTIS has provided guidance to improving the science return of the next generation FORTIS. Our plans for a rigorous

  14. The lack of effect of a pyridoxine deficiency on the utilization of the hydroxyl analogue of methionine by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroka, J M; Combs, G F

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a vitamin B6 deficiency affects the utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB), an analogue of methionine. The basal diet used for this purpose was based on peas, peanut meal, and glucose monohydrate and was low in both methionine and pyridoxine. Supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-methionine or HMB resulted in significant increases in growth rate and efficiency of feed utilization; supplemental pyridoxine also produced significant increases in the activity of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (PGOT, EC 2.6.1.1.) in plasma. There was no discernible effect of change in vitamin B6 status on the utilization of HMB as compared with L-methionine.

  15. The browning value changes and spectral analysis on the Maillard reaction product from glucose and methionine model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Widayat

    2018-01-01

    D-glucose has been understood to provide the various effect on the reactivity in Maillard reaction resulting in the changes in physical performance of food product. Therefore this research was done to analyse physical appearance of Maillard reaction product made of D-glucose and methionine as a model system. The changes in browning value and spectral analysis model system were determined. The glucose-methionine model system was produced through the heating treatment at 50°C and RH 70% for 24 hours. The data were collected for every three hour using spectrophotometer. As result, browning value was elevated with the increase of heating time and remarkably high if compare to the D-glucose only. Furthermore, the spectral analysis showed that methionine turned the pattern of peak appearance. As conclusion, methionine raised the browning value and changed the pattern of spectral analysis in Maillard reaction model system.

  16. Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available M A Khan,1 Madeline M López-Muñoz,2 Charles W Kaspar,3 Kai F Hung1 1Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; 3Bacteriology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Biogeochemical processes on exposed pyrite ores result in extremely high levels of sulfuric acid at these locations. Acidophiles that thrive in these conditions must overcome significant challenges, including an environment with proton concentrations at pH 3 or below. The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon “Ferroplasma acidarmanus” strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. Two putative sequences for methionine-γ-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11, an enzyme known to carry out α, γ-elimination on L-methionine to produce methanethiol, were identified in fer1. Bioinformatic analyses identified a conserved pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP binding domain and a partially conserved catalytic domain in both putative sequences. Detection of PLP-dependent and L-methionine-dependent production of α-keto compounds and thiol groups in fer1 confirmed the presence of methionine-γ-lyase activity. Further, fer1 lysate was capable of processing related substrates, including D-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystathionine, and L/D-homocysteine. When the two putative fer1 methionine-γ-lyase gene-coded proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, one sequence demonstrated an ability to carry out α, γ-elimination activity, while the other exhibited γ-replacement activity. These fer1 methionine-γ-lyases also exhibited optimum pH, substrate specificity, and catalytic preferences that are different from methionine-γ-lyases from other organisms. These differences are discussed in the context of molecular phylogeny constructed using a maximum

  17. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status in the Early Forties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779

  18. Synergistic Effect of L-Methionine and KI on Copper Corrosion Inhibition in HNO3 (1M)

    OpenAIRE

    Amel SEDIK; Sihem ABDERRAHMANE; Said BOUKERCHE; Abdelaziz HIMOUR; Amel GHARBI

    2014-01-01

    L-Methionine (L-Met) efficiency as a non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in 1M HNO3 has been studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. Copper corrosion rate significant decrease was observed in the presence of L-Met at 10-4M. The Obtained Results from potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements are in good agreement. L-Methionine adsorption on copper surface follows Langmuir isotherm. L-Met free energy adsorption on copper...

  19. Local cerebral metabolic rate of 11C-L-Methionine in early stages of dementia, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustany, P.; Henry, J.F.; de Rotrou, J.; Signoret, J.L.; Ziegler, M.; Zarifian, E.; Soussaline, F.; Comar, D.

    1983-06-01

    A dynamic three-compartment model of methionine metabolism in brain was applied in human patients using 11 C-L-Methionine and positron emission tomography (P.E.T). Psychometric evaluations of demented patients were correlated with a significant diminution of protein synthesis in the frontal area. This diminution was lower in ebephrenic patients (-17%) but was consistent with the results obtained with 18 F glucose. No significant abnormality was detected in patients with Parkinson disease

  20. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A protects neuronal cells against brief hypoxia/reoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaieva, Olena; Xu, Rong; Schinstock, Carrie; Brot, Nathan; Weissbach, Herbert; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2004-02-01

    Hypoxia/reoxygenation induces cellular injury by promoting oxidative stress. Reversible oxidation of methionine in proteins involving the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase type A (MSRA) is postulated to serve a general antioxidant role. Therefore, we examined whether overexpression of MSRA protected cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Brief hypoxia increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in PC12 cells and promoted apoptotic cell death. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of MSRA significantly diminished the hypoxia-induced increase in ROS and facilitated cell survival. Measurements of the membrane potentials of intact mitochondria in PC12 cells and of isolated rat liver mitochondria showed that hypoxia induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. The results demonstrate that MSRA plays a protective role against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell injury and suggest the therapeutic potential of MSRA in ischemic heart and brain disease.

  1. Evaluation of Herbal Methionine and Mangifera Indica Against Lead-induced Organ Toxicity in Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, D. Udaya; Adilaxmamma, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, V. Vykunta

    2011-01-01

    Lead toxicity was studied in male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of a day-old age. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups consisting of 15 in each group. Group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 was kept on lead at 300 ppm in feed throughout 5 wk as toxic control without any treatment. Groups 3 and 4 were maintained on herbal methionine at 1.4 g/kg feed + Mangifera Indica at 0.1% in feed, respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were treated with lead + herbal methionine and lead + M. indica, respectively, for the 5 wk. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver and kidney revealed a significant (Pindica may be attributed to their antioxidant, anti-stress and hepatoprotective principles. PMID:21430924

  2. Stabilization of methionine-rich protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: targeting of BZN protein into the peroxisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaud, J M; Raynal, A; Beyou, A; Merkamm, M; Ito, H; Labat, N

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a gene coding for the 12-kDa intermediate form of the 2s methionine-rich protein from Bertholletia excelsa seeds. This protein, expressed intracellularly in yeast, is characterised by a 20-min half-life. By adding 11 amino acids corresponding to the peroxisome-targeting sequence (PTSc) of luciferase, we have significantly increased its half-life. This stabilization allowed accumulation of the BZN protein into the peroxisome as judged by cell fractionation. Accumulation of the 12-kDa protein results in a significant increase of the total methionine content in yeast cells (30%) indicating that such a microorganism could represent a practicable protected shuttle for an animal-feed additive.

  3. Structural Transitions Induced by a Recombinant Methionine-Trigger in Silk Spidroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna; Winkler, Stefan; Valluzzi, Regina; Kaplan, David

    2000-03-01

    Control of beta sheet formation is an important factor in the understanding and prediction of structural transitions and protein folding. In genetically engineered silk proteins this control has been achieved using oxidative triggers. A genetically engineered variant of a spider silk protein, and a peptide analog, based on the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk, were modified to include methionines flanking the beta sheet forming polyalanine regions. These methionines could be selectively reduced and oxidized, altering the bulkiness and charge of the sulfhydryl group to control beta sheet formation by steric hindrance. Biophysical characterization and monitoring of structural transitions and intermediates were accomplished through attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) for solution state structures in both oxidized and reduced forms. For solid state structural characterization, IR microscopy and reflectance IR experiments were performed. Electron diffraction data as well as circular dichroism studies provide structural corroboration for all experiments in which reproducible sample preparation was achieved.

  4. Enzymatic activity of methionine adenosyltransferase variants identified in patients with persistent hypermethioninemia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Irigoyen, J. (Javier); Santamaria, E. (Enrique); Chien, Y-H (Yin-Hsiu); Hwu, W.L. (Wuh-Liang); Korman, S.H. (Stanley H.); Faghfoury, H. (Hanna); Schulze, A. (Andreas); Hoganson, G.E. (George E.); Stabler, S.P. (Sally P.); Allen, R.H. (Robert H.); Wagner, C. (Conrad); Mudd, S.H. (S. Harvey); Corrales, F.J. (Fernando José)

    2010-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT's) are central enzymes in living organisms that have been conserved with a high degree of homology among species. In the liver, MAT I and III, tetrameric and dimeric isoforms of the same catalytic subunit encoded by the gene MAT1A, account for the predominant portion of total body synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a versatile sulfonium ion-containing molecule involved in a variety of vital metabolic reactions and in the control of hepatocyte prolife...

  5. Unusual activity pattern of leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors based on phosphorus containing derivatives of methionine and norleucine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pícha, Jan; Liboska, Radek; Buděšínský, Miloš; Jiráček, Jiří; Pawelczak, M.; Mucha, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011), s. 155-161 ISSN 1475-6366 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1405; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : aminophosphonates * aminophospinates * methionine * norleucine * phosphorus containing dipeptides * cytosolic leucine aminopeptidase * inhibitors Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2011

  6. Crystal structures of the CusA efflux pump suggest methionine-mediated metal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Feng; Su, Chih-Chia; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Boyken, Scott E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

    2010-09-23

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, frequently use tripartite efflux complexes in the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family to expel various toxic compounds from the cell. The efflux system CusCBA is responsible for extruding biocidal Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. No previous structural information was available for the heavy-metal efflux (HME) subfamily of the RND efflux pumps. Here we describe the crystal structures of the inner-membrane transporter CusA in the absence and presence of bound Cu(I) or Ag(I). These CusA structures provide new structural information about the HME subfamily of RND efflux pumps. The structures suggest that the metal-binding sites, formed by a three-methionine cluster, are located within the cleft region of the periplasmic domain. This cleft is closed in the apo-CusA form but open in the CusA-Cu(I) and CusA-Ag(I) structures, which directly suggests a plausible pathway for ion export. Binding of Cu(I) and Ag(I) triggers significant conformational changes in both the periplasmic and transmembrane domains. The crystal structure indicates that CusA has, in addition to the three-methionine metal-binding site, four methionine pairs - three located in the transmembrane region and one in the periplasmic domain. Genetic analysis and transport assays suggest that CusA is capable of actively picking up metal ions from the cytosol, using these methionine pairs or clusters to bind and export metal ions. These structures suggest a stepwise shuttle mechanism for transport between these sites.

  7. Mechanism of oxidation of L-methionine by iron(III)-1,10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    phenanthroline and iron(III) 2,2′-bipyridyl oxidize methionine to sulphoxide, oxidation with the former oxidant is much faster compared to the latter. This is because of the higher oxidation potential of the iron(III)–phenanthroline complex compared to the iron(III)–2,2′-bipyridyl. Hence the intimate mechanism of oxidation of ...

  8. The two authentic methionine aminopeptidase genes are differentially expressed in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YiPing

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two putative methionine aminopeptidase genes, map (essential and yflG (non-essential, were identified in the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis. We investigated whether they can function as methionine aminopeptidases and further explored possible reasons for their essentiality or dispensability in B. subtilis. Results In silico analysis of MAP evolution uncovered a coordinated pattern of MAP and deformylase that did not correlate with the pattern of 16S RNA evolution. Biochemical assays showed that both MAP (MAP_Bs and YflG (YflG_Bs from B. subtilis overproduced in Escherichia coli and obtained as pure proteins exhibited a methionine aminopeptidase activity in vitro. Compared with MAP_Bs, YflG_Bs was approximately two orders of magnitude more efficient when assayed on synthetic peptide substrates. Both map and yflG genes expressed in multi-copy plasmids could complement the function of a defective map gene in the chromosomes of both E. coli and B. subtilis. In contrast, lacZ gene transcriptional fusions showed that the promoter activity of map was 50 to 100-fold higher than that of yflG. Primer extension analysis detected the transcription start site of the yflG promoter. Further work identified that YvoA acted as a possible weak repressor of yflG expression in B. subtilis in vivo. Conclusion Both MAP_Bs and YflG_Bs are functional methionine aminopeptidases in vitro and in vivo. The high expression level of map and low expression level of yflG may account for their essentiality and dispensality in B. subtilis, respectively, when cells are grown under laboratory conditions. Their difference in activity on synthetic substrates suggests that they have different protein targets in vivo.

  9. Dealing with methionine/homocysteine sulfur: cysteine metabolism to taurine and inorganic sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Stipanuk, Martha H.; Ueki, Iori

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of cysteine as a product of the transsulfuration pathway can be viewed as part of methionine or homocysteine degradation, with cysteine being the vehicle for sulfur conversion to end products (sulfate, taurine) that can be excreted in the urine. Transsulfuration is regulated by stimulation of cystathionine β-synthase and inhibition of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase in response to changes in the level of S-adenosylmethionine, and this promotes homocysteine degradation when meth...

  10. Rapid Method for Quantifying the Extent of Methionine Oxidation in Intact Calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeva, Nadezhda A.; Esch, S Wynn; Williams, Todd D.; Markillie, Lye MENG.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2005-09-01

    We have developed a method for rapidly quantifying the extent to which the functionally important Met144 and Met145 residues near the C-terminus of calmodulin (CaM) are converted to the corresponding sulfoxides, Met(O). The method utilizes a whole protein collision induced dissociation (CID) approach on an electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. Using standards of CaM oxidized by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or peroxynitrite (ONOO-), we demonstrated that CID fragmentation of the protein ions resulted in a series of C-terminal singly charged y1?y15 ions. Fragments larger than y4 exhibited mass shifts of +16 or +32 Da, corresponding to oxidation of one or two methionines, respectively. To assess the extent of oxidative modification for Met144 and Met145 to Met(O), we averaged the ratio of intensities for yn, yn +16, and yn +32 ions, where n = 6?9. By alternating MS and CID scans at low and high collision energies, this technique allowed us to rapidly determine both the distribution of intact CaM oxiforms and the extent of oxidative modification in the C-terminal region of the protein in a single run. We have applied the method to studies of the repair of fully oxidized CaM by methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA and MsrB), which normally function in concert to reduce the S and R stereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide. We found that repair of Met(O)144 and Met(O)145 did not go to completion, but was more efficient than average Met repair. Absence of complete repair is consistent with previous studies showing that accumulation of methionine sulfoxide in CaM can occur during aging.

  11. Effect of methionine and lactic acid bacteria as aflatoxin binder on broiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, Lusty; Damayanti, Ema; Julendra, Hardi; Suryani, Ade Erma; Sakti, Awistaros Angger; Anggraeni, Ayu Septi

    2017-06-01

    The use of aflatoxin binder product based amino acids, lacic acid bacteria, and natural product gived the opportunity to be an alternative biological decontamination of aflatoxins. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of aflatoxin binder administration (amino acid methionine and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum G7)) as feed additive on broiler performance. In this study, 75 Lohmann unsexed day old chicks were distributed randomly into 5 units of cages, each filled with 15 broilers. Five cages were assigned into 5 treatments groups and fed with feed contained aflatoxin. The treatments as follow: P1 (aflatoxin feed without aflatoxin binder), P3 (aflatoxin feed + 0.8% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P4 (aflatoxin feed + 1.2% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P5 (aflatoxin feed + 1% of LAB), and K0 (commercial feed). The measurement of aflatoxin content in feed was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method using AgraQuant® Total Aflatoxin Assay Romer Labs procedure. The experimental period was 35 days with feeding and drinking ad libitum. LAB was administered into drinking water, while methionine into feed. Vaccination program of Newcastle Disease (ND) was using active vaccine at 4 and 18 day old, while Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) was given at 8 day old. Parameter of body weight was observed weekly, while feed consumption noted daily. The result showed that aflatoxin in feed for 35 days period did not significantly affect the body weight gain and feed conversion. The lowest percentage of organ damage at 21 day old was found in P5 treatment (55%), while at 35day old was found in P4 treatment (64%). It could be concluded that technological process of detoxifying aflatoxin could be applied in an attempt to reduce the effect on the toxicity of aflatoxin in poultry feed.

  12. Free methionine supplementation limits alcohol-induced liver damage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Bode, C.; Bode, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    .3 to 42.1 +/- 7.2 micromol/g of protein in the alcohol group). Hepatic adenosine triphosphate content increased significantly with higher methionine consumption (13.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 26.9 +/- 2.8 micromol/g of protein in the control group and 11.9 +/- 1.4 vs. 20.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/g of protein in the alcohol...

  13. Choline and methionine differentially alter methyl carbon metabolism in bovine neonatal hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Tawny L; White, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement. After 24 h of treatment, media was collected for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and cell lysates were collected for quantification of gene expression. No interactions were detected between CC, DLM, or FA. Both CC and DLM decreased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A). Increasing CC did not alter betaine-homocysteine S-methyltranferase (BHMT) but did increase 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Increasing DLM decreased expression of BHMT and MTR, but did not affect MTHFR. Expression of both phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were decreased by increasing CC and DLM, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was unaffected by either. Treatment with FA decreased the expression of MAT1A, MTR, MTHFR and tended to decrease PEMT but did not affect BHMT and MTTP. Treatment with FA increased CPT1A expression. Increasing CC increased secretion of VLDL and decreased the accumulation of ROS in media. Within neonatal bovine hepatocytes, choline and methionine differentially regulate methyl carbon pathways and suggest that choline may play a critical role in

  14. Partitioning of One-Carbon Units in Folate and Methionine Metabolism Is Essential for Neural Tube Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit-Yi Leung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Abnormal folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM is implicated in neural tube defects (NTDs, severe malformations of the nervous system. MTHFR mediates unidirectional transfer of methyl groups from the folate cycle to the methionine cycle and, therefore, represents a key nexus in partitioning one-carbon units between FOCM functional outputs. Methionine cycle inhibitors prevent neural tube closure in mouse embryos. Similarly, the inability to use glycine as a one-carbon donor to the folate cycle causes NTDs in glycine decarboxylase (Gldc-deficient embryos. However, analysis of Mthfr-null mouse embryos shows that neither S-adenosylmethionine abundance nor neural tube closure depend on one-carbon units derived from embryonic or maternal folate cycles. Mthfr deletion or methionine treatment prevents NTDs in Gldc-null embryos by retention of one-carbon units within the folate cycle. Overall, neural tube closure depends on the activity of both the methionine and folate cycles, but transfer of one-carbon units between the cycles is not necessary. : Leung at al. find that embryonic neural tube closure depends both on the supply of one-carbon units to the folate cycle from glycine cleavage and on the methionine cycle. In contrast, transfer of one-carbon units from the folate cycle to the methionine cycle by MTHFR is dispensable. Keywords: one-carbon metabolism, folic acid, neural tube defects, spina bifida, glycine cleavage system, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, eye, Mthfr, Gldc

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses methionine sulphoxide reductases A and B that protect from killing by nitrite and hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren L; Gold, Benjamin; Darby, Crystal; Brot, Nathan; Jiang, Xiuju; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro S; Wellner, Daniel; St John, Gregory; Jacobs, William R; Nathan, Carl

    2009-02-01

    Methionine sulphoxide reductases (Msr) reduce methionine sulphoxide to methionine and protect bacteria against reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). Many organisms express both MsrA, active against methionine-(S)-sulphoxide, and MsrB, active against methionine-(R)-sulphoxide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) expresses MsrA, which protects DeltamsrA-Escherichia coli from ROI and RNI. However, the function of MsrA in Mtb has not been defined, and it is unknown whether Mtb expresses MsrB. We identified MsrB as the protein encoded by Rv2674 in Mtb and confirmed the distinct stereospecificities of recombinant Mtb MsrA and MsrB. We generated strains of Mtb deficient in MsrA, MsrB or both and complemented the mutants. Lysates of singly deficient strains displayed half as much Msr activity as wild type against N-acetyl methionine sulphoxide. However, in contrast to other bacteria, single mutants were no more vulnerable than wild type to killing by ROI/RNI. Only Mtb lacking both MsrA and MsrB was more readily killed by nitrite or hypochlorite. Thus, MsrA and MsrB contribute to the enzymatic defences of Mtb against ROI and RNI.

  16. Methionine oxidation in human IgG2 Fc decreases binding affinities to protein A and FcRn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hai; Chen, Kenneth; Chu, Liping; Kinderman, Francis; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility of methionine residues to oxidation is a significant issue of protein therapeutics. Methionine oxidation may limit the product's clinical efficacy or stability. We have studied kinetics of methionine oxidation in the Fc portion of the human IgG2 and its impact on the interaction with FcRn and Protein A. Our results confirm previously published observations for IgG1 that two analogous solvent-exposed methionine residues in IgG2, Met 252 and Met 428, oxidize more readily than the other methionine residue, Met 358, which is buried inside the Fc. Met 397, which is not present in IgG1 but in IgG2, oxidizes at similar rate as Met 358. Oxidation of two labile methionines, Met 252 and Met 428, weakens the binding of the intact antibody with Protein A and FcRn, two natural protein binding partners. Both of these binding partners share the same binding site on the Fc. Additionally, our results shows that Protein A may serve as a convenient and inexpensive surrogate for FcRn binding measurements. PMID:19165723

  17. Role of Ginkgo Biloba in Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced in Rats By L-Methionine and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of Ginkgo biloba in hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress. Methionine was supplied orally to adult male albino rats with a dose of 1.7 g/kg/day during 4 weeks. Irradiation was applied to rats by whole body gamma irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Ginkgo biloba (100 mg/kg/day) was supplemented orally to rats, daily, during the period of methionine administration and/or radiation exposure. Biochemical analysis in blood and brain tissues showed that methionine and/or gamma irradiation produced significant increases in homocysteine and acetylcholine esterase levels and significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO). Significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decreases in glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed and alteration in plasma lipid profile was also recorded. Ginkgo biloba supplementation has significantly decreased homocysteine and acetylcholine esterase levels and increased NO while was associated with significant improvement of oxidative stress and lipid profile. It could be concluded that the protective effect of Gingko biloba against hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties.

  18. Evidence for participation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase repair system in plant seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Châtelain, Emilie; Satour, Pascale; Laugier, Edith; Ly Vu, Benoit; Payet, Nicole; Rey, Pascal; Montrichard, Françoise

    2013-02-26

    Seeds are in a natural oxidative context leading to protein oxidation. Although inevitable for proper progression from maturation to germination, protein oxidation at high levels is detrimental and associated with seed aging. Oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide is a common form of damage observed during aging in all organisms. This damage is reversible through the action of methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs), which play key roles in lifespan control in yeast and animal cells. To investigate the relationship between MSR capacity and longevity in plant seeds, we first used two Medicago truncatula genotypes with contrasting seed quality. After characterizing the MSR family in this species, we analyzed gene expression and enzymatic activity in immature and mature seeds exhibiting distinct quality levels. We found a very strong correlation between the initial MSR capacities in different lots of mature seeds of the two genotypes and the time to a drop in viability to 50% after controlled deterioration. We then analyzed seed longevity in Arabidopsis thaliana lines, in which MSR gene expression has been genetically altered, and observed a positive correlation between MSR capacity and longevity in these seeds as well. Based on our data, we propose that the MSR repair system plays a decisive role in the establishment and preservation of longevity in plant seeds.

  19. Synthesis and study of catalytic application of l-methionine protected gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Akif; Javed, Safdar; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; khan, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Muhammad Saleem

    2017-10-01

    Gold nanoparticle is growing class of nanotechnology due to large number of uses. We synthesized stable l-methionine protected gold nanoparticles (AuNps) by in situ reduction of HAuCl4 using sodium borohydrate as reducing and l-methionine as stabilizing agent in an aqueous medium. Different parameters (pH, capping agent, precursor salt, and heating time) were optimized to see the effect on the size of particles. Double beam spectrophotometer was used to carry out the spectroscopic studies. It was observed that pH and concentration of reducing salt are deciding factors in controlling the size and morphology of AuNps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified the formation of AuNPs as predicted by UV-Vis spectra. The interaction of AuNPs with l-methionine was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The reduction of 4-nitrophenol acted as standard of reaction to check the response of AuNps catalyst. Complete reduction of 4-nitrophenol was accomplished by AuNps sol in just 60 s. Fastest reduction rate was observed with smaller spherical particles. This study concluded that size and shape of AuNps can be monitored by controlling the pH, concentration of capping and reducing agent. It also provides an economical solution to aquatic environment in terms of time saving and use of small volume of catalytic solution for reduction of several other toxic organic pollutants.

  20. Reconstruction of Cysteine Biosynthesis Using Engineered Cysteine-Free and Methionine-Free Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kendrick; Fujishima, Kosuke; Abe, Nozomi; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Endy, Drew; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Ten of the proteinogenic amino acids can be generated abiotically while the remaining thirteen require biology for their synthesis. Paradoxically, the biosynthesis pathways observed in nature require enzymes that are made with the amino acids they produce. For example, Escherichia coli produces cysteine from serine via two enzymes that contain cysteine. Here, we substituted alternate amino acids for cysteine and also methionine, which is biosynthesized from cysteine, in serine acetyl transferase (CysE) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysM). CysE function was rescued by cysteine-and-methionine-free enzymes and CysM function was rescued by cysteine-free enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that methionine stabilizes CysM and is present in the active site of CysM. Cysteine is not conserved among CysE and CysM protein orthologs, suggesting that cysteine is not functionally important for its own synthesis. Engineering biosynthetic enzymes that lack the amino acids being synthesized provides insights into the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis and pathways for bioengineering.

  1. A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Study Evaluating UP165 and S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine on Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Kalman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this pilot clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of UP165 (derived from Zea mays L., commonly known as corn over time. The secondary objective was the comparison for outcomes versus S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM-e. Subjects with mild depression or anxiety were given the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Schwartz Outcome Scale (SOS-10. Forty-two subjects (21–65 years old were randomized to eight-weeks of supplementation with UP165 or SAM-e with questionnaires being administered at randomization, week four and eight. Those receiving UP165 achieved significant reduction from baseline at weeks four and eight, respectively for the BDI-II, as well as a trend for reduction in BAI at week four and significance at week eight. There was a trend for improvement on the SOS at week four and significance at week eight. SAM-e demonstrated a trend for improvement on the BDI-II by week eight over the UP165 with no differences between the two for the BAI or the SOS. Overall, this study indicates that there may be benefit to UP165 for mood enhancement in those with mild depression or anxiety. Randomized placebo comparator trials appear warranted.

  2. Effect of population density on reproduction in Microtus fortis under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qunhua; Zhang, Meiwen; Guo, Cong; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Xu, Zhenggang

    2014-06-01

    Between December 2011 and March 2012, the reproductive characteristics of Microtus fortis reared in the laboratory at different population densities were assessed. In all, 258 male and female voles were randomly divided into 4 groups and reared at densities of 2, 4, 6, and 8 animals per cage (sex ratio: 1:1). The results showed that the pregnancy rate (χ2 = 21.671, df = 3, P population density groups, but the mean litter size (mean ± SD) was not (F = 2.669, df = 3, P > 0.05). In particular, the reproductive index and sex hormone levels showed a significant difference among the different density groups studied.

  3. Oxidative stress inactivates cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise R Hondorp

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In nature, Escherichia coli are exposed to harsh and non-ideal growth environments-nutrients may be limiting, and cells are often challenged by oxidative stress. For E. coli cells confronting these realities, there appears to be a link between oxidative stress, methionine availability, and the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of methionine biosynthesis, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE. We found that E. coli cells subjected to transient oxidative stress during growth in minimal medium develop a methionine auxotrophy, which can be traced to an effect on MetE. Further experiments demonstrated that the purified enzyme is inactivated by oxidized glutathione (GSSG at a rate that correlates with protein oxidation. The unique site of oxidation was identified by selectively cleaving N-terminally to each reduced cysteine and analyzing the results by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Stoichiometric glutathionylation of MetE by GSSG occurs at cysteine 645, which is strategically located at the entrance to the active site. Direct evidence of MetE oxidation in vivo was obtained from thiol-trapping experiments in two different E. coli strains that contain highly oxidizing cytoplasmic environments. Moreover, MetE is completely oxidized in wild-type E. coli treated with the thiol-oxidizing agent diamide; reduced enzyme reappears just prior to the cells resuming normal growth. We argue that for E. coli experiencing oxidizing conditions in minimal medium, MetE is readily inactivated, resulting in cellular methionine limitation. Glutathionylation of the protein provides a strategy to modulate in vivo activity of the enzyme while protecting the active site from further damage, in an easily reversible manner. While glutathionylation of proteins is a fairly common mode of redox regulation in eukaryotes, very few proteins in E. coli are known to be modified in this manner. Our results are complementary to the independent findings of Leichert

  4. Addition of methionine and low cultivation temperatures increase palmitoleic acid production by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid (POA) has recently gained attention for its health benefits and as a potential resource for industrial feedstock. This study focused on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a high POA content but low lipid content, for POA production. We created an oleaginous S. cerevisiae as a dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1p lacking the N-terminal 29 amino acids (Dga1∆Np). This was performed to further increase POA content in the oleaginous S. cerevisiae through optimization of culture conditions and genetic modifications. We found that high concentrations of methionine (2.0 g/l) increased POA production in a concentration-dependent way, while other amino acids such as cysteine, glycine, and glutamine showed no effect. It was not clear if the effect of methionine was mediated through S-adenosylmethionine, mainly because its addition did not increase POA content as did the addition of methionine. We increased POA content up to 55% by incubation of the dga1 transformant in a medium containing 2 g/l methionine at lower than normal temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 °C. Cultivation at such temperatures increased dry cell weight, but did not affect the lipid content, thereby increasing total POA production. The effects of methionine and low temperatures (20-25 °C) on POA content were more apparent in the strains overexpressing Dga1∆Np than those harboring empty vectors, which was consistent with the observation that POA was enriched in triacylglycerol. Overexpression of Ole1p, the enzyme responsible for POA production, did not increase POA content of the dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np, but increased that of the wild-type strain overexpressing Dga1∆Np. The results suggested that genomic Ole1p in the dga1 mutant was active enough to achieve the optimal POA production under these conditions. Finally, the POA production by the S. cerevisiae transformant was increased 2.5-fold, which demonstrates that oleaginous S. cerevisiae is a potential source

  5. Pre-operative localisation of hyperfunctional parathyroid tissue with {sup 11}C-methionine PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, D.; Boerner, A.R.; Hofmann, M.; Brunkhorst, T.; Meyer, G.J.; Petrich, T.; Knapp, W.H. [Hannover University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Scheumann, G.F. [Hannover University Medical School, Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies have shown high sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 11}C-methionine in the pre-operative localisation of parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia. Nonetheless, in secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and in patients with recurrent disease, pre-operative localisation of adenomatous (PTA) or hyperplastic tissue is still a problem with all available methods. The aim of this study was to define the optimal imaging protocol and to compare the diagnostic value of {sup 11}C-methionine PET and {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): in particular, we wished to define the benefit of {sup 11}C-methionine in those patients with inconclusive or negative conventional imaging. Thirty highly pre-selected patients with HPT were enrolled. Sixteen patients had primary HPT, 12 patients had secondary HPT, and two patients had recurrences of parathyroid carcinomas. All patients had ultrasound of the neck, dual-phase scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and PET with {sup 11}C-methionine. SUV{sub parathyroid}/SUV{sub cervical} {sub soft} {sub tissue} (target-to-background) and SUV{sub parathyroid} {sub tissue}/SUV{sub thyroid} {sub tissue} (target-to-non-target) ratios were calculated. After surgery, histology of specimens was obtained in all patients but one. In 12 patients with secondary or tertiary HPT, 36 hyperplastic parathyroid glands were histologically verified. Twenty-five of 36 lesions (69%) were detected with {sup 11}C-methionine PET and 17 (47%) with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. PET studies were positive in 17/18 (94%) cases in which HPT was related to adenomas or carcinomas. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy/SPECT yielded pathological lesions in 9/18 cases (50%). All eight atypical localisations of parathyroid glands were detected with PET but only six of the eight were detected with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy/SPECT. In 10/11 patients with recurrent HPT and non

  6. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  7. Methionine-hydroxy analogue was found to be significantly less bioavailable compared to dl-methionine for protein deposition in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoveller, A K; Moehn, S; Rademacher, M; Htoo, J K; Ball, R O

    2010-01-01

    When methionine (Met) is limiting in swine diets, it is commonly supplemented by using anhydrous dl-methionine (DLM, 99% purity) or liquid dl-methionine-hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA, 88% purity). The objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that the bioavailability of DLM and MHA-FA were not different for growing pigs, using the indicator amino acid (AA) (phenylalanine, Phe) oxidation (IAAO) method in a slope-ratio assay. Six barrows (mean BW during study: 21.1 kg) received seven dietary treatments with all pigs receiving all diets in random order at an intake of 95 g/kg BW0.75. The basal diet (BD) contained analyzed content of 15.1% CP, 0.20% Met, 0.73% Phe and all other AA in excess of requirement. The BD was supplemented with three graded levels of DLM or MHA-FA on an equimolar basis. Dietary treatments only varied in Met content and included: (i) BD, (ii) BD + 0.034% DLM, (iii) BD + 0.054% DLM, (iv) BD + 0.086% DLM, (v) BD + 0.029% MHA-FA, (vi) BD + 0.078% MHA-FA and (vii) BD + 0.107% MHA-FA, as analyzed. Indicator AA oxidation was determined during 4 h studies, where pigs were fed half-hourly meals each equal to 1/32 of their daily feed allowance. Each meal was mixed with 258.7 kBq (s.e. 2.6) of l-[1-14C]Phe with a prime of 3.5 times the half-hourly dose added to the first meal. The slope of the decrease in IAAO calculated by linear regression analysis was greater (P = 0.012) for DLM supplementation (9.87 ± 1.450 per g, 1.488 ± 0.215% per mmol) than for MHA-FA (6.48 ± 0.89 per g, 1.107 ± 0.152% per mmol). The ratio of slopes indicated a bioavailability of MHA-FA on a product basis, relative to DLM, of 65.7%. Bioavailability on an equimolar Met basis, calculated from the ratio of the slopes was 74.4% for MHA-FA, relative to DLM. In conclusion, these results indicate that the metabolic bioavailability of MHA-FA for growing pigs is appreciably lower than that of DLM on both an equimolar and a product basis.

  8. Evaluation of Methionine Content in a High-Fat and Choline-Deficient Diet on Body Weight Gain and the Development of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Sachina; Sato, Yoko; Itoh, Tatsuki; Umegaki, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a globally recognized liver disease. A methionine- and choline-deficient diet is used to induce NASH in mice; however, this diet also causes severe body weight loss. To resolve this issue, we examined the effects of methionine content in a high-fat and choline-deficient (HFCD) diet on body weight and the development of NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice (male, 10 weeks of age) were fed an L-amino acid rodent (control) diet, high-fat (HF) diet, or HFCD diet containing various amounts of methionine (0.1-0.6% (w/w)) for 12 weeks. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic lipid content and inflammatory marker gene expression were measured, and a pathological analysis was conducted to evaluate NASH. The 0.1% methionine in HFCD diet suppressed body weight gain, which was lower than that with control diet. On the other hand, the 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet yielded similar body weight gains as the control diet, while more than 0.4% methionine showed the same body weight gains as the HF diet. Liver weights and hepatic lipid contents were the greatest with 0.1% methionine and decreased in a methionine dose-dependent manner. Pathological analysis, NAFLD activity scores and gene expression levels in the liver revealed that 0.1% and 0.2% methionine for 12 weeks induced NASH, whereas 0.4% and 0.6% methionine attenuated the induction of NASH by HFCD diet. However, the 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet did not induce insulin resistance, despite the body weight gain. The 0.2% methionine in HFCD diet for 12 weeks was able to induce NASH without weight loss.

  9. Pig performance increases with the addition of DL-methionine and L-lysine to ensiled cassava leaf protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Hoa; Ngoan, Le Duc; Verstegen, Martin Wilhelmus Antonius; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of supplementation of diets containing ensiled cassava leaves as the main protein source with synthetic amino acids, DL-methionine alone or with L-lysine. In study 1, a total of 40 pigs in five units, all cross-breds between Large White and Mong Cai, with an average initial body weight of 20.5 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments consisting of a basal diet containing 45% of dry matter (DM) from ensiled cassava leaves (ECL) and ensiled cassava root supplemented with 0%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% DL-methionine (as DM). Results showed a significantly improved performance and protein gain by extra methionine. This reduced the feed cost by 2.6%, 7.2% and 7.5%, respectively. In study 2, there were three units and in each unit eight cross-bred (Large White × Mong Cai) pigs with an initial body weight of 20.1 kg were randomly assigned to the four treatments. The four diets were as follows: a basal diet containing 15% ECL (as DM) supplemented with different amounts of amino acids L-lysine and DL-methionine to the control diet. The results showed that diets with 15% of DM as ECL with supplementation of 0.2% lysine +0.1% DL-methionine and 0.1% lysine +0.05% DL-methionine at the 20-50 kg and above 50 kg, respectively, resulted in the best performance, protein gain and lowest costs for cross-bred (Large White × Mong Cai) pigs. Ensiled cassava leaves can be used as a protein supplement for feeding pigs provided the diets contain additional amounts of synthetic lysine and methionine.

  10. Forty-Five Years of Frustration: America’s Enduring Dilemma of Fighting Insurgents with Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    that conflict. Following Similar Paths Besides the broad American political goals that have accompanied the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the type...Jazeera, has a tremendous impact on molding the opin- ions of many in the Middle East, where 38 percent of the populace is illiterate.61 86 | Air...war, an estimated 2.9 million were Roman Catholics. The remainder subscribed to a blend of Buddhism , animism, and astrology; Confu- cian principles

  11. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation of Protein Methionine Residues in Human Parathyroid Hormone (1-34): Formation of Homocysteine and a Novel Methionine-Dependent Hydrolysis Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozziconacci, Olivier; Ji, Junyan A.; Wang, Y. John; Schöneich, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of PTH(1-34) catalyzed by ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is site-specific. The oxidation of PTH(1-34) is localized primarily to the residues Met[8] and His[9]. Beyond the transformation of Met[8] and His[9] into methionine sulfoxide and 2-oxo-histidine, respectively, we observed a hydrolytic cleavage between Met[8] and His[9]. This hydrolysis requires the presence of FeII and oxygen and can be prevented by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and phosphate buffer. Conditions leading to this site-specific hydrolysis also promote the transformation of Met[8] into homocysteine, indicating that the hydrolysis and transformation of homocysteine may proceed through a common intermediate. PMID:23289936

  12. Forty-Seven DJs, Four Women: Meritocracy, Talent, and Postfeminist Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Gadir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, only four of forty-seven DJs booked for Musikkfest, a festival in Oslo, Norway, were women. Following this, a local DJ published an objection to this imbalance in a local arts and entertainment magazine. Her editorial provoked booking agents to defend their position on the grounds that they prioritise skill and talent when booking DJs, and by implication, that they do not prioritise equality. The booking agents’ responses, on social media and in interviews I conducted, highlight their perpetuation of a status quo in dance music cultures where men disproportionately dominate the role of DJing. Labour laws do not align with this cultural attitude: gender equality legislation in Norway’s recent history contrasts the postfeminist attitudes expressed by dance music’s cultural intermediaries such as DJs and booking agents. The Musikkfest case ultimately shows that gender politics in dance music cultures do not necessarily correspond to dance music’s historical associations with egalitarianism.

  13. Forty years abuse of baking soda, rhabdomyolysis, glomerulonephritis, hypertension leading to renal failure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment.

  14. Ecoimmunity in Darwin's finches: invasive parasites trigger acquired immunity in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Huber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive parasites are a major threat to island populations of animals. Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands are under attack by introduced pox virus (Poxvirus avium and nest flies (Philornis downsi. We developed assays for parasite-specific antibody responses in Darwin's finches (Geospiza fortis, to test for relationships between adaptive immune responses to novel parasites and spatial-temporal variation in the occurrence of parasite pressure among G. fortis populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the presence of antibodies in the serum of Darwin's finches specific to pox virus or Philornis proteins. We compared antibody levels between bird populations with and without evidence of pox infection (visible lesions, and among birds sampled before nesting (prior to nest-fly exposure versus during nesting (with fly exposure. Birds from the Pox-positive population had higher levels of pox-binding antibodies. Philornis-binding antibody levels were higher in birds sampled during nesting. Female birds, which occupy the nest, had higher Philornis-binding antibody levels than males. The study was limited by an inability to confirm pox exposure independent of obvious lesions. However, the lasting effects of pox infection (e.g., scarring and lost digits were expected to be reliable indicators of prior pox infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of parasite-specific antibody responses to multiple classes of parasites in a wild population of birds. Darwin's finches initiated acquired immune responses to novel parasites. Our study has vital implications for invasion biology and ecological immunology. The adaptive immune response of Darwin's finches may help combat the negative effects of parasitism. Alternatively, the physiological cost of mounting such a response could outweigh any benefits, accelerating population decline. Tests

  15. Effect of methionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Antonia; Herbert, Ulrike; Miskel, Dennis; Heinemann, Celine; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Zeitz, Johanna O; Eder, Klaus; Saremi, Behnam; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different methionine sources and concentrations on the quality and spoilage process of broiler meat. The trial was comprised of 7 treatment groups: one basal group (suboptimal in Methionine+Cysteine; i.e., 0.89, 0.74, 0.69% in DM SID Met+Cys in starter, grower, and finisher diets, respectively) and 3 doses (0.10, 0.25, and 0.40%) of either DL-Methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) on an equimolar basis of the DLM-supplemented groups. The broilers were fed the diets for 35 d, then slaughtered and processed. The filets were aerobically packed and stored under temperature controlled conditions at 4°C. Meat quality investigations were comprised of microbial investigations (total viable count and Pseudomonas spp.), pH and drip loss measurements of the filets. The shelf life of the meat samples was determined based on sensory parameters. After slaughtering, all supplemented meat samples showed a high quality, whereby no differences between the 2 methionine sources could be detected for the microbial load, pH, and drip loss. In comparison to the control group, the supplemented samples showed a higher sensory quality, characterized by a fresh smell and fresh red color. Methionine supplementation had a significant influence on meat quality parameters during storage. The microbial load, pH and drip loss of the chicken filets were positively correlated to the methionine concentration. Additionally, the microbial load at the end of storage was positively correlated to pH and drip loss values. Nevertheless, the microbial parameters were in a normal range and the positive correlation to methionine concentration did not affect the sensory shelf life. The mean sensory shelf life of the broiler filets varied between 7 to 9 d. During storage, no difference in the development of sensory parameters was observed between the supplemented groups, while the spoilage process of the basal group

  16. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research.

  17. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences.

  18. Cisplatin interaction with cysteine and methionine in aqueous solution: computational DFT/PCM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tomás; Chval, Zdenĕk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2009-03-12

    In this paper we explore cisplatin interactions with sulfur-containing amino acids in a polarizable continuum model. Two cisplatin hydrated complexes were considered as reactants (chloro complex, cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl(H2O)]+; hydroxo complex, cis-[Pt(NH3)2(OH)(H2O)]+). We considered the following reaction mechanism: first step, substitution of the aqua ligand by amino acid; second step, dissociative chelate formation. For the optimized complex (at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)/COSMO level), the energy profile was determined using the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd) level and two different PCM models-COSMO and UAKS/DPCM methods which were adapted for use on transition metal complexes. The results show thermodynamic preference for bonding by cysteine sulfur followed by the amino group nitrogen, methionine thioether sulfur, and carboxyl-group oxygen. Methionine slightly prefers the Pt-N(Met) coordination in the chloro complex, but in the hydroxo complex it prefers the Pt-S(Met) coordination. A similar trend follows from the bonding energies: BE(Pt-S(Cys)) = 80.8 kcal/mol and BE(Pt-N(Met)) = 76 kcal/mol. According to the experimental observations, the most stable structures found are kappa2(S,N) chelates. In the case of methionine, the same thermodynamic stability is predicted also for the kappa2(N,O) chelate. This differs from the gas-phase results, where kappa2(S,N) and even kappa2(S,O) were found to be more stable than kappa2(N,O) complex.

  19. Genetic Polymorphism of Folate and Methionine Metabolizing Enzymes and their Susceptibility to Malignant Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.E.; Aziz, M.; Kotb, M.

    2005-01-01

    Folate and methionine metabolism is involved in DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymorphisms in the genes of folate metabolism enzymes have been associated with some forms of cancer. In the present study, 2 polymorphisms were evaluated for a folate metabolic enzyme, methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and one was evaluated for methionine synthase (MS). The 2 polymorphisms MTHFR 677 C-7T and MTHFR 1298 A-7C, are reported to reduce the enzyme activity, which causes intracellular accumulation of 5, 10 vm ethylene-tetrahydrofolate and results in a reduced incidence of DNA double strand breakage. The MS 2756 A-7G polymorphism also reduces the enzyme activity and results in the hypo methylation of DNA. Patients and Methods: To test this hypothesis, genetic polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway were investigated using the DNA from a case-control study on 31 patients having malignant lymphoma from the Oncology Outpatient Clinic of the New Children's Hospital, Cairo University and 30 controls who were actually normal children attending for vaccination to the same hospital. We found that there is a higher susceptibility with the MTHFR 677CC and MTHFR 1298 AA genotypes (OR=4.3, 95% CI 1.12-16). When those harbor at least one variant allele in either polymorphism of MTHFR they were defined as reference. For the MS 2756 AG genotype polymorphism there was also a higher susceptibility to developing malignant lymphoma (OR=2.6; 95% CI 1.16.4). Results suggest that folate and methionine metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma. Further studies to confirm this association and detailed biologic mechanisms are now required

  20. Regulation of longevity and oxidative stress by nutritional interventions: role of methionine restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Roman, Ines; Barja, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    Comparative studies indicate that long-lived mammals have low rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production (mtROSp) and oxidative damage in their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Dietary restriction (DR), around 40%, extends the mean and maximum life span of a wide range of species and lowers mtROSp and oxidative damage to mtDNA, which supports the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA). Regarding the dietary factor responsible for the life extension effect of DR, neither carbohydrate nor lipid restriction seems to modify maximum longevity. However protein restriction (PR) and methionine restriction (at least 80% MetR) increase maximum lifespan in rats and mice. Interestingly, only 7weeks of 40% PR (at least in liver) or 40% MetR (in all the studied organs, heart, brain, liver or kidney) is enough to decrease mtROSp and oxidative damage to mtDNA in rats, whereas neither carbohydrate nor lipid restriction changes these parameters. In addition, old rats also conserve the capacity to respond to 7weeks of 40% MetR with these beneficial changes. Most importantly, 40% MetR, differing from what happens during both 40% DR and 80% MetR, does not decrease growth rate and body size of rats. All the available studies suggest that the decrease in methionine ingestion that occurs during DR is responsible for part of the aging-delaying effect of this intervention likely through the decrease of mtROSp and ensuing DNA damage that it exerts. We conclude that lowering mtROS generation is a conserved mechanism, shared by long-lived species and dietary, protein, and methionine restricted animals, that decreases damage to macromolecules situated near the complex I mtROS generator, especially mtDNA. This would decrease the accumulation rate of somatic mutations in mtDNA and maybe finally also in nuclear DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Key enzymes involved in methionine catabolism by cheese lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanniffy, S B; Peláez, C; Martínez-Bartolomé, M A; Requena, T; Martínez-Cuesta, M C

    2009-11-15

    Cheese microbiota and their enzymatic conversion of l-methionine to volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) play an important role in aroma formation during cheese ripening. Here, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from raw goats' milk cheeses were screened for the major enzymes critical to the formation of VSCs from l-methionine. A large natural biodiversity in enzyme capabilities and high inter- and intra-species variability was found among the LAB isolates investigated. From those isolates tested, lactococci displayed higher C-S lyase specificities towards the sulphur-containing compounds examined than did Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc, in some cases generating higher levels of VSCs than B. linens, known to be an efficient producer of methanethiol (MTL) and related VSCs. Moreover, these differences in C-S lyase activities (determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the formation of free thiol groups) were shown to correspond with the enzymatic potential of the isolates as determined by visualization of enzymatic activities. This technique could therefore prove valuable for the detection and preliminary characterization of C-S lyase activities among LAB isolates. Lactococci were also found to possess higher aminotransferase activities than lactobacilli and leuconostocs, while glutamate dehydrogenase activities were observed to be highest among Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus spp. Meanwhile, alpha-keto acid decarboxylase activities were highly variable and were measurable in only a limited number of isolates, mainly lactobacilli. From these data, combining indigenous isolates showing high VSCs-producing capabilities with those that facilitate the completion of the metabolic pathway responsible for degrading l-methionine into volatile compounds may provide an efficient approach to enhance cheese aroma development.

  2. Methionine sulfoxides on PrPSc: a prion-specific covalent signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Tamar; Engelstein, Roni; Moshel, Ofra; Xanthopoulos, Konstantinos; Juanes, María E; Langeveld, Jan; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Gasset, Maria; Gabizon, Ruth

    2008-08-26

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders believed to be transmitted by PrP (Sc), an aberrant form of the membrane protein PrP (C). In the absence of an established form-specific covalent difference, the infectious properties of PrP (Sc) were uniquely ascribed to the self-perpetuation properties of its aberrant fold. Previous sequencing of the PrP chain isolated from PrP(27-30) showed the oxidation of some methionine residues; however, at that time, these findings were ascribed to experimental limitations. Using the unique recognition properties of alphaPrP mAb IPC2, protein chemistry, and state of the art mass spectrometry, we now show that while a large fraction of the methionine residues in brain PrP (Sc) are present as methionine sulfoxides this modification could not be found on brain PrP (C) as well as on its recombinant models. In particular, the pattern of oxidation of M213 with respect to the glycosylation at N181 of PrP (Sc) differs both within and between species, adding another diversity factor to the structure of PrP (Sc) molecules. Our results pave the way for the production of prion-specific reagents in the form of antibodies against oxidized PrP chains which can serve in the development of both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In addition, we hypothesize that the accumulation of PrP (Sc) and thereafter the pathogenesis of prion disease may result from the poor degradation of oxidized aberrantly folded PrP.

  3. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22239 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22239 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (IV mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22236 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other than...

  6. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss. (a) General. The percent of guarantee will not exceed 90 percent based on the credit risk to the lender and the Agency both before and after the transaction. The Agency will determine the percentage of... PLP lenders will not be less than 80 percent. (d) Maximum loss. The maximum amount the Agency will pay...

  7. On the Correlation between EPR and Positron Annihilation Measurements on gamma-Irradiated Acetyl Methionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Lund-Thomsen, E.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1972-01-01

    The dose dependence of the relative EPR signal intensity and positron lifetime spectrum was measured for γ‐irradiated acetyl methionine in the dose range from 0 to 30 Mrad. Angular correlation measurements were performed for the doses 0 and 30 Mrad. The result of the irradiation was the creation...... of EPR centers and inhibition of positronium formation. For one sample, irradiated with a dose of 30 Mrad, EPR and positron lifetime spectra were followed over a period of 50 days after the irradiation. The inhibiting effect and the EPR signal intensity decreased with time. No simple correlation could...

  8. Effects of sucrose on rFVIIa aggregation and methionine oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soenderkaer, Susanne; Carpenter, John F; van de Weert, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of sucrose on the stability of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), with special emphasis on aggregation and methionine oxidation, as well as to investigate the impact of various environmental conditions on the rFVIIa conformation. The stability......) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were used to study protein conformation. Stability studies showed that increasing sucrose concentrations reduced the loss of monomeric rFVIIa, and decreased formation of dimeric/oligomeric and polymeric rFVIIa. Preferential exclusion of the sugar from...

  9. 11C-methionine uptake in the brain of phenylketonuric children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Chopinet, A.; Maziere, M.; Berger, G.; Todd-Pokropek, A.

    The investigation covered 9 children aged between 7 and 77 months. The brain uptake for each examination before and after correction (for each child correction due to pericerebral activity, calculated by a method described) and the ratio between the corrected uptake rates of two examinations are reported. The results show clearly the strong resistance of the blood brain barrier to the passage of methionine in non-dieting phenylketonuric children. Moreover analysis of the brain radioactivity variation with time during the two examinations suggests a partial inhibition of brain protein synthesis, especially when the blood phenylalanine content is high [fr

  10. Catalytic Promiscuity of the Radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine Enzyme NosL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Ji, Xinjian; Li, Yongzhen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic promiscuity plays a key role in enzyme evolution and the acquisition of novel biological functions. Because of the high reactivity of radical species, in our view enzymes involving radical-mediated mechanisms could intrinsically be more prone to catalytic promiscuity. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in the study of NosL, a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent L-tryptophan (L-Trp) lyase. We demonstrate here the interesting chemistry and remarkable catalytic promiscuity of NosL, and attempt to highlight the high evolvability of radical SAM enzymes and the potential to engineer these enzymes for novel and improved activities.

  11. Identification of methionine-processed HPr in the equine pathogen Streptococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, I C; Trigg, J; Harrington, D

    2000-10-01

    Using preparative electrophoresis, a low molecular weight protein has been partially purified from a cell extract of the equine pathogen Streptococcus equi susp. equi. N-terminal sequence analysis and Western blotting revealed the protein to be HPr, a central component of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). Interestingly, the only form of the HPr protein detected in S. equi was one with the amino-terminal methionine removed, a modification that has previously been associated with surface localization of streptococcal HPr proteins.

  12. Synthesis of cysteine from methionine in normal adult subjects: effect of route of alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegink, L D; Den Besten, L

    1972-11-03

    Parenteral alimentation solutions free of cysteine, probably an essential amino acid for premature infants, were administered continuously to eight healthy men through catheters in the superior vena cava and through nasogastric tubes. When the preparation was administered parenterally, the plasma cystine concentration dropped markedly. When feeding was switched to the oral route, the concentration rose immediately, but returned to baseline only when a cystine-containing diet was fed. These studies indicate that the synthesis of cysteine from methionine is limited, even in the adult subject, when cystine-free diets are administered parenterally.

  13. The Methionine Transamination Pathway Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism through Regulation of the GCN5 Acetyltransferase and the PGC-1α Transcriptional Coactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Clint D J; Sharabi, Kfir; Dominy, John E; Lee, Yoonjin; Isasa, Marta; Orozco, Jose M; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Griffin, Patrick R; Gygi, Steven P; Puigserver, Pere

    2016-05-13

    Methionine is an essential sulfur amino acid that is engaged in key cellular functions such as protein synthesis and is a precursor for critical metabolites involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In mammals, in response to nutrient conditions, the liver plays a significant role in regulating methionine concentrations by altering its flux through the transmethylation, transsulfuration, and transamination metabolic pathways. A comprehensive understanding of how hepatic methionine metabolism intersects with other regulatory nutrient signaling and transcriptional events is, however, lacking. Here, we show that methionine and derived-sulfur metabolites in the transamination pathway activate the GCN5 acetyltransferase promoting acetylation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Methionine was the only essential amino acid that rapidly induced PGC-1α acetylation through activating the GCN5 acetyltransferase. Experiments employing metabolic pathway intermediates revealed that methionine transamination, and not the transmethylation or transsulfuration pathways, contributed to methionine-induced PGC-1α acetylation. Moreover, aminooxyacetic acid, a transaminase inhibitor, was able to potently suppress PGC-1α acetylation stimulated by methionine, which was accompanied by predicted alterations in PGC-1α-mediated gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in primary murine hepatocytes. Methionine administration in mice likewise induced hepatic PGC-1α acetylation, suppressed the gluconeogenic gene program, and lowered glycemia, indicating that a similar phenomenon occurs in vivo These results highlight a communication between methionine metabolism and PGC-1α-mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis, suggesting that influencing methionine metabolic flux has the potential to be therapeutically exploited for diabetes treatment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance

  15. The effect of baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse (Peridex) in reducing gingival bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taller, S H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice, Mentadent, and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse, Peridex, in reducing gingival bleeding. Forty subjects were divided into three groups; the baking soda group, the chlorhexidine group and the control group. All groups received oral hygiene instruction and brushed and flossed three times per day. Bleeding point scores were evaluated at baseline and at five weeks. The baking soda/hydrogen peroxide group used the supplied dentifrice as their sole toothpaste. The 0.12 percent chlorhexidine group used the mouthrinse twice per day. The control group performed oral hygiene as instructed. At five weeks, the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse significantly reduced gingival bleeding. The dentifrice and control groups revealed no statistically significant reductions. The results indicate that the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse is useful in improving oral health, whereas the baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice offered no advantages to conventional oral hygiene.

  16. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°

  17. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the methionine synthase (MetE) from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: liangyh@pku.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE) from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. The Streptococcus mutans metE gene encodes methionine synthase (MetE), which catalyzes the direct transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine in the last step of methionine synthesis. metE was cloned into pET28a and the gene product was expressed at high levels in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). MetE was purified to homogeneity using Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.85, b = 99.48, c = 77.88 Å, β = 94.55°.

  18. Hepatic metabolism of 11C-methionine and secretion of 11C-protein measured by PET in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsager, Jacob; Lausten, Susanne Bach; Bender, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    -proteins in arterial plasma was measured during the experiment. There were no statistically significant differences between the laparotomy group and the pneumoperitoneum group in any of the calculated parameters. Average mean hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet was 0.212 mL plasma/mL liver tissue/min, secretion...... allocated to either laparotomy or pneumoperitoneum. 24 hours after surgery a 70-min dynamic PET scanning of the liver with arterial blood sampling was performed immediately after intravenous injection of 11C-methionine. Time course of arterial plasma 11C-methionine concentration was used as input function...... and that of liver tissue 11C-concentration as output function in an extended Patlak analysis that accounted for irreversible metabolism of 11C-methionine (hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet) and secretion of 11C-protein + 11C-metabolites into blood (rate constant kloss). Appearance of 11C...

  19. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  20. Purification of soluble cytochrome b5 as a component of the reductive activation of porcine methionine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Banerjee, R

    1998-10-02

    In mammals, methionine synthase plays a central role in the detoxification of the rogue metabolite homocysteine. It catalyzes a transmethylation reaction in which a methyl group is transferred from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to generate tetrahydrofolate and methionine. The vitamin B12 cofactor cobalamin plays a direct role in this reaction by alternately accepting and donating the methyl group that is in transit from one substrate (methyltetrahydrofolate) to another (homocysteine). The reactivity of the cofactor intermediate cob(I)alamin renders the enzyme susceptible to oxidative damage. The oxidized enzyme may be returned to the catalytic turnover cycle via a reductive methylation reaction that requires S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl group donor, and a source of electrons. In this study, we have characterized an NADPH-dependent pathway for the reductive activation of porcine methionine synthase. Two proteins are required for the transfer of electrons from NADPH, one of which is microsomal and the other cytoplasmic. The cytoplasmic protein has been purified to homogeneity and is soluble cytochrome b5. It supports methionine synthase activity in the presence of NADPH and the microsomal component in a saturable manner. In addition, purified microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase and soluble cytochrome b5 reconstitute the activity of the porcine methionine synthase. Identification of soluble cytochrome b5 as a member of the reductive activation system for methionine synthase describes a function for this protein in non-erythrocyte cells. In erythrocytes, soluble cytochrome b5 functions in methemoglobin reduction. In addition, it identifies an additional locus in which genetic polymorphisms may play a role in the etiology of hyperhomocysteinemia, which is correlated with cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The Effectiveness of Hard Martial Arts in People over Forty: An Attempted Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Pons van Dijk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of hard martial arts on the physical fitness components such as balance, flexibility, gait, strength, cardiorespiratory function and several mental functions in people over forty. A computerized literature search was carried out. Studies were selected when they had an experimental design, the age of the study population was >40, one of the interventions was a hard martial art, and when at least balance and cardiorespiratory functions were used as an outcome measure. We included four studies, with, in total, 112 participants, aged between 51 and 93 years. The intervention consisted of Taekwondo or Karate. Total training duration varied from 17 to 234 h. All four studies reported beneficial effects, such as improvement in balance, in reaction tests, and in duration of single leg stance. We conclude that because of serious methodological shortcomings in all four studies, currently there is suggestive, but insufficient evidence, that hard martial arts practice improves physical fitness functions in healthy people over 40. However, considering the importance of such effects, and the low costs of the intervention, the potential of beneficial health effects of age-adapted, hard martial arts training, in people over 40, warrants further study.

  2. Cognition improvement in Taekwondo novices over forty. Results from the SEKWONDO Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby ePons Van Dijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAge-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear.Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of one year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/ motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over forty.Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 seconds and 18.4 seconds (p=0.004, p=0.015, respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p=0.017. Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported better reaction time in 10 and unchanged in 9 of the nineteen study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline.

  3. Forty years increase of the air ambient temperature in Greece: The impact on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapsomenakis, J.; Kolokotsa, D.; Nikolaou, T.; Santamouris, M.; Zerefos, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Forty years hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece are analysed. • The air temperature increase influences the buildings’ energy demand. • A typical office building’s energy demand is examined. • The heating load is decreased by about 1 kWh/m 2 per decade. • The cooling load is increased by about 5 kWh/m 2 per decade. - Abstract: Air temperatures in urban areas continue to increase because of the heat island phenomenon (UHI) and the undeniable warming of the lower atmosphere during the past few decades. The observed high ambient air temperatures intensify the energy demand in cities, deteriorate urban comfort conditions, endanger the vulnerable population and amplify pollution problems especially in regions with hot climatic conditions. The present paper analyses 40 years of hourly data series from nine meteorological stations in Greece in order to understand the impact of air temperature and relative humidity trends on the energy consumption of buildings. Using a typical office building, the analysis showed that for the period in question the heating load in the Greek building sector has decreased by about 1 kWh/m 2 per decade, while the cooling load increased by about 5 kWh/m 2 per decade. This phenomenon has major environmental, economic and social consequences, which will be amplified in the upcoming decades in view of the expected man-made climatic changes in this geographic area

  4. Sixty Days Remaining, Forty Years of CERN, Two Brothers, One Exclusive Interview

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Twins Marcel and Daniel Genolin while sharing memories of their CERN experiences, point out just how much smaller the Meyrin site once was. In a place such as CERN where the physical sciences are in many ways the essence of our daily lives and where technological advancement is an everyday occurrence, it is easy to lose track of the days, months, and even years. But last week twin brothers, Daniel and Marcel Genolin, hired in the early sixties and getting ready to end their eventful forty year CERN experiences, made it clear that the winds of time bluster past us whether we are aware or not. 'CERN was very small when we started' says Marcel, who has worked in transport during his entire time here. A lot has changed. 'When I got here there were no phones in peoples' houses' he recalls,'when there were problems in the control room with the PS (Proton Synchrotron) they used to get a megaphone and tell us {the transport service} to go and get the necessary physicists from their homes in the area. We had to lo...

  5. Triterpenic content and chemometric analysis of virgin olive oils from forty olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Jiménez, Antonio; Uceda, Marino; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-05-13

    Forty olive cultivars (Olea europaea, L.) from the World Olive Germoplasm Bank Collection of Cordoba (Spain) were studied for their oil triterpenic dialcohol (uvaol and erythrodiol) and acid (oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic) composition. Dialcohol content ranged from 8.15 to 85.05 mg/kg, erythrodiol being the most predominant (from 5.89 to 73.78 mg/kg), whereas uvaol content was found at lower levels (from 1.50 to 19.35 mg/kg). Triterpenic acid concentration oscillated between 8.90 to 112.36 mg/kg. Among them, ursolic acid was found at trace levels, while the mean values of oleanolic and maslinic acids ranged from 3.39 to 78.83 mg/kg and 3.93 to 49.81 mg/kg, respectively. The variability observed for both triterpenic dialcohols and acid content was emphasized by principal component and cluster analyses. Both analyses were able to discriminate between oil samples, especially by erythrodiol, oleanolic acid, and maslinic acids. Regarding these results, we conclude that the virgin olive oil triterpenic fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize monovarietal virgin olive oil.

  6. Parathyroid autotransplantation in forty-four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: the role of thallium scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, A.R.; Calandra, D.; Lawrence, A.M.; Henkin, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were followed for 18 to 126 months after subtotal or total parathyroidectomy and parathyroid autotransplantation. Indications for autotransplantation included the devascularization of parathyroid glands during concomitant thyroid lobectomy or total thyroidectomy and the excision of the only remaining parathyroid tissue in patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism after previous unsuccessful parathyroidectomies. Before implantation, all parathyroid tissue was histologically evaluated by frozen-section light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Fifteen patients had histologically normal implants; to date none of these patients have developed recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-nine patients had either adenomatous or hyperplastic parathyroid tissue used for implants; two of these patients developed graft-dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism 4 and 7 years later. In both patients the grafts were preoperatively localized by thallium scanning and their resection restored eucalcemia. One hundred thirty-one patients from 11 series in the current literature had a cumulative incidence of 17.5% for presumed graft-dependent recurrence and a 9.2% incidence of graft excision followed by eucalcemia. In comparison, in the present series the incidence of graft-dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism in patients with either adenomatous or hyperplastic implants stands at 6.9%. In contrast, in 15 patients with normal parathyroid tissue implants, the incidence was zero

  7. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transition observed in the crystalline sulfur based amino acid L-methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, Jose A.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Melo, Francisco E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; Fischer, Jennifer; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Broer, Ria; Bordallo, Heloisa N.; Lima Jr., José A.

    We present the Raman spectra of L-methionine (C5H11NO2S) monocrystals obtained in the spectral region ranging from 3200 to 50 cm(-1) at temperatures from 20 to 375 K. We investigated the dynamics of the different functional groups in L-methionine and related their behaviour to the structural

  8. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transition observed in the crystalline sulfur based amino acid l-methionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, José A.; Freire, P.T.C.; Melo, F.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the Raman spectra of l-methionine (C5 H11 NO2 S) monocrystals obtained in the spectral region ranging from 3200 to 50 cm-1 at temperatures from 20 to 375 K. We investigated the dynamics of the different functional groups in l-methionine and related their behaviour to the structural tra...

  9. Alleviation of body weight loss by dietary methionine is independent of insulin-like growth factor-I in protein-starved young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kenji; Oki, Mai; Tsukada, Akira; Kita, Kazumi

    2011-08-01

    It is well known that in protein-starved chickens, small amounts of amino acid supplement, especially methionine, reduces nitrogen excretion and thereby improves nitrogen balance. On the other hand, excess intake of methionine causes growth depression and the growth-depressive effect of excess methionine can be alleviated by consumption of dietary glycine. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is one of various growth-promoting factors relating to the efficiency of animal production and is known to be very sensitive to changes in nutritional status. In the present study, the interactive effect of glycine on nitrogen sparing effect of methionine in protein-starved chickens was examined. In addition, the relation of IGF-I and its specific binding protein to the nitrogen sparing effect of supplemented methionine was also investigated. Two-days refeeding of methionine supplemented to protein-free diet could promptly alleviate body weight loss in protein-starved chickens, and the alleviation of body weight loss by methionine was not improved by glycine supplements. Moreover, such acute alleviation of body weight loss by dietary methionine was independent of the change in plasma IGF-I concentration. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Effects of gamma-radiation on some components of food and agricultural products (pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlehtseanu, I.

    1974-01-01

    the effects of gamma radiation on individual components of food and agricultural products (Pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine) were investigated. Some of the studies have provided support for the hypothesis that the structural changes occurring in separately irradiated components of a foodstuff are greater than those taking place in the same components when present in the foodstuff. Results of irradiating pyridoxine and pyridoxal in an aqueous medium; of folic acid in aqueous solutions and in solid state; and of methionine in aqueous solutions and solid state, are given. (E.T.)

  11. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  12. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    H Mohammadi Emarat; A Golian; A Tahmasbi; H Kermanshahi

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15%) and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37%) and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age) each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed ...

  13. Structures of the N-terminal modules imply large domain motions during catalysis by methionine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John C; Huddler, Donald P; Hilgers, Mark T; Romanchuk, Gail; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha L

    2004-03-16

    B(12)-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) is a large modular enzyme that utilizes the cobalamin cofactor as a methyl donor or acceptor in three separate reactions. Each methyl transfer occurs at a different substrate-binding domain and requires a different arrangement of modules. In the catalytic cycle, the cobalamin-binding domain carries methylcobalamin to the homocysteine (Hcy) domain to form methionine and returns cob(I)alamin to the folate (Fol) domain for remethylation by methyltetrahydrofolate (CH(3)-H(4)folate). Here, we describe crystal structures of a fragment of MetH from Thermotoga maritima comprising the domains that bind Hcy and CH(3)-H(4)folate. These substrate-binding domains are (beta alpha)(8) barrels packed tightly against one another with their barrel axes perpendicular. The properties of the domain interface suggest that the two barrels remain associated during catalysis. The Hcy and CH(3)-H(4)folate substrates are bound at the C termini of their respective barrels in orientations that position them for reaction with cobalamin, but the two active sites are separated by approximately 50 A. To complete the catalytic cycle, the cobalamin-binding domain must travel back and forth between these distant active sites.

  14. Enzymatic activity of methionine adenosyltransferase variants identified in patients with persistent hypermethioninemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Korman, Stanley H; Faghfoury, Hanna; Schulze, Andreas; Hoganson, George E; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Wagner, Conrad; Mudd, S Harvey; Corrales, Fernando J

    2010-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT's) are central enzymes in living organisms that have been conserved with a high degree of homology among species. In the liver, MAT I and III, tetrameric and dimeric isoforms of the same catalytic subunit encoded by the gene MAT1A, account for the predominant portion of total body synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a versatile sulfonium ion-containing molecule involved in a variety of vital metabolic reactions and in the control of hepatocyte proliferation and differentiation. During the past 15years 28 MAT1A mutations have been described in patients with elevated plasma methionines, total homocysteines at most only moderately elevated, and normal levels of tyrosine and other aminoacids. In this study we describe functional analyses that determine the MAT and tripolyphosphatase (PPPase) activities of 18 MAT1A variants, six of them novel, and none of them previously assayed for activity. With the exception of G69S and Y92H, all recombinant proteins showed impairment (usually severe) of MAT activity. Tripolyphosphate (PPPi) hydrolysis was decreased only in some mutant proteins but, when it was decreased MAT activity was always also impaired. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  16. Methionine sulfone-containing orbitides, good indicators to evaluate oxidation process of flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Wang, Yu-Fu; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the possibility of using methionine sulfone (Msn)-containing orbitides as indicators to evaluate the oxidation process of flaxseed oils. Results showed that after 4 days' heating, oxidation values slightly increased (p > .05) with significant decrease in methionine (Met)-containing peptides (p  .05). However, as oxidation time continues increasing, oxidation values significantly increased (p oxidized compared with γ-tocopherol and showed certain antioxidant activity. Besides, high logarithmic correlations were found between oxidation values and Msn-containing orbitides (0.94-1.00), such as between total carbonyl compounds and orbitide [1-8-NαC],[1-MetO 2 ]-CLE (64.95 lnx - 52.14, R 2  = 0.99, Dingya23 oil). Therefore, in comparison with common oxidation indices, Msn-containing orbitides may be better indicators for evaluating the oxidation process of flaxseed oil with superior separation efficiency, specific information and high stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants of methionine synthase from Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannan, Priya; Suliman, Huda S.; Robertus, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Fungal methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to create methionine. The enzyme, called Met6p in fungi, is required for the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans, and is consequently a reasonable target for antifungal drug design. In order to understand the mechanism of this class of enzyme, we created a three-dimensional model of the C. albicans enzyme based on the known structure of the homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana. A fusion protein was created and shown to have enzyme activity similar to the wild-type Met6p. Fusion proteins containing mutations at eight key sites were expressed and assayed in this background. The D614 carboxylate appears to ion pair with the amino group of homocysteine and is essential for activity. Similarly, D504 appears to bind to the polar edge of the folate and is also required for activity. Other groups tested have lesser roles in substrate binding and catalysis.

  18. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants of methionine synthase from Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasannan, Priya; Suliman, Huda S. [Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1 University Station A5300, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Robertus, Jon D., E-mail: jrobertus@mail.utexas.edu [Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1 University Station A5300, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Fungal methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to create methionine. The enzyme, called Met6p in fungi, is required for the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans, and is consequently a reasonable target for antifungal drug design. In order to understand the mechanism of this class of enzyme, we created a three-dimensional model of the C. albicans enzyme based on the known structure of the homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana. A fusion protein was created and shown to have enzyme activity similar to the wild-type Met6p. Fusion proteins containing mutations at eight key sites were expressed and assayed in this background. The D614 carboxylate appears to ion pair with the amino group of homocysteine and is essential for activity. Similarly, D504 appears to bind to the polar edge of the folate and is also required for activity. Other groups tested have lesser roles in substrate binding and catalysis.

  19. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  20. Evidence for the dimerization-mediated catalysis of methionine sulfoxide reductase A from Clostridium oremlandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kitaik; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Park, Yeon Seung; Lee, Kong-Joo; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium oremlandii MsrA (CoMsrA) is a natively selenocysteine-containing methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase and classified into a 1-Cys type MsrA. CoMsrA exists as a monomer in solution. Herein, we report evidence that CoMsrA can undergo homodimerization during catalysis. The monomeric CoMsrA dimerizes in the presence of its substrate methionine sulfoxide via an intermolecular disulfide bond between catalytic Cys16 residues. The dimeric CoMsrA is resolved by the reductant glutaredoxin, suggesting the relevance of dimerization in catalysis. The dimerization reaction occurs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of homodimer formation in the native selenoprotein CoMsrA is confirmed. We also determine the crystal structure of the dimeric CoMsrA, having the dimer interface around the two catalytic Cys16 residues. A central cone-shaped hole is present in the surface model of dimeric structure, and the two Cys16 residues constitute the base of the hole. Collectively, our biochemical and structural analyses suggest a novel dimerization-mediated mechanism for CoMsrA catalysis that is additionally involved in CoMsrA regeneration by glutaredoxin.

  1. Formation of volatile sulfur compounds and metabolism of methionine and other sulfur compounds in fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaud, Sophie; Helinck, Sandra; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in fermented food is a subject of interest. Such compounds are essential for the aroma of many food products like cheeses or fermented beverages, in which they can play an attractive or a repulsive role, depending on their identity and their concentration. VSC essentially arise from common sulfur-bearing precursors, methionine being the most commonly found. In the first section of this paper, the main VSC found in cheese, wine, and beer are reviewed. It is shown that a wide variety of VSC has been evidenced in these food products. Because of their low odor threshold and flavor notes, these compounds impart essential sensorial properties to the final product. In the second section of this review, the main (bio)chemical pathways leading to VSC synthesis are presented. Attention is focused on the microbial/enzymatic phenomena-which initiate sulfur bearing precursors degradation-leading to VSC production. Although chemical reactions could also play an important role in this process, this aspect is not fully developed in our review. The main catabolic pathways leading to VSC from the precursor methionine are presented.

  2. Methionine synthase A2756G variation is associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Naderi, Asieh; Saremi, Leila; Sayad, Arezou; Irani, Shiva; Ahani, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Association of epigenetic modifications with cancer has been widely studied. Gene-specific hypermethylation and global DNA hypomethylation are the most frequently observed patterns in great number of tumors. The methionine synthase (MTR) gene plays key role in maintaining adequate intracellular folate, methionine and normal homocysteine concentrations and, its polymorphism have been associated with the risk of retinoblastoma and other neoplasms. We evaluated the association of MTR A2756G polymorphism with the risk of retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. Totally, 150 retinoblastoma patients and 300 individuals with no family history of cancer as control were included in this study. Genotyping of the A2756G polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using the restriction enzymes HaeIII. Our results showed that the "G" was the minor allele with a frequency of 31.7% and 20.3% in both retinoblastoma and control groups, respectively. The frequency of the 2756GG genotype (P=0.023) and 2756G allele (P=0.0001) were significantly higher in the patients than control group, respectively. Individual with the 2756GG genotype had a 2.99 fold increased risk for retinoblastoma. According to our results, the MTR A2756G polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Ingenbleek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value.

  4. Neutrophil granulocytes uniquely express, among human blood cells, high levels of Methionine-sulfoxide-reductase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Rossi, Antonio; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2008-01-01

    L-Methionine (Met), in its free form or when inserted in proteins, is sensitive to oxidation of its thioether group by reactive oxygen species from exogenous or endogenous sources. Two stable diastereomers of Met sulfoxide [Met-(O)] may be formed [Met-S-(O) and Met-R-(O)], but these can be reduced by two classes of Methionine-sulfoxide-reductase (Msr) enzymes: MsrA, which reduces the S, and MsrB, which reduces the R sulfoxide. In this study, we have examined the levels of expression of Msr in human blood cells by enzymatic activity assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR of purified populations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and eosinophils, mononuclear cells, platelets, and erythrocytes. Our data indicate that of the blood cells analyzed, neutrophils expressed the highest activity, which was mainly of MsrB type. During degranulation of activated neutrophils, Msr activity was not released but remained confined within the cell, indicating a non-granular localization. Immunoprecipitation and RT-PCR studies indicated the almost complete lack of mitochondrial forms of Msrs in granulocytes. It is thus likely that Msrs are important as antioxidant/repair systems for neutrophils, cells with enormous capacity for the generation of reactive oxidants and hence, susceptible to oxidative damage.

  5. Expression, purification and crystallization of l-methionine γ-lyase 2 from Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Dan [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamagata, Wataru; Kamei, Kaeko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nozaki, Tomoyoshi [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu, E-mail: harada@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 2 from E. histolytica, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation in this protozoan parasite, has been crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is considered to be an attractive target for rational drug development because the enzyme is absent in mammalian hosts. To enable structure-based design of drugs targeting MGL, one of the two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL2) was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.89, b = 102.68, c = 169.87 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 43.1 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  6. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  7. Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% of Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, P = 0.04 and r = 0.76, P = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate approximately 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology and behavior of the target species. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Analysis of image findings in forty-one patients with primary lymphoma of the bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baohai; Liu Jie; Zhong Zhiwei; Zhao Jingpin; Peng Zhigang; Liu Jicun; Wu Wenjuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging features of primary lymphoma of the bone, and discuss the special feature of the 'floating ice sign'. Methods: Forty-one cases of primary lymphoma of the bone in our unit from 1963.1-2009.6 were retrospectively studied. All 41 patients underwent X-ray examination, and 20 patients underwent CT examination, 12 patients underwent MR examination (3 cases simultaneously with enhancement). Results: Involvement of the flat bone was seen in 12 cases. Vertebral column was affected in 8 cases, and 17 cases showed lesions in long bones and irregular bones were involved in 4 cases. The most common location was the femur (10, 24.4%), followed by the ilium (8, 19.5%). Lesions were found in the metaphyses of the long bone in 11 cases (64.7%). 'Floating ice sign' was showed in the calcaneus of 2 patients and in the lumbar vertebra of 2 cases respectively, accounted for 9.8% of all cases. Slight bone destruction with soft tissue mass on CT image could be found in 12 cases, while obvious soft tissue mass was found in 9 cases. No periosteal reaction was found in 37 cases (90.2%). MRI examinations of 12 patients revealed soft tissue mass in 10 patients, and the extent of the lesion was larger in MR than CT. One case showed extensive bone destruction on MR but inconspicuous bone destruction on X-ray plain film and CT scan. Conclusion: Slight bone destruction with conspicuous soft tissue mass, conspicuous bone destruction on MR but slight or inconspicuous bone destruction on X-ray film and CT, could strongly imply the diagnosis of primary lymphoma of the bone. 'Floating ice sign' was a special imaging feature of primary lymphoma of the bone, which could be used as a clue for the diagnosis of lymphoma. (authors)

  9. Extrathymic malignancies associated with thymoma: a forty-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Toshiko; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Wada, Hironobu; Fujiwara, Taiki; Suzuki, Hidemi; Nakajima, Takahiro; Iwata, Takekazu; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Patients with thymoma are reported to have an increased risk for developing second malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of second malignancies among patients with thymoma. We focused especially on the impact that lung cancer has on survival in these patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients who underwent surgery for thymoma in Chiba University Hospital from January 1971 to November 2012 were included in this study. Patient records were reviewed retrospectively for data on background, treatment, second malignancies and clinical outcome. Fourteen patients had a history of malignancy until the time of operation, with an additional 20 diagnosed simultaneously with the thymoma. Forty-three malignant lesions in 33 patients were found post-thymectomy. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 17 patients, far exceeding the expected number in the cohort, which was calculated according to Japanese national data. The median survival time of the thymoma patients who had lung cancer at the time of surgery was 5.8 years. The survival of patients with thymoma and lung cancer was poor in comparison with that of others. Secondary lung cancer is frequently found in thymoma patients and could be one of the factors limiting survival. We recommend an annual computed tomographic scan of the thorax to detect not only recurrent thymoma but also lung cancer at an early stage in order to improve the survival of these patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at French Frigate Shoals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  11. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Maro Reef, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  12. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Eleven-Mile Bank

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  13. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Palmyra Atoll, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  14. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Stingray Shoals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  15. Differential growth forms of the sponge Biemna fortis govern the abundance of its associated brittle star Ophiactis modesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahihande, Azraj S.; Thakur, Narsinh L.

    2017-08-01

    Marine intertidal regions are physically stressful habitats. In such an environment, facilitator species and positive interactions mitigate unfavorable conditions to the benefit of less tolerant organisms. In sponge-brittle star association, sponges effectively shelter brittle stars from biotic and abiotic stresses. The sponge, Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) was examined from two intertidal regions Anjuna and Mhapan along the Central West Coast of India for associated brittle star Ophiactis modesta (Brock, 1888) during 2013-2014. The study sites varied in suspended particulate matter (SPM). B. fortis at the high SPM habitat (Anjuna) had partially buried growth form and at the low SPM habitat (Mhapan) had massive growth form. O. modesta was abundantly associated with the massive growth form (50-259 individuals per 500 ml sponge) but rarely occurred in association with partially buried growth form (6-16 individuals per 500 ml sponge). In laboratory choice assay O. modesta showed equal preference to the chemical cues from both the growth forms of B. fortis. In addition, O. modesta showed significant preference to B. fortis compared to other sympatric sponges. These observations highlight the involvement of chemical cues in host recognition by O. modesta. Massive growth forms transplanted to the high SPM habitat were unable to survive but partially buried growth forms transplanted to the low SPM habitat were able to survive. Differential growth forms of the host sponge B. fortis at different abiotic stresses affect the abundance of the associated brittle star O. modesta.

  16. Dietary tryptophan and methionine as modulators of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) immune status and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marina; Azeredo, Rita; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Afonso, António; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Costas, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Amino acids regulate key metabolic pathways important to immune responses and their nutritional supply may increase synthesis of immune-related proteins. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine on European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cellular and humoral status. The immunomodulatory effects of tryptophan and methionine during an inflammatory insult was also evaluated after intraperitoneal injection with inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). A practical isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isolipidic (16% crude fat) diets was formulated to include fish meal and a blend of plant feedstuffs as protein sources and fish oil as the main lipid source (CRL diet). Two other diets were formulated similar to the control but including L-tryptophan or L-methionine at ×2 the requirement level (diets TRP and MET, respectively). European seabass weighing 275 g were fed the experimental diets for a period of 15 days before being sampled (trial 1). Then, fish were subjected to a peritoneal inflammation by intraperitoneally injecting UV killed Phdp (10(6) colony forming units ml(-1)) and sampled following 4 and 24 h post-injection (trial 2). Fish injected with a saline solution served as control. The haematological profile, peripheral cell dynamics and several plasma immune parameters were determined in trials 1 and 2, whereas cell migration to the inflammatory focus was also determined in trial 2. MET positively affected European seabass immune status by improving the peripheral leucocyte response, complement activity and bactericidal capacity, a stronger cellular recruitment to the inflammatory focus, and higher plasma peroxidase and bactericidal activities. TRP also seemed to improve immunostimulation, as there was a trend to augment both cell-mediated immunity and humoral capacity. However, TRP failed to improve an inflammatory response, verified by a decrease in blood phagocyte numbers

  17. Sulfonation and phosphorylation of regions of the dioxin receptor susceptible to methionine modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Keyur A; Whelan, Fiona; Bindloss, Colleen; Furness, Sebastian G B; Chapman-Smith, Anne; Whitelaw, Murray L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2009-04-01

    Tagged murine dioxin receptor was purified from mammalian cells, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by capillary HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and -MS/MS. Several chromatographically distinct semitryptic peptides matching two regions spanning residues Glu(409)-Arg(424) and Ser(547)-Arg(555) of the dioxin receptor were revealed by de novo sequencing. Methionine residues at 418 and 548 were detected in these peptides as either unmodified or modified by moieties of 16 (oxidation) or 57 amu (S-carboxamidomethylation) or in a form corresponding to degradative removal of 105 amu from the S-carboxamidomethylated methionine. MS/MS spectra revealed that the peptides containing modified methionine residues also existed in forms with a modification of +80 amu on serine residues 411, 415, and 547. The MS/MS spectra of these peptide ions also revealed diagnostic neutral loss fragment ions of 64, 98, and/or 80 amu, and in some instances combinations of these neutral losses were apparent. Taken together, these data indicated that serines 411 and 547 of the dioxin receptor were sulfonated and serine 415 was phosphorylated. Separate digests of the dioxin receptor were prepared in H(2)(16)O and H(2)(18)O, and enzymatic dephosphorylation was subsequently performed on the H(2)(16)O digest only. The digests were mixed in equal proportions and analyzed by capillary HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and -MS/MS. This strategy confirmed assignment of sulfonation as the cause of the +80-amu modifications on serines 411 and 547 and phosphorylation as the predominant cause of the +80-amu modification of serine 415. The relative quantitation of phosphorylation and sulfonation enabled by this differential phosphatase strategy also suggested the presence of sulfonation on a serine other than residue 411 within the sequence spanning Glu(409)-Arg(424). This represents the first description of post-translational sulfonation sites and identification of a new phosphorylation site of the latent dioxin receptor

  18. Responses of organic housed laying hens to dietary methionine and energy during a summer and winter season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Ogun, M.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The main dietary challenge in organic laying hen production is to fulfil the digestible methionine (MET) requirement in a diet consisting of ingredients of organic origin only. The aim of the present experiment was to determine the response of organic housed laying hens (26–34 weeks of age) to

  19. Effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 copper site of nitrite Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Wijma, Hein J.; MacPherson, Iain

    2007-01-01

    Copper-containing nitrite reductase harbors a type-1 and a type-2 Cu site. The former acts as the electron acceptor site of the enzyme, and the latter is the site of catalytic action. The effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 site was explored by studying...

  20. Effects of methionine restriction and endurance exercise on bones of ovariectomized rats: a study of histomorphometry, densitometry, and biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Su, I-Hsiu; Lewis, Jack L; Chang, Ming-Shi; Hsu, Ar-Tyan; Perrone, Carmen E; Ables, Gene P

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MetR) and endurance exercise on bone quality under a condition of estrogen deficiency, female Sprague-Dawley rats (36-wk-old) were assigned to a sham surgery group or one of five ovariectomized groups subjected to interventions of no treatment (Ovx), endurance exercise (Exe), methionine restriction (MetR), methionine restriction plus endurance exercise (MetR + Exe), and estrogen treatment (Est). Rats in the exercise groups were subjected to a treadmill running regimen. MetR and control diets contained 0.172 and 0.86% methionine, respectively. After the 12-wk intervention, all animals were killed, and serum and bone tissues were collected for analyses. Compared with estrogen treatment, MetR diet and endurance exercise showed better or equivalent efficiency in reducing body weight gain caused by ovariectomy (P bone turnover compared with the Ovx group, MetR diet and/or endurance exercise demonstrated efficiencies in downregulating serum insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P bone mineral density (vBMD), but only the Exe and Est groups preserved cancellous bone volume and/or vBMD of distal femora (P exercise improved cortical bone properties, but only endurance exercise preserved cancellous bone under estrogen deficiency. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  2. Comparison of methionine chelated versus sulfate trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelated trace minerals (CTM; provided as MINTREX) or the same trace minerals in SO4 form. The experimental...

  3. Effects of supplementing pregnant heifers with methionine or melatonin on the anatomy and other characteristics of their lateral hind claws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, H; Rae, M; Omand, T

    2006-01-01

    Three groups of four primiparous Holstein-Friesian heifers were fed throughout pregnancy either a control diet or that diet supplemented with either 5 to 6 g per day of rumen-protected intestinally available methionine or 25 mg melatonin. They were euthanased three days after calving. The dietary...

  4. S1 pocket fingerprints of human and bacterial methionine aminopeptidases determined using fluorogenic libraries of substrates and phosphorus based inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poreba, M.; Gajda, A.; Pícha, Jan; Jiráček, Jiří; Marschner, A.; Klein, Ch. D.; Salvesen, G. S.; Drag, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 3 (2012), s. 704-710 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : methionine aminopeptidase * substrate library * protease * enzyme * inhibitor * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2012

  5. Effects of proteome rebalancing and sulfur nutrition on the accumulation of methionine rich d-zein in transgenic soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of heterologous methionine-rich proteins to increase the overall sulfur amino acid content of soybean seeds has been only marginally successful, presumably due to low accumulation of transgenes in soybeans. Proteome rebalancing of seed proteins has been shown to promote the accumulation o...

  6. Pig performance increases with the addition of DL-methionine and L-lysine to ensiled cassava leaf protein diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of supplementation of diets containing ensiled cassava leaves as the main protein source with synthetic amino acids, dl-methionine alone or with L-lysine. In study 1, a total of 40 pigs in five units, all cross-breds between Large White and Mong

  7. Methionine reduces the valproic acid-induced spina bifida rate in mice without altering valproic acid kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, K; Elmazar, M M; Nau, H

    1996-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is an established human teratogen causing spin bifida aperta. We recently developed a mouse model in which spina bifida aperta and occulta are induced with VPA. In a search for protection against neural tube defects, we investigated the effect of methionine on the incidence of VPA-induced spina bifida in the mouse. To induce spina bifida, we injected VPA (350 mg VPA-Na/kg body weight) subcutaneously three times on d 9 of gestation at 0, 6 and 12 h. In some mice, L-methionine (3 x 70 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before each VPA administration. When fetuses were examined on d 18, methionine treatment slightly reduced the VPA-induced spina bifida aperta rate from 5 to 1% (P > 0.05, no significant difference). The incidence of VPA-induced spina bifida occulta (90%) was significantly lower (28%) when methionine was also administered (P bifida in mice without altering VPA kinetics.

  8. Simple plasma work-up for a fast chromatographic analysis of homocysteine, cysteine, methionine and aromatic amino acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr; Matucha, P.; Vránková, A.; Šimek, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 789, - (2003), s. 311-322 ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA MZd NB6708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Homocysteine * cysteine * methionine Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.085, year: 2003

  9. Anxiety-related behavior in hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine nutritional overload in rats: role of the brain oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncic, Dragan; Mikić, Jelena; Rasic-Markovic, Aleksandra; Velimirović, Milica; Stojković, Tihomir; Obrenović, Radmila; Rankov-Petrović, Bojana; Šušić, Veselinka; Djuric, Dragan; Petronijević, Nataša; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a methionine-enriched diet on anxiety-related behavior in rats and to determine the role of the brain oxidative status in these alterations. Adult male Wistar rats were fed from the 30th to 60th postnatal day with standard or methionine-enriched diet (double content comparing with standard diet: 7.7 g/kg). Rats were tested in open field and light-dark tests and afterwards oxidative status in the different brain regions were determined. Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine-enriched diet in this study decreased the number of rearings, as well as the time that these animals spent in the center of the open field, but increased index of thigmotaxy. Oxidative status was selectively altered in the examined regions. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the cortex and nc. caudatus of rats developing hyperhomocysteinemia, but unaltered in the hippocampus and thalamus. Based on the results of this research, it could be concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine nutritional overload increased anxiety-related behavior in rats. These proanxiogenic effects could be, at least in part, a consequence of oxidative stress in the rat brain.

  10. Platinum(II) complexes with steroidal esters of L-methionine and L-histidine: Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasnica, Miroslav; Buděšínský, Miloš; Swaczynová, Jana; Pouzar, Vladimír; Kohout, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2008), s. 3704-3713 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : steroids * platinum * L-histidin * L-methionin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2008

  11. Effect of supplementation with methionine and different fat sources on the glutathione redox system of growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Katalin; Mézes, M; Gaál, T; Bartos, A; Balogh, K; Husvéth, F

    2004-01-01

    The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.

  12. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, A.C.; Hoyo, C.; Grant, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004-2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95 % CI 1.1-3.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32-5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR=6.7 ; 95% CI=1.6-27.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0 . 9 ; 95 % CI=0.24-3.92) (p-interaction=0.045). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  13. Dietary Methionine Restriction: Effects on Glucose Tolerance, Lipid Content and micro-RNA composition in the muscle of Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean muscle mass plays an important role in overall health, as altered skeletal muscle metabolism can impact both the incidence and prevention of conditions related to metabolic health. Intriguingly, dietary methionine restriction (MR) has been shown to ameliorate this phenotype over time potentiall...

  14. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  15. USA: OSTI Joins In Celebrating the Forty-Fifth Anniversary of INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years ago, nations around the world saw their dream for a more efficient way to share nuclear-related information reach fruition through the creation of a formal international collaboration. This was accomplished without the Internet, email, or websites. It was the right thing to do for public safety, education, and the further advancement of science. It was also a necessary way forward as the volume of research and information about nuclear-related science, even back then, was skyrocketing and exceeded the capacity for any one country to go it alone. And the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) was part of the collaboration from its initial planning stages. The International Nuclear Information System, or INIS, as it is commonly known, was approved by the Governing Board of the United Nations’ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1969 and began operations in 1970. The primary purpose of INIS was, and still is, to collect and share information about the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, with participating nations sharing efforts to build a centralized resource. OSTI grew out of the United States’ post-World War II initiative to make the scientific research of the Manhattan Project as freely available to the public as possible. Thus, OSTI had been building the premier Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) publication since the late 1940s and was perfectly positioned to provide information gathering and organizing expertise to help the INIS concept coalesce into reality. OSTI was a key player in formative working group discussions at the IAEA in Vienna, Austria in the 1966-67 timeframe, and led many of the subsequent discussions and teams that finalized INIS policy guidance, common exchange formats, and more. To this day, OSTI has continued to represent the U.S. as the official INIS Liaison Officer (ILO) organization, contributing database content, helping disseminate INIS content more widely

  16. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A (MsrA) and Its Function in Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification inArchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian; Adams, Zachary; Liu, Rui; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Wu, Yifei; Bowmann, Connor F; Moskovitz, Jackob; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2017-09-05

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an antioxidant enzyme found in all domains of life that catalyzes the reduction of methionine- S -sulfoxide (MSO) to methionine in proteins and free amino acids. We demonstrate that archaeal MsrA has a ubiquitin-like (Ubl) protein modification activity that is distinct from its stereospecific reduction of MSO residues. MsrA catalyzes this Ubl modification activity, with the Ubl-activating E1 UbaA, in the presence of the mild oxidant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and in the absence of reductant. In contrast, the MSO reductase activity of MsrA is inhibited by DMSO and requires reductant. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis reveals that MsrA-dependent Ubl conjugates are associated with DNA replication, protein remodeling, and oxidative stress and include the Ubl-modified MsrA, Orc3 (Orc1/Cdc6), and Cdc48d (Cdc48/p97 AAA+ ATPase). Overall, we found archaeal MsrA to have opposing MSO reductase and Ubl modifying activities that are associated with oxidative stress responses and controlled by exposure to mild oxidant. IMPORTANCE Proteins that are damaged by oxidative stress are often targeted for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The mechanisms that control this response are poorly understood, especially under conditions of mild oxidative stress when protein damage is modest. Here, we discovered a novel function of archaeal MsrA in guiding the Ubl modification of target proteins in the presence of mild oxidant. This newly reported activity of MsrA is distinct from its stereospecific reduction of methionine- S -sulfoxide to methionine residues. Our results are significant steps forward, first, in elucidating a protein factor that guides Ubl modification in archaea, and second, in providing an insight into oxidative stress responses that can trigger Ubl modification in a cell. Copyright © 2017 Fu et al.

  17. Ergothioneine contents in fruiting bodies and their enhancement in mycelial cultures by the addition of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Young; Park, Eung-Jun; Ahn, Jin Kwon; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2009-03-01

    The levels of ergothioneine (ERG), which have been shown to act as an excellent antioxidant, were determined in both fruiting bodies and mycelia of various mushroom species. We found that ERG accumulated at different levels in fruiting bodies of mushrooms and showed up to a 92.3-fold difference between mushrooms. We also found that ERG accumulated at higher levels in mycelia than in fruiting bodies of economically important mushroom species such as Ganoderma neo-japonicum, G. applanatum and Paecilomyces tenuipes. The addition of 2 mM methionine (Met) to mycelial culture medium increased the ERG contents in most mushroom species tested, indicating that Met is a good additive to enhance the ERG levels in a variety of mushroom species. Taking these results into consideration, we suggest that the addition of Met to the mycelial culture medium is an efficient way to enhance the antioxidant properties in economically important mushroom species.

  18. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed.

  19. Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs feddiets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S......) source in diets for pigs on urine acidification and mineral metabolism. Twenty-four 45 kg pigs in a 2 × 2 factorial design were fed one of 4 diets, containing 0 or 2% BA and a low or high dietary S level provided through diet supplementation of 0 or 1% Met. The pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 5...... d adaptation period and a 7 d period with collection of faeces and urine. Benzoic acid was metabolized into hippuric acid which reduced urinary pH by 0.8 pH units (P 

  20. [Methionine sulfoximine and phosphinothricin--glutamine synthetase inhibitors and activators and their herbicidal activity (A review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, Z G; Solov'eva, N A; Sidel'nikova, L I

    2003-01-01

    Derivatives of methionine sulfoximine (MSO) and phosphinothrycin (PPT), which are analogues of glutamate, exhibit selective herbicidal activity. This effect is accounted for by impairments of nitrogen metabolism, resulting from inhibition of its key enzyme in plants, glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2). Inhibition of the enzyme causes ammoniac nitrogen to accumulate and terminates the synthesis of glutamine. Changes in the content of these two metabolites (excess ammonium and glutamine deficiency) act in a concert to cause plant death. However, low concentrations of MSO, PPT, and their metabolites produce an opposite effect: glutamine synthetase is activated, with concomitant stimulation of plant growth and productivity. The mechanisms whereby MSO and PPT affect glutamine synthetase activity are discussed in the context of nitrogen metabolism in plants.

  1. Equal Pay as a Moving Target: International perspectives on forty-years of addressing the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline O’Reilly; Mark Smith; Simon Deakin; Brendan Burchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the key factors impacting upon the gender pay gap in the UK, Europe and Australia. Forty years after the implementation of the first equal pay legislation, the pay gap remains a key aspect of the inequalities women face in the labour market. While the overall pay gap has tended to fall in many countries over the past forty years, it has not closed; in some countries it has been stubbornly resistant, or has even widened. In reviewing the collection of papers ...

  2. 42 CFR 457.618 - Ten percent limit on certain Children's Health Insurance Program expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ten percent limit on certain Children's Health Insurance Program expenditures. 457.618 Section 457.618 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Payments to States § 457.618 Ten percent limit on certain...

  3. Prolonged Exercise and Changes in Percent Fat Determinations by Hydrostatic Weighing and Scintillation Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tom R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study, designed to determine the effect of a prolonged running bout on the measurement of percent fat, produced erroneously low readings. It is suggested that previous exercise and state of hydration of subjects should be controlled prior to percent fat determination by hydrostatic weighing or scintillation counting. (MJB)

  4. Towards Reassignment of the Methionine Codon AUG to Two Different Noncanonical Amino Acids in Bacterial Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Simone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic encoding of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs through sense codon reassignment is an efficient tool for expanding the chemical functionality of proteins. Incorporation of multiple ncAAs, however, is particularly challenging. This work describes the first attempts to reassign the sense methionine (Met codon AUG to two different ncAAs in bacterial protein translation. Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS charges two tRNAs with Met: tRNAfMet initiates protein synthesis (starting AUG codon, whereas elongator tRNAMet participates in protein elongation (internal AUG codon(s. Preliminary in vitro experiments show that these tRNAs can be charged with the Met analogues azidohomoalanine (Aha and ethionine (Eth by exploiting the different substrate specificities of EcMetRS and the heterologous MetRS / tRNAMet pair from the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, respectively. Here, we explored whether this configuration would allow a differential decoding during in vivo protein initiation and elongation. First, we eliminated the elongator tRNAMet from a methionine auxotrophic E. coli strain, which was then equipped with a rescue plasmid harboring the heterologous pair. Although the imported pair was not fully orthogonal, it was possible to incorporate preferentially Eth at internal AUG codons in a model protein, suggesting that in vivo AUG codon reassignment is possible. To achieve full orthogonality during elongation, we imported the known orthogonal pair of Methanosarcina mazei pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS / tRNAPyl and devised a genetic selection system based on the suppression of an amber stop codon in an important glycolytic gene, pfkA, which restores enzyme functionality and normal cellular growth. Using an evolved PylRS able to accept Met analogues, it should be possible to reassign the AUG codon to two different ncAAs by using directed evolution. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

  5. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid/methionine for active targeted delivery of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravian P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pegah Khosravian,1 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,2 Mehdi Khoobi,3 Seyed Naser Ostad,4 Farid Abedin Dorkoosh,1 Hamid Akbari Javar,1,* Massoud Amanlou5,6,* 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Radiopharmacy, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 5Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, 6Drug Design and Development Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs are known as carriers with high loading capacity and large functionalizable surface area for target-directed delivery. In this study, a series of docetaxel-loaded folic acid- or methionine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DTX/MSN-FA or DTX/MSN-Met with large pores and amine groups at inner pore surface properties were prepared. The results showed that the MSNs were successfully synthesized, having good pay load and pH-sensitive drug release kinetics. The cellular investigation on MCF-7 cells showed better performance of cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis and an increase in cellular uptake of targeted nanoparticles. In vivo fluorescent imaging on healthy BALB/c mice proved that bare MSN-NH2 are mostly accumulated in the liver but MSN-FA or MSN-Met are more concentrated in the kidney. Importantly, ex vivo fluorescent images of tumor-induced BALB/c mice organs revealed the ability of MSN-FA to reach the tumor tissues. In conclusion, DTX/MSNs exhibited a good anticancer activity and enhanced the possibility of targeted drug delivery for breast cancer. Keywords: targeted delivery, mesoporous silica nanoparticle, folic acid, methionine, docetaxel

  6. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  7. Completion of the first approach to critical for the seven percent critical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, A. D.; Harms, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    The first approach-to-critical experiment in the Seven Percent Critical Experiment series was recently completed at Sandia. This experiment is part of the Seven Percent Critical Experiment which will provide new critical and reactor physics benchmarks for fuel enrichments greater than five weight percent. The inverse multiplication method was used to determine the state of the system during the course of the experiment. Using the inverse multiplication method, it was determined that the critical experiment went slightly supercritical with 1148 fuel elements in the fuel array. The experiment is described and the results of the experiment are presented. (authors)

  8. Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, James

    Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p sea salt SO4 concentrations were found to have a very similar trend to European and Former Soviet Union SO2 emissions. SO4 concentrations declined dramatically in the early 1990s a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Potential source contribution

  9. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together

  10. Interaction of dietary calcium, manganese, and manganese source (Mn oxide or Mn methionine complex) on chick performance and manganese utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheideler, S E

    1991-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the utilization of manganese (Mn) as influenced by the level and source of Mn and the level of dietary calcium (Ca) in broiler chickens. Trial One was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of two Mn sources (Mn methionine or manganous oxide), two levels of dietary Ca (1.8 or 1.0), and three levels of supplemental Mn (30, 60, or 200 mg/kg) fed until 4 wk of age. Total phosphorus (available phosphorus) levels were 0.70% (0.48%) during all ages. High levels of dietary Ca caused a slower early rate of growth (0.53 vs. 0.64 kg) for chicks fed 1.8 vs 1.0% Ca, respectively. Chick weight was equivalent for all diets within the Ca-treatment group, except the dietary combination of high Ca and 200 mg/kg Mn as Mn methionine. Bone and liver Mn were significantly increased as the Mn level increased, but were not affected by the Mn source. Chicks fed 1.8% Ca had higher levels of bone Mn (9.28 ppm) than chicks fed 1.0% Ca (7.23 ppm). High levels of dietary Ca and 200 ppm Mn methionine dramatically depressed early growth, feed intake, and bone ash in this trial, raising the question of a diet x environment (heat-stress) effect. Trial Two was a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of two levels of dietary Ca (1.8 or 1.0%) and two Mn sources (200 mg/kg Mn as Mn methionine or MnO) up to 3 wk of age in a controlled heat-stress environment. No growth depression in the chicks fed high levels of Ca and Mn methionine was observed. In the presence of high levels of dietary Ca, bone Mn was significantly higher when chicks were fed the MnO source. In summary, dietary Ca did not decrease Mn utilization in these trials, and availability of Mn in Mn methionine as a source compared to MnO depended on dietary Ca levels.

  11. Enzyme kinetic modelling and analytical solution of nonlinear rate equation in the transformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in batch reactor using the new homotopy perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Sivasamy

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of biotransformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in the cascade of the enzymes such as, D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO, L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase (L-PheDH and formate dehydrogenase (FDH is discussed. The model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction equations under non steady-state conditions for biochemical reactions occurring in the batch reactor that describes the substrate and product concentration within the catalyst. Simple analytical expressions for the concentration of substrate and product have been derived for all values of reaction parameters using the new homotopy perturbation method (NHPM. Enzyme reaction rate in terms of concentration and kinetic parameters are also reported. The analytical results are also compared with experimental and numerical ones and a good agreement is obtained. The graphical procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters is also reported.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  14. New Study Shows 59 Percent of Americans Will Develop Kidney Disease in Their Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STUDY SHOWS 59 PERCENT OF AMERICANS WILL DEVELOP KIDNEY DISEASE IN THEIR LIFETIME National Kidney Foundation Recommends Annual ... 2013) – Nearly six of ten Americans will develop kidney disease in their lifetime, according to a new analysis ...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  16. EnviroAtlas Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  17. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Spotlight May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as ... common problem in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol ...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Percent Urban Land Cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the percent urban land for each 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) in the conterminous United States. For the purposes of this...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  1. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover along camera tow tracks in west Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery northwest of...

  2. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover and sand along camera tow tracks in west Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral and sand overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery northwest...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Estimated Percent Tree Cover Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates tree cover along walkable roads. The road width is estimated for each road and percent tree cover is calculated in a 8.5 meter...

  4. The effect of increasing concentrations of dl-methionine and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on hepatic genes controlling methionine regeneration and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Bertics, Sandra J; Luchini, N Daniel; White, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Metabolizable methionine (Met) concentrations can be increased by feeding rumen-protected dl-Met or the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMBi). Hepatic responses to increasing concentrations of metabolizable Met as a result of supplementation of different Met sources have not been comparatively examined. The objective of this experiment was to examine the regulation of key genes for Met metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation in response to increasing concentrations of dl-Met or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) in bovine primary hepatocytes. Hepatocytes isolated from 4 Holstein calves less than 7d old were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24h before addition of treatments. Cells were then exposed to treatments of dl-Met or HMB (0, 10, 20, 40, or 60 µM) in Met-free medium for 24h and collected for RNA isolation and quantification of gene expression by quantitative PCR. Expression of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), and 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes, which catalyze regeneration of Met from betaine and homocysteine, decreased linearly with increasing dl-Met concentration. We observed similar effects with increasing HMB concentration, except expression of MTHFR, which was not altered. Expression of Met adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A), which catalyzes the first step of Met metabolism to generate S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a primary methyl donor, was decreased with increasing dl-Met or HMB concentration. Expression of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) was decreased linearly with increasing HMB concentration, but not altered by dl-Met. Increasing concentrations of dl-Met and HMB decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) expression, but did not alter the expression of mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2) or pyruvate carboxylase (PC). Expression of glucose-6-phosphatase(G6PC

  5. WHK Student Internship Enrollment, Mentor Participation Up More than 50 Percent | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship Program (WHK SIP) has enrolled the largest class ever for the 2013–2014 academic year, with 66 students and 50 mentors. This enrollment reflects a 53 percent increase in students and a 56 percent increase in mentors, compared to 2012–2013 (43 students and 32 mentors), according to Julie Hartman, WHK SIP director.

  6. Utility of (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil for imaging of Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis in a juvenile porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil positron emission tomography (PET) with (111)In-labeled leukocyte and (99m) Tc-DPD (Tc-99m 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F...... in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The sequential scan protocol included Computed Tomography, (11)C-methionine and (11)C-donepezil PET, (99m) Tc-DPD and (111)In-labelled leukocytes scintigraphy, and (18)F-FDG PET. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross......-methionine in 79%, (11)C-donepezil in 58%, and (99m) Tc-DPD in none. Overall, (18)F-FDG PET was superior to (111)In-leukocyte SPECT and (11)C-methionine in marking infectious lesions....

  7. Modelling the effects of dietary methionine level and form on postprandial plasma essential amino acid profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Feekings, Jordan P.; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2016-01-01

    Aquafeed formulation is susceptible to affect amino acid (AA) availability for metabolic functions. Statistical models were applied to quantify the effect of dietary methionine level (from 6.01 to 16.17 g kg 1 dry matter) and form (free, coated or bound) on postprandial concentrations of plasma...... essential amino acid (EAA) in rainbow trout. Twelve diets were formulated with pea and soya protein concentrate or fish meal as the main protein ingredients and were supplemented or not with increasing amount of either crystalline or agar-coated methionine. Fish were acclimatized to one of the 12 diets...... for 6 weeks before postprandial plasma sampling (six sampling points up to 36 h, seven fish each time), further analysed for EAA content. Using generalized additive models, we show that (i) dietary methionine level and form explained 74% postprandial methionine plasma variations and that (ii...

  8. Usefulness of composite methionine-positron emission tomography/3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging to detect the localization and extent of early-stage Cushing adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Abe, Takehiko; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-04-01

    Fifty to eighty percent of Cushing disease is diagnosed by typical endocrine responses. Recently, the number of diagnoses of Cushing disease without typical Cushing syndrome has been increasing; therefore, improving ways to determine the localization of the adenoma and making an early diagnosis is important. This study was undertaken to determine the present diagnostic accuracy for Cushing microadenoma and to compare the differences in diagnostic accuracy between MR imaging and PET/MR imaging. During the past 3 years the authors analyzed the diagnostic accuracy in a series of 35 patients with Cushing adenoma that was verified by surgical pituitary exploration. All 35 cases of Cushing disease, including 20 cases of "overt" and 15 cases of "preclinical" Cushing disease, were studied. Superconductive MR images (1.5 or 3.0 T) and composite images from FDG-PET or methionine (MET)-PET and 3.0-T MR imaging were compared with the localization of adenomas verified by surgery. The diagnostic accuracy of superconductive MR imaging for detecting the localization of Cushing microadenoma was only 40%. The causes of unsatisfactory results for superconductive MR imaging were false-negative results (10 cases), false-positive results (6 cases), and instances of double pituitary adenomas (3 cases). In contrast, the accuracy of microadenoma localization using MET-PET/3.0-T MR imaging was 100% and that of FDG-PET/3.0-T MR imaging was 73%. Moreover, the adenoma location was better delineated on MET-PET/MR images than on FDG-PET/MR images. There was no significant difference in maximum standard uptake value of adenomas evaluated by MET-PET between preclinical Cushing disease and overt Cushing disease. Composite MET-PET/3.0-T MR imaging is useful for the improvement of the delineation of Cushing microadenoma and offers high-quality detectability for early-stage Cushing adenoma.

  9. Kinetic Modeling of Methionine Oxidation in Monoclonal Antibodies from Hydrogen Peroxide Spiking Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ada; Lam, Xanthe M; Kuehl, Christopher; Grauschopf, Ulla; Wang, Y John

    2015-01-01

    When isolator technology is applied to biotechnology drug product fill-finish process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) spiking studies for the determination of the sensitivity of protein to residual peroxide in the isolator can be useful for assessing a maximum vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) level. When monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug products were spiked with H2O2, an increase in methionine (Met 252 and Met 428) oxidation in the Fc region of the mAbs with a decrease in H2O2 concentration was observed for various levels of spiked-in peroxide. The reaction between Fc-Met and H2O2 was stoichiometric (i.e., 1:1 molar ratio), and the reaction rate was dependent on the concentrations of mAb and H2O2. The consumption of H2O2 by Fc-Met oxidation in the mAb followed pseudo first-order kinetics, and the rate was proportional to mAb concentration. The extent of Met 428 oxidation was half of that of Met 252, supporting that Met 252 is twice as reactive as Met 428. Similar results were observed for free L-methionine when spiked with H2O2. However, mAb formulation excipients may affect the rate of H2O2 consumption. mAb formulations containing trehalose or sucrose had faster H2O2 consumption rates than formulations without the sugars, which could be the result of impurities (e.g., metal ions) present in the excipients that may act as catalysts. Based on the H2O2 spiking study results, we can predict the amount Fc-Met oxidation for a given protein concentration and H2O2 level. Our kinetic modeling of the reaction between Fc-Met oxidation and H2O2 provides an outline to design a H2O2 spiking study to support the use of VPHP isolator for antibody drug product manufacture. Isolator technology is increasing used in drug product manufacturing of biotherapeutics. In order to understand the impact of residual vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) levels on protein product quality, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) spiking studies may be performed to determine the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody

  10. The Efficiency of Methionine as a Radioprotectant of Bacillus anthracis for Cell Viability and Outgrowth Time after UVC and Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Beer - Lambert law (Equation 9). A cε=  (9) For the range of absorbances calculated, the relation of absorbance to time, the slope, is...radical S -adenosyl-methionine (SAM) iron-sulfur enzyme [39]. SAM enzymes are an emerging superfamily of enzymes specializing in repair reactions [16...cluster and a subsequent electron transfer occurs [40]. The dimer is directly reversed by cleaving the C5’- S bond and forming a methionine [38

  11. The Effects of Methionine-Enriched and Vitamins (Folate, Pyridoxine and Cobalamine-Deficient Diet on Exploratory Activity in Rats - A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailovic Natasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased homocysteine levels induced by methionine nutritional overload (twice as standard and deficiency of the vitamins folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine, which plays an important role in homocysteine metabolism in anxiety-related behaviour, expressed by means of exploratory activity in rats. Twenty-three male Wistar albino rats (4 weeks old, 100±15 g body weight were divided into three groups: control (n=8, methionine-enriched (Meth+, 7.7 g of methionine/kg chow, n=7 and methionine-enriched vitamin-deficient (Meth+Vit-, 7.7 g of methionine/ kg chow, deficient in folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine - 0.08, 0.01 and 0.01 mg/kg, n=8. All animals had free access to food and water for 30 days. Behavioural testing was performed using the elevated plus maze (EPM test. Standard parameters for vertical exploratory activity, the number of rearings and the number of head-dippings, as well as the total exploratory activity (summarizing overall exploratory activity in the EPM were significantly reduced following 30 days of methionine nutritional overload (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. A methionine-enriched diet coupled with a reduction in some B vitamins resulted in a more pronounced decline in exploratory drive observed in the EPM test compared to the control (p<0.01. The decline in total exploratory activity associated with vitamin deficiency was significant compared to the Meth+ group (p<0.05. The results of this study highlight the important role of homocysteine in the modulation of exploratory activity in rats. Decreased exploratory drive induced by both a methionine-enriched and vitamin-deficient diet could be attributed to an anxiogenic effect of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  12. Enzymatic preparation of α- and β-deuterated or tritiated amino acids with l-methionine γ-lyase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaki, N.; Sawada, S.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1982-01-01

    L-Methionine γ-lyase catalyzes the exchange of α- and β-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium or tritium of solvents. The rate of α-hydrogen exchange with deuterium was about 40 times faster than that of the elimination reactions. The deuterium and tritium were exchanged also with the α- and β-hydrogens of the straight-chain amino acids which do not undergo the elimination: L-alanine, L-α-aminobutyrate, L-norvaline, and L-norleucine. No exchange occurs for the D-isomers, acidic L-amino acids, basic L-amino acids, and branched-chain L-amino acids, although α-hydrogen of glycine, L-trypotophan, and L-phenylalanine is exchanged slowly. These enzymatic hydrogen-exchange reactions facilitate specific labeling of the L-amino acids with deuterium and tritium

  13. Development of speciation analysis for selenium in nutritional supplements by the determination of the seleno-methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannac, S.; Labarraque, G.; Fisicaro, P.; Sannac, S.; Pannier, F.; Potin-Gautier, M.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a reference method in analytical chemistry is presented. Liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed to perform in speciation analysis. Applications are developed for the determination of seleno-methionine in nutritional supplements. The use of isotope dilution, a primary method, is required to enable measurement traceability. Method validation is ensured by the study of a certified reference material. (authors)

  14. Methionine and glucose transport by isolated intestinal brush border membrane vesicles from pigs and lambs fed an Aspergillus product

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Insurk

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether feeding an Aspergillus product would influence growth or feed utilization and intestinal mucosal cell function as indicated by uptake of methionine and glucose by isolated intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). In Experiment 1, 24 weanling pigs were paired by sex, BW, and litter and were allotted, within pairs, to either an 18% CP corn-soy diet (control) or the same diet supplemented (.15%) with an Aspergillus product. There were no diff...

  15. Producing irreversible topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breaks by site-specific Pt(II)-methionine coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ren; Chen, Shin-Fu; Wu, Chyuan-Chuan; Liao, Yi-Wen; Lin, Te-Sheng; Liu, Ko-Ting; Chen, Yi-Song; Li, Tsai-Kun; Chien, Tun-Cheng; Chan, Nei-Li

    2017-10-13

    Human type II topoisomerase (Top2) isoforms, hTop2α and hTop2β, are targeted by some of the most successful anticancer drugs. These drugs induce Top2-mediated DNA cleavage to trigger cell-death pathways. The potency of these drugs correlates positively with their efficacy in stabilizing the enzyme-mediated DNA breaks. Structural analysis of hTop2α and hTop2β revealed the presence of methionine residues in the drug-binding pocket, we therefore tested whether a tighter Top2-drug association may be accomplished by introducing a methionine-reactive Pt2+ into a drug to further stabilize the DNA break. Herein, we synthesized an organoplatinum compound, etoplatin-N2β, by replacing the methionine-juxtaposing group of the drug etoposide with a cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) moiety. Compared to etoposide, etoplatin-N2β more potently inhibits both human Top2s. While the DNA breaks arrested by etoposide can be rejoined, those captured by etoplatin-N2β are practically irreversible. Crystallographic analyses of hTop2β complexed with DNA and etoplatin-N2β demonstrate coordinate bond formation between Pt2+ and a flanking methionine. Notably, this stable coordinate tether can be loosened by disrupting the structural integrity of drug-binding pocket, suggesting that Pt2+ coordination chemistry may allow for the development of potent inhibitors with protein conformation-dependent reversibility. This approach may be exploited to achieve isoform-specific targeting of human Top2s. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Deficiency Exacerbates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via Increased Mitochondrial Damage and Renal Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Ra; Kim, Ki Young; Han, Sang Jun; Kim, Jee In; Kim, Hwa-Young; Park, Kwon Moo

    2017-10-10

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which is abundantly localized in the mitochondria, reduces methionine-S-sulfoxide, scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, accumulates at high levels in the mitochondria of renal cells, causing mitochondrial impairment that ultimately leads to nephrotoxicity. Here, we investigated the role of MsrA in cisplatin-induced mitochondrial damage and kidney cell death using MsrA gene-deleted (MsrA -/- ) mice. Cisplatin injection resulted in increases of ROS production, methionine oxidation, and oxidative damage in the kidneys. This oxidative stress was greater in MsrA -/- mouse kidneys than in wild-type (MsrA +/+ ) mouse kidneys. MsrA gene deletion exacerbated cisplatin-induced reductions in the expression and activity of MsrA and MsrBs, and the expression of thioredoxin 1, glutathione peroxidase 1 and 4, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cystathionine-β-synthase, and cystathionine-γ-lyase. Cisplatin induced swelling, cristae loss, and fragmentation of mitochondria with increased lipid peroxidation, more so in MsrA -/- than in MsrA +/+ kidneys. The ratio of mitochondrial fission regulator (Fis1) to fusion regulator (Opa1) was higher in MsrA -/- than MsrA +/+ mice. MsrA deletion exacerbated cisplatin-induced increases in Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, cleaved caspase-3 level, and apoptosis, whereas MsrA overexpression attenuated cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. MsrA gene deletion in mice exacerbates cisplatin-induced renal injury through increases of mitochondrial susceptibility, whereas MsrA overexpression protects cells against cisplatin. This study demonstrates that MsrA protects kidney cells against cisplatin-induced methionine oxidation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, suggesting that MsrA could be a useful target protein for the treatment of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 727-741.

  17. Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.

  18. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity through altering ATPase activities and oxidative stress in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.-W.; Liu, S.-H.; Young, Y.-H.; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn

    2006-01-01

    Cisplatin has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat many kinds of malignancies. Its damage to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) system has been reported. However, the underlying biochemical change in the inner ear or central vestibular nervous system is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to examine whether cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity and D-methionine protection were correlated with the changes of ATPase activities and oxidative stress of ampullary tissue of vestibules as well as cerebellar cortex (the inhibitory center of VOR system) of guinea pigs. By means of a caloric test coupled with electronystagmographic recordings, we found that cisplatin exposure caused a dose-dependent (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) vestibular dysfunction as revealed by a decrease of slow phase velocity (SPV). In addition, cisplatin significantly inhibited the Na + , K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activities in the ampullary tissue with a good dose-response relationship but not those of cerebellar cortex. Regression analysis indicated that a decrease of SPV was well correlated with the reduction of Na + , K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activities of the ampullary tissue. D-Methionine (300 mg/kg) reduced both abnormalities of SPV and ATPase activities in a correlated manner. Moreover, cisplatin exposure led to a significant dose-dependent increase of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide concentrations of the vestibules, which could be significantly suppressed by D-methionine. However, cisplatin did not alter the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide of the cerebellum. In conclusion, cisplatin inhibited ATPase activities and increased oxidative stress in guinea pig vestibular labyrinths. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity associated with ionic disturbance through its antioxidative property

  19. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O' Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  20. Long-term evaluation of the effect of hypofractionated high-energy proton treatment of benign meningiomas by means of 11C-l-methionine positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryttlefors, Mats; Latini, Francesco; Gudjonsson, Olafur; Danfors, Torsten; Montelius, Anders; Blomquist, Erik

    2016-01-01

    To determine if 11 C-l-methionine PET is a useful tool in the evaluation of the long-term effect of proton beam treatment in patients with meningioma remnant. Included in the study were 19 patients (4 men, 15 women) with intracranial meningioma remnants who received hypofractionated high-energy proton beam treatment. Patients were examined with 11 C-l-methionine PET and MRI prior to treatment and after 6 months, and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years. Temporal changes in methionine uptake ratio, meningioma volume, meningioma regrowth and clinical symptoms throughout the follow-up period were evaluated. In 17 patients the tumour volume was unchanged throughout the follow-up. The methionine uptake ratio on PET decreased over the years in most patients. In two patients the tumour remnant showed progression on MRI. In these patients, prior to the volume increase on MRI, the methionine uptake ratio increased. One patient experienced transient clinical symptoms and showed radiological evidence of a radiation-induced reaction close to the irradiated field. Proton beam treatment is a safe and effective treatment for achieving long-term growth arrest in meningioma remnants. Follow-up with 11 C-l-methionine PET may be a valuable adjunct to, but not a replacement for, standard radiological follow-up. (orig.)

  1. A novel biorational pesticide: efficacy of methionine against Heraclides (Papilio) cresphontes, a surrogate of the invasive Princeps (Papilio) demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Delano S; Cuda, James P; Stevens, Bruce R

    2011-12-01

    ABSTRACT The Southeast Asian citrus-feeding butterfly Princeps (Papilio) demoleus (L.) was recently introduced into the Americas, causing an imminent threat to citrus production and ornamental flora. The human nutrient amino acid methionine has been shown by us to disrupt aminoacid-modulated ion transport systems in caterpillars and other insect larvae that possess an alkaline midgut. Heraclides (Papilio) cresphontes was bioassayed as a United States Department of Agriculture permitted surrogate of the Florida quarantined P. demoleus to test the potential efficacy of methionine. Larvae were allowed to feed ad libitum on wild lime plants with leaves treated with methionine or proline. Methionine caused 100% mortality in first through fourth instars in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as determined by probit analysis whereas proline was not toxic. Wild lime host plants did not exhibit phytotoxicity with methionine treatments during a 14 d test period. It is concluded that methionine is an effective larvicide against H. cresphontes, and therefore may be a candidate environmentally safe biorational pesticide for use against invasive P. demoleus in the Americas.

  2. Estimation of inbreeding rates and extinction risk of forty one Belgian chicken breeds in 2005 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Nassim; Philippe, François-Xavier; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Leroy, Pascal; Michaux, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In Belgium, as generally in Europe, the dominant position of the high producing commercial strains specialized in meat or eggs production threats of extinction the local traditional breeds. In this work, a follow up of the changes in populations size, and the rates of inbreeding of the Belgian poultry breeds, has been carried out in 2005 and 2010. About forty breeds were concerned. The Belgian hen breeds being overwhelmingly under threat of extinction, because of the low number of individu...

  3. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase Distribution and its Influence on Vitamin B12 Growth Requirements in Marine Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Cohen, N.; Moreno, C.; Marchetti, A.

    2016-02-01

    The requirement for cobalamin (vitamin B12) in microalgae is primarily a function of the type of methionine synthase present within their gene repertoires. This study validates this concept through analysis of the distribution of B12-independent methionine synthase in ecologically relevant diatom genera, including the closely related bloom-forming diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia and Fragilariopsis. Growth and gene expression analysis of the vitamin B12-requiring version of the methionine synthase enzyme, MetH, and the B12-independent version, MetE, demonstrate that it is the presence of the MetE gene which allows Fragilariopsis cylindrus to grow in the absence of B12, while P. granii's lack of a functional MetE gene means that it cannot survive without the vitamin. Through phylogenetic analysis, we further substantiate a lack of obvious grouping in MetE presence among diatom clades. In addition, we also show how this trend may have a biogeographical basis, particularly in High-Nutrient, Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions such as the Southern Ocean where B12 concentrations may be consistently low. These results are paired with field experiments showing patterns of MetE and MetH gene expression in natural phytoplankton communities under a matrix of iron and B12 limitations in the HNLC NE Pacific. Our findings demonstrate the important role vitamins can play in diatom community dynamics within areas where vitamin supply may be variable and limiting.

  4. Interactive effects of sex, social environment, dietary restriction, and methionine on survival and reproduction in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Friberg, Urban; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-08-01

    For the evolution of life histories, the trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental. Because sexes optimize fitness in different ways, this trade-off is expected to be resolved differently by males and females. Consequently, the sexes are predicted to respond differently to changes in resource availability. In fruit flies, research on dietary restriction has focused largely on females maintained in the absence of males, thereby neglecting sexual interactions that affect reproductive behavior of both sexes under more natural conditions. Here, we tested for the interactive effects of diet (40, 60, 100, and 300 % of standard yeast concentrations) and social environment (separate-sex vs. mixed-sex groups) on male and female Drosophila melanogaster life histories. Additionally, we evaluated the essential amino acid methionine as an agent that can uncouple the survival-reproduction trade-off. We show sex differences in the effect of social environment on survival patterns, but not on reproductive fitness. In females, yeast had a positive effect on reproduction and a negative effect on survival. In males, yeast had a negative effect on reproduction and the effect on survival depended on the social environment. Methionine reduced survival, but had no effect on reproduction. Our findings highlight the need to include both sexes and to vary social environments in research programs aimed at lifespan extension and call for further evaluation of the fecundity-restoring effect of methionine.

  5. Mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with methionine metabolism and nuclear DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, Oswaldo A; Martinez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Wang, Tianyuan; Grenet, Dagoberto; Bushel, Pierre; Li, Jianying; Chandel, Navdeep; Woychik, Richard P; Santos, Janine H

    2018-04-18

    Mitochondrial function affects many aspects of cellular physiology, and, most recently, its role in epigenetics has been reported. Mechanistically, how mitochondrial function alters DNA methylation patterns in the nucleus remains ill defined. Using a cell culture model of induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, in this study we show that progressive mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an early transcriptional and metabolic program centered on the metabolism of various amino acids, including those involved in the methionine cycle. We find that this program also increases DNA methylation, which occurs primarily in the genes that are differentially expressed. Maintenance of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) oxidation in the context of mtDNA loss rescues methionine salvage and polyamine synthesis and prevents changes in DNA methylation and gene expression but does not affect serine/folate metabolism or transsulfuration. This work provides a novel mechanistic link between mitochondrial function and epigenetic regulation of gene expression that involves polyamine and methionine metabolism responding to changes in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Given the implications of these findings, future studies across different physiological contexts and in vivo are warranted.

  6. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  7. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  8. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A (MsrA and Its Function in Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification in Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Fu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA is an antioxidant enzyme found in all domains of life that catalyzes the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide (MSO to methionine in proteins and free amino acids. We demonstrate that archaeal MsrA has a ubiquitin-like (Ubl protein modification activity that is distinct from its stereospecific reduction of MSO residues. MsrA catalyzes this Ubl modification activity, with the Ubl-activating E1 UbaA, in the presence of the mild oxidant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and in the absence of reductant. In contrast, the MSO reductase activity of MsrA is inhibited by DMSO and requires reductant. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis reveals that MsrA-dependent Ubl conjugates are associated with DNA replication, protein remodeling, and oxidative stress and include the Ubl-modified MsrA, Orc3 (Orc1/Cdc6, and Cdc48d (Cdc48/p97 AAA+ ATPase. Overall, we found archaeal MsrA to have opposing MSO reductase and Ubl modifying activities that are associated with oxidative stress responses and controlled by exposure to mild oxidant.

  9. 1H NMR studies of substrate hydrogen exchange reactions catalyzed by L-methionine gamma-lyase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaki, N.; Nakayama, T.; Sawada, S.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, K.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange reactions of various L-amino acids catalyzed by L-methionine gamma-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11) have been studied. The enzyme catalyzes the rapid exchange of the alpha- and beta-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium from the solvent. The rate of alpha-hydrogen exchange was about 40 times faster than that of the enzymatic elimination reaction of the sulfur-containing amino acids. The enzyme also catalyzes the exchange reaction of alpha- and beta-hydrogens of the straight-chain L-amino acids which are not susceptible to elimination. The exchange rates of the alpha-hydrogen and the total beta-hydrogens of L-alanine and L-alpha-aminobutyrate with deuterium followed first-order kinetics. For L-norvaline, L-norleucine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, and L-methionine, the rate of alpha-hydrogen exchange followed first-order kinetics, but the rate of total beta-hydrogen exchange decreased due to a primary isotope effect at the alpha-position. L-Phenylalanine and L-tryptophan slowly underwent alpha-hydrogen exchange. The pro-R hydrogen of glycine was deuterated stereospecifically

  10. Effect of certain active components from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Aβ secretion rate with L-[35S]-Methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yaer; Zhang Naizheng; Li Aimin; Xia Zongqin

    2006-01-01

    To observe the effect of certain active components from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Aβ secretion rates with L-[ 35 S]-Methionine, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in SK-N-SH cell lines stably transfected with APP695 was metabolically labeled with L-[ 35 S]-Methionine. the supernatant from culture medium was immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibody against Aβ 22-35 , Western blot was carried out, and the gray density of Aβ band in the autoradiograph was measured by an image analysis system. The active components from certain traditional Chinese medicinal herbs (ZMS from Zhimu and AST and HT from Huangqi) were added to the culture medium at a final concentration of 10 -5 mol/L. An Aβ band in the autoradiograph was clearly viewed in the culture medium after 24 h incorporation of [ -35 S]-Methionine which represent the secretion rate of Aβ by the cells. One of the 3 tested components (AST) could significantly reduce the Aβ secretion rate while the other two showed no effect. The preliminary result showed that certain active component from traditional Chinese medicines could decrease the Aβ secretion rate but other active components could not. Combined use of the AST and ZMS was more effective than single AST. (authors)

  11. Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M; Decker, H; Hartmann, H; Chavan, B; Rokos, H; Spencer, J D; Hasse, S; Thornton, M J; Shalbaf, M; Paus, R; Schallreuter, K U

    2009-07-01

    Senile graying of human hair has been the subject of intense research since ancient times. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in hair follicle melanocyte apoptosis and DNA damage. Here we show for the first time by FT-Raman spectroscopy in vivo that human gray/white scalp hair shafts accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in millimolar concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate almost absent catalase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B protein expression via immunofluorescence and Western blot in association with a functional loss of methionine sulfoxide (Met-S=O) repair in the entire gray hair follicle. Accordingly, Met-S=O formation of Met residues, including Met 374 in the active site of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, limits enzyme functionality, as evidenced by FT-Raman spectroscopy, computer simulation, and enzyme kinetics, which leads to gradual loss of hair color. Notably, under in vitro conditions, Met oxidation can be prevented by L-methionine. In summary, our data feed the long-voiced, but insufficiently proven, concept of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in the entire human hair follicle, inclusive of the hair shaft, as a key element in senile hair graying, which does not exclusively affect follicle melanocytes. This new insight could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process.

  12. Metabolome analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and optimization of culture medium for S-adenosyl-L-methionine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kenshi; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a fine chemical used as a nutritional supplement and a prescription drug. It is industrially produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to its high SAM content. To investigate the optimization of culture medium components for higher SAM production, metabolome analysis was conducted to compare the intracellular metabolite concentrations between Kyokai no. 6 (high SAM-producing) and laboratory yeast S288C (control) under different SAM production conditions. Metabolome analysis and the result of principal component analysis showed that the rate-limiting step for SAM production was ATP supply and the levels of degradation products of adenosine nucleotides were higher in Kyokai 6 strain than in the S288C strain under the L-methionine supplemented condition. Analysis of ATP accumulation showed that the levels of intracellular ATP in the Kyokai 6 strain were also higher compared to those in the S288C strain. Furthermore, as expected from metabolome analysis, the SAM content of Kyokai 6 strain cultivated in the medium without yeast extract increased by 2.5-fold compared to that in the additional condition, by increasing intracellular ATP level with inhibited cell growth. These results suggest that high SAM production is attributed to the enhanced ATP supply with L-methionine condition and high efficiency of intracellular ATP consumption.

  13. A comparison of methods of determining the 100 percent survival of preserved red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, C.R.; Pivacek, L.E.; Ouellet, R.; Gray, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were done to compare three methods to determine the 100 percent survival value from which to estimate the 24-hour posttransfusion survival of preserved red cells. The following methods using small aliquots of 51 Cr-labeled autologous preserved red cells were evaluated: First, the 125 I-albumin method, which is an indirect measurement of the recipient's red cell volume derived from the plasma volume measured using 125 I-labeled albumin and the total body hematocrit. Second, the body surface area method (BSA) in which the recipient's red cell volume is derived from a body surface area nomogram. Third, an extrapolation method, which extrapolates to zero time the radioactivity associated with the red cells in the recipient's circulation from 10 to 20 or 15 to 30 minutes after transfusion. The three methods gave similar results in all studies in which less than 20 percent of the transfused red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survival values of between 80-100%), but not when more than 20 percent of the red cells were nonviable. When 21 to 35 percent of the transfused red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survivals of 65 to 79%), values with the 125 I-albumin method and the body surface area method were about 5 percent lower (p less than 0.001) than values with the extrapolation method. When greater than 35 percent of the red cells were nonviable (24-hour posttransfusion survival values of less than 65%), values with the 125 I-albumin method and the body surface area method were about 10 percent lower (p less than 0.001) than those obtained by the extrapolation method

  14. S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff): purification and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, E R; Byers, T J

    1993-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) has been purified to near homogeneity from the Neff strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The holoenzyme molecular mass is 88.8 kDa, including two copies each of a 32.8 kDa alpha-subunit and a 10-15 kDa beta-subunit. The alpha-subunit contains the active site. It has an N-terminal pyruvoyl group, and the first 19 amino acids are 63 and 74% identical with comparable sequences from yeast and mammals, respectively. The apparent Km for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the presence of 2 mM putrescine was 30.0 microM. The enzyme was stimulated 2-fold by putrescine, but was unaffected by spermidine. It was inhibited by the following anti-metabolites, listed with their Ki values: Berenil (0.17 microM), pentamidine (19.4 microM), propamidine (334 microM), hydroxystilbamidine (357 microM), methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (604 microM) and ethidium bromide (1.3 mM). Activity of the enzyme fell to undetectable levels during cell differentiation (encystment). Images Figure 2 PMID:8216217

  15. Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA): direct electrochemical oxidation on carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2013-02-01

    The direct electrochemical behaviour of peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) adsorbed on glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes surface, was studied over a wide pH range by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. MsrA oxidation mechanism occurs in three consecutive, pH dependent steps, corresponding to the oxidation of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine amino acid residues. At the glassy carbon electrode, the first step corresponds to the oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues and occurs for the same potential. The advantage of boron doped diamond electrode was to enable the separation of tyrosine and tryptophan oxidation peaks. On the second step occurs the histidine oxidation, and on the third, at higher potentials, the second tryptophan oxidation. MsrA adsorbs on the hydrophobic carbon electrode surface preferentially through the three hydrophobic domains, C1, C2 and C3, which contain the tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues, and tryptophan exists only in these regions, and undergo electrochemical oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methionine – Au Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: a Novel Platform for Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone

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    Jiahong HE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitive electrochemical sensor based on methionine/gold nanoparticles (MET/AuNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for the quantitative detection of hydroquinone (HQ. The as-modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The electrochemical performance of the sensor to HQ was investigated by using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed its excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards HQ. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak (∆Ep was decreased from 471 mV to 75 mV. The anodic peak current achieved under the optimum conditions was linear with the HQ concentration ranging from 8 μM to 400 μM with the detection limit 0.12 μM (3σ. The as-fabricated sensor also showed a good selectivity towards HQ without demonstrating interference from other coexisting species. Furthermore, the sensor showed a good performance for HQ detection in environmental water, which suggests its potential practical application. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6477

  17. Dynamic study of methionine positron emission tomography in patients with glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hirohito; Ohe, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Nomura, Yu-Ichi; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2015-10-01

    Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis is classified as glioblastoma (GBM) with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO), according to the 2007 World Health Organization classification. The prognosis of GBMO remains controversial because definitive diagnostic criteria regarding the percentage of the oligodendroglial components (OC) in the GBM do not exist. We previously reported dynamic methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with these tumors. A significant decrease in the MET signal was seen in oligodendrocytic tumors, in contrast to a significant MET increase in GBMs. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic MET PET signal in four patients with primary (n = 2) and secondary (n = 2) GBMOs. Static PET scanning was performed in three consecutive phases. Both cases of primary GBMOs and one case of secondary GBMO presented with a gradual decrease in MET PET signal over the consecutive phases. In contrast, the remaining case of secondary GBMO presented with a pattern of slight increase. It is likely that the dynamic change of MET in patients with GBMO resemble those in patients with oligodendroglial tumor, however, further studies are needed to confirm them. We discuss the mechanisms from a viewpoint of pathological findings.

  18. Structure of a microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2 complexed with fumagillin and TNP-470

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, J.; Nemkal, A; Sauder, J; Russell, M; Akiyoshi, D; Shi, W; Almo, S; Weiss, L

    2009-01-01

    Microsporidia are protists that have been reported to cause infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have emerged as human pathogens particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, keratitis, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. While benzimidazoles are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues have been demonstrated to have activity in vitro and in animal models of microsporidiosis and human infections due to E. bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues inhibit methionine aminopeptidase type 2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi MetAP2 (EcMetAP2) was cloned and expressed as an active enzyme using a baculovirus system. The crystal structure of EcMetAP2 was determined with and without the bound inhibitors fumagillin and TNP-470. This structure classifies EcMetAP2 as a member of the MetAP2c family. The EcMetAP2 structure was used to generate a homology model of the E. bieneusi MetAP2. Comparison of microsporidian MetAP2 structures with human MetAP2 provides insights into the design of inhibitors that might exhibit specificity for microsporidian MetAP2.

  19. False positive localisation of C-11 methionine in a colloid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Sonia; Tripathi, Madhavi; Jaimini, Abhinav; Dinesh, Anant

    2011-01-01

    A 45-year-old female diagnosed with carcinoma of the left breast on histopathological examination underwent both 18 F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 11C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as part of a protocol comparing the utility of these tracers for predicting a response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast carcinoma. Abnormal FDG and MET accumulation was noted in the left breast primary, left axillary lymph nodes, and also in a well-defined nodule present in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Keeping in mind the possibility of thyroid neoplasm/metastasis, the patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the thyroid nodule that revealed features of a simple colloid nodule. Focal thyroid lesions incidentally found on 18 F-FDG PET/CT have a high risk of thyroid malignancy. Non-specific accumulation of FDG in thyroid adenomas is also known. This case highlights a potential cause for false positive on C-11 MET PET/CT in colloid adenomas, which should be kept in mind while using this tracer for oncological indications

  20. Association study of the common polymorphisms in the folate-methionine pathway with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elaheh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ahani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Folate and methionine metabolism enzymes could affect DNA synthesis and repair, and their methylation and polymorphisms have been associated with some forms of cancer. This study was carried out to investigate whether the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) and TYMS 2R/3R (rs34743033) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. A case-control study was conducted involving 96 patients with retinoblastoma and 204 healthy controls. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and TYMS 2R/3R polymorphism were assessed by PCR-RFLP, high resolution melting curve (HRM), and PCR methods, respectively. The frequencies of MTHFR 677CT and 677TT genotypes were significantly lower in cases than controls (p values, 0.012 and 0.034, respectively). The MTHFR 677T allele was significantly lower in patients than in the control group (p = 0.003). In contrast, no association was observed with respect to the MTHFR A1298C and TYMS 2R/3R polymorphisms. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in this Iranian population and the T allele had a protective effect on the susceptibility to retinoblastoma.

  1. Dynamic allostery in the methionine repressor revealed by force distribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Stacklies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fundamental cellular processes such as gene expression are tightly regulated by protein allostery. Allosteric signal propagation from the regulatory to the active site requires long-range communication, the molecular mechanism of which remains a matter of debate. A classical example for long-range allostery is the activation of the methionine repressor MetJ, a transcription factor. Binding of its co-repressor SAM increases its affinity for DNA several-fold, but has no visible conformational effect on its DNA binding interface. Our molecular dynamics simulations indicate correlated domain motions within MetJ, and quenching of these dynamics upon SAM binding entropically favors DNA binding. From monitoring conformational fluctuations alone, it is not obvious how the presence of SAM is communicated through the largely rigid core of MetJ and how SAM thereby is able to regulate MetJ dynamics. We here directly monitored the propagation of internal forces through the MetJ structure, instead of relying on conformational changes as conventionally done. Our force distribution analysis successfully revealed the molecular network for strain propagation, which connects collective domain motions through the protein core. Parts of the network are directly affected by SAM binding, giving rise to the observed quenching of fluctuations. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data. The force distribution analysis suggests itself as a valuable tool to gain insight into the molecular function of a whole class of allosteric proteins.

  2. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  3. Methionine-mediated synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles and functionalization with gold quantum dots for theranostic applications

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    Arūnas Jagminas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs through smart chemical functionalization of their surface with fluorescent species, therapeutic proteins, antibiotics, and aptamers offer remarkable potential for diagnosis and therapy of disease sites at their initial stage of growth. Such NPs can be obtained by the creation of proper linkers between magnetic NP and fluorescent or drug probes. One of these linkers is gold, because it is chemically stable, nontoxic and capable to link various biomolecules. In this study, we present a way for a simple and reliable decoration the surface of magnetic NPs with gold quantum dots (QDs containing more than 13.5% of Au+. Emphasis is put on the synthesis of magnetic NPs by co-precipitation using the amino acid methionine as NP growth-stabilizing agent capable to later reduce and attach gold species. The surface of these NPs can be further conjugated with targeting and chemotherapy agents, such as cancer stem cell-related antibodies and the anticancer drug doxorubicin, for early detection and improved treatment. In order to verify our findings, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, FTIR spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of as-formed CoFe2O4 NPs before and after decoration with gold QDs were applied.

  4. Chiral effects in amino acid adsorption on Au(111): A comparison of cysteine, homocysteine and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Tatiana; Ting, Elvis C. M.; Paci, Irina

    2014-11-01

    A combined classical/quantum methodology is used to examine chiral effects upon adsorption of three sulfur-containing amino acids on the Au(111) surface: cysteine, homocysteine and methionine. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations were employed to broadly examine the configurational space of monomers, dimers and trimers of the molecules on the gold surface. Density functional theory was applied to promising structural targets in order to incorporate higher order electronic structure effects in a study of relative stabilities of the various molecular states upon adsorption. As the precursors of chiral structure formation, like and unlike dimers were investigated at some length, with consideration given to the mode of sorption (chemisorption of physisorption) and the existence of zwitterionic states. We found that neutral (non-zwitterionic) molecules adsorbed weakly on the highly-coordinated Au(111) surfaces. As a consequence, pair configurations in dimers were insufficiently constrained to lead to differential stabilities of homochiral and heterochiral dimers. Whereas neutral molecule interactions were non-discriminating, strong chiral discrimination was found in zwitterionic amino acids. The zwitterionic forms of the larger molecules equilibrated closer to the surface, and the stronger molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions were such that homochiral dimers were stable whereas heterochiral dimers were not.

  5. Melatonin ameliorates methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Veysel; Atug, Ozlen; Akin, Hakan; Eren, Fatih; Tahan, Gulgun; Tarcin, Ozlem; Uzun, Hafize; Ozdogan, Osman; Tarcin, Orhan; Imeryuz, Nese; Ozguner, Fehmi; Celikel, Cigdem; Avsar, Erol; Tozun, Nurdan

    2009-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Mainly, oxidative stress and excessive hepatocyte apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of progressive NASH. Melatonin is not only a powerful antioxidant but also an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agent. We aimed to evaluate the effects of melatonin on methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD)-induced NASH in rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with MCDD while the other two groups were fed a control diet, pair-fed. One of the MCDD groups and one of the control diet groups were administered melatonin 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, and the controls were given a vehicle. After 1 month the liver tissue oxidative stress markers, proinflammatory cytokines and hepatocyte apoptosis were studied by commercially available kits. For grading and staging histological lesions, Brunt et al.'s system was used. Melatonin decreased oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and hepatocyte apoptosis. The drug ameliorated the grade of NASH. The present study suggests that melatonin functions as a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic agent in NASH and may be a therapeutic option.

  6. Dietary methionine restriction in mice elicits an adaptive cardiovascular response to hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ables, Gene P; Ouattara, Amadou; Hampton, Thomas G; Cooke, Diana; Perodin, Frantz; Augie, Ines; Orentreich, David S

    2015-03-06

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) in rodents increased lifespan despite higher heart-to-body weight ratio (w/w) and hyperhomocysteinemia, which are symptoms associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated this paradoxical effect of MR on cardiac function using young, old, and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. Indeed, MR animals exhibited higher heart-to-body weight ratio (w/w) and hyperhomocysteinemia with a molecular pattern consistent with cardiac stress while maintaining the integrity of cardiac structure. Baseline cardiac function, which was measured by non-invasive electrocardiography (ECG), showed that young MR mice had prolonged QRS intervals compared with control-fed (CF) mice, whereas old and ApoE-KO mice showed similar results for both groups. Following β-adrenergic challenge, responses of MR mice were either similar or attenuated compared with CF mice. Cardiac contractility, which was measured by isolated heart retrograde perfusion, was similar in both groups of old mice. Finally, the MR diet induced secretion of cardioprotective hormones, adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), in MR mice with concomitant alterations in cardiac metabolic molecular signatures. Our findings demonstrate that MR diet does not alter cardiac function in mice despite the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia because of the adaptive responses of increased adiponectin and FGF21 levels.

  7. The discovery of methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes: An historical account and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2015-05-06

    L-Methionine (L-Met) is the only sulphur-containing proteinogenic amino acid together with cysteine. Its importance is highlighted by it being the initiator amino acid for protein synthesis in all known living organisms. L-Met, free or inserted into proteins, is sensitive to oxidation of its sulfide moiety, with formation of L-Met sulfoxide. The sulfoxide could not be inserted into proteins, and the oxidation of L-Met in proteins often leads to the loss of biological activity of the affected molecule. Key discoveries revealed the existence, in rats, of a metabolic pathway for the reduction of free L-Met sulfoxide and, later, in Escherichia coli, of the enzymatic reduction of L-Met sulfoxide inserted in proteins. Upon oxidation, the sulphur atom becomes a new stereogenic center, and two stable diastereoisomers of L-Met sulfoxide exist. A fundamental discovery revealed the existence of two unrelated families of enzymes, MsrA and MsrB, whose members display opposite stereospecificity of reduction for the two sulfoxides. The importance of Msrs is additionally emphasized by the discovery that one of the only 25 selenoproteins expressed in humans is a Msr. The milestones on the road that led to the discovery and characterization of this group of antioxidant enzymes are recounted in this review. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Demonstration of physical phenomenas and scavenging activity from d-psicose and methionine maillard reaction products

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    Arum Tiyas Suminar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction has been well understood as a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids to generate the Maillard reaction products (MRPs. This study is aimed to demonstrate the browning intensity, color development, spectra measurements, scavenging activity, and the correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity of the MRPs generated from D-Psicose and Methionine (Psi-Met at 50℃. The browning intensity of MRPs was investigated based on the absorbance using spectrophotometer at 420 nm, the color development was observed using digital colorimeter to gained L*a*b* value then calculated as browning index, the spectra development was analyzed using spectrophotometer at 190 - 750 nm, and the scavenging activity was determined with ABTS method using spectrophotometer at 734 nm. The browning intensity, color development, and scavenging activity were improved along with the increase in heating process. Based on spectra analysis, MRPs from Psi-Met was initially detected at 21 h and Psi at 24 h of heating treatment, which indicating that Psi-Met have faster and better reaction than Psi during heating process. Positive non-linear and significant correlation between browning intensity and scavenging activity were assigned. This finding may provide beneficial information of D-psicose and MRPs to the next scientific research and to the food industries which applies MRPs in their products.

  9. 11C-L-methionine for evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.; Dop-Ngassa, M.; Cerf, M.; Paraf, A.; Crouzel, M.; Ricard, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pancreatic uptake of 11 C labelled L-methionine, was measured in 58 patients using a scintillation camera. Time-activity-curves obtained in areas of interest selected over the pancreas in 25 normal subjects and in 14 alcoholic patients showed a plateau or slight increase of activity with time. In contrast, in 19 patients with chronic pancreatitis, an initial increase in radioactivity was followed by a decrease for 10 to 20 minutes and then by a plateau. The ratio of the height of the plateau at the 50th minute to the height of the peak was 0.74 +- 0.21 in these patients, whereas it was 0.96 +- 0.09 in the other subjects (p 11 C radioactivity and of amylase and bicarbonate in duodenal aspirate. The median amount of 11 C incorporated into protein at the 70th minute was 53% of total activity in the control group, 28% in alcoholic patients, and only 3% in chronic pancreatitis. The absence of a peak of radioactivity in the duodenal juice, and the existence of a correlation between total 11 C output and amylase output suggested that there was no release of protein in the duodenum in chronic pancreatitis, and that the peak observed by external detection could be due to amino acid back-diffusion from the pancreas into the blood. (author)

  10. Metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível: lisina para codornas japonesas Digestible methionine plus cystine and relation digestible methionine plus cystine: lysine for japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Francisco Valiati Marin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o melhor nível de metionina mais cistina digestível e a melhor relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível em diferentes níveis de proteína para codorna em postura. Foram utilizadas 400 codornas japonesas produtoras de ovos de consumo com 45 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 5, dois níveis de proteína bruta (19,5% e 21,5% e cinco níveis de metionina mais cistina digestível (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Foram analisadas as taxas de postura (%, peso médio dos ovos (g, massa de ovos (g de ovos/ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, conversão alimentar (g de ração/g de ovos, peso e porcentagem de gema (g e %, peso e porcentagem de clara (g e % e peso e porcentagem de casca (g e %. Para o nível de 19,5% de proteína 0,60% de metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,66% foram suficientes para otimizar a produção. Para o nível de 21,5% de proteína 0,851% de metionina mais cistina digestível com relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,935% com consumo diário de 223,3mg/ave levou a uma melhor produção de ovos de codornas.This research had the purpose to determine the best level of digestible methionine plus cystine and the best relation of digestible methionine plus cystine:digestible lysine in different levels of protein for laying Japanese quails. 400 laying Japanese quails, with 45 days of age were used in a completely randomized design, with a factorial 2 x 5, two crude protein levels (19,5% and 21,5% and five levels of digestible methionine plus cystine (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unity. There were analysis of the posture rate (%, egg average weight (g egg mass (egg grams/bird/day, feed intake (g/bird/day, feed

  11. Amino-terminal extension present in the methionine aminopeptidase type 1c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is indispensible for its activity

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    Kumaran Sangaralingam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP is a ubiquitous enzyme in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which catalyzes co-translational removal of N-terminal methionine from elongating polypeptide chains during protein synthesis. It specifically removes the terminal methionine in all organisms, if the penultimate residue is non-bulky and uncharged. The MetAP action for exclusion of N-terminal methionine is mandatory in 50-70% of nascent proteins. Such an activity is required for proper sub cellular localization, additional processing and eventually for the degradation of proteins. Results We cloned genes encoding two such metalloproteases (MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and expressed them as histidine-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli. Although they have different substrate preferences, for Met-Ala-Ser, we found, MtMetAP1c had significantly high enzyme turnover rate as opposed to MtMetAP1a. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies as well as monitoring of enzyme activity indicated high temperature stability (up to 50°C of MtMetAP1a compared to that of the MtMetAP1c. Modelling of MtMetAP1a based on MtMetAP1c crystal structure revealed the distinct spatial arrangements of identical active site amino acid residues and their mutations affected the enzymatic activities of both the proteins. Strikingly, we observed that 40 amino acid long N-terminal extension of MtMetAP1c, compared to its other family members, contributes towards the activity and stability of this enzyme, which has never been reported for any methionine aminopeptidase. Furthermore, mutational analysis revealed that Val-18 and Pro-19 of MtMetAP1c are crucial for its enzymatic activity. Consistent with this observation, molecular dynamic simulation studies of wild-type and these variants strongly suggest their involvement in maintaining active site conformation of MtMetAP1c. Conclusion Our findings unequivocally emphasized that N

  12. Usefulness of {sup 11}C-methionine PET in evaluation of brain lesions with hypo- or isometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Chung, J. K.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Jeong, H. W.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Because some brain tumors show iso-or hypometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, there have been problems in detection of primary or recurrent tumor and in differentiation from benign lesion with {sup 18}F-FDG PET. We investigated the usefulness of {sup 11}C-methionine PET in characterizing brain lesions in these conditions. In 34 patients with brain lesions (27 for initial diagnosis, 7 for detecting recurrence ) who showed hypo- or isometabolism compared to normal brain tissue on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, we performed {sup 11}C-methionine PET. Five minutes after injection of 550 MBq {sup 11}C-methionine, attenuation corrected brain images were obtained with a dedicated PET scanner. Brain lesions were 18 gliomas, 4 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 1 mixed germ cell tumor and 3 benign tumors and 6 non-tumorous lesions (3 neurocysticercosis, 2 meningiomas, 1 mixed germ cell tumor and 3 benign tumors and 6 non-tumorous lesions (3 neurocysticercosis, 2 tumor necrosis, 1 granuloma). To find the correlation between methione uptake and proliferation activity, Ki 67 proliferation Index in 8 patients or Proliferation index (P1=G2+M+S/total cycle) using DNA flow cytometry in 10 patients were obtained. Of 25 tumorous lesions without definitive hypermetabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET, all except two glioma (92%) showed moderate to high uptake in entire or thick peripheral tumor uptake in {sup 11}C-methionine PET. The uptake ratio of tumor to normal brain in {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methionine PET were 0.96 {+-}0.32 and 2.43 {+-} 1.26, respectively. Nine benign lesions with hypo- or isometabolism on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were also no significantly increased {sup 11}C-methionine uptake. {sup 11}C-methionine uptake and proliferation activity were correlated with Ki 67 index or PI (r=0.6). Two glioma shown no increased {sup 11}C-methionine uptake had low proliferative activity (Ki 67 < 1%). {sup 11}C-methionin PET could detect brain tumors and differentiate brain lesions with high

  13. Clinical Value of [{sup 11}C]Methionine PET for Stereotactic Radiation Therapy With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Kazuhiro, E-mail: doctor.3@jasmine.ocn.ne.jp [Chubu Medical Center for Prolonged Traumatic Brain Dysfunction, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Department of Clinical Brain Sciences, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Matsuo, Masayuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Shinoda, Jun; Aki, Tatsuki; Yonezawa, Shingo [Chubu Medical Center for Prolonged Traumatic Brain Dysfunction, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Department of Clinical Brain Sciences, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Ito, Takeshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Asano, Yoshitaka [Chubu Medical Center for Prolonged Traumatic Brain Dysfunction, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Department of Clinical Brain Sciences, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Yamada, Mikito; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi; Yamada, Jitsuhiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Minokamo, Gifu (Japan); Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru [Department of Neurosurgery, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the clinical impact of {sup 11}C-labeled methionine-positron emission tomography (MET-PET) for stereotactic radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation therapy (SRT-IMRT) in metastatic brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-two metastatic brain tumors were examined. All tumors were treated with SRT-IMRT using a helical tomotherapy system. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined and drawn on the stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) image, taking into account the respective contributions of MR imaging and MET-PET. Planning target volume (PTV) encompassed the GTV-PET plus a 2-mm margin. SRT-IMRT was performed, keeping the dose for PTV at 25-35 Gy in 5 fractions. The ratio of the mean value of MET uptake to the contralateral normal brain (L/N ratio) was plotted for the PTV prior to SRT-IMRT, at 3 months following SRT-IMRT, and at 6 months following SRT-IMRT. Tumor characteristic changes of MET uptake before and after SRT-IMRT were evaluated quantitatively, comparing them with MRI examination. Results: Mean {+-} SD L/N ratios were 1.95 {+-} 0.83, 1.18 {+-} 0.21, and 1.12 {+-} 0.25 in the pre-SRT-IMRT group, in the 3 months post-SRT-IMRT group, and in the 6 months post-SRT-IMRT group, respectively. Differences in the mean L/N ratio between the pre-SRT-IMRT group and the 3-month post-SRT-IMRT group and between the pre-SRT-IMRT group and the 6 month post-SRT-IMRT group were statistically significant, irrespective of MRI examination. Conclusions: We showed examples of metastatic lesions demonstrating significant decreases in MET uptake following SRT-IMRT. MET-PET seems to have a potential role in providing additional information, although MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up after SRT-IMRT. The present study is a preliminary approach, but to more clearly define the impact of PET-based radiosurgical assessment, further experimental and clinical analyses are required.

  14. Increase in percent free prostate-specific antigen in men with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Laila; Savage, Caroline; Cronin, Angel M.; Hugosson, Jonas; Lilja, Hans; Christensson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) occurs in different molecular forms in serum: free PSA (fPSA) and complexed PSA (cPSA), the sum of which corresponds to total PSA (tPSA). In addition to tPSA, percent fPSA is widely used in the detection of prostate cancer. Free PSA, ∼28 kDa, is eliminated by glomerular filtration. Previous data showed that men with end-stage renal dysfunction requiring chronic dialysis have increased percent fPSA. In this study, we evaluated whether moderate-to-sev...

  15. Calculating percent depth dose with the electron pencil-beam redefinition algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael J; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Antolak, John A; White, R Allen; Bloch, Charles D; Boyd, Robert A

    2007-04-19

    In the present work, we investigated the accuracy of the electron pencil-beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) in calculating central-axis percent depth dose in water for rectangular fields. The PBRA energy correction factor C(E) was determined so that PBRA-calculated percent depth dose best matched the percent depth dose measured in water. The hypothesis tested was that a method can be implemented into the PBRA that will enable the algorithm to calculate central-axis percent depth dose in water at a 100-cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) with an accuracy of 2% or 1-mm distance to agreement for rectangular field sizes > or = 2 x 2 cm. Preliminary investigations showed that C(E), determined using a single percent depth dose for a large field (that is, having side-scatter equilibrium), was insufficient for the PBRA to accurately calculate percent depth dose for all square fields > or = 2 x 2 cm. Therefore, two alternative methods for determining C(E) were investigated. In Method 1, C(E), modeled as a polynomial in energy, was determined by fitting the PBRA calculations to individual rectangular-field percent depth doses. In Method 2, C(E) for square fields, described by a polynomial in both energy and side of square W [that is, C = C(E,W)], was determined by fitting the PBRA calculations to measured percent depth dose for a small number of square fields. Using the function C(E,W), C(E) for other square fields was determined, and C(E) for rectangular field sizes was determined using the geometric mean of C(E) for the two measured square fields of the dimension of the rectangle (square root method). Using both methods, PBRA calculations were evaluated by comparison with measured square-field and derived rectangular-field percent depth doses at 100-cm SSD for the Siemens Primus radiotherapy accelerator equipped with a 25 x 25-cm applicator at 10 MeV and 15 MeV. To improve the fit of C(E) and C(E,W) to the electron component of percent depth dose, it was necessary to

  16. Identification of a novel percent mammographic density locus at 12q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N; Lindstrom, Sara; Scott, Christopher G; Thompson, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Wang, Xianshu; Wang, Alice; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Rider, David N; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Varghese, Jajini S; Audley, Tina; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Luben, Robert N; Warren, Ruth M L; Loos, Ruth J F; Wareham, Nicholas J; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Olson, Janet E; Pankratz, V Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B; Lee, Adam M; Heit, John A; DeAndrade, Mariza; Goode, Ellen L; Vierkant, Robert A; Cunningham, Julie M; Armasu, Sebastian M; Weinshilboum, Richard; Fridley, Brooke L; Batzler, Anthony; Ingle, James N; Boyd, Norman F; Paterson, Andrew D; Rommens, Johanna; Martin, Lisa J; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Stone, Jennifer; Apicella, Carmel; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J; Tamimi, Rulla M; Vachon, Celine M

    2012-07-15

    Percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and has a heritable component that remains largely unidentified. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of percent mammographic density to identify novel genetic loci associated with this trait. In stage 1, we combined three GWASs of percent density comprised of 1241 women from studies at the Mayo Clinic and identified the top 48 loci (99 single nucleotide polymorphisms). We attempted replication of these loci in 7018 women from seven additional studies (stage 2). The meta-analysis of stage 1 and 2 data identified a novel locus, rs1265507 on 12q24, associated with percent density, adjusting for age and BMI (P = 4.43 × 10(-8)). We refined the 12q24 locus with 459 additional variants (stage 3) in a combined analysis of all three stages (n = 10 377) and confirmed that rs1265507 has the strongest association in the 12q24 region (P = 1.03 × 10(-8)). Rs1265507 is located between the genes TBX5 and TBX3, which are members of the phylogenetically conserved T-box gene family and encode transcription factors involved in developmental regulation. Understanding the mechanism underlying this association will provide insight into the genetics of breast tissue composition.

  17. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  18. 48 CFR 836.606-73 - Application of 6 percent architect-engineer fee limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... architect-engineer fee limitation. 836.606-73 Section 836.606-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 836.606-73 Application of 6 percent architect-engineer fee limitation...

  19. 29 CFR 4206.10 - Special rule for 70-percent decline partial withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rule for 70-percent decline partial withdrawals. 4206.10 Section 4206.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... case of certain retail food industry plans), the first year of the 3-year testing period shall be...

  20. Five Percent Post Survey Check Of National Family Health Survey (NFHS In ORISSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Benera Sudhir

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: How well a post survey sample check of NFHS correlates with the findings of NFHS? Objective: Post survey check of National Family Health Survey carried out in 1992-93. Study design: Multistage sampling method with 5 percent sample of original NFHS sample. Setting: Study covered 5 percent sample of original NFHS sample. Subjects: Five percent household sample (1093 members of original NFHS sample was studied and compared with NFHS data. Method: Information from five percent house-holds of NFHS in which either there likely to be no change was likely to be only in one direction such as age group, sex-ratio, literacy, family planning knowledge and adoption etc. were collected in a predesigned questionnaire and compared with NFHS data. Results: The demographic characteristics were similar to those of NFHS. TFR and number of children ever borne were also found to be same. The awareness of FP methods and its uses were within acceptable margin of error. Thus on comparison of data of post survey check and NFHS sample error was within acceptable margin.

  1. A Collaborative Endeavour between Mathematics and Science Educators: Focus on the Use of Percent in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Bedgood, Danny; Lowrie, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of a collaborative endeavour between mathematics and science educators where the insight from each field mutually informed one another. Specifically, building on the knowledge base from mathematics education research, this study analyses the ways in which percent is interpreted by first year university students in general…

  2. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or...

  3. Sap volume flow as influenced by tubing diameter and slope percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1971-01-01

    The amount of sugar maple sap that can move through plastic tubing is controlled by several factors. The most important are tubing diameter and slope percent. Estimates are given of the number of tapholes that can be used with combinations of these variables.

  4. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: The Tiger Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized t...

  5. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  6. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms and risk of bladder cancer in a Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerhani, Slah; Oliveira, Elisabete; Marrakchi, Raja; Ben Slama, Mohamed R; Sfaxi, Mohamed; Ayed, Mohsen; Chebil, Mohamed; Amorim, António; El Gaaied, Amel Benammar; Prata, Maria João

    2007-07-01

    Folate insufficiency can induce carcinogenesis by decreasing DNA methylation. It is well known that DNA hypomethylation is a common feature in a number of cancers. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MS) are enzymes that play central roles in the folate metabolic pathway. Two common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C) and one in the MS gene (A2756G) are associated with decreased enzymatic activity. In this work, we have conducted a case-control study to assess the role of these three polymorphisms in bladder cancer development in North Tunisia. For MS A2756G, gene and genotypic distributions differed significantly between cases and controls. Furthermore, individuals carrying at least one copy of the variant allele presented a 2.33 times increased risk of developing bladder cancer than their control group [P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-4.06]. Statistically significant odds ratios were also found in patients heterozygous for MTHFR A1298C, who have a 1.8-fold higher risk of developing bladder cancer (P = 0.03, OR = 1.86; CI 95% 1.04-3.33). While the isolated polymorphism C677T did not appear to influence bladder cancer susceptibility, results suggest that it might act with an additive contribution determined by variation at MTHFR A1298C. Identical cumulative effect was detected for the MTHFR A1298C and MS 2756 genotypes. Patients harboring at least one mutant allele for each of the three positions analyzed showed a 4.76-fold increased risk of developing bladder cancer in comparison to their reference group (P = 0.02, OR = 4.76; CI 95% 1.26-17.98).

  8. Levels of lysine and methionine+cystine for growing New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Monteiro-Motta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate, respectively, nitrogen balance (NB and the productive performance of 31-to-50-day-old rabbits subjected to different levels of lysine and methionine+cystine (met+cys. Seventy-five animals were randomly distributed in 5 × 3 blocks (five levels of lysine: 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 g/kg combined with three levels of met+cys: 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 g/kg, with 15 treatments and five replications for the NB assay. The assay lasted 14 days: 10 days for acclimatization and four days for feces and urine collection. Increasing met+cys levels had a quadratic effect on the nitrogen excreted in urine (NU: the lowest excretion was found at the dietary level of 5.9 g/kg met+cys. Increasing lysine levels also affected NU and nitrogen retained daily (NR: the lowest NU was obtained at the dietary level of 7.28 g/kg lysine, and maximum NR was found at 7.24 g/kg lysine. Increases in met+cys levels in the diets affected neither performance nor carcass characteristics of rabbits up to 50 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 50 days, daily weight gain and feed conversion of rabbits slaughtered at 50 days had a quadratic effect as the lysine levels increased. The best results were found at 7.5, 7.38 and 7.36 g/kg lysine. Lysine and met+cys levels of 7.4 and 5.0 g/kg in the diet are recommended for 31-to-50-day-old rabbits.

  9. Changes in plasma methionine-enkephalin levels associated with a cluster headache episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Aron D; Maturana, Patricio; Callaghan, Owen H; Wolf, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen male cluster headache (CH) inpatients within a CH series participated in this research. Blood samples were drawn from patients at least 6-hour pain-free after the last acute CH episode and then shortly prior (SP), during, and soon after (SA) a new acute CH attack. Three healthy male, age-comparable drug-free volunteers served as controls; 5 samples were obtained from each of these individual over a 24-hour period. Individual patient's methionine-enkephalin (MET) plasma concentration showed significant changes, and in some subjects, dramatic changes, during the different phases of a single CH episode. Peptide levels followed a general pattern of higher plasma concentration SP to an acute CH attack, followed by decreased levels during the attack itself, and falling even further SA the acute episode. Consistently, 16 of the 18 patients tested showed pre-CH peptide levels significantly higher (arbitrarily the authors considered values 20% or more as "significant") than their own values obtained during the acute CH pain phase, with observed differences reaching 80% or more in 7 of these individuals. For about half of these patients, peptide concentration during the acute CH episode was significantly above the control's range (68.2-87.6 pg MET/mL; control's circulating MET concentration remaining essentially unchanged during a 24-hour period). MET levels were further decreased in essentially all of the post-CH samples, with values falling within (n = 6) or even further below than those in the control's range (n = 11). Neither age, time of CH occurrence, nor patient's use of a number of medications known for failing to influence plasma MET degradation kinetics seemed to significantly influence MET levels. These results might help in the biochemical characterization of the actual phases of a CH episode. Developing drugs modulating MET bioavailability could lead to novel antinociceptive agents useful for the treatment of CH's associated pain.

  10. Effect of taurine and N-acetylcysteine on methionine restriction-mediated adiposity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Mattocks, Dwight A L; Plummer, Jason D; Orentreich, David S; Orentreich, Norman; Refsum, Helga; Perrone, Carmen E

    2013-04-01

    Methionine-restricted (MR) rats, which are lean and insulin sensitive, have low serum total cysteine (tCys) and taurine and decreased hepatic expression and activity indices of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1). These effects are partly or completely reversed by cysteine supplementation. We investigated whether reversal of MR phenotypes can be achieved by other sulfur compounds, namely taurine or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). MR and control-fed (CF) rats were supplemented with taurine (0.5%) or NAC (0.5%) for 12weeks. Adiposity, serum sulfur amino acids (SAA), Scd1 gene expression in liver and white adipose tissue, and SCD1 activity indices (calculated from serum fatty acid profile) were monitored. Taurine supplementation of MR rats did not restore weight gain or hepatic Scd1 expression or indices to CF levels, but further decreased adiposity. Taurine supplementation of CF rats did not affect adiposity, but lowered triglyceridemia. NAC supplementation in MR rats raised tCys and partly or completely reversed MR effects on weight, fat %, Scd1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue, and estimated SCD1 activity. In CF rats, NAC decreased body fat % and lowered SCD1-18 activity index (Ptaurine as a mediator of increased adiposity produced by cysteine in MR, and show that NAC, similar to L-cysteine, blocks anti-obesity effects of MR. Our data show that dietary SAA can influence adiposity in part through mechanisms that converge on SCD1 function. This may have implications for understanding and preventing human obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidation of Helix-3 methionines precedes the formation of PK resistant PrP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available While elucidating the peculiar epitope of the alpha-PrP mAb IPC2, we found that PrPSc exhibits the sulfoxidation of residue M213 as a covalent signature. Subsequent computational analysis predicted that the presence of sulfoxide groups at both Met residues 206 and 213 destabilize the alpha-fold, suggesting oxidation may facilitate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. To further study the effect of oxidation on prion formation, we generated pAbs to linear PrP peptides encompassing the Helix-3 region, as opposed to the non-linear complexed epitope of IPC2. We now show that pAbs, whose epitopes comprise Met residues, readily detected PrPC, but could not recognize most PrPSc bands unless they were vigorously reduced. Next, we showed that the alpha-Met pAbs did not recognize newly formed PrPSc, as is the case for the PK resistant PrP present in lines of prion infected cells. In addition, these reagents did not detect intermediate forms such as PK sensitive and partially aggregated PrPs present in infected brains. Finally, we show that PrP molecules harboring the pathogenic mutation E200K, which is linked to the most common form of familial CJD, may be spontaneously oxidized. We conclude that the oxidation of methionine residues in Helix-3 represents an early and important event in the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We believe that further investigation into the mechanism and role of PrP oxidation will be central in finally elucidating the mechanism by which a normal cell protein converts into a pathogenic entity that causes fatal brain degeneration.

  12. Estimates of methionine and sulfur amino acid requirements for laying hens using different models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Saki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary methionine (Met content on the performance of white commercial laying hens and to determine Met and total sulfur amino acids requirements (TSAA. These requirements were estimated using three statistical models (broken-line regression, exponential and second order equations to evaluate their abilit to determine amino acid requirements. A total of 216 laying hens (23 wks of age was used in a completely randomized design (CRD with six treatments with four replicates of nine birds each. The basal diet contained 15.25% crude protein, 2830.16 kcal/kg ME and 0.24% Met. Synthetic DL-Met was added to the deficient (basal diet in 0.05% increments to make the other five experimental diets (0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44 and 0.49% Met. Increasing Met level from 0.24 to 0.34% significantly increased egg production, egg weight, egg mass, egg content, and feed intake and decreased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. However, further Met increases, from 0.34 to 0.49%, no longer influenced these parameters. Out of the three models, the broken-line regression model presented better estimates of AA requirements. Based on broken-line equations, average Met and TSAA requirements of the laying hens were 0.31 and 0.60% (245.50 and 469.25 mg/hen/day from 22 to 36 wks of age, respectively.

  13. Target Definition by C11-Methionine-PET for the Radiotherapy of Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Masayuki; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Kako, Nobuo; Nishibori, Hironori; Sakurai, Kouta; Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the ability of 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) to delineate target volumes for brain metastases and to investigate to what extent tumor growth is presented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MET-PET. Materials and Methods: Three observers undertook target definition in 19 patients with 95 brain metastases by MRI and MET-PET images. MRI gross target volume (GTV) (GTV-MRI) was defined as the contrast-enhanced area on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. MET-PET GTV (GTV-PET) was defined as the area of an accumulation of MET-PET apparently higher than that of normal tissue on MET-PET images. The size of occupation ratio was determined using the following equation: SOR (%) of MET are within x mm margin outside GTV-MRI = the volume of the GTV-PET within x mm outside the GTV-MRI/the volume of the GTV-PET. Results: For GTV-MRI volumes of ≤0.5 mL, the sensitivity of tumor detection by MET-PET was 43%. For GTV-MRI volume of >0.5 mL, GTV-PET volumes were larger than GTV-MRI volumes and a significant correlation was found between these variables by linear regression. For all tumor sizes and tumor characteristics, a 2-mm margin outside the GTV-MRI significantly improved the coverage of the GTV-PET. Conclusions: Although there were some limitations in our study associated with spatial resolution, blurring effect, and image registrations with PET images, MET-PET was supposed to have a potential as a promising tool for the precise delineation of target volumes in radiotherapy planning for brain metastases.

  14. The impact of methionine source on poultry fecal matter odor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Lacey, R E; Carey, J B

    2004-03-01

    To determine the impact of Met source on volatile compounds of broiler excreta, 2 trials were conducted using straight-run broiler chicks that were randomly distributed in battery cages with 3 replicate pens of 16 birds each. The treatment groups were 1) dry Met hydroxy analogue (52% Met activity), 2) sodium methioninate aqueous solution (45.9% Met activity), 3) liquid Met hydroxy analogue (88% Met activity), 4) DL-Met, (98% Met activity), and 5) no supplemental Met. All starter diets were formulated to contain 3,135 kcal of ME/kg, 23% crude protein, and 0.8% total Met activity and otherwise met NRC nutrient requirements. Diets were fed ad libitum from d 1 to termination of the study (5 to 6 wk). Feed consumption and feed conversion were measured daily, and all birds were weighed weekly. There were no significant differences in BW, feed consumption, or feed conversion among the treatments in either trial. All excreta were collected in litter pans daily lined with aluminum foil. Litter pans for each pen were individually transferred to a separate room for weekly odor volatile analysis. An electronic nose was used to capture 3 to 4 air samples from various locations for each pan of broiler excreta resulting in a total of 10 air samples from each treatment group. All data taken from the electronic nose were evaluated using analysis of variance. Results indicated that there were significant differences in volatiles in the broiler excreta for all treatment groups. These data indicate that different Met sources may result in the production of different odor-related compounds in broiler excreta.

  15. Effects of methionine containing paracetamol formulation on serum vitamins and trace elements in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, A A; Anetor, J I; Oparinde, D P; Adeniyi, F A A

    2010-11-28

    Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a number of pathological conditions. It also alters plasma levels of many vital elements and molecules. This study was designed to identify if the alteration observed for antioxidant vitamins and minerals especially at sub-toxic and toxic levels of exposure in our earlier study of 24-hour exposure period may warrant trace elements supplementation. This was investigated by carrying out a 48-hour study to test the ability of a living organism to restore homeostasis of these vital molecules and elements. The levels of antioxidant minerals and vitamins were estimated in the serum samples obtained from adult male Wistar rats exposed to paracetamol tablets. At 100 mg\\kg BW (body weight) vitamin A, niacin, riboflavin, selenium and manganese were not significantly different from the control group. Moreover at 350 mg\\kg, all these indices except zinc were not significantly different in the exposed group compared with controls whereas at 1000 mg\\kg level of exposure manganese, selenium and vitamin E were not significantly decreased at the end of 48 hours of exposure but copper, niacin and vitamin A were significantly increased in the exposed group compared with the controls. These results suggest that with time the body may be capable of bringing about restoration of the levels of some of these elements\\vitamins. This was more evident at 350 mg\\kg level of exposure than a higher dose of 1000 mg\\kg level.

  16. Effects of zinc-methionine on growth performance, intestinal flora and immune function in pigeon squabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yi, L; Zhao, M L; Wu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Cheng, X C

    2014-01-01

    1. Different concentrations of zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) were given to pigeon squabs, and the resulting effects on growth, immune functions and intestinal microflora were investigated from hatching to 28 d of age. A total of 180 artificially hatched pigeon squabs were randomly allotted to each of three treatments with three replicates of 20 squabs. The three treatments given were either one ml (2 mg/ml) Zn-Met, one ml (10 mg/ml) Zn-Met or one ml 0.9% NaCl solution. 2. The results showed that Zn-Met improved the growth performance of squabs. The average daily and average weekly weight gain was significantly greater in squabs treated with Zn-Met than in the control group. 3. The group given 2 and 10 mg supplemental Zn-Met had heavier thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius than the control group at d 28. 4. Maternal antibody titres against Newcastle disease haemagglutination inhibition and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase were significantly higher in squabs treated with supplemental 2 and 10 mg Zn-Met compared to the control group at d 14 and d 28. 5. Additionally, the squabs given supplemental 2 mg Zn-Met exhibited significantly higher Bacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations at d 14 and d 28, but lower Escherichia coli populations at d 28 compared to the control group. On the contrary, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly decreased with 10 mg Zn-Met at d 28. 6. This study indicates that supplementation with Zn-Met has a positive effect on growth performance, immune function and regulation of intestinal flora in pigeons. An inclusion level of 2 mg seems to be better than 10 mg Zn-Met per day per bird.

  17. Part II: surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy investigation of methionine containing heterodipeptides adsorbed on colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawka, Edyta; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Proniewicz, Leonard M

    2004-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of methionine (Met) containing dipeptides: Met-X and X-Met, where X is: L-glycine (Gly), L-leucine (Leu), L-proline (Pro), and L-phenylalanine (Phe) are reported. Using pre-aggregated Ag colloid we obtained high-quality SERS spectra of these compounds spontaneously adsorbed on colloidal silver. Additionally, we measured Raman spectra (RS) of these heterodipeptides in a solid state as well as in acidic and basic solutions. The RS and SERS spectra of Met-X and X-Met presented in this work appear to be different. One of the most prominent and common features in the SERS spectra of all these dipeptides is a band in the 660-690 cm(-1) range that is due to the C-S stretching, v(CS), vibration of Met. This suggests that all the abovementioned compounds adsorb on the silver surface through a thioether atom. On the other hand, the SERS spectra of X-Met show clearly that not only the S atom but also the carboxylate group interact with the colloid surface as manifested by the enhancement of bands in the 920-930 and 1380-1396 cm(-1) regions. These bands are ascribed to the v(C-COO(-)) and v(sym)(COO(-)) vibrations, respectively. Additionally, a SERS spectrum of Phe-Met indicates that the interaction of the thioether atom, amine group, and aromatic side chain with the silver surface is favorable and may dictate the orientation and conformation of adsorbed peptide.

  18. 11C-Methionine-PET in Multiple Myeloma: A Combined Study from Two Different Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Garcia-Velloso, Maria J; Lückerath, Katharina; Samnick, Samuel; Schreder, Martin; Otero, Paula Rodriguez; Schmid, Jan-Stefan; Herrmann, Ken; Knop, Stefan; Buck, Andreas K; Einsele, Hermann; San-Miguel, Jesus; Kortüm, Klaus Martin

    2017-01-01

    11 C-methionine (MET) has recently emerged as an accurate marker of tumor burden and disease activity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This dual-center study aimed at further corroboration of the superiority of MET as positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for staging and re-staging MM, as compared to 18 F-2`-deoxy-2`-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). 78 patients with a history of solitary plasmacytoma (n=4), smoldering MM (SMM, n=5), and symptomatic MM (n=69) underwent both MET- and FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) at the University Centers of Würzburg, Germany and Navarra, Spain. Scans were compared on a patient and on a lesion basis. Inter-reader agreement was also evaluated. In 2 patients, tumor biopsies for verification of discordant imaging results were available. MET-PET detected focal lesions (FL) in 59/78 subjects (75.6%), whereas FDG-PET/CT showed lesions in only 47 patients (60.3%; p<0.01), accordingly disease activity would have been missed in 12 patients. Directed biopsies of discordant results confirmed MET-PET/CT results in both cases. MET depicted more FL in 44 patients (56.4%; p<0.01), whereas in two patients (2/78), FDG proved superior. In the remainder (41.0%, 32/78), both tracers yielded comparable results. Inter-reader agreement for MET was higher than for FDG (κ = 0.82 vs κ = 0.72). This study demonstrates higher sensitivity of MET in comparison to standard FDG to detect intra- and extramedullary MM including histologic evidence of FDG-negative, viable disease exclusively detectable by MET-PET/CT. MET holds the potential to replace FDG as functional imaging standard for staging and re-staging of MM.

  19. Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxin Huang

    Full Text Available Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops.

  20. Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops.

  1. Literal, forty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Prado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Literal was a magazine that was only published three times, the first issue saw the light in 1973 and the other two, were double issues published in 1975 and 1977. It was a place to belong, to reflect and to take a cultural/political position. Moreover it meant a policy of writing and reading, which was built through certain ways of those practices and the construction of a contra-canon. With years and with the weight of the careers of those who were part –Germán García, Luis Gusmán, Osvaldo Lamborghini (among the founders; Josefina Ludmer, Héctor Libertella, Oscar Steimberg, Oscar del Barco, María Moreno (among the collaborators, to name some y Oscar Masotta y Ricardo Zelarayán (among who were indirectly involved–, the magazine won importance as the “true B side of the seventies”. With several rereadings, especially after the anthology made by Héctor Libertella (2002 and with the facsimile publication made by National Library of Argentina (2011, in the fortieth anniversary of its last publication, Literal becomes a key piece to understand the alternative sides of seventies.

  2. Forty-two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dumay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the meaning and context of intellectual capital (IC numbers to help break free from the domination of IC “accountingisation” . Offering a personal and reflective narrative about IC numbers, I first discuss what numbers mean by exploring the way we think about the number 42. This discussion is followed by two empirical sections examining the meaning and context of a common IC measure, employee turnover rates. Measuring any IC element is problematic from an IC accounting perspective because of the unique context in which each organization operates. The comparability of a number from one organization and one period with another is nearly impossible. The article is original because it takes a thought-provoking narrative journey into the use and meaning of applying IC numbers. It is a personal reflection on the implications of considering the meaning of numbers for IC practice, IC education and research, and IC’s future. It is particularly topical in light of the inclusion of IC in the recent Integrated Reporting ( Guidelines.

  3. SEMPRE: Forty Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

  4. Isolation of acetylated bile acids from the sponge Siphonochalina fortis and DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Cano, Laura P; Bartolotta, Susana A; Casanova, Natalia A; Siless, Gastón E; Portmann, Erika; Schejter, Laura; Palermo, Jorge A; Carballo, Marta A

    2013-10-01

    From the organic extracts of the sponge Siphonochalina fortis, collected at Bahía Bustamante, Chubut, Argentina, three major compounds were isolated and identified as deoxycholic acid 3, 12-diacetate (1), cholic acid 3, 7, 12-triacetate (2) and cholic acid, 3, 7, 12-triacetate. (3). This is the first report of acetylated bile acids in sponges and the first isolation of compound 3 as a natural product. The potential induction of DNA lesions by the isolated compounds was investigated using the comet assay in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood as in vitro model. The results showed that the administration of the bile acid derivatives would not induce DNA damages, indicating that acetylated bile acids are nontoxic metabolites at the tested concentrations. Since the free bile acids were not detected, it is unlikely that the acetylated compounds may be part of the sponge cells detoxification mechanisms. These results may suggest a possible role of acetylated bile acids as a chemical defense mechanism, product of a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which would explain their seasonal and geographical variation, and their influence on the previously observed genotoxicity of the organic extract of S. fortis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of proteome rebalancing and sulfur nutrition on the accumulation of methionine rich δ-zein in transgenic soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Jez, Joseph M.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of heterologous methionine-rich proteins to increase the overall sulfur amino acid content of soybean seeds has been only marginally successful, presumably due to low accumulation of transgenes in soybeans or due to gene silencing. Proteome rebalancing of seed proteins has been shown to promote the accumulation of foreign proteins. In this study, we have utilized RNAi technology to suppress the expression of the β-conglycinin, the abundant 7S seed storage proteins of soybean. Western blot and 2D-gel analysis revealed that β-conglycinin knockdown line (SAM) failed to accumulate the α′, α, and β-subunits of β-conglycinin. The proteome rebalanced SAM retained the overall protein and oil content similar to that of wild-type soybean. We also generated transgenic soybean lines expressing methionine-rich 11 kDa δ-zein under the control of either the glycinin or β-conglycinin promoter. The introgression of the 11 kDa δ-zein into β-conglycinin knockdown line did not enhance the accumulation of the 11 kDa δ-zein. However, when the same plants were grown in sulfur-rich medium, we observed 3- to 16-fold increased accumulation of the 11 kDa δ-zein. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that seeds grown in sulfur-rich medium contained numerous endoplasmic reticulum derived protein bodies. Our findings suggest that sulfur availability, not proteome rebalancing, is needed for high-level accumulation of heterologous methionine-rich proteins in soybean seeds. PMID:25426134

  6. Functional Null Mutations of MSRB3 Encoding Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Are Associated with Human Deafness DFNB74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair M.; Yousaf, Rizwan; Lee, Byung Cheon; Khan, Shaheen N.; Lee, Sue; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Husnain, Tayyab; Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Bonneux, Sarah; Ansar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Van Camp, Guy; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B.; Riazuddin, Saima

    2011-01-01

    The DFNB74 locus for autosomal-recessive, nonsyndromic deafness segregating in three families was previously mapped to a 5.36 Mb interval on chromosome 12q14.2-q15. Subsequently, we ascertained five additional consanguineous families in which deafness segregated with markers at this locus and refined the critical interval to 2.31 Mb. We then sequenced the protein-coding exons of 18 genes in this interval. The affected individuals of six apparently unrelated families were homozygous for the same transversion (c.265T>G) in MSRB3, which encodes a zinc-containing methionine sulfoxide reductase B3. c.265T>G results in a substitution of glycine for cysteine (p.Cys89Gly), and this substitution cosegregates with deafness in the six DFNB74 families. This cysteine residue of MSRB3 is conserved in orthologs from yeast to humans and is involved in binding structural zinc. In vitro, p.Cys89Gly abolished zinc binding and MSRB3 enzymatic activity, indicating that p.Cys89Gly is a loss-of-function allele. The affected individuals in two other families were homozygous for a transition mutation (c.55T>C), which results in a nonsense mutation (p.Arg19X) in alternatively spliced exon 3, encoding a mitochondrial localization signal. This finding suggests that DFNB74 deafness is due to a mitochondrial dysfunction. In a cohort of 1,040 individuals (aged 53–67 years) of European ancestry, we found no association between 17 tagSNPs for MSRB3 and age-related hearing loss. Mouse Msrb3 is expressed widely. In the inner ear, it is found in the sensory epithelium of the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs as well as in cells of the spiral ganglion. Taken together, MSRB3-catalyzed reduction of methionine sulfoxides to methionine is essential for hearing. PMID:21185009

  7. Copper(II) complex of methionine conjugated bis-pyrazole based ligand promotes dual pathway for DNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Sarkar, Amrita; Dey, Suman Kr; Jose, Gregor P; Mukherjee, Arindam; Sengupta, Tapas K

    2013-08-28

    Three Cu(II) complexes of bis-pyrazole based ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. One of the ligand (L2) contains a methionine ester conjugated to a bis-pyrazole carboxylate through an amide linkage. The binding constant for complexes 1-3 with CT DNA are of the order of 10(4) M(-1). The crystal structure suggests that the axial Cu-O bonds (ca. 2.31(4) Å) are relatively labile and hence during the redox cycle with ascorbic acid and oxygen one or both the axial Cu-O bonds might open to promote copper oxygen reaction and generate ROS. The chemical nuclease activity of complexes 1-3 in dark, show complete relaxation of supercoiled DNA at 100 μM concentration in presence of ascorbic acid (H2A). The mechanistic investigation suggests that the complexes 1 and 2 show involvement of peroxo species whereas 3 shows involvement of both singlet oxygen and peroxo species in DNA cleavage. The singlet oxygen formation in dark is otherwise unfavourable but the presence of methionine as pendant arm in L2 might activate the generation of singlet oxygen from the metal generated peroxo species. The results of DNA cleavage studies suggest that methionine based copper(II) complexes can promote dual pathway for DNA cleavage. Probing the cytotoxic activity of these complexes on MCF-7, human breast cancer cell line shows that 3 is the most effective one with an IC50 of 70(2) μM.

  8. The Synthesis of Polyamines from Methionine in Intact and Disrupted Leaf Protoplasts of Virus-Infected Chinese Cabbage 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seymour S.; Balint, Robert; Sindhu, Ram K.

    1981-01-01

    In exploring the role of the chloroplast in the multiplication of turnip yellow mosaic virus, the biosyntheses of the major viral polyamine, spermidine, as well as that of the tetramine, spermine were studied. The synthesis of these polyamines from [2-14C]methionine in protoplasts of Chinese cabbage leaf cells derived from healthy plants or those infected by turnip yellow mosaic virus were examined. Populations of protoplasts of infected leaves are homogeneous with respect to containing chloroplast aggregates in contrast to those of healthy leaves. Protoplast preparations have been shown to incorporate methionine into protein, spermidine, and spermine more rapidly than do fresh leaf discs, which also show a very slow utilization of labeled arginine and ornithine into polyamine. Protein synthesis is similar for 4 hours in both healthy and infected protoplasts. Accumulation of labeled spermidine stops after 2 hours in healthy protoplasts but continues in the infected protoplasts. Much of the newly synthesized protein and spermidine is present in the easily sedimentable fraction of the readily disrupted protoplasts. Disrupted and diluted protoplasts have a decreased ability to metabolize methionine to protein and spermidine. The residual synthetic activity is essentially entirely in the easily sedimentable fraction. However, this fraction is unable to synthesize spermine, an activity found in protoplasts and disrupted protoplasts. Disrupted protoplasts contain spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) and about a quarter of this activity is present in a low-speed sedimentable fraction containing the chloroplasts. The protoplast system is suitable for an analysis of polyamine synthesis in turnip yellow mosaic virus infection and appears particularly suitable for study of the distribution of the enzymes involved. Images PMID:16662066

  9. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  10. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  15. Hepatic metabolism of 11C-methionine and secretion of 11C-protein measured by PET in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsager, Jacob; Lausten, Susanne Bach; Bender, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    -proteins in arterial plasma was measured during the experiment. There were no statistically significant differences between the laparotomy group and the pneumoperitoneum group in any of the calculated parameters. Average mean hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet was 0.212 mL plasma/mL liver tissue/min, secretion...... and that of liver tissue 11C-concentration as output function in an extended Patlak analysis that accounted for irreversible metabolism of 11C-methionine (hepatic systemic metabolic clearance Kmet) and secretion of 11C-protein + 11C-metabolites into blood (rate constant kloss). Appearance of 11C...

  16. [Immunocytochemical detection of substances related to methionine enkephalin in the tentacles and food of the snail (Helix aspersa)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C R; Dubois, M P

    1986-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry reveals the presence of methionine-enkephalin-like substance(s) in the collar cells of the two kinds of tentacles and in the foot of the snail Helix aspersa. The density of the immunoreactive material is higher in young animals than in adults. The greater part of the substance(s) is released at the surface of the epidermis and probably mixed with the mucus. A possible neuroendocrine and/or neuromodulatory function can be considered especially for the collar cells connected with the tentacular ganglia.

  17. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning percents

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day, Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Percents. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning percents super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their cha

  18. Austrian Business Cycle Theory: Are 100 Percent Reserves Sufficient to Prevent a Business Cycle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the Austrian tradition have made the credit expansion of a fractional reserve banking system as the prime cause of business cycles. Authors such as Selgin (1988 and White (1999 have argued that a solution to this problem would be a free banking system. They maintain that the competition between banks would limit the credit expansion effectively. Other authors such as Rothbard (1991 and Huerta de Soto (2006 have gone further and advocated a 100 percent reserve banking system ruling out credit expansion altogether. In this article it is argued that a 100 percent reserve system can still bring about business cycles through excessive maturity mismatching between deposits and loans.

  19. Ultrasonic methods for measuring liquid viscosity and volume percent of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes two ultrasonic techniques under development at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the tank-waste transport effort undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy in treating low-level nuclear waste. The techniques are intended to provide continuous on-line measurements of waste viscosity and volume percent of solids in a waste transport line. The ultrasonic technique being developed for waste-viscosity measurement is based on the patented ANL viscometer. Focus of the viscometer development in this project is on improving measurement accuracy, stability, and range, particularly in the low-viscosity range (<30 cP). A prototype instrument has been designed and tested in the laboratory. Better than 1% accuracy in liquid density measurement can be obtained by using either a polyetherimide or polystyrene wedge. To measure low viscosities, a thin-wedge design has been developed and shows good sensitivity down to 5 cP. The technique for measuring volume percent of solids is based on ultrasonic wave scattering and phase velocity variation. This report covers a survey of multiple scattering theories and other phenomenological approaches. A theoretical model leading to development of an ultrasonic instrument for measuring volume percent of solids is proposed, and preliminary measurement data are presented.

  20. Ultrasonic methods for measuring liquid viscosity and volume percent of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes two ultrasonic techniques under development at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the tank-waste transport effort undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy in treating low-level nuclear waste. The techniques are intended to provide continuous on-line measurements of waste viscosity and volume percent of solids in a waste transport line. The ultrasonic technique being developed for waste-viscosity measurement is based on the patented ANL viscometer. Focus of the viscometer development in this project is on improving measurement accuracy, stability, and range, particularly in the low-viscosity range (<30 cP). A prototype instrument has been designed and tested in the laboratory. Better than 1% accuracy in liquid density measurement can be obtained by using either a polyetherimide or polystyrene wedge. To measure low viscosities, a thin-wedge design has been developed and shows good sensitivity down to 5 cP. The technique for measuring volume percent of solids is based on ultrasonic wave scattering and phase velocity variation. This report covers a survey of multiple scattering theories and other phenomenological approaches. A theoretical model leading to development of an ultrasonic instrument for measuring volume percent of solids is proposed, and preliminary measurement data are presented

  1. Measurement of the delta34S value in methionine by double spike multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry using Carius tube digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jacqueline L; Kelly, W Robert

    2010-09-15

    Methionine is an essential amino acid and is the primary source of sulfur for humans. Using the double spike ((33)S-(36)S) multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) technique, three sample bottles of a methionine material obtained from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements have been measured for delta(34)S and sulfur concentration. The mean delta(34)S value, relative to Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT), determined was 10.34 +/- 0.11 per thousand (n = 9) with the uncertainty reported as expanded uncertainties (U). These delta(34)S measurements include a correction for blank which has been previously ignored in studies of sulfur isotopic composition. The sulfur concentrations for the three bottles range from 56 to 88 microg/g. The isotope composition and concentration results demonstrate the high accuracy and precision of the DS-MC-TIMS technique for measuring sulfur in methionine.

  2. Polyamine and Methionine Adenosyltransferase 2A Crosstalk in Human Colon and Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70 to 75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. PMID:23588207

  3. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); The Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London E11 1NR (United Kingdom); Mato, José M. [CIC bioGUNE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd), Technology Park of Bizkaia, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia (Spain); Lu, Shelly C., E-mail: shellylu@usc.edu [Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); The Southern California Research Center for Alcoholic and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  4. Resolutions and other decisions of the General Conference. Forty-first regular session, 29 September - 3 October 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The twenty-five resolutions adopted and the fourteen other decisions taken by the General Conference at its forty-first (1997) regular session are reproduced in this booklet. The resolutions are, for ease of reference, preceded by the agenda for the session. Before the title of each resolution a serial number is given by which it may be cited. Any footnotes to a resolution appear immediately after the text on the left side of the page; on the right side are given the date of adoption of the resolution, the relevant agenda item and a reference to the record of the meeting at which the resolution was adopted. The other decisions taken by the Conference are presented similarly. This booklet should be read in conjunction with the summary records of the General Conference, where details of the proceedings, including all voting results, are contained (GC(41)/OR.1-10)

  5. Resolutions and other decisions of the General Conference. Forty-second regular session, 21-25 September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The twenty-two resolutions adopted and the thirteen other decisions taken by the General Conference at its forty-second (1998) regular session are reproduced in this booklet. The resolutions are, for ease of reference, preceded by the agenda for the session. Before the title of each resolution a serial number is given by which it may be cited. Any footnotes to a resolution appear immediately after the text on the left side of the page; on the right side are given the date of adoption of the resolution, the relevant agenda item and a reference to the record of the meeting at which the resolution was adopted. The other decisions taken by the Conference are presented similarly. This booklet should be read in conjunction with the summary records of the General Conference, where details of the proceedings, including all voting results, are contained (GC(42)/OR.1-10)

  6. 11C-methionine PET, a novel method for measuring regional salivary gland function after radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buus, Simon; Grau, Cai; Munk, Ole Lajord; Bender, Dirk; Jensen, Kenneth; Keiding, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Loss of salivary gland function is a distressing side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) method for measuring regional salivary gland function in the major salivary glands irradiated during RT. Patients and methods: Eight head and neck cancer patients were included; two were examined before RT and six after parotid sparing RT. Patients were examined by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET of the major salivary glands and parotid gland salivary flow measurements. PET data were analysed using a kinetic model of salivary gland 11 C-methionine metabolism, in which salivary gland function was quantified by the net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine, K. Functional voxel-wise images of K were calculated and matched with the CT-dose-plan for comparing regional salivary gland function with the regional radiation dose. Results: Parotid gland K correlated positively with parotid gland salivary flow, indicating that K can be used as an index of salivary gland function. K of parotid and submandibular glands was reduced dependent on the median radiation dose. In one patient, receiving a heterogeneous radiation dose to the parotid glands, regional salivary gland function was inversely correlated to the regional radiation dose. Conclusions: Salivary gland function can be measured by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET. The net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine of salivary glands was reduced dependent on the radiation dose. Dynamic 11 C-methionine PET offers a method for studying the individual response of the major salivary glands to irradiation

  7. 11C-methionine PET/CT in 99mTc-sestamibi-negative hyperparathyroidism in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubello, Domenico; Fanti, Stefano; Nanni, Cristina; Farsad, Mohsen; Castellucci, Paolo; Boschi, Stefano; Franchi, Roberto; Mariani, Giuliano; Fig, Lorraine M.; Gross, Milton D.

    2006-01-01

    Scintigraphic localisation of parathyroid glands is often unsuccessful in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis who have secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of 11 C-methionine PET/CT to detect hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis who had 99m Tc-sestamibi-negative HPT. 11 C-methionine PET/CT was performed in 18 patients (11 women and 7 men, aged 42-79 years; mean age 57.8 years) on haemodialysis for renal failure (2-14 years' duration), with normo-, hypo- or hypercalcaemia and HPT not localised by either dual-tracer 99m Tc-pertechnetate/ 99m Tc-sestamibi subtraction scans or dual-phase 99m Tc-sestamibi scans. In three of ten patients with normo- or hypocalcaemic HPT there was increased 11 C-methionine accumulation in one gland. Seven of eight patients with hypercalcaemic HPT showed increased uptake: in five of these patients increased 11 C-methionine accumulation was present in one gland, while in two it was demonstrated in two glands. All patients also had high-resolution ultrasound of the neck and were treated with subtotal parathyroidectomy, leaving a remnant of the smallest of the four glands. Regardless of their size, all glands with abnormal 11 C-methionine parathyroid uptake were removed, and all demonstrated parathyroid hyperplasia. All patients developed post-parathyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism and one patient with normocalcaemic HPT relapsed 8 months after surgery. These data suggest that 11 C-methionine PET/CT may be used to identify hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in non-primary HPT, and especially hypercalcaemic HPT, when conventional 99m Tc-sestamibi imaging is non-localising. (orig.)

  8. {sup 11}C-methionine PET/CT in {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi-negative hyperparathyroidism in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubello, Domenico [Insituto Oncologico Veneto (IOV), Nuclear Medicine Service - PET Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo (Italy); Fanti, Stefano; Nanni, Cristina; Farsad, Mohsen; Castellucci, Paolo; Boschi, Stefano; Franchi, Roberto [University of Bologna Medical School, Nuclear Medicine Service - PET Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Mariani, Giuliano [University of Pisa Medical School, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fig, Lorraine M.; Gross, Milton D. [Veterans Affairs Health System, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Scintigraphic localisation of parathyroid glands is often unsuccessful in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis who have secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of {sup 11}C-methionine PET/CT to detect hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis who had {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi-negative HPT. {sup 11}C-methionine PET/CT was performed in 18 patients (11 women and 7 men, aged 42-79 years; mean age 57.8 years) on haemodialysis for renal failure (2-14 years' duration), with normo-, hypo- or hypercalcaemia and HPT not localised by either dual-tracer {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate/{sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi subtraction scans or dual-phase {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scans. In three of ten patients with normo- or hypocalcaemic HPT there was increased {sup 11}C-methionine accumulation in one gland. Seven of eight patients with hypercalcaemic HPT showed increased uptake: in five of these patients increased {sup 11}C-methionine accumulation was present in one gland, while in two it was demonstrated in two glands. All patients also had high-resolution ultrasound of the neck and were treated with subtotal parathyroidectomy, leaving a remnant of the smallest of the four glands. Regardless of their size, all glands with abnormal {sup 11}C-methionine parathyroid uptake were removed, and all demonstrated parathyroid hyperplasia. All patients developed post-parathyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism and one patient with normocalcaemic HPT relapsed 8 months after surgery. These data suggest that {sup 11}C-methionine PET/CT may be used to identify hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in non-primary HPT, and especially hypercalcaemic HPT, when conventional {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi imaging is non-localising. (orig.)

  9. The diagnostic value of 11C-methionine PET in hyperparathyroidism with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Leilei; Liu, Jun; Kan, Ying; Yang, Jigang; Wang, Xufu

    2017-05-01

    Background 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) parathyroid SPECT is generally regarded as the best preoperative localizing method in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT). However, 99mTc-MIBI SPECT is false negative in approximately 25% of adenomas. 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in HPT with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scan results. Purpose To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of published data on the performance of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT and a negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT was calculated on a per-patient basis using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. Results Nine studies that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria were included into our meta-analysis, comprising a total sample size of 137 patients. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT with negative or inconclusive 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scans was 86% and 86%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.87. Conclusion By merit of the high overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, 11C-methionine PET can potentially complement the diagnostic workup of patients with HPT and negative or inconclusive 99mTc-MIBI SPECT. 11C-methionine PET appears to be a promising diagnostic modality in complicated cases with HPT.

  10. Dietary methionine level affects growth performance and hepatic gene expression of GH-IGF system and protein turnover regulators in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant protein-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Holm, Jorgen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary level of methionine were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed five plant-based diets containing increasing content of crystalline methionine (Met), in a six week growth trial. Changes in the hepatic expression of genes related to i...

  11. Interaction between methionine synthase isoforms and MMACHC: characterization in cblG-variant, cblG and cblC inherited causes of megaloblastic anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Fofou-Caillierez, Ma'atem B.; Mrabet, Nadir T.; Chéry, Céline; Dreumont, Natacha; Flayac, Justine; Pupavac, Mihaela; Paoli, Justine; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Coelho, David; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Feillet, François; Watkins, David; Fowler, Brian; Rosenblatt, David S.; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    The cblG and cblC disorders of cobalamin (Cbl) metabolism are two inherited causes of megaloblastic anaemia. In cblG, mutations in methionine synthase (MTR) decrease conversion of hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) to methylcobalamin, while in cblC, mutations in MMACHC disrupt formation of cob(II)alamin (detected as HOCbl). Cases with undetectable methionine synthase (MS) activity are extremely rare and classified as ‘cblG-variant'. In four ‘cblG-variant' cases, we observed a decreased conversion of cy...

  12. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wan, Haifeng; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-09-28

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (Pfeed intake (Pmethionine as HMTBA.

  13. /sup 13/C-NMR studies of selectively carboxymethylated (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine-labeled bacterial dihydrofolate reductase. [Streptococcus faecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.E.; Wageman, W.E.; Blakley, R.L.

    1983-08-01

    The /sup 13/C-labeled Streptococcus faecium enzyme was prepared under relatively mild conditions for NMR studies by reaction of unlabeled iodoacetate with the enzyme containing biosynthetically incorporated (methyl-/sup 13/C)methionine. The compound produced by this unique strategy was used as a part of a continuing study of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. The NMR studies provided assignment of resonance data for two of the methionine residues. Additionally, the specificity of the carboxymethylation provides a useful basis for resonance assignment.

  14. The application of multiple reaction monitoring to assess ApoA-I methionine oxidations in diabetes and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein N. Yassine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative modification of apolipoprotein A-I’s methionine148 (M148 is associated with defective HDL function in vitro. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM is a mass spectrometric technique that can be used to quantitate post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed an MRM assay to monitor the abundance ratio of the peptide containing oxidized M148 to the native peptide in ApoA-I. Measurement of the oxidized-to-unoxidized-M148 ratio was reproducible (CV < 5%. The extent of methionine M148 oxidation in the HDL of healthy controls, and type 2 diabetic participants with and without prior cardiovascular events (CVD were then examined. The results suggest a significant increase in the relative ratio of the peptide containing oxidized M148 to the unmodified peptide in the HDL of participants with diabetes and CVD (p < 0.001, compared to participants without CVD. Monitoring the abundance ratio of the peptides containing oxidized and unoxidized M148 by MRM provides a means of examining the relationship between M148 oxidation and vascular complications in CVD.

  15. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8 month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of l-methionine γ-lyase 1 from Entamoeba histolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Dan [Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 246-2 Mizukami, Kakuganji, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan); Center for Integrated Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Karaki, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Kamei, Kaeko; Harada, Shigeharu, E-mail: harada@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nozaki, Tomoyoshi [Department of Parasitology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, 246-2 Mizukami, Kakuganji, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan)

    2008-08-01

    l-Methionine γ-lyase 1, a key enzyme in sulfur-containing amino-acid degradation, from the protozoan parasite E. histolytica was crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray structure analysis. l-Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that is involved in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids. MGL is an attractive drug target against amoebiasis because the mammalian host of its causative agent Entamoeba histolytica lacks MGL. For the development of anti-amoebic agents based on the structure of MGL, one of two MGL isoenzymes (EhMGL1) was crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.12, b = 85.38, c = 115.37 Å, β = 101.82°. The crystals diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. The presence of a tetramer in the asymmetric unit (4 × 42.4 kDa) gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.8 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 56%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and structure refinement is now in progress.

  17. Effect of leucine-to-methionine substitutions on the diffraction quality of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Miki; Muto, Shinsuke; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    The combination of leucine-to-methionine substitutions and optimization of cryoconditions improved the resolution of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 Å without changing the crystallization conditions, allowing successful structure determination of SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT by the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method. One of the most frequent problems in crystallization is poor quality of the crystals. In order to overcome this obstacle several methods have been utilized, including amino-acid substitutions of the target protein. Here, an example is presented of crystal-quality improvement by leucine-to-methionine substitutions. A variant protein with three amino-acid substitutions enabled improvement of the crystal quality of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT when combined with optimization of the cryoconditions. This procedure improved the resolution of the SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 Å without changing the crystallization conditions

  18. Identification of new ligands for the methionine biosynthesis transcriptional regulator (MetJ) by FAC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Teshima, Munehiro; Anderson, Penelope S; Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Unkefer, Clifford J; Unkefer, Pat J

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a high-throughput approach using frontal affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (FAC-MS) for the identification and characterization of the small molecules that modulate transcriptional regulator (TR) binding to TR targets. We tested this approach using the methionine biosynthesis regulator (MetJ). We used effector mixtures containing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl derivatives as potential ligands for MetJ binding. The differences in the elution time of different compounds allowed us to rank the binding affinity of each compound. Consistent with previous results, FAC-MS showed that SAM binds to MetJ with the highest affinity. In addition, adenine and 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine bind to the effector binding site on MetJ. Our experiments with MetJ demonstrate that FAC-MS is capable of screening complex mixtures of molecules and identifying high-affinity binders to TRs. In addition, FAC-MS experiments can be used to discriminate between specific and nonspecific binding of the effectors as well as to estimate the dissociation constant (K(d)) for effector-TR binding. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A disulfide-stabilized conformer of methionine synthase reveals an unexpected role for the histidine ligand of the cobalamin cofactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Supratim; Koutmos, Markos; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Ludwig, Martha L.; Matthews, Rowena G. (Michigan)

    2008-07-08

    B{sub 12}-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli is a large modular protein that is alternately methylated by methyltetrahydrofolate to form methylcobalamin and demethylated by homocysteine to form cob(I)alamin. Major domain rearrangements are required to allow cobalamin to react with three different substrates: homocysteine, methyltetrahydrofolate, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). These same rearrangements appear to preclude crystallization of the wild-type enzyme. Disulfide cross-linking was used to lock a C-terminal fragment of the enzyme into a unique conformation. Cysteine point mutations were introduced at Ile-690 and Gly-743. These cysteine residues span the cap and the cobalamin-binding module and form a cross-link that reduces the conformational space accessed by the enzyme, facilitating protein crystallization. Here, we describe an x-ray structure of the mutant fragment in the reactivation conformation; this conformation enables the transfer of a methyl group from AdoMet to the cobalamin cofactor. In the structure, the axial ligand to the cobalamin, His-759, dissociates from the cobalamin and forms intermodular contacts with residues in the AdoMet-binding module. This unanticipated intermodular interaction is expected to play a major role in controlling the distribution of conformers required for the catalytic and the reactivation cycles of the enzyme.

  20. Cysteine is not the sulfur source for iron-sulfur cluster and methionine biosynthesis in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchen; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Whitman, William B; White, Robert H

    2010-10-15

    Three multiprotein systems are known for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes as follows: the NIF (nitrogen fixation), the ISC (iron-sulfur cluster), and the SUF (mobilization of sulfur) systems. In all three, cysteine is the physiological sulfur source, and the sulfur is transferred from cysteine desulfurase through a persulfidic intermediate to a scaffold protein. However, the biochemical nature of the sulfur source for Fe-S cluster assembly in archaea is unknown, and many archaea lack homologs of cysteine desulfurases. Methanococcus maripaludis is a methanogenic archaeon that contains a high amount of protein-bound Fe-S clusters (45 nmol/mg protein). Cysteine in this archaeon is synthesized primarily via the tRNA-dependent SepRS/SepCysS pathway. When a ΔsepS mutant (a cysteine auxotroph) was grown with (34)S-labeled sulfide and unlabeled cysteine, 92% of the methionine, and >87% of the sulfur in the Fe-S clusters in proteins were labeled, suggesting that the sulfur in methionine and Fe-S clusters was derived predominantly from exogenous sulfide instead of cysteine. Therefore, this investigation challenges the concept that cysteine is always the sulfur source for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis in vivo and suggests that Fe-S clusters are derived from sulfide in those organisms, which live in sulfide-rich habitats.

  1. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. → Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. → More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. → MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA -/- ) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA -/- mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes. MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H 2 O 2 . Corresponding changes in Ca 2+ transients are observed in MsrA -/- cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H 2 O 2 . Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA -/- mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA -/- mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  2. Drought stress provokes the down-regulation of methionine and ethylene biosynthesis pathways in Medicago truncatula roots and nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Molenaar, Johanna A; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Alibert, Bénédicte; Limami, Anis M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; González, Esther M

    2014-09-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the first physiological processes inhibited in legume plants under water-deficit conditions. Despite the progress made in the last decades, the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are not fully understood yet. Recent proteomic work carried out in the model legume Medicago truncatula provided the first indications of a possible involvement of nodule methionine (Met) biosynthesis and related pathways in response to water-deficit conditions. To better understand this involvement, the drought-induced changes in expression and content of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of Met, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and ethylene in M. truncatula root and nodules were analyzed using targeted approaches. Nitrogen-fixing plants were subjected to a progressive water deficit and a subsequent recovery period. Besides the physiological characterization of the plants, the content of total sulphur, sulphate and main S-containing metabolites was measured. Results presented here show that S availability is not a limiting factor in the drought-induced decline of nitrogen fixation rates in M. truncatula plants and provide evidences for a down-regulation of the Met and ethylene biosynthesis pathways in roots and nodules in response to water-deficit conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kevin D.; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Singh, Ravinder; Gardner, David S.; Sebastian, Sonia; Bispham, Jayson; Thurston, Alexandra; Huntley, John F.; Rees, William D.; Maloney, Christopher A.; Lea, Richard G.; Craigon, Jim; McEvoy, Tom G.; Young, Lorraine E.

    2007-01-01

    A complex combination of adult health-related disorders can originate from developmental events that occur in utero. The periconceptional period may also be programmable. We report on the effects of restricting the supply of specific B vitamins (i.e., B12 and folate) and methionine, within normal physiological ranges, from the periconceptional diet of mature female sheep. We hypothesized this would lead to epigenetic modifications to DNA methylation in the preovulatory oocyte and/or preimplantation embryo, with long-term health implications for offspring. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic contributor to maintenance of gene silencing that relies on a dietary supply of methyl groups. We observed no effects on pregnancy establishment or birth weight, but this modest early dietary intervention led to adult offspring that were both heavier and fatter, elicited altered immune responses to antigenic challenge, were insulin-resistant, and had elevated blood pressure–effects that were most obvious in males. The altered methylation status of 4% of 1,400 CpG islands examined by restriction landmark genome scanning in the fetal liver revealed compelling evidence of a widespread epigenetic mechanism associated with this nutritionally programmed effect. Intriguingly, more than half of the affected loci were specific to males. The data provide the first evidence that clinically relevant reductions in specific dietary inputs to the methionine/folate cycles during the periconceptional period can lead to widespread epigenetic alterations to DNA methylation in offspring, and modify adult health-related phenotypes. PMID:18042717

  4. Methionine metabolism: major pathways and enzymes involved and strategies for control and diversification of volatile sulfur compounds in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cuesta, María Del Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    For economical reasons and to accommodate current market trends, cheese manufacturers and product developers are increasingly interested in controlling cheese flavor formation and developing new flavors. Due to their low detection threshold and diversity, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall flavor of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavors. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. This paper gives an overview of the main VSCs found in cheese, along with the major pathways and key enzymes leading to the formation of methanethiol from methionine, which is subsequently converted into other sulfur-bearing compounds. As these compounds arise primarily from methionine, the metabolism of this amino acid and its regulation is presented. Attention is focused in the enzymatic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are widely used as starter and adjunct cultures in cheese-making. In view of industrial applications, different strategies such as the enhancement of the abilities of LAB to produce high amounts and diversity of VSCs are highlighted as the principal future research trend.

  5. Methionine sulfoxides on prion protein Helix-3 switch on the alpha-fold destabilization required for conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Colombo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C into the infectious form (PrP(Sc is the key event in prion induced neurodegenerations. This process is believed to involve a multi-step conformational transition from an alpha-helical (PrP(C form to a beta-sheet-rich (PrP(Sc state. In addition to the conformational difference, PrP(Sc exhibits as covalent signature the sulfoxidation of M213. To investigate whether such modification may play a role in the misfolding process we have studied the impact of methionine oxidation on the dynamics and energetics of the HuPrP(125-229 alpha-fold. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular dynamics simulation, essential dynamics, correlated motions and signal propagation analysis, we have found that substitution of the sulfur atom of M213 by a sulfoxide group impacts on the stability of the native state increasing the flexibility of regions preceding the site of the modification and perturbing the network of stabilizing interactions. Together, these changes favor the population of alternative states which maybe essential in the productive pathway of the pathogenic conversion. These changes are also observed when the sulfoxidation is placed at M206 and at both, M206 and M213. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the sulfoxidation of Helix-3 methionines might be the switch for triggering the initial alpha-fold destabilization required for the productive pathogenic conversion.

  6. Increased maternal consumption of methionine as its hydroxyl analog promoted neonatal intestinal growth without compromising maternal energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Heju; Li, Hao; Liu, Guangmang; Wan, Haifeng; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Tang, Li; Tian, Gang; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    To determine responses of neonatal intestine to maternal increased consumption of DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (HMTBA), eighteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated based on body weight and backfat thickness to the control, DLM and HMTBA groups (n = 6), with the nutritional treatments introduced from postpartum d0 to d14. The DLM-fed sows showed negative energy balance manifested by lost bodyweight, lower plasma glucose, subdued tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased plasma lipid metabolites levels. Both villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth averaged across the small intestine of piglets were higher in the DLM and HMTBA groups than in the control group. Piglet jejunal oxidized glutathione concentration and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione were lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM and control groups. However, piglet jejunal aminopeptidase A, carnitine transporter 2 and IGF-II precursor mRNA abundances were higher in the DLM group than in the HMTBA and control groups. Increasing maternal consumption of methionine as DLM and HMTBA promoted neonatal intestinal growth by increasing morphological development or up-regulating expression of genes responsible for nutrient metabolism. And increasing maternal consumption of HMTBA promoted neonatal intestinal antioxidant capacity without compromising maternal energy homeostasis during early lactation.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Hydroquinone and Catechol by Poly (L-methionine Coated Hydroxyl Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A simply and high selectively electrochemical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at a glassy carbon electrode modified with the poly L-methionine/multiwall carbon nanotubes, which significantly increased the reversible electrochemical reaction. The electrochemical behavior of catechol and hydroquinone at the modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The presence of hydroxyl MWCNTs in the composite film enhances the surface coverage concentration of poly L- methionine/multiwall carbon nanotubes. The results suggest that pH=6 is the optimum acidity condition for the selective and simultaneous determination of catechol and hydroquinone. Under the optimized condition, the response peak currents of the modified electrodes were linear over ranges of 8.0´10-7~2.0´10-4 mol/L (R2=0.997 for hydroquinone and 8.0´10-7~2.0´10-4, R2=0.997 for catechol. The sensor also exhibited good sensitivity with the detection limit of 8.0´10-8 mol/L and 1.0´10- 7 mol/L for hydroquinone and catechol, respectively. This study provides a new kind of composite modified electrode for electrochemical sensors with good selectivity and strong anti- interference. It has been applied to simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in water sample with simplicity and high selectivity.

  8. Synergistic Effect of L-Methionine and KI on Copper Corrosion Inhibition in HNO3 (1M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel SEDIK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available L-Methionine (L-Met efficiency as a non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper in 1M HNO3 has been studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization. Copper corrosion rate significant decrease was observed in the presence of L-Met at 10-4M. The Obtained Results from potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements are in good agreement. L-Methionine adsorption on copper surface follows Langmuir isotherm. L-Met free energy adsorption on copper (-30 KJ mol-1 reveals an inhibition strong physical adsorption on copper surface. In order to evaluate the L-Met effect, L-Met and iodide ion’synergistic effect was used to prevent copper corrosion in nitric acid. It was found that inhibitor efficiency (IE reached 98.27 % in 1M solution containing 10-4M L-Met and 10- 3 M KI. The synergistic effect was attributed to iodide ions adsorption on copper surface, which facilitated the L-Met adsorption and an inhibitive film formation.

  9. Health plan auditing: 100-percent-of-claims vs. random-sample audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillup, George P; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative efficacy of two different methodologies for auditing self-funded medical claim expenses: 100-percent-of-claims auditing versus random-sampling auditing. Multiple data sets of claim errors or 'exceptions' from two Fortune-100 corporations were analysed and compared to 100 simulated audits of 300- and 400-claim random samples. Random-sample simulations failed to identify a significant number and amount of the errors that ranged from $200,000 to $750,000. These results suggest that health plan expenses of corporations could be significantly reduced if they audited 100% of claims and embraced a zero-defect approach.

  10. A "Green" route to adipic acid: direct oxidation of cyclohexenes with 30 percent hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato; Aoki; Noyori

    1998-09-11

    Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid uses nitric acid oxidation of cyclohexanol or a cyclohexanol/cyclohexanone mixture. The nitrous oxide emission from this process measurably contributes to global warming and ozone depletion. Therefore, the development of an adipic acid production process that is less damaging to the environment is an important subject in chemical research. Cyclohexene can now be oxidized directly to colorless crystalline adipic acid with aqueous 30 percent hydrogen peroxide under organic solvent- and halide-free conditions, which could provide an ideal solution to this serious problem.

  11. A 25.5 percent AMO gallium arsenide grating solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent calculations have shown that significant open circuit voltage gains are possible with a dot grating junction geometry. The feasibility of applying the dot geometry to the GaAs cell was investigated. This geometry is shown to result in voltages approach 1.120 V and efficiencies well over 25 percent (AMO) if good collection efficiency can be maintained. The latter is shown to be possible if one chooses the proper base resistivity and cell thickness. The above advances in efficiency are shown to be possible in the P-base cell with only minor improvements in existing technology.

  12. A 25.5 percent AM0 gallium arsenide grating solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, V. G.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent calculations have shown that significant open circuit voltage gains are possible with a dot grating junction geometry. The feasibility of applying the dot geometry to the GaAs cell was investigated. This geometry is shown to result in voltage approach 1.120 V and efficiencies well over 25 percent (AM0) if good collection efficiency can be maintained. The latter is shown to be possible if one chooses the proper base resistivity and cell thickness. The above advances in efficiency are shown to be possible in the P-base cell with only minor improvements in existing technology.

  13. Comparative evaluation of PSA-Density, percent free PSA and total PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Ströbel, Greta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) (the quotient of PSA and prostate volume) compared with the percent free PSA (%fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in different total PSA (tPSA) ranges from 2 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL. Possible cut-off levels depending on the tPSA should be established. METHODS In total, 1809 men with no pretreatment of the prostate were enrolled between 1996 and 2004. Total and free PSA were measured with t...

  14. An experimental investigation of two 15 percent-scale wind tunnel fan-blade designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, David B.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental 3-D investigation of two fan-blade designs was conducted. The fan blades tested were 15 percent-scale models of blades to be used in the fan drive of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. NACA 65- and modified NACA 65-series sections incorporated increased thickness on the upper surface, between the leading edge and the one-half-chord position. Twist and taper were the same for both blade designs. The fan blades with modified 65-series sections were found to have an increased stall margin when they were compared with the unmodified blades.

  15. Validation of a dual-cycle ergometer for exercise during 100 percent oxygen prebreathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Janet F.; Ohlhausen, John H.; Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been designed to determine if exercise, while prebreathing 100 percent oxygen prior to decompression, can reduce the current resting-prebreathe time requirements for extravehicular activity and high altitude reconnaissance flight. For that study, a suitable exercise mode was required. Design considerations included space limitations, cost, pressure suit compatibility, ease and maintenance of calibration, accuracy of work output, and assurance that no significant mechanical advantage or disadvantage would be introduced into the system. In addition, the exercise device must enhance denitrogenation by incorporation of both upper and lower body musculature at high levels of oxygen consumption. The purpose of this paper is to describe the specially constructed, dual-cycle ergometer developed for simultaneous arm and leg exercise during prebreathing, and to compare maximal oxygen uptake obtained on the device to that obtained during leg-only cycle ergometry and treadmill testing. Results demonstrate the suitability of the dual-cycle ergometer as an appropriate tool for exercise research during 100 percent oxygen prebreathing.

  16. Relationship between depression with FEV1 percent predicted and BODE index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, H.; Hanum, H.; Abidin, A.; Hanida, W.

    2018-03-01

    WHO reported more than 3 million people die from COPD in 2012 and are expected to rank third after cardiovascular and cancer diseases in the future. Recent studies reported the prevalence of depression in COPD patients was higher than in control group. So, it’s important for clinicians to understand the relationship of depression symptoms with clinical aspects of COPD. For determining the association of depression symptoms with lung function and BODE index in patients with stable COPD, a cross-sectional study was in 98 stable COPD outpatients from January to June 2017. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman’s rank correlation. COPD patients with depression had higher mMRC scores, and lower FEV1 percent predicted, and then 6-Minutes Walk Test compared to those without depression. There was a moderate strength of correlation (r=-0.43) between depression symptoms and FEV1 percent predicted, and strong correlation (r=0.614) between depression symptoms and BODE index. It indicates that BODE index is more accurate to describe symptoms of depression in COPD patients.

  17. The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline isolated from the arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis inhibits marine micro- and macrobiofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Kine O; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Petitbois, Julie; Haug, Tor; Hansen, Espen; Andersen, Jeanette H; Pavia, Henrik; Hellio, Claire; Svenson, Johan

    2014-12-01

    The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1-10 μg/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50 = 3.0 μg/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50 = 45.2 μg/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 μg/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented.

  18. The effect of a meal on measures of impedance and percent body fat estimated using contact-electrode bioelectrical impedance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C B; Masteller, B; Andreacci, J L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of a meal on impedance and percent body fat (%BF) determined using contact-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technology. Forty-three adults (23 women and 20 men) volunteered to participate in this study (age=20.5±1.1 years; body mass index=24.1±3.8 kg/m(2)). Body composition was assessed using three BIA analyzers: leg-to-leg (LBIA), segmental (SBIA) and multi-frequency (MFBIA), on two separate occasions. After a baseline measurement, subjects consumed a meal or received nothing, which served as the control (CON). Subjects were reassessed 20, 40 and 60 min following (POST) the baseline measure in each condition. Twenty minutes after eating (3847±900 kJ), body mass (LBIA=0.8 kg, SBIA=0.8 kg, MFBIA=0.7 kg, Pimpedance (LBIA=6.0 Ω, SBIA=17.9 Ω, MFBIA=27.1 Ω, Pimpedance increase (4-9 Ω) was observed over time resulting in a small increase in %BF (0.3-0.7%) 60 min POST (Pimpedance and body mass. As such, when precision is critical, we recommend adhering to the pretest fasting guidelines to avoid meal-induced alterations in %BF estimates. In addition, use of a consistent testing schedule may minimize normal %BF variation over time.

  19. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subspeciation of total cell proteins from multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids labelled with [35S]methionine or [35S]thioATP and of coagulase negative staphylococci labelled with [35S]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, M.; Holton, J.; Jackson, F.R.; Smith, I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that [ 35 S]methionine labelling of proteins followed by PAGE can be used to distinguish biochemically similar, multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids; thirty-one isolates fell into four subgroups. The method also distinguished ten separate electrophoretypes of coagulase-negative staphylococci which correlated approximately with eight biotypes; the fifty-one isolates of biotypes SII, the commonest clinical isolate, were electrophoretically identical, thus suggesting that they are, indeed, members of a single subgroup. The authors also report a novel method of radiolabelling the phosphoproteins using [ 35 S]thioATP and have demonstrated the method using the above diphtheroids. These were again distinguished into the same four subgroups although the patterns of phosphoproteins were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the proteins. This thioATP labelling method should have wide application also. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. Dopamine-mediated oxidation of methionine 127 in α-synuclein causes cytotoxicity and oligomerization of α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakaso

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies. Many recent studies focused on the interaction between α-synuclein (α-syn and dopamine in the pathogenesis of PD, and fluorescent anisotropy suggested that the C-terminal region of α-syn may be a target for modification by dopamine. However, it is not well understood why PD-related pathogenesis occurs selectively in dopaminergic neurons. We investigated the interaction between dopamine and α-syn with regard to cytotoxicity. A soluble oligomer was formed by co-incubating α-syn and dopamine in vitro. To clarify the effect of dopamine on α-syn in cells, we generated PC12 cells expressing human α-syn, as well as the α-syn mutants, M116A, Y125D, M127A, S129A, and M116A/M127A, in a tetracycline-inducible manner (PC12-TetOFF-α-syn. Overexpression of wildtype α-syn in catecholaminergic PC12 cells decreased cell viability in long-term cultures, while a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase blocked this vulnerability, suggesting that α-syn-related cytotoxicity is associated with dopamine metabolism. The vulnerabilities of all mutant cell lines were lower than that of wildtype α-syn-expressing cells. Moreover, α-syn containing dopamine-mediated oxidized methionine (Met(O was detected in PC12-TetOFF-α-syn. Met(O was lower in methionine mutant cells, especially in the M127A or M116A/M127A mutants, but also in the Y125D and S129A mutants. Co-incubation of dopamine and the 125YEMPS129 peptide enhanced the production of H2O2, which may oxidize methionine residues and convert them to Met(O. Y125- or S129-lacking peptides did not enhance the dopamine-related production of H2O2. Our results suggest that M127 is the major target for oxidative modification by dopamine, and that Y125 and S129 may act as enhancers of this modification. These results may describe a mechanism of dopaminergic neuron