WorldWideScience

Sample records for fortified ice cream

  1. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  2. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  3. Chemical properties and sensory quality of ice cream fortified with fish protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Rafipour, Fereidon

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein powder is a functional ingredient that can be used for enhancing the nutritional value of food products. In this study the effect of fortification with different levels of fish protein powder (FP) on chemical properties and sensory quality of Persian ice cream with 0, 30 and 50 g kg(-1) FP during storage at - 18 °C for 4 months was investigated. Ice creams fortified with 50 and 30 g kg(-1) FP had significantly higher protein and solid-non-fat content than ice cream with 0% FP or 83, 69 and 51 g kg(-1) protein and 215, 204 and 181 g kg(-1) solid non-fat, respectively. All products had the same levels of fat, lactose, acidity and pH. They had similar sensory quality after production except for colour, but sensory properties of fortified samples changed significantly after 2 months of storage. Colour faded, cohesiveness decreased, sandiness/coarseness increased, sweetness decreased and fish flavour and off-odour increased. The control ice cream scored highest for additives odour and flavour. Development of ice cream fortified with fish protein powder could be an effective way to enhance nutritional and functional value of ice cream. But studies on storage stability, consumers' acceptance and attitudes are recommended if companies are planning to do so. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Process optimization and oxidative stability of omega-3 ice cream fortified with flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Avinash; Sharma, Vivek; Goyal, Ankit; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days. Fatty acids profile showed 18.74-21.38% decrease in ALA content in fortified ice creams after 120 days. A serving of 100 g of freshly prepared functional ice cream was able to meet ~ 45% of the RDA (1.4 g ALA/day), which reduced to 35.37-36.56% on the end of storage i.e. 120 days. Overall, it can be concluded that MFOP was oxidative stable in ice-cream throughout the storage, which could be fortified successfully at 4% (w/w) level.

  5. Effects of calcium-fortified ice cream on markers of bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, L; van der Hee, R M; Berry, M; Watson, C; Miret, S; Wilkinson, J; Bradburn, M; Eastell, R

    2011-10-01

    Premenopausal women with low calcium intakes consumed calcium-fortified ice cream daily for 28 days. Bone markers, NTX, CTX and PTH decreased significantly by 7 days, with some evidence of a calcium dose-dependent effect. Bone marker responses were observed within 1 h of consuming ice cream. Body weight remained constant over 28 days. Dietary calcium is important for lifelong bone health. Milk is a good source of bioavailable calcium, but consumption has declined among young adults. The aims were to determine whether calcium-fortified ice cream, a palatable source of calcium, produces significant, sustainable changes in bone turnover markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in premenopausal women with calcium intake below recommended UK levels. Eighty women, ages 20-39 years (calcium intake ice cream containing 96, 244, 459 or 676 mg calcium daily for 28 days. Urinary NTX/Cr, serum CTX, PINP, 1,25D and PTH were measured (baseline, days 1, 7 and 28). Acute changes in CTX and PTH were measured over 5 h (n = 29 women). There were significant mean decreases by 7 days in NTX/Cr, CTX, PTH and 1,25D and increases in PINP (one sample t tests), with a significant dose-dependent effect on CTX analysis of covariance. Only CTX remained suppressed at 28 days. Serum CTX and PTH decreased within 1 h. Body weight did not change significantly between baseline and 28 days. Daily consumption of calcium-fortified ice cream by premenopausal women may significantly reduce levels of the bone resorption marker serum CTX, without stimulating weight gain. The ice cream could be incorporated into the diet to replace low-calcium snacks and thus help individuals with habitually low calcium intakes to meet recommended intakes. The 244 mg calcium preparation would provide more than a quarter of the UK daily recommended nutrient intake for premenopausal women.

  6. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  7. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  8. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective: In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%. Method: A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%, and a control group without fibres. Results: Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition and elemental composition of ice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions: Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients.

  9. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  10. The physics of ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  11. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  12. Heavy Metal Presence in Two Different Types of Ice Cream: Artisanal Ice Cream (Italian Gelato) and Industrial Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, D; Alberghini, L; Bissacco, E; Ferioli, M; Giaccone, V

    2017-03-01

    Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food. Ice cream sampling was performed between October 2010 and February 2011 in the northeast of Italy. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from different sources: 50 industrial samples produced by 19 different brands were collected in coffee bars and supermarkets; 50 artisanal ice cream samples were gathered at nine different artisanal ice cream shops. Ten wooden sticks of industrial ice cream were analyzed in parallel to the ice cream. All samples were negative for arsenic and mercury. None of the artisanal ice cream samples were positive for lead and tin; 18% of the industrial ice cream samples were positive. All positive lead samples were higher than the legal limit stated for milk (0.02 mg/kg). All industrial ice cream samples were negative for cadmium, but cadmium was present in 10% of the artisanal ice cream samples. Chromium was found in 26% of the artisanal and in 58% of the industrial ice cream samples. The heavy metals found in the wooden sticks were different from the corresponding ice cream, pointing out the lack of cross-contamination between the products. Considering the results and the amount of ice cream consumed during the year, contamination through ice cream is a low risk for the Italian population, even though there is need for further analysis.

  13. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  15. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  16. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... accomplish specific functions. Ice cream is sweetened with safe and suitable sweeteners and may be...

  17. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and desirable, and characteristic of the fresh milk and cream and the particular flavoring used. (b) Body and texture...

  18. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  19. Bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Emami; Alisha Akya; Anis 1Hossain Zadeh; Sodabeh Barkhordar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ice cream is a dairy product that is very popular during warm seasons. Ice cream can be contaminated with various microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria if hygienic procedures are not followed during preparation, distribution and preservation processes. This may put the health of people using ice cream at risk. Our study aimed to examine the bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah city during 2008. Methods: During summer 2008, 80 samples of tradit...

  20. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that the...

  1. Filtrates and Residues: Ice Cream: Delicious Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, James

    1983-01-01

    An experiment involving preparation of ice cream is conducted after students complete units on solutions, atomic structure, molecular architecture, and bonding. The laboratory gives practical illustration of relation of physical properties to bond type and solution theory developed. Materials needed, procedures used, and questions asked are…

  2. Irradiation of ice creams for immunosuppressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeil Pietranera, Maria S.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Horack, C.; Kairiyama, Eulogia; Gimenez, Palmira; Gronostajski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are very likely to acquire microbial food borne diseases, since due to illness, biological condition or situations generating risks, their natural defences are below what is considered as 'normal limits'. This makes their food intake very restricted, avoiding all those products that could be a source of microorganisms. Gamma radiation applied at sub-sterilizing doses represents a good choice in order to achieve 'clean' diets, and at the same time, it can widen the variety of available meals for these patients, allowing the inclusion of some products normally considered as 'high risk' due to their microbial load, but that can be nutritionally or psychologically adequate. One of these products is ice-cream, a minimally processed type of meal that does not suffer enough microbial inactivation during its processing. Particularly those from natural origin can carry undesirable contamination causing sometimes diseases to the consumer. For that reason, different ice-cream flavours (vanilla, raspberry, peach and milk jam) were exposed to an irradiation treatment at the 60 Co facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. The delivered doses were 3, 6 and 9 kGy. Microbiological determinations were performed, together with sensory evaluations and some chemical analysis: acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet and visible absorption, thin-layer chromatography and sugar determination, in order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied as a decontamination process without impairing quality. Water-based ice-creams (raspberry and peach) were more resistant to gamma radiation than cream-based ones (vanilla and milk jam), due to their differences in fat content. Gamma irradiation with 3 kGy reduced remarkably the microbial load of these ice-creams and eliminated pathogens without impairing their quality. (author)

  3. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    OpenAIRE

    SS Khoramrooz; M Sarikhani; SA Khosravani; M Farhang Falah; Y Mahmoudi; A Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cros...

  4. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream.

  5. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  6. Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Naruemon Prapasuwannakul; Supitcha Boonchai; Nawapat Pengpengpit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity ...

  7. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream soda to the President of Plain Awful. Donald and his nephews fly with Flintheart to deliver it, but Scrooge's enemy, of course, betrays the previous agreement after getting the ice cream, forcing the ducks into making an emergence replacement on the spot. Using dried milk, sugar and chocolate from their ration packs, plus some snow and salt for cooling they are able make the ice cream, and after dressing it with the carbonated water from a fire extinguisher they finally manage to produce the desired dessert. This comic may serve as an introduction to the "mysterious" phenomenon that added salt melts the ice and, even more surprising, does it by lowering the temperature of the mixture.

  8. Bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Emami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ice cream is a dairy product that is very popular during warm seasons. Ice cream can be contaminated with various microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria if hygienic procedures are not followed during preparation, distribution and preservation processes. This may put the health of people using ice cream at risk. Our study aimed to examine the bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah city during 2008. Methods: During summer 2008, 80 samples of traditional ice creams were collected. The samples were examined according to the Iranian National Standard protocols for E. coli, Coliforms,  Salmonella,  Staphylococcus aureus and complete count of microorganisms. Results: Overall, 62 (77.5% samples had microbial contaminations more than the standard limit. Results showed 59 (73.75% and 54 (67.5 % of the samples contained a high number of microorganisms and coliform, respectively. Furthermore 30 (37.5% and 23 (28.75% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. However, Salmonella spp. was not found in any of the ice cream samples. Conclusion: The traditional ice creams tested in Kermanshah were heavily contaminated with bacteria. It could be due to the inappropriate preparation and preservation procedures using unpasteurized milk and other materials.  Contaminations may also be induced by personals. So it is recommended to apply the hygienic procedures for preparation and preservation of ice cream including the use of pasteurized milk and other materials.

  9. Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, T; Cleven, A.H.G.; Schippers, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The examination of the prediction of grams of ice cream eaten by preload, restraint, susceptibility toward overeating, and interaction terms. METHOD: A milkshake-ice cream study on 200 females using the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint and disinhibition scales from the Three-Factor

  10. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram as...

  11. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a). ...

  12. Enrichment of probiotic ice cream with different dietary fibers: Structural characteristics and culture viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalın, A S; Kesenkas, H; Dinkci, N; Unal, G; Ozer, E; Kınık, O

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 5 dietary fibers (apple, orange, oat, bamboo, and wheat) on the physicochemical, rheological, and textural characteristics; sensory properties; and culture viability of probiotic ice cream stored at -18°C for 180 d. The presence of orange and apple fibers increased the titratable acidity, decreased the lightness (color) value of the ice creams, and enhanced the red and yellow coloration. Compared with the control sample, the consistency indices and apparent viscosities of the experimental samples increased with the addition of all dietary fibers except oat fiber. The highest viscosity was obtained in the sample fortified with apple fiber, whereas the ice cream containing orange fiber showed the highest hardness after d 60 of storage. The addition of orange and apple fibers significantly increased melting resistance; however, panelists did not generally like these samples in terms of taste-flavor. All ice creams had viable counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus of ≥7 log cfu/g during storage except the samples with orange and bamboo fiber. Bifidobacterium lactis counts were also found to be >6 log cfu/g in those samples until d 150 of storage. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Fat Structures and Ice Cream Mix Viscosity on Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Julia; Hartel, Rich; Rankin, Scott

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate iciness perception and other sensory textural attributes of ice cream due to ice and fat structures and mix viscosity. Two studies were carried out varying processing conditions and mix formulation. In the 1st study, ice creams were collected at -3, -5, and -7.5 °C draw temperatures. These ice creams contained 0%, 0.1%, or 0.2% emulsifier, an 80:20 blend of mono- and diglycerides: polysorbate 80. In the 2nd study, ice creams were collected at -3 °C draw temperature and contained 0%, 0.2%, or 0.4% stabilizer, a blend of guar gum, locust bean gum, and carrageenan. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine relationships between ice crystal size, destabilized fat, and sensory iciness. In the ice and fat structure study, an inverse correlation was found between fat destabilization and sensory iciness. Ice creams with no difference in ice crystal size were perceived to be less icy with increasing amounts of destabilized fat. Destabilized fat correlated inversely with drip-through rate and sensory greasiness. In the ice cream mix viscosity study, an inverse correlation was found between mix viscosity and sensory iciness. Ice creams with no difference in ice crystal size were perceived to be less icy when formulated with higher mix viscosity. A positive correlation was found between mix viscosity and sensory greasiness. These results indicate that fat structures and mix viscosity have significant effects on ice cream microstructure and sensory texture including the reduction of iciness perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Behaviour of casein micelles at conditions comparable to those in ice cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The physical properties of ice cream are mainly determined by the processing and the ingredients. Milk (powder) is one of the ingredients and ice cream thus contains casein, the major milk protein. A large proportion of casein in ice cream is present in the plasma phase of ice cream. Since

  15. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the gallon...

  16. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian

    2013-06-01

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of {K3} surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  17. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, I. J.; Dharaiya, C. N.; Pinto, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next...

  18. A TROPICAL COUNTRY WHICH IS COOL TO ICE CREAMS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. ANIRVINNA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One market which is expected to make a brisk business in the summer is none other than ice-cream. For consumers too there is nothing better than craving for an ice cream particularly during unbearable hot summer period of April-June. But astonishingly given the climate in India, the per capita consumption in India 250 ml has been much lower compared to the countries compared to 23 lt in the US, 18 lt in Australia, 14 lt in Sweden and 800 ml even in neighbouring Pakistan, Sri Lanka shows immense potential for expansion. The US has been the leading producer of ice-cream in the world albeit Europe introduced the product into the country. The ice-cream cone was invented as early as 1904 shows the hallmark of a product innovation in the US.

  19. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Khoramrooz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cross sectional study was performed on 64 samples.The samples were taken from the ice cream and confectionery shops in Yasuj city and keep on cold box then the samples were transported in sterile conditions, to the department of medical microbiology laboratory in medical university of yasuj and  microbial contamination rate evaluated by national standard method. Collected data analysed with SPSS software for data description,from central dispersion and table frequency and draw chart.  RESULTS: The survey results showed that 40% o traditional ice cream,cream suit were infected by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella respectly (6.7,87 and 0,(50,30 and 0.(0,0 and0 present, and no seen any bacteria on olowye. Conclusion: Due to our research contamination rate traditional ice cream,cream suit and olowye were by Staph aurous, Escherichia coli and salmonella were very high . therefore using different ways to control bacterial growth especaly E.coli the mostly transmited by fecal oral including the use of healthly and safe raw material for promoting health awareness of people involved in the food preparation and production is essential.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF ICE CREAM CONSUMED IN ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a dairy product that is produced by freezing a mixture enriched with sugar, cream, stabilizers, emulsifiers and aroma materials. The present study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of 150 ice cream samples (75 plain and 75 strawberry-flavored collected from artisanal producers in Istanbul, Turkey. The samples were investigated for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that TMAB counts ranged from 2.0 x 101 - 2.5 x 105 cfu/g with a mean of 1.5 x 104 cfu/g, while Enterobacteriaceae count ranged from 1 - 8.8 x 103 cfu/g with a mean of 3.0 x 102 cfu/g. Overall, 23.33% (35/150 of ice cream samples were of unacceptable quality based on recommended criteria by the Turkish Food Codex. Salmonella spp. was not determined in the samples. L. monocytogenes was detected in only one strawberry-flavored ice cream sample. The results indicated that ice cream might have been contaminated with pathogens, presenting a potential hazard for public health. Therefore, it is essential to ensure the safety of final products by improving the quality of production technology and sanitation strategies.

  1. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  2. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  3. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  4. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  5. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  6. Microbiological Contamination of Ice Cream Commercially Available in Korea and its Irradiation Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.S.; Kim, H.J.; Jo, C.U.; Kim, D.S.; Byun, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ice cream product commercially available in Korea was determined using ice bar, ice cream, ice milk and non-milk fat ice cream. Irradiation effect on enhancement of microbiological safety was also investigated at doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy. In all products, yeast and molds were not detected, however, total aerobic and coliform bacteria were detected at 1~2 and 1~1.5 Log CFU/g level, respectively. According to the different flavor used in ice cream, total aerobic bacteria were detected as 2.30, 2.90, and 3.32 Log CFU/g level in vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream, respectively. Yeast and mold was not detected in vanilla ice cream but 2.30 and 2.70 Log CFU/g in chocolate and strawberry ice cream, respectively

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid and glucose oxidase levels on the viability of probiotic bacteria and the physical and sensory characteristics in symbiotic ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Akın

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of addition of different amounts of ascorbic acid and glucose oxidase on the properties of symbiotic ice cream were investigated. Ice-cream containing inulin (2 % (w/w was produced by mixing fortified milk fermented with probiotic strains with the ice-cream mixes containing different ascorbic acid and glucose oxidase concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.1 (w/w. The cultures were grown (37 °C, 12 h in UHT skimmed milk. The fermented milk was added to the ice-cream mix up to a level of 10 % w/w. Increasing the concentration of ascorbic acid stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Bifidobacterium BB-12. On contrary, increasing the concentration of glucose oxidase negatively affected the growth of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium BB-12. However, both, ascorbic acid and glucose oxidase concentration had no effect on physical and sensory properties of ice cream. The results suggested that the addition of ascorbic acid stimulated the growth of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium BB-12 and could be recommended for ice cream production.

  8. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  9. Ice-cream consumption, tendency toward overeating, and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The exploration of the mechanisms underlying the tendency toward overeating by investigating the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ)/Revised Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-R) disinhibition, in sequence to the milkshake-ice cream study (van Strien, Cleven, and Schippers, in press).

  10. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  11. Ice Cream/I Scream for YA Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Don

    2010-01-01

    From a 40-year perspective, Don Gallo examines the field of young adult literature, comparing it to ice cream--its various flavors and levels of richness. The article proclaims the profundity of the field and the quality of its writers, summarizes historical highlights, defends it against its detractors, and explains the importance of helping…

  12. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  13. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  15. Production and Evaluation of Ice Cream from Nigerian Tiger-Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ice cream was prepared from water-soluble extracts of the yellow variety of Nigerian tiger-nut. A modified standard method was used for the production of the tiger-nut milk ice cream. The resulting ice cream had pH of 7.10, 35% Brix, specific gravity of 1.0888 and total solids of 45.67%. The proximate composition of the ice ...

  16. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Josué VILLALVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and prebiotics (inulin, and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food.

  17. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  18. Factors Affecting the Changes of Ice Crystal Form in Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    In this study, the shape of ice crystals in ice cream was quantitatively evaluated by introducing fractal analysis. A small droplet of commercial ice cream mix was quickly cooled to about -30°C on the cold stage of microscope. Subsequently, it was heated to -5°C or -10°C and then held for various holding time. Based on the captured images at each holding time, the cross-sectional area and the length of circumference for each ice crystal were measured to calculate fractal dimension using image analysis software. The results showed that the ice crystals were categorized into two groups, e.g. simple-shape and complicated-shape, according to their fractal dimensions. The fractal dimension of ice crystals became lower with increasing holding time and holding temperature. It was also indicated that the growing rate of complicated-shape ice crystals was relatively higher because of aggregation.

  19. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.80 Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy... manufacture of ice cream, ice milk, sherbert, water ices, stick confections, frozen novelties products, frozen...

  20. Application of HACCP system in the ice cream production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meho Bašić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancement of quality in all production segments, the ice cream factory «SA&JACOM» Sarajevo has made a decision to introduce a system of quality control and health safety for all of its products.Possible critical control points were analyzed and successfully specified, with hazard reduction to tolerant level, and in some cases with total hazard elimination. Using HACCP methodology, it is expected that the factory will produce the ice-creams with reliable preliminary established quality and accepted level of hygienic and health safety. All the activities are applied in a precise and documented way, so the products of this factory achieve trust of the customers and provide an official production certificate.

  1. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  2. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at {sup 6}0{sup C}o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  3. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at 6 0 C o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  4. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  5. Energy consumption optimization of a continuous ice cream process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Ramírez, J.E.; Leducq, D.; Arellano, M.; Alvarez, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This work investigates potential energy savings of an ice cream freezer. • From a full load compressor to a variable speed compressor one in freezer. • 30% less of energy consumption. • It is possible to save between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing freezers. - Abstract: This work investigates potential energy saves in an ice cream freezer by using a variable speed compressor and optimization’s methodology for operating conditions during the process. Two configurations to control the refrigeration capacity were analyzed, the first one, modifies the pressure through the pilot control valve (conventional refrigeration system) and the second one with a variable speed compressor, both with a float expansion valve. Variable speed compressor configuration has showed the highest coefficient of performance and around of 30% less of energy consumption than the conventional one. The optimization of operating conditions in order to minimize the energy consumption is also presented. It was calculated only in France, for all ice cream and sorbet production, it is possible to save energy between 11 and 14 MWh per year by optimizing the operation of the refrigeration system through a variable speed compressor configuration

  6. Short communication: Effect of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Erfan; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Jooyandeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein. Whey protein addition with or without transglutaminase treatment caused an increase in apparent viscosity and a decrease in flow index of the reduced-fat ice cream; nevertheless, the flow behavior of full-fat sample was most similar to the enzyme-treated reduced-fat sample with no added whey protein. Descriptive sensory analyses showed that neither whey protein addition nor transglutaminase treatment significantly influenced the flavor and odor of reduced-fat ice cream, but they both noticeably improved the color and texture of the final product. The results of this study suggest that whey protein addition with transglutaminase treatment improves the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream more favorably than does whey protein addition or transglutaminase treatment alone. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 ( p ice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert).

  8. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream-based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity.

  9. Automatic ice-cream characterization by impedance measurements for optimal machine setting

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Marco; Lanzoni, Massimo; Lazzarini, Roberto; Riccò, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Electrical characterization of products is gaining increasing interest in the food industry for quality monitoring and control. In particular, this is the case in the ice-cream industry, where machines dedicated to store ice-cream mixes are programmed ''ad hoc'' for different groups of products. To this purpose, the present work shows that essential product classification (discrimination between milk based and fruit based ice-cream mixes) can be done by means of a tech...

  10. A critical overview: The reason for the public sector’s ice cream production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan KARAGÖZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas, the public sector in Turkey has withdrawn from the production of private goods, the public sector in Turkey still has produces ice cream. In recent years, related public enterprise has taken up the capacity expansion of ice cream production. And also, it has got a target of growing market share. However, there isn’t a strong argument about the public sector’s ice cream production. In this study, it is researched that why the public sector in Turkey produces ice cream.

  11. Numerical model of melting, liquid migration and deformation during an ice cream meltdown test

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, G.; Warren, M.; Hartel, R.; Flick, D.

    2016-01-01

    4th IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain 2016 , Auckland, NZL, 07-/04/2016 - 09/04/2016; International audience; A numerical model was developed which describes the combined phenomena occurring during an ice cream meltdown test which is a test used by ice cream producers to estimate the quality of ice cream. It is based on the measurement of the drip loss and the deformation during melting of an ice cream block placed onto a grid at ambient temperature. This infor...

  12. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers.

  13. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues.

  14. Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyck, J R; Baer, R J; Choi, J

    2011-05-01

    Ice cream quality is dependent on many factors including storage temperature. Currently, the industry standard for ice cream storage is -28.9 °C. Ice cream production costs may be decreased by increasing the temperature of the storage freezer, thus lowering energy costs. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of 4 storage temperatures on the quality of commercial vanilla-flavored light and full-fat ice cream. Storage temperatures used were -45.6, -26.1, and -23.3 °C for the 3 treatments and -28.9 °C as the control or industry standard. Ice crystal sizes were analyzed by a cold-stage microscope and image analysis at 1, 19.5, and 39 wk of storage. Ice crystal size did not differ among the storage temperatures of light and full-fat ice creams at 19.5 or 39 wk. An increase in ice crystal size was observed between 19.5 and 39 wk for all storage temperatures except -45.6 °C. Coldness intensity, iciness, creaminess, and storage/stale off-flavor of the light and full-fat ice creams were evaluated at 39 wk of storage. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference among the different storage temperatures for light and full-fat ice creams. In a second study, light and full-fat ice creams were heat shocked by storing at -28.9 °C for 35 wk and then alternating between -23.3 and -12.2 °C every 24h for 4 wk. Heat-shocked ice creams were analyzed at 2 and 4 wk of storage for ice crystal size and were evaluated by the sensory panel. A difference in ice crystal size was observed for light and full-fat ice creams during heat-shock storage; however, sensory results indicated no differences. In summary, storage of light or full-fat vanilla-flavored ice creams at the temperatures used within this research did not affect quality of the ice creams. Therefore, ice cream manufacturers could conserve energy by increasing the temperature of freezers from -28.9 to -26.1 °C. Because freezers will typically fluctuate from the set temperature, usage of -26.1

  15. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Development of Job’s-tears ice cream recipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Job’s tears ice cream recipe was developed by varying proportions of Job’s tears, sucrose, salt and coconut milk. Product positioning mapping was used to identify the sensory attributes that were drivers of preference, which appeared to be sweetness, smoothness, richness, and coconut milk and Job's-tears flavours of the product. Cluster analysis was used to differentiate consumers by their preference direction. Nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the final product were also determined.

  17. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; MacPhee, Cait E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  18. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  19. Pectin from Citrus Canning Wastewater as Potential Fat Replacer in Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectin had been recovered from canning wastewater produced by chemical treatment of segment membrane during preparation of canned citrus in our previous research. The purpose of this study was to characterize the extracted pectin from canning wastewater, and to evaluate its application as a fat alternative to replace fat in ice cream. The monosaccharide composition and rheological properties of the pectin were determined. The influences of fat reduction and pectin addition on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of low-fat ice cream were determined. The rheological results showed that pectin solutions were typical pseudoplastic fluids. The addition of pectin in ice cream can cause an increase in viscosity, overrun, and hardness, and a decrease in meltdown of the ice cream. When 0.72% pectin (w/w is incorporated into ice cream, a prototype product of ice cream with 45% lower fat content compared to the control was made. Results indicated that their qualities such as appearance, flavor, and taste were not significantly different. The low-fat ice cream had higher smoothness scores and lower mouth-coating scores. Hence, pectin extracted from citrus canning wastewater can be potentially used as fat replacer in ice cream, which benefits both the environment and the food industry.

  20. Pectin from Citrus Canning Wastewater as Potential Fat Replacer in Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Jianle; Li, Junhui; Wei, Chaoyang; Ye, Xingqian; Shi, John; Chen, Shiguo

    2018-04-17

    Pectin had been recovered from canning wastewater produced by chemical treatment of segment membrane during preparation of canned citrus in our previous research. The purpose of this study was to characterize the extracted pectin from canning wastewater, and to evaluate its application as a fat alternative to replace fat in ice cream. The monosaccharide composition and rheological properties of the pectin were determined. The influences of fat reduction and pectin addition on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of low-fat ice cream were determined. The rheological results showed that pectin solutions were typical pseudoplastic fluids. The addition of pectin in ice cream can cause an increase in viscosity, overrun, and hardness, and a decrease in meltdown of the ice cream. When 0.72% pectin ( w / w ) is incorporated into ice cream, a prototype product of ice cream with 45% lower fat content compared to the control was made. Results indicated that their qualities such as appearance, flavor, and taste were not significantly different. The low-fat ice cream had higher smoothness scores and lower mouth-coating scores. Hence, pectin extracted from citrus canning wastewater can be potentially used as fat replacer in ice cream, which benefits both the environment and the food industry.

  1. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  2. Magnesium enriched lactic acid bacteria as a carrier for probiotic ice cream production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Małgorzata; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula; Góral, Dariusz

    2018-01-15

    The following strains of bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 442, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1937, and Lactococcus lactis JBB 500 were enriched with magnesium ions using Pulsed Electric Fields. The potentially probiotic strains were added to the mixture in the DVS process and applied for the production of ice cream which were then analyzed physicochemically and microbiologically. Results showed that addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium did not change chemical parameters of the ice cream and did not affect the freezing process, meltability, and hardness. No significant differences were noted in colour of the samples. The ice cream with addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium had higher adhesiveness. The results of viability determination showed that the total number of microorganisms in the ice cream was higher than in the starter cultures. Viability of the bacteria enriched with magnesium in the obtained ice cream was lower in comparison to the control samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  4. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The provisions...

  5. Preference direction study of Job’s-tears ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L. is a kind of cereal commonly used in Asia as food and medicine, but it is still not widely consumed in Thailand. Four prototype products of Job’s-tears ice cream were developed by varying 2 levels of glucose syrup (16 and 32% of Job's-tears used and coconut milk (50 and 100 % of Job's-tears used. Their sensory attribute profiles were evaluated by 3 groups of 10 selected panelists using Ratio profile test (RPT, and their acceptances, hedonic scores, were evaluated by 100 consumers. Results showed that there were significant effects of coconut milk quantity on several attributes, such as appearance (whiteness, texture (hardness, smoothness, and flavour (coconut milk aroma, sweetness, saltiness, but the effect of glucose syrup quantity was significant on hardness only. Acceptance data were analyzed by cluster analysis to find out the difference of preference directions and 3 clusters (n1 = 39, n2 = 25, n3 = 36 were found. The first cluster preferred Job's tears ice cream containing high glucose syrup and low coconut milk, whilst the second preferred high level of only one of these two ingredients, and the third preferred high level of both ingredients. External preference maps were created from RPT and acceptance data to express the preference direction of each cluster.

  6. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  7. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  8. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  9. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet ( Pennisetum typhoides ) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s -1 shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  10. Cold pleasure. Why we like ice drinks, ice-lollies and ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R; Du-Plessis, L; Dommels, Y; Wilkinson, J E

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses how the ingestion of cold foods and drinks may be perceived as pleasant because of the effects of cooling of the mouth. The case is made that man has originated from a tropical environment and that cold stimuli applied to the external skin may initiate thermal discomfort and reflexes such as shivering and vasoconstriction that defend body temperature, whereas cold stimuli applied to the mouth are perceived as pleasant because of pleasure associated with satiation of thirst and a refreshing effect. Cold water is preferred to warm water as a thirst quencher and cold products such as ice cream may also be perceived as pleasant because oral cooling satiates thirst. The case is made that cold stimuli may be perceived differently in the skin and oral mucosa, leading to different effects on temperature regulation, and perception of pleasure or displeasure, depending on the body temperature and the temperature of the external environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream. PMID:26761671

  12. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  13. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans in probiotic and low-fat synbiotic ice-creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans after freezing and during 90 days of storage at -18○C in probiotic and low-fat synbiotic ice-cream was evaluated. Addition to a control group (which was ordinary ice-cream, two probiotic ice-creams were formulated using L. acidophilus and B. coagulans and two synbiotic ice-creams were prepared using the aforementioned microorganisms but replacing 5% of milk-fat with inulin. The total solids of the ice-cream mixes did not differ significantly, however there was a significant difference (p

  14. Functionality of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) in the production of fruity ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmakçı, Songül; Topdaş, Elif Feyza; Çakır, Yusuf; Kalın, Pınar

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kumquat (Fortunella margarita) on the quality characteristics of ice cream. Kumquat paste (KP) was added to an ice cream mix at four concentrations, 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% (w/w), for ice cream production. The increment of KP level caused an increase in acidity, vitamin C content, b* value and overrun value compared with the control ice cream. The apparent viscosity of samples decreased with the addition of KP at concentrations of 5 and 10% compared with the control. Results indicated that lyophilized water extract of KP (LKE) contained remarkable phenolic compounds. It was observed that LKE exhibited moderate in vitro antioxidant capacity. KP enhanced the color, flavor, vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of the ice cream. The addition of KP positively affected the sensory properties. KP may be used as a suitable source of natural color and flavor agent in ice cream production. KP enhanced the vitamin C content and Mg and K contents of ice cream and improved its sensory properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  16. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Evaluation of soluble solids content and pH of ice cream treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, V.D.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Sagretti, J.M.; Sabato, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The ice cream is considered an aerated suspension of fat and ice crystals in a concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, proteins and casein micelles. Only in Brazil, in the year 2010, it was produced 1120 million liter of ice cream and due to high demand by the consumers, this is considered the most important product of the dairy industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the soluble solids content (SSC) and the hydrogenionic potential (pH) of vanilla ice cream conditioned in isothermal boxes irradiated with 3.0 and 5.0 kGy in the Multipurpose Irradiator of 60 Co located at IPEN - CNEN/SP. It can be concluded that the treatment of ice cream with gamma radiation did not cause changes in the analyzed parameters. . (author)

  18. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  20. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese and ice cream exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashisaka, A.E.; Weagant, S.D.; Dong, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes preinoculated into ice cream and mozzarella cheese prior to gamma-irradiation treatment was determined. Samples were maintained at -78 degrees C and exposed to targeted doses of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 kGy of gamma-irradiation. The calculated D10 values were 1.4 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 2.0 kGy for ice cream. The effective level of irradiation (12D) for inactivating L. monocytogenes was 16.8 kGy for mozzarella cheese and 24.4 kGy for ice cream

  1. Development of Ice Cream with Improved Microbiological Safety and Acceptable Organoleptic Quality Using Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Byun, M.W.; Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Ahn, J.N.; Jang, A.; Jo, C.

    2007-01-01

    To develop the manufacturing method of ice cream with microbiologically safe and proper sensory quality using irradiation for sensitive consumer, 3 different flavors, which were resistant to their flavors against irradiation, were selected and used for ice cream manufacturing to reduce the irradiation-induced off-flavor problem. The general composition was not different among treatments. Total aerobic bacteria were detected as 2.38, 1.23, 1.38, and 1.15 log CFU/g level in ice cream with control (no flavor added), spearmint, mint, and citrus flavor, respectively

  2. The potential of avocado paste (Persea americana) as fat substitute in non-dairy ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina; Surjawan, I.; Abdillah, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer preferences towards plant-based food have shifted significantly due to sustainable and healthy reasons. Dairy products consist of high Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) and overconsumption of SFA could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Avocado contains high levels of fat dominated by Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and phytosterol that have the potential as a plant-based fat source to substitute dairy-fat in ice cream. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream substituted with different concentrations of avocado paste ranging from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively against dairy fat to produce non-dairy fat ice cream. The psychochemical properties and total fat were determined. Sensorial quality and hedonic attributes of ice cream were investigated using 60 semi-trained panelists. There were significant differences (pice cream substituted with avocado paste. The addition of avocado paste lead to the increase in viscosity and hardness of the ice cream significantly (p0.05). The addition of 50% avocado paste was the most preferred among the panelists. Avocado could provide a potential substitution for dairy-fat in ice cream.

  3. Effect of fat content on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of vanilla ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, M Laura; Bakke, Alyssa J; Coupland, John N; Hayes, John E; Roberts, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Ice cream is a complex food matrix that contains multiple physical phases. Removal of 1 ingredient may affect not only its physical properties but also multiple sensory characteristics that may or may not be important to consumers. Fat not only contributes to texture, mouth feel, and flavor, but also serves as a structural element. We evaluated the effect of replacing fat with maltodextrin (MD) on select physical properties of ice cream and on consumer acceptability. Vanilla ice creams were formulated to contain 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14% fat, and the difference was made up with 8, 6, 4, 2, and 0% maltodextrin, respectively, to balance the mix. Physical characterization included measurements of overrun, apparent viscosity, fat particle size, fat destabilization, hardness, and melting rate. A series of sensory tests were conducted to measure liking and the intensity of various attributes. Tests were also conducted after 19 weeks of storage at -18°C to assess changes in acceptance due to prolonged storage at unfavorable temperatures. Then, discrimination tests were performed to determine which differences in fat content were detectable by consumers. Mix viscosity decreased with increasing fat content and decreasing maltodextrin content. Fat particle size and fat destabilization significantly increased with increasing fat content. However, acceptability did not differ significantly across the samples for fresh or stored ice cream. Following storage, ice creams with 6, 12, and 14% fat did not differ in acceptability compared with fresh ice cream. However, the 8% fat, 6% MD and 10% fat, 4% MD ice creams showed a significant drop in acceptance after storage relative to fresh ice cream at the same fat content. Consumers were unable to detect a difference of 2 percentage points in fat level between 6 and 12% fat. They were able to detect a difference of 4 percentage points for ice creams with 6% versus 10%, but not for those with 8% versus 12% fat. Removing fat and replacing

  4. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez; Maribel Perera-Pacheco; Enrique Barbosa-Martín; David Betancur-Ancona

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that na...

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Growth Kinetics in Milkshakes Made from Naturally and Artificially Contaminated Ice Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Joelle K.; Bathija, Vriddi M.; Carstens, Christina K.; Narula, Sartaj S.; Shazer, Arlette; Stewart, Diana; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milkshakes made using the process-contaminated ice cream associated with a listeriosis outbreak in comparison to milkshakes made with artificially contaminated ice cream. For all temperatures, growth kinetics including growth rates, lag phases, maximum populations, and population increases were determined for the naturally and artificially derived contaminants at 5, 10, 15, and 25°C storage for 144 h. The artificially inoculated L. m...

  7. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Junchao; Pua, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Chi-Te; Chang, Che-Lang; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurizati...

  8. Enrichment of functional properties of ice cream with pomegranate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Fatma; Aslan, Duygu; Dinç, Merve

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel rich in phenolics, and pomegranate seed which contain a conjugated fatty acid namely punicic acid in lipid fraction remain as by-products after processing the fruit into juice. Ice cream is poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolics, therefore, this study was conducted to improve the functional properties of ice cream by incorporating pomegranate peel phenolics and pomegranate seed oil. Incorporation of the peel phenolics into ice cream at the levels of 0.1% and 0.4% (w/w) resulted in significant changes in the pH, total acidity, and color of the samples. The most prominent outcomes of phenolic incorporation were sharp improvements in antioxidant and antidiabetic activities as well as the phenolic content of ice creams. Replacement of pomegranate seed oil by milk fat at the levels of 2.0% and 4.0% (w/w) increased the conjugated fatty acid content. However, perception of oxidized flavor increased with the additional seed oil. When one considers the functional and nutritional improvements in the enrichment of the ice cream together with overall acceptability results of the sensory analysis, then it follows from this study that ice creams enriched with pomegranate peel phenolics up to 0.4% (w/w) and pomegranate seed oil up to 2.0% (w/w) could be introduced to markets as functional ice cream. Enrichment of ice creams with pomegranate by-products might provide consumers health benefits with striking functional properties of punicalagins in pomegranate peel, and punicic acid in pomegranate seed oil. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH. PMID:26761823

  10. Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Sumner, S S; Herbein, J H

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation and firmness of butter and ice cream made with modified milkfat containing enhanced amounts of linoleic acid or oleic acid. The influence of the fatty acid profile of the HO milkfat relating to product properties as compared with the influence the fatty acid profile of the HL milkfat was the main focus of the research. Altering the degree of unsaturation in milkfat may affect melting characteristics and oxidation rates, leading to quality issues in dairy products. Three milkfat compositions (high-oleic, high-linoleic, and control) were obtained by modifying the diets of Holstein cows. Ice cream and butter were processed from milkfat obtained from cows in each dietary group. Butter and ice cream samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid profile and firmness. High-oleic milkfat resulted in a softer butter. Solid fat index of high-oleic and high-linoleic milkfat was lower than the control. Control ice cream mix had higher viscosity compared with high-oleic and high-linoleic, but firmness of all ice creams was similar when measured between -17 and -13 degrees C. Nutritional and textural properties of butter and ice cream can be improved by modifying the diets of cows.

  11. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-05

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy Irradiated Chocolate Ice Cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Y.E.; Yin, X.F.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was investigated the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated chocolate ice cream for its future use in space. Chocolate ice cream was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at a temperature of -20°C. For the animal study, AIN-93G was used as a control diet and irradiated and non-irradiated chocolate ice cream diets were administered to male and female ICR mice (ten mice per group) for three months. During the experimental period, the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control. Also, all biochemical parameters, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values were in normal ranges. In histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues, there were no significant differences between the control group and the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream. These results indicate that chocolate ice cream irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects and could be applied for the development of safe and hygienic space food

  14. Effects on physicochemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream with fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.; Arif, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal on physico-chemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream. Fatty acid profile of milk fat was modified by feeding calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids to cows and cholesterol was removed by b-cyclodextrin b-cyclodextrin removed 76% and 60% cholesterol from yoghurt and ice cream. Modification of fatty acid composition did not have a significant effect on a-tocopherol content; while b-cyclodextrin treated milk had substantially lower a-tocopherol content. The concentration of a-tocopherol in control and b-cyclodextrin treated yoghurt was 45.62, 32.73 mg/g and 210.34, 185.56 mg/g for ice cream, respectively. Fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal significantly decreased the overrun in ice cream (P<0.05), with no effect on sensory characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream. These results evidenced that milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol can be used in the formulation of yoghurt and ice cream with improved health benefits and suitable sensory features. (author)

  15. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  16. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  17. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  18. Prevalence of microbial contamination of traditional ice-creams in ice-cream supplier trade units in Birjand in 2015: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abolhasannezhad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ice-cream is a type of ice-cream whose all processes of production and distribution are done by hand. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams and its decisive factors. The current study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in Birjand in 2015. The samples were transferred under sterile conditions and cold chain, to a food laboratory. They went through laboratory tests of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus Cocos. The obtained results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software( V:15. The results showed that from among 96 samples collected 25 samples were acceptable while 71 samples were unusable. Maximum contaminations were due to Enterobacteriaceae in 39 cases (40%, and Staphylococcus aureus infection was found in 27 cases, (28% the least contamination-14 (15% cases -belonged to E. coli . In addition 39 infection (42.4% 8 (8.69% was because of coliforms. Besides, 8 cases were simultaneously contaminated with coliforms, escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus, 12 samples (13.04% with coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus; and 2 samples (2.17% were simultaneously contaminated with coliforms and E. coli. Birjand traditional ice-creams are highly contaminated with bacteria, which is a sign of poor hygiene in the preparation and distribution of this product.

  19. Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. There is a wide range of commercial ice creams in the United States market, ranging from full fat to nonfat. In this research we showed that these ice creams vary greatly in their microstructures, behaviors (the melt/drip-though, collapse, and/or stand up properties of ice cream

  20. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  1. Effects of Emulsifier, Overrun and Dasher Speed on Ice Cream Microstructure and Melting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2018-03-01

    Ice cream is a multiphase frozen food containing ice crystals, air cells, fat globules, and partially coalesced fat globule clusters dispersed in an unfrozen serum phase (sugars, proteins, and stabilizers). This microstructure is responsible for ice cream's melting characteristics. By varying both formulation (emulsifier content and overrun) and processing conditions (dasher speed), the effects of different microstructural elements, particularly air cells and fat globule clusters, on ice cream melt-down properties were studied. Factors that caused an increase in shear stress within the freezer, namely increasing dasher speed and overrun, caused a decrease in air cell size and an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Increasing emulsifier content, especially of polysorbate 80, caused an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Both overrun and fat destabilization influenced drip-through rates. Ice creams with a combination of low overrun and low fat destabilization had the highest drip-through rates. Further, the amount of remnant foam left on the screen increased with reduced drip-through rates. These results provide a better understanding of the effects of microstructure components and their interactions on drip-through rate. Manipulating operating and formulation parameters in ice cream manufacture influences the microstructure (air cells, ice crystals, and fat globule clusters). This work provides guidance on which parameters have most effect on air cell size and fat globule cluster formation. Further, the structural characteristics that reduce melt-down rate were determined. Ice cream manufacturers will use these results to tailor their products for the desired quality attributes. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Seoul 110-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Gon [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Woosong University, Daejeon, 300-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 deg. C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D{sub 10} values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  3. Influence of high power ultrasound on rheological and foaming properties of model ice-cream mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Batur

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research of the high power ultrasound effect on rheological and foaming properties of ice cream model mixtures. Ice cream model mixtures are prepared according to specific recipes, and afterward undergone through different homogenization techniques: mechanical mixing, ultrasound treatment and combination of mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Specific diameter (12.7 mm of ultrasound probe tip has been used for ultrasound treatment that lasted 5 minutes at 100 percent amplitude. Rheological parameters have been determined using rotational rheometer and expressed as flow index, consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that all model mixtures have non-newtonian, dilatant type behavior. The highest viscosities have been observed for model mixtures that were homogenizes with mechanical mixing, and significantly lower values of viscosity have been observed for ultrasound treated ones. Foaming properties are expressed as percentage of increase in foam volume, foam stability index and minimal viscosity. It has been determined that ice cream model mixtures treated only with ultrasound had minimal increase in foam volume, while the highest increase in foam volume has been observed for ice cream mixture that has been treated in combination with mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Also, ice cream mixtures having higher amount of proteins in composition had shown higher foam stability. It has been determined that optimal treatment time is 10 minutes.

  4. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with no calories and high sweetening capacity and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacing sugar with different levels of extracts of S. rebaudiana Morita II and Criolla, on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream. Using a 2x2 factorial experimental design, a total of 4 formulations were prepared with two levels of concentration of the aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (5 or 8% and the variety of S. rebaudiana (Morita II or Criolla. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined in processed products. The proximate analysis of strawberry ice cream varied significantly (P<0.05 depending of variety and level used on the formulation. The viscosities of all ice cream mixes were decreasing as the shear rate was increased, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior. The sensory analysis showed differences (P<0.05 among the formulations tested, however the score of all products were above the indifference point, suggesting that all of these formulations may have a commercial potential.

  5. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-01-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 deg. C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D 10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  6. Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.

  7. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative bacterial examination and chemical evaluation of Diet, Club, and Ice-cream Sodas, Soft Drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watoo, M.K.S.; Watoo, F.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Tirmizi, S.A.; Iqbal, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diet, club, and ice cream sodas are flavored soft drinks consumed throughout the world, especially in summer seasons. This study has been undertaken to monitor the bacterial and chemical contamination of these national and international branded drinks procured from local markets. The isolated coliforms and microbes were E. coli Salmonella spp, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, and Bacillus cereus. Diet and club sodas were less contaminated with microorganisms than were ice-cream sodas. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were identified with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer following the improved ash digestion method. The values of Nickel (Ni), (0.15 mg/L), (Pb) (0.28mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.13mg/L) and Aluminum (Al) (0.76 mg/L) were higher than the (WHO) recommended limits. The concentrations of (Na, Fe, Pb) and Chromium (Cr) were higher in club sodas than diet and ice-cream sodas and the concentrations of Calcium (Ca), (Mn) in ice-cream sodas were also higher than diet and club sodas. Overall, the ice-cream sodas did not conform to the (WHO) standards allowed for safe ingestion of micro- and macro-metals in various drinks. (author)

  9. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-07-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 °C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  10. Improvement of the Physical and Oxidative Stability Characteristics of Ice Cream through Interesterified Moringa Oleifera Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.; Ullah, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of high melting point interesterified M. oleifera oil (35.6 degree centigrade) with substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids on physicochemical and oxidative stability characteristics of ice cream. Of the 10 percent fat in the ice cream, 30 percent was replaced by interesterified M. oleifera oil at three levels i.e. 10, 20 and 30 percent (T1, T2 and T3, respectively). Oleic acid increased from 26.55 percent to 31.69 percent, 36.94 percent and 42.15 percent in T1, T2 and T3 with no effect on melting time, compositional attributes and free fatty acid content of ice cream (P>0.05). Supplementation of ice cream with interesterified M. oleifera oil inhibited the autoxidation process in ice cream during 3 months storage period (P<0.05).The loss of oleic and linoleic acid in fresh and 3 months stored control and T2 was 26.55 percent, 24.15 percent, 26.39% percent and 1.93 percent, 1.24 percent and 1.79 percent, respectively. Peroxide value of three months stored control and T3 was 1.12 and 0.39 (meqO2/kg). The overall acceptability score of T2 was 80% of the total score (9). (author)

  11. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  12. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  13. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Frogurt: A New Product Prepared by Fermentation of Ice Cream Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Morteza

    1988-01-01

    Ice cream mix was fermented with yogurt cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus to four different pH's then frozen in a batch ice cream freezer. A consumer panel of 120 people tasted samples of strawberry flavored product with pH's of 4.4, 4.7, 5.1, and 5.4 and commercial frozen yogurt as a standard. Results from the panel were used to predict a preferred pH of 4.9. Another panel of 181 people compared product at pH 4.9 with 10, 15 and 20% strawberry flavoring. The...

  17. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Lu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurization and freezing, were identified. Implementing the HACCP system in food manufacturing can effectively ensure food safety and quality, expand the market, and improve the manufacturers' management level.

  18. Research of Wheat Germ Foaming Capacity in Dairy Ice-Cream Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Martich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface activity of grain component in model systems and in the milk ice cream is investigated. It is found that increase of wheat germ comtent in model systems and mixtures leads to a corresponding decrease in surface tension in the presence of surface-active plant protein. The expediency of previous frying and shredding of plant material to improve its foaming ability in the milk mixtures is proved. The need of wheat germ hydration before its use to improve functional and technological properties in the ice cream is confirmed.

  19. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junchao; Pua, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Chi-Te; Chang, Che-Lang; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2014-09-01

    To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurization and freezing, were identified. Implementing the HACCP system in food manufacturing can effectively ensure food safety and quality, expand the market, and improve the manufacturers' management level. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaluation of physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of low-fat or low-sugar synbiotic ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Replacing a part of fat and sugar in ice-cream by inulin and lactulose as prebiotic may create a healthier product. Two low-fat and two low-sugar synbiotic ice-cream samples were manufactured inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bacillus coagulans. The physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of the samples were compared with regular ice-cream as control. Low-fat and low-sugar synbiotic ice-cream formulations were prepared by replacing 5% of the fat and sugar contents of the control formula by inulin and lactulose, respectively. According to the results, although the total solids of the ice-cream mixes did not differ significantly, there were significant (p

  1. Effect of Chocobar Ice Cream Containing Bifidobacterium on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Daryani, Hemasha; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of chocobar ice cream containing bifidobacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 subjects (18 to 22 years of age) divided into 2 groups, test (chocobar ice cream with probiotics) and control (chocobar ice cream without probiotics). The subjects were instructed to eat the allotted chocobar ice cream once daily for 18 days. Saliva samples collected at intervals were cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar and Rogosa agar and examined for salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Postingestion in the test group, a statistically significant reduction (p ice cream containing probiotic bifidobacteria may reduce salivary levels of mutans streptococci in young adults.

  2. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  4. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  5. The addition of inulin and Lactobacillus casei 01 in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Celso F; Silva, Hugo L A; Esmerino, Erick A; Rocha, Ramon S; Moraes, Jeremias; Carmo, Mariana A V; Azevedo, Luciana; Camps, Ihosvany; K D Abud, Yuri; Sant'Anna, Celso; Franco, Robson M; Freitas, Mônica Q; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Escher, Graziela B; Granato, Daniel; Senaka Ranadheera, C; Nazzaro, Filomena; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-04-25

    The effect of the Lactobacillus casei 01 and inulin addition on sheep milk ice cream during storage (-18 °C, 150 days) was investigated. Control, probiotic and synbiotic ice cream (10% w/w sheep milk cream; 10% w/w sheep milk cream, L. casei 01, 6 log CFU/mL; 10% w/w inulin, L. casei 01, 6 log CFU/mL, respectively) were manufactured. Microbiological counts (probiotic count, survival after in vitro gastrointestinal resistance, Caco-2 cell adhesion), bioactivity and microstructure were analysed. Physical and textural characteristics, colour parameters, thermal analysis and organic acids/volatile compounds were also evaluated. All formulations supported L. casei 01 viability and maintained above the minimum therapeutic level (>6 log CFU/mL) during storage. Inulin did not affect L. casei 01 survival after the passage through simulated gastrointestinal tract and adhesion to Caco-2 cells while improved the ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity. L. casei 01 addition produced several volatile compounds, such as carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Also, scanning electron microscopy showed an interaction between probiotic bacteria and inulin fibre on synbiotic ice cream and the adhesion of L. casei to Caco-2 cells was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lactose digestion from flavored and frozen yogurts, ice milk, and ice cream by lactase-deficient persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M C; Smith, D E; Savaiano, D A

    1987-10-01

    Lactose digestion from and tolerance to flavored and frozen yogurts, ice cream, and ice milk were evaluated (20 g lactose/meal) in lactase-deficient subjects by use of breath hydrogen techniques. Unflavored yogurt caused significantly less hydrogen production than milk (37 vs 185 delta ppm X h, n = 9). Flavored yogurt was intermediate (77 delta ppm X h). Subjects were free of symptoms after consuming flavored and unflavored yogurts. Of seven commercial yogurts tested, all contained significant levels of microbial beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). In addition, eight subjects were fed meals of milk, ice milk, ice cream, and frozen yogurts with and without cultures containing high levels of beta-gal. Peak hydrogen excretion after consumption of frozen yogurt with high beta-gal was less than one-half of that observed after the other five test meals and intolerance symptoms were absent. Tolerance to frozen yogurt, produced under usual commercial procedures, was found to be similar to that of ice milk and ice cream.

  7. Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. De Castro Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.

  8. The carbon footprint of ice cream and its mitigating options for Unilever in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Wanli

    2010-01-01

    Unilever is planning to expand its ice cream production based on current conditions in China. Produc-tion expansion means increasing demands of raw materials e.g. milk powders, and requirements of energy use for processing, transporting and storing. From

  9. Helicobacter pylori in ice cream and its control using mastic gum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagah Mohamed Saad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: All isolates recovered from small scale ice cream samples reflexing the hygienic conditions under which samples were produced. Mastic gum essential oil exhibited a powerful anti-H. pylori effect recommending its addition to food matrix for therapeutic purposes or as a functional food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 132-139

  10. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.

  11. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

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    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, possible eff ects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2 % are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity, chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour, mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre-rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fi bre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fi bre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fi bre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have signifi cant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition of ice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2 % of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  12. Investigating of the bacteriological contamination in traditionally manufactured ice creams in Urmia city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hassanzadazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a popular dairy product especially in warm seasons. Due to its lengthy shelf life, it is considered as one of the potentially high-risk foods in transmission of food-borne pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of ice cream in Urmia city. To achieve this goal, Urmia city was divided into four regions based on scattering of the ice cream retailers. Afterwards, 144 samples were purchased from traditional retails using cluster sampling method. Bacterial contamination of the samples was analyzed according to the procedures of the Iranian National Standards. Based on the results, 78% of the samples contained the load of contamination higher than 4.2 × 107 CFU/g. Moreover, 82.9% of the samples were contaminated with more than 10 CFU of Enterobacteriaceae per gram. Results also revealed that 52.2% and 2.8% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. High microbial contaminations in traditional ice creams represent non-hygienic practices at different stages of production.

  13. Development of antioxidative effect in ice cream with Kalakai (Stenochlaena palustris) water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadhiwaluyo, Kristania; Rahmawati, Della; Gunawan Puteri, Maria D. P. T.

    2017-11-01

    Kalakai (Stenochlaena. palustris) extract was used to develop the ice cream. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and its stability over process and storage were evaluated through various antioxidant assay including DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric method. In general, the leaves of S. palustris had a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p ice cream without affecting the sensory properties of the ice cream. In addition, the high phenolic and flavonoid content also suggest the more compounds that were capable to act as an antioxidant. The result of the stability test also suggested the ability low temperature storage and processing in maintaining the stability of the antioxidant activity of the extract (p > 0.05) over processing and storage. Thus, this strengthen the feasibility of S. palustris to be used as a potential functional food ingredient that is low cost and easily accessible with an antioxidant activity and safe iron content that is beneficial to increase the quality of food produced including in ice cream.

  14. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  15. Application of simplex-centroid mixture design to optimize stabilizer combinations for ice cream manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Tehrani, Mostafa Mazaheri; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, Arash

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to obtain the optimum formulation for stabilizers in ice cream that could contest with blends presented nowadays. Thus, different mixtures of three stabilizers, i.e. basil seed gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, and guar gum, at two concentrations (0.15 % & 0.35 %) were studied using mixture design methodology. The influence of these mixtures on some properties of ice cream and the regression models for them were also determined. Generally, high ratios of basil seed gum in mixture developed the apparent viscosity of ice cream mixes and decreased the melting rate. Increasing proportion of this stabilizer as well as guar gum in the mixtures at concentration of 0.15 % enhanced the overrun of samples. Based on the optimization criteria, the most excellent combination was 84.43 % basil seed gum and 15.57 % guar gum at concentration of 0.15 %. This research proved the capability of basil seed gum as a novel stabilizer in ice cream stabilization.

  16. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  17. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  18. Optimization of the new formulation of ice cream with native Iranian seed gums (Lepidium perfoliatum and Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, M; Soltani Tehrani, N; Aghajani, N; Khomeiri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effect of Qodume shahri ( Lepidium perfoliatum ) and cress ( Lepidium sativum ) on rheological properties of ice cream were investigated. The gums were added to the ice cream formulation and different quality attributes including pH, acidity, melting characteristics, viscosity, overrun, texture analysis and sensory evaluation were determined. Results showed that ice cream formulations containing both the gums had improved overrun, melting rate, first dripping time, viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness. The gum concentrations beyond 0.2% level led to a negative effect on gumminess and chewiness of ice cream. Both the gums addition to improved quality attributes and textural properties of ice cream.

  19. Ice cream safety in the Dubrovnik area in the period 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Zadre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the epidemiological point of view, ice cream is a very risky foodstuff, which is illustrated by the fact that in 2006, 18.6% (520/2796 of samples from the entire Croatian market were microbiologically unsafe and, therefore, not in compliance with food safety standards. With regards to farreaching health-related, as well as economical and promotional consequences of an alimentary infection and intoxication in the peak tourist season, the aim of this paper was to monitor the microbiological safety of ice-cream from 9 ice-cream parlours in the Dubrovnik city area during three calendar years. During 2006, 13.58% (11/70 of samples were found unsafe. The following bacteria were detected in the samples, which is a sign of non-compliance with food safety standards: representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae in 8 samples (9.87%, Staphylococcus aureus in 3 samples (3.7% and aerobic mesophillic bacteria in 3 samples (3.7%. During 2007, 13.86% (14/87 of samples were not in compliance with food safety standards due to the presence of representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae in 13 samples (12.87% and aerobic mesophillic bacteria in 2 samples (1.98%. In 2008, 9.46% (7/67 of samples were not in compliance with food safety standards due to the presence of representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae in 6 samples (8.1%, aerobic mesophillic bacteria in 2 samples (2.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 1 sample (1.35%. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from any sample. The results indicate an improvement of microbiological safety of ice-cream. Moreover, it is necessary to pay more attention to hygiene during the production, storage and handling of ice-cream in order to further reduce the number of negative samples in which the presence of representatives of family Enterobacteriaceae is recorded.

  20. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  1. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  2. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pice creams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists.

  3. Survival and Effect of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 on the Physicochemical Properties of Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream was prepared with exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 by direct inoculation (DI, addition of pre-fermented skim milk (FSM, or addition of the lyophilized powder of the YW11 strain (LP into the ice cream mix. After 4 weeks of storage, viable counts of the YW11 strain decreased in all groups by 0.8–1.61 log cfu/g. Furthermore, ice cream made using the LP method showed the highest survival rate. The ice cream processing and storage conditions also affected the YW11 strain’s tolerance to acid and bile, with a decrease in survival rate of 38.8–63.2% and 10.8–51.8%, respectively. The degree of impact on the viability of strain YW11 was hardening>aging>freezing>storage (p<0.05. The YW11 strain produced a ropy EPS (up to 4.84 mg/g in the ice cream mix made using the DI and FSM methods; it was present as a fine porous matrix as observed by Cryo-SEM. Formation of the EPS together with changes in the pH of the ice cream mix caused increased viscosity (up to 131.0 mPa·s, overrun and meltdown, decreased destabilization of fat, and firmness of ice cream. Hydrocarbons, ketones, and benzenes were found to be the major volatiles in the fermented ice cream samples, which also had decreased levels of dodecane, characterized by the smell of dirt.

  4. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Hung; Chi-Te Liu; I-Chen Peng; Chin Hsu; Roch-Chui Yu; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  5. The Impact of Brand Awareness on Customer Loyalty towards Igloo Ice Cream: A Study on Dhaka University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, S.M. Shariful; Bappy,Tauhid Ahmed; Arifuzzaman, Md.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The importance of brand awareness to develop higher level of customer loyalty in the ice cream industry is multifaceted. Igloo, being the market leader, takes a wide range of brand building measures to make customers more aware but that does not necessarily lead them to capture the multifarious benefits of full customer loyalty. The purpose of the study, however, was to identify the impact of brand awareness on consumer loyalty towards Igloo Ice Cream. All the 100 respondents cho...

  6. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  7. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Influence of transglutaminase treatment on the physicochemical, rheological, and melting properties of ice cream prepared from goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlidere Aloğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the transglutaminase enzyme on the physicochemical characteristics, overrun, melting resistance, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream made from goat’s milk. Different enzyme units (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 U/g milk protein and treatment times (20 min and 60 min were applied to determine the optimum process conditions. Treatment of the transglutaminase in the ice cream mix significantly affected the rheological and melting properties of the ice cream samples. The samples prepared with higher enzyme units and enzyme-treatment times showed higher melting resistance, consistency index, and viscoelastic modulus (G’ than the ice cream mix. The correlation coefficient between melting resistance and viscoelastic modulus was found to be high (0.76. The apparent viscosity of all samples decreased with increasing the shear rate, indicating that all samples exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning flow behavior. The sensory, overrun, and physicochemical properties of samples were not affected by the enzyme treatment. This study showed that treatment times and enzyme units are essential factors in the processing of the transglutaminase enzyme for improving the rheological and melting properties of ice cream mixes. Another significant result was that desired melting resistance could be achieved for ice cream with lower stabilizer and fat content.

  9. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  10. Assessing the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T 22 ) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim, E-mail: nho0512@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  12. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of goat and cow milk ice cream made with vegetable fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the amount of goat and cow milk over the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ice cream flavored with vegetable fat. In Costa Rica in 2010, three inclusion percentages of milk (100% goat, 100% cow, and a mixture of both 50%: 50% were evaluated, as well as the inclusion of different flavors (strawberry, strawberry with topping, and vanilla on the overrun, texture, melting, color, and acceptance of ice cream with vegetable fat. No parameters depended on the type of milk (p>0.05, while overrun varied between batches (p<0.05. There was a flavor*milk interaction for melting rate, texture, and pH attributable to the addition of topping. There was a significant effect on the colorimetric measurement based on the variables of the CIE system L*, a* and C*, on flavor (p<0.05, and an interaction type of milk*flavor for parameters b* and °h (tint or hue was attributed to topping and colorants. Both vegetable fat and topping increased the content of total solids in the mixture; it was associated to a lower rate of aeration, a low melting time, and a more consistency. A cluster analysis for sensory liking, distinguished between three groups: group 1 (15.25%, which liked all products, group 2 (62.71% that moderately liked them all, and group 3 (22.03% who neither show like nor dislike. Groups 2 and 3 showed greater liking for products with topping. The results of the sensory panel as well as the physicochemical and instrumental characterizations show that the type of milk used to make ice cream is not a determining factor, so it is feasible to produce goat milk ice cream and obtain a quality product with good acceptance.

  13. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  14. A novel technique to control ice cream freezing by electrical characteristics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Marco; Lazzarini, Roberto; Lanzoni, Massimo; Riccò, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The freezing process is very important in ice cream production affecting quality, taste and yield of the finished product. Batch freezer machines use different control techniques to tightly control the freezing process, based on monitoring of the temperature and/or the viscosity (i.e. consistency) of the product. Temperature control, however, features low sensitivity and need calibration for different product compositions , while product viscosity is essentially inferr...

  15. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  16. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (I.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  17. Prevalence and antibiotic profile of Escherichia coli in traditionally made ice cream in retails of Khoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Molaabaszadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is among the most important intestinal foodborne bacterial pathogens. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of E. coli in traditionally-made ice creams at retails of Khoy city. Moreover, the antibiotic profile of the isolates was investigated. For this, during April to September 2012, 150 ice cream samples collected from markets and confectionery shops. The samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli. Afterwards, the antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of the isolates was evaluated on 10 different antibiotic using Kirby-Bauer test.According tothe results, 31.33% (47.150 of the samples were found positive for E. coli. The results of antibiogram test indicated that the highest level of sensitivity was determined for ceftizoxim (80.85%, ciprofloxacin (78.73%, and ceftriaxone (74.47%, respectively. In contrast, the most resistance antibiotics were amoxicillin (95.74%, oxacilin (82.98%, kanamycin (61.7%, respectively. The results revealed that the prevalence of E. coli, as the indication of fecal contamination, in traditionally made ice cream in Khoy retails and the antibiotic profile of the isolates were noticeable.

  18. MINERAL CONTENTS AND PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ICE CREAM ENRICHED WITH DATE FIBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Date samples of Amber cultivar straining from Medina region (Saudi Arabia were analysed for their chemical compositions and physicochemical properties of date fibre in the present study. Fibre rich date pieces were found to contain 80.2 g/100 g total dietary fibre, 16.32 g water/g sample water-holding capacity while 9.50 g oil/g sample oil-holding capacity. It can be stated from these results that fibre content of date is a valuable dietary fibre source and used in food production as an ingredient. Effects of the addition of date fibres at different concentrations (1, 2, 3 and 4% were investigated on the physical, chemical, sensory properties and mineral content of ice cream in the present study. It was found that elemental composition of ice cream samples was affected significantly by the addition of date fibre concentrations (p<0.05 and the rates of K, Mg and Zn especially increased in the samples depending on the content of date fibre while the content of Ca and P decreased. It was determined from the sensory results that ice cream sample containing date fibre in the rate of 1 and 2% received the highest score from panellists.

  19. The Addition of Sago Flour in Yoghurt Based on Physical Propeties of Yoghurt Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Ayu Wijayanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replications. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  20. MANAGING THE COLD CHAIN: A CASE STUDY AT A SOUTH AFRICAN ICE CREAM COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grobler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper documents the results of a supply chain management (SCM case study conducted at Centurion Ice Cream and Sweets CC, a producer of ice cream in the greater Gauteng area. The current SCM environment was first analyzed before the distribution function was identified as a prime candidate for further analysis. A Monte Carlo simulation was subsequently performed to investigate the effect of different distribution scenarios. The paper concludes with an investigation into information technology (IT as the enabler for improved supply chain performance.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel dokumenteer die resultate van ‘n voorsieningskanaalgevallestudie uitgevoer by Centurion Ice Cream and Sweets CC, ‘n roomysvervaardiger in die Gauteng-area. Die voorsieningskanaal is eers ontleed voordat die distribusiefunksie geïdentifiseer is as ‘n kandidaat vir verdere analise. ‘n Monte Carlo-simulasie uitgevoer om die effek van verskillende distribusiescenarios te ondersoek. Die artikel sluit af met ‘n ondersoek na inligtingstegnologie as katalisator vir verbeterde voorsieningskanaalprestasie.

  1. Effects of Green Banana Flour on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the present study, possible effects of the addition of banana flour at different mass fractions (1 and 2%) are investigated on physical (overrun, viscosity), chemical (dry matter, fat and ash content, acidity, pH, water and oil holding capacity and colour), mineral content (Ca, K, Na, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and sensory properties of ice cream. Fibre--rich banana pieces were found to contain 66.8 g per 100 g of total dietary fibre, 58.6 g per 100 g of which were insoluble dietary fibre, while 8.2 g per 100 g were soluble dietary fibre. It can be concluded from these results that banana is a valuable dietary fibre source which can be used in food production. Flour obtained from green banana pulp and peel was found to have significant (pcreams. Sulphur content increased while calcium content decreased in ice cream depending on banana flour content. Sensory results indicated that ice cream sample containing 2% of green banana pulp flour received the highest score from panellists. PMID:27904363

  2. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  4. Synbiotic yogurt-ice cream produced via incorporation of microencapsulated lactobacillus acidophilus (la-5) and fructooligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Milani, Elnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Salarbashi, Davoud

    2014-08-01

    Yogurt-ice cream is a nutritious product with a refreshing taste and durability profoundly longer than that of yogurt. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5) cells either in free or encapsulated form were incorporated into yog-ice cream and their survivability were studied. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic compound at three levels (0, 4 & 8 % w/w) was added to yogurt-ice cream mix and its effects on some chemical properties, overrun and firmness of product were evaluated. The higher the incorporated FOS concentration, the lower were the pH value and higher the total solid content of treatments. FOS incorporation (8 %) significantly increased the overrun of treatments and reduced their firmness. The viable counts of free probiotics decreased from ~9.55 to ~7.3 log cfu/g after 60 days of frozen storage while that of encapsulated cells merely decreased less than 1 log cycle. Encapsulation with alginate microbeads protected the probiotic cells against injuries in the freezing stage as well as, during frozen storage.

  5. Frequent ice cream consumption is associated with reduced striatal response to receipt of an ice cream–based milkshake123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight gain leads to reduced reward-region responsivity to energy-dense food receipt, and consumption of an energy-dense diet compared with an isocaloric, low-energy-density diet leads to reduced dopamine receptors. Furthermore, phasic dopamine signaling to palatable food receipt decreases after repeated intake of that food, which collectively suggests that frequent intake of an energy-dense food may reduce striatal response to receipt of that food. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that frequent ice cream consumption would be associated with reduced activation in reward-related brain regions (eg, striatum) in response to receipt of an ice cream–based milkshake and examined the influence of adipose tissue and the specificity of this relation. Design: Healthy-weight adolescents (n = 151) underwent fMRI during receipt of a milkshake and during receipt of a tasteless solution. Percentage body fat, reported food intake, and food craving and liking were assessed. Results: Milkshake receipt robustly activated the striatal regions, yet frequent ice cream consumption was associated with a reduced response to milkshake receipt in these reward-related brain regions. Percentage body fat, total energy intake, percentage of energy from fat and sugar, and intake of other energy-dense foods were not related to the neural response to milkshake receipt. Conclusions: Our results provide novel evidence that frequent consumption of ice cream, independent of body fat, is related to a reduction in reward-region responsivity in humans, paralleling the tolerance observed in drug addiction. Data also imply that intake of a particular energy-dense food results in attenuated reward-region responsivity specifically to that food, which suggests that sensory aspects of eating and reward learning may drive the specificity. PMID:22338036

  6. Avaliação do consumidor sobre sorvetes com xilitol Consumer evaluation of ice cream with xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Antun Maia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar, em primeiro lugar, a preferência dos consumidores pelas formulações de sorvetes (nata, morango e chocolate com sacarose contra formulações com xilitol, através de teste de comparação pareada com consumidores. A aceitabilidade dos sorvetes formulados com xilitol foi pesquisada considerando-se os seguintes atributos: aspecto geral, cor, consistência, doçura e sabor, além de procurar conhecer hábitos de consumo dos consumidores de sorvete e suas intenções de consumo. Os sorvetes adoçados com sacarose foram preferidos em comparação aos adoçados com xilitol, sendo que o sorvete de chocolate apresentou menor diferença sensorial, seguido do sorvete de morango e do de nata. A aceitabilidade dos sorvetes contendo xilitol foi considerada alta, obtendo para o aspecto geral dos sorvetes 91% para os sorvetes de morango, 88% para o sorvete de chocolate e 67% para o sorvete de nata, aceitabilidade esta considerada entre boa e ótima. Essa ótima aceitabilidade refletiu nos resultados da pesquisa de intenção de consumo, na qual o consumidor se mostrou bastante receptivo ao levar para sua casa qualquer um dos sabores de sorvete, principalmente o de chocolate, sabor esse preferido pelos consumidores consultados. Os resultados confirmam o potencial para comercialização dos sorvetes adoçados com xilitol, como mais uma opção para diabéticos e obesos.The aim of this study was to evaluate, firstly, consumer preference for ice cream formulations (cream, strawberry and chocolate sweetened with sucrose against formulations with xylitol, through paired comparison tests with consumers. The acceptability of the ice creams formulated with xylitol was also evaluated, considering the following attributes: overall aspect, colour, consistency, sweetness and flavour, in addition to observing consumer habits with respect to ice cream consumption and their purchase intention. The ice creams sweetened with sucrose

  7. Avaliação sensorial de sorvetes à base de xilitol Sensory evaluation of ice creams prepared with xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Antun Maia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou relacionar o poder adoçante de solução de xilitol e sacarose, procurando saber se existe diferença de doçura entre sorvetes de nata, morango e chocolate adicionados destes dois adoçantes, em diferentes concentrações, assim como verificar a qualidade sensorial do produto quanto a aparência, cor, aroma, consistência e sabor. Houve diferenças significativas (p The aim of this study was to compare the sweetening power of xylitol and sucrose solutions, verifying differences in sweetness among cream, strawberry and chocolate flavoured ice creams sweetened with these two sweeteners, and also determining the sensory quality of the products with respect to appearance, colour, aroma, consistency and flavour. There were significant differences (p < 0.05 among all the formulations except between the strawberry formulations made with 100% sucrose and 50% xylitol. With respect to quality, the cream flavoured ice creams presented the greatest differences in quality among the three concentrations of sweeteners, since of the five attributes evaluated, significant differences (p < 0.05 were obtained for four of them (appearance, colour, consistency and flavour. The strawberry ice creams were the most uniform with respect to quality, only presenting significant differences (p < 0.05 for consistency. The chocolate ice creams were intermediate, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05 for consistency and flavour.

  8. Short communication: low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, J M; Lim, S-Y; Powers, J R; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine flavor binding of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a real food system. Fresh Washington State University (WSU, Pullman) WPC, produced by ultrafiltration of separated Cheddar cheese whey, was treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Commercial WPC 35 powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU WPC (8.23%). Six batches of low-fat ice cream were produced: A) HHP-treated WSU WPC without diacetyl; B) and E) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added before HHP; C) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added after HHP; D) untreated WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl; and F) untreated commercial WPC 35 with 2 mg/L of diacetyl. The solution of WSU WPC or commercial WPC 35 contributed 10% to the mix formulation. Ice creams were produced by using standard ice cream ingredients and processes. Low-fat ice creams containing HHP-treated WSU WPC and untreated WSU WPC were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 50 untrained panelists in 2 sessions on 2 different days. The headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography analysis revealed that ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU WPC had almost 3 times the concentration of diacetyl compared with ice cream containing untreated WSU WPC at d 1 of storage. However, diacetyl was not detected in ice creams after 14 d of storage. Eighty percent of panelists were able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated WSU WPC with and without diacetyl, confirming panelists' ability to detect diacetyl. However, panelists were not able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated and HHP-treated WSU WPC with diacetyl. These results show that WPC diacetyl-binding properties were not enhanced by 300-MPa HHP treatment for 15 min, indicating that HHP may not be suitable for such applications. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy

  9. Survey of Occurrence and Type of Artificial Colors in Nuts and Conventional Ice Cream Supplied in Karaj City in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heshmati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on current rules of country, the use of artificial colors in traditional ice cream production and nut processing is not allowed. Because of the attractiveness that artificial colors in this product make, their use is being increasing. Therefore, it's necessary and important to control these products. Methods: The research was conducted in two separate studies. In a study, 163 samples of traditional ice cream and in other study, pistachio, Indian walnut, pumpkin seed, sunflower seed and Japanese seed, 28 examples of each, were collected from the supply surface of Karaj city. Samples were analyzed for color determination. After color extraction by acetic acid, ammonia and wool, color identification done by TLC. Results: from samples of pistachio, Indian walnut, pumpkin seed, sunflower seed and Japanese seed surveyed, 35.7%, 39.3%, 27.2% and 21.4%, contained artificial colors, respectively. From 163 ice cream samples examined, 57 samples (34.97% contained artificial color and 106 samples (65.03 had natural color. The most applied color in analyzed ice cream and nut was Carmoisin and quinolein, respectively. Conclusion: according to study results, 25% of nuts and 35% of traditional ice cream contained artificial color. Because artificial color gives attractive and favorite apparent to product and information lack of supplier from color side-effect, trend for their applications likely being increased. It’s suggested to control these products and to punish legally violating units.

  10. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  11. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers.

  13. A comparative trial of ice application versus EMLA cream in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsantali, Adel

    2018-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is a safe and effective therapy for palmar hyperhidrosis, but the associated pain from injections limits the usefulness of this method of treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) cream versus ice application in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis. In this prospective study, 23 patients underwent palm Botox injections to treat their excessive sweating. In each patient, EMLA cream was applied to one palm and ice was applied directly before the injections in the other palm. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale. Statistically, there was a significant difference in pain control between EMLA cream group and ice application group ( p cream was applied was 8.9 (SD=0.81), whereas it was 4.8 (±0.9) in the ice group. In this study, the successful use of ice application in reducing pain by 40% in comparison to EMLA cream during Botox toxin injection for palmar hyperhidrosis is demonstrated.

  14. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Encapsulation on Viability of Bifidobacterium longum CFR815j and Physiochemical Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Ankita; Achi, Sajan C; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The health beneficial attributes of bifidobacteria and its safe association with the host gut has increased its significance as a probiotic. However delivering probiotic bifidobacteria with Minimum Biological Value (MBV) through product has always been a challenge. In the present study, an attempt was made to maintain the viability of native isolate of Bifidobacterium longum CFR 815j and deliver through ice-cream. B. longum CFR815j was microencapsulated in alginate starch capsules by emulsification followed by evaluation of bead stability in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. After incorporation in ice-cream, the effect on chemical properties, sensory parameters and meltdown characteristics of the product were also evaluated. Survival studies of B. longum revealed higher counts than 10 7 in the product which is essential for probiotic bacteria to exhibit beneficial effect. Further, all the properties of this ice-cream were comparable to the regular ice-cream. Our studies conclude that encapsulation was able to maintain the requisite MBV of bifidobacteria in ice-cream without affecting the sensory characteristics.

  16. Recent advances in the application of microbial transglutaminase crosslinking in cheese and ice cream products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Greiner, Ralf; George, Saji; Roohinejad, Shahin

    2018-02-01

    Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) has been currently utilized to form new food structures and matrices with high physicochemical stability. Incorporation of this multi-functional enzyme into structural composition of milk protein-based products, such as cheese and ice cream, can not only be a successful strategy to improve their nutritional and technological characteristics through intramolecular cross-linking, but also to reduce the production cost by decreasing fat and stabilizer contents. The recent research developments and promising results of MTGase application in producing functional formulations of cheese and ice cream with higher quality characteristics are reviewed. New interesting insights and future perspectives are also presented. The addition of MTGase to cheese led to significant improvements in moisture, yield, texture, rheology and sensory properties, without changes in the chemical composition. Furthermore, pH value of ice cream is not affected by the MTGase treatment. Compared to untreated ice creams, application of MTGase significantly promotes consistency, fat destabilization, overrun and organoleptic acceptance, while a substantial reduction in firmness and melting rate of samples was observed. The addition of MTGase to cheese and ice cream-milk provides reinforcement to the protein matrix and can be considered as a novel additive for improving the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of final products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of ice-cream to reduce inferior and liver uptake of 99mTc Sestamibi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Jost, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine if ice-cream has any role in reducing the main drawback of sestamibi imaging namely inferior and liver uptake of sestamibi in myocardial imaging. This inferior uptake from, Stomach, Loops of Bowel and Left Lobe of liver can make interpretation difficult Can obscure a defect in the inferior margin of the heart and Hot inferior uptake can produce false adjacent cold defect when using a Fourier kernel. Material and Methods: To remove the confounding factor of various 'stress' regimes adenosine exercise and Dobutamine, only resting Sestamibi scans were examined. Patients where Given ice cream on a stick (ice covered) just prior to injection Imaged at 90 mins post injection of 500 Mbq Tc99m Sestamibi with > 90% purity, using eccentric non-elliptical non circular orbit to maximise resolution, for 18 mins with 2 heads. Processing: Reconstruct (for this purpose) with a butterworth filter of 0.4 and a power factor of 2. Sum all coronal views: Make a rectangular ROI covering the inferior 1/2 or the myocardium. Duplicate this ROI and place at same vertical position over highest activity region of liver. Duplicate region and place immediately underneath cardiac region. Create a BGD region of interest between heart and liver. Data: Ratios of heart to liver and inferior to heart are created with and without background correction. Results: Summary: Ice cream reduces the inferior uptake of Sestamibi by 30%. Ice cream reduces the liver uptake by 14%. Conclusion: Given: The low risk of an ice cream intervention. The high acceptance by patients. The low cost. The effect on inferior uptake. The possible effect on liver uptake. I would recommend the use of Ice Cream for all Myocardial Sestamibi Imaging

  18. Upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in the makers of Maraş pounded ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Upper Extremity Cumulative Trauma Disorders(UE-CTD are among the major health problems affectingthe workers. The aim of this study was to investigateUE-CTD in the makers of Maras pounded ice cream(MMPICMethods: This study was conducted among 50 volunteerswho work as a MMPIC and 50 control in our downtownarea. During face-to-face conversion, the participantsfilled out a survey inquiring about age, duration ofwork (in years in job, daily working time, occupation withanother job, health history, and medication usage. Thesubjects were questioned regarding the musculoskeletalcomplaints within the last six months and upper bodyphysical examination was performed in all participants.Results: The study group was composed of males.The mean age of study group and control group were31.78±6.58 and 30.74±5.99 years (p=0.411, respectively.The mean duration of work in pounded ice creambusiness and the mean duration of work in control were11.64± 6.26 years and 10.68±5.48 years (p=0.417, respectively.The mean daily working time in the studygroup and in control group were 10.64±1.82 hours and11.12±1.62 hours (p= 0.168, respectively. Musculoskeletalcomplaints of the upper extremity were found in 52%of the study group, and 28% of the control group. Musculoskeletaldisease of upper extremity was found in 28% ofthe study group and in 12% of the control group. Upperextremity musculoskeletal system complaints and illnesswere difference statistically between the two groups (p=0.014; p= 0.046, respectively.Conclusion: UE-CTD was seen in the makers of poundedice cream and its prevalence was similar to the otherlaborers work in the areas needing repetitive arm andhand motion.Key words: Makers of Maras pounded ice cream, cumulativetrauma disorders, upper extremity problems

  19. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  2. Modeling of the effect of freezer conditions on the hardness of ice cream using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Ochi, H; Habara, K; Taketsuka, M; Saito, H; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K

    2009-12-01

    The effect of conventional continuous freezer parameters [mix flow (L/h), overrun (%), drawing temperature ( degrees C), cylinder pressure (kPa), and dasher speed (rpm)] on the hardness of ice cream under varying measured temperatures (-5, -10, and -15 degrees C) was investigated systematically using response surface methodology (central composite face-centered design), and the relationships were expressed as statistical models. The range (maximum and minimum values) of each freezer parameter was set according to the actual capability of the conventional freezer and applicability to the manufacturing process. Hardness was measured using a penetrometer. These models showed that overrun and drawing temperature had significant effects on hardness. The models can be used to optimize freezer conditions to make ice cream of the least possible hardness under the highest overrun (120%) and a drawing temperature of approximately -5.5 degrees C (slightly warmer than the lowest drawing temperature of -6.5 degrees C) within the range of this study. With reference to the structural elements of the ice cream, we suggest that the volume of overrun and ice crystal content, ice crystal size, and fat globule destabilization affect the hardness of ice cream. In addition, the combination of a simple instrumental parameter and response surface methodology allows us to show the relation between freezer conditions and one of the most important properties-hardness-visually and quantitatively on the practical level.

  3. Microbial Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Traditional Ice Cream in Hamadan City, West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadimi; Heshmati; Azizi Shafa; Nooshkam

    2016-01-01

    Background Foodborne diseases are one of the most major public health concerns in the world. Ice cream flavors, especially the traditional ones, have a high potential for the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study is to investigate the microbiological status and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional ice cream. ...

  4. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-01-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Listeria Species in Ice Creams Sold in The Cities of Kahramanmaraş and Adana

    OpenAIRE

    AKMAN, Deniz; DURAN, Nizami; DIĞRAK, Metin

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of Listeria spp. was investigated in the ice cream samples collected from the downtown stores of Kahramanmaras (28 samples) and Adana (30 samples). A total of 58 ice cream samples were analysed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) two-stage enrichment techniques. Growth of Listeria spp. was determined in 14 (24.1%) of the samples collected from Kahramanmaras and 10 (17.2%) samples from Adana. The results of the biochemical tests revealed that the bacterial g...

  6. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  7. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M. H.; Awad, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory qu...

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T 4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO 2 /kg) was observed in T 4 , which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO 2 /kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of

  9. Listeria monocytogenes Growth Kinetics in Milkshakes Made from Naturally and Artificially Contaminated Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle K. Salazar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milkshakes made using the process-contaminated ice cream associated with a listeriosis outbreak in comparison to milkshakes made with artificially contaminated ice cream. For all temperatures, growth kinetics including growth rates, lag phases, maximum populations, and population increases were determined for the naturally and artificially derived contaminants at 5, 10, 15, and 25°C storage for 144 h. The artificially inoculated L. monocytogenes presented lower growth rates and shorter lag phases than the naturally contaminated populations at all temperatures except for 5°C, where the reverse was observed. At 25°C, lag phases of the naturally and artificially contaminated L. monocytogenes were 11.6 and 7.8 h, respectively. The highest increase in population was observed for the artificially inoculated pathogen at 15°C after 96 h (6.16 log CFU/mL of storage. Growth models for both contamination states in milkshakes were determined. In addition, this study evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of flavoring agents, including strawberry, chocolate and mint, on the growth of the pathogen in milkshakes during 10°C storage. All flavor additions resulted in decreased growth rates of L. monocytogenes for both contamination states. The addition of chocolate and mint flavoring also resulted in significantly longer lag phases for both contamination states. This study provides insight into the differences in growth between naturally and artificially contaminated L. monocytogenes in a food product.

  10. Development and validation of a method for the quantification of fructooligosaccharides in a prebiotic ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L. González-Aguirre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS are known as oligofructanes, oligosaccharides or oligofructose, which fall within the concept of prebiotics. One of the methods most commonly used in the industry for quantification and quality control nutraceutical substances classification is the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Aims: To develop a procedure for the determination of FOS by HPLC in raw materials and a prebiotic ice cream. Methods: For the chromatographic separation, an HPLC was used with a refractive index detector (IR. The separation was performed using two columns coupled Sugar-pak I™ using an isocratic procedure with water type 1 at 0.35 mL/min. Kestose (GF2, nistose (GF3 and fructofuranosylnystose (GF4 were used as standards. Robustness was assessed by applying the Youden and Steiner test. Results: Good linear correlations were obtained (y = 14191.4470 x + 285684.2, r2 = 0.9904 within the concentration range of 8.0-12.0 mg/mL. The FOS recoveries were 99.5% with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD less than 0.8%. The robustness test showed that the temperature parameters of the column and flow velocity are critical factors in the method. Conclusions: This reliable, simple and cost-effective method could be applied to the routine monitoring of FOS (GF2, GF3, and GF4 in raw materials and prebiotic ice creams.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes Growth Kinetics in Milkshakes Made from Naturally and Artificially Contaminated Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Joelle K.; Bathija, Vriddi M.; Carstens, Christina K.; Narula, Sartaj S.; Shazer, Arlette; Stewart, Diana; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milkshakes made using the process-contaminated ice cream associated with a listeriosis outbreak in comparison to milkshakes made with artificially contaminated ice cream. For all temperatures, growth kinetics including growth rates, lag phases, maximum populations, and population increases were determined for the naturally and artificially derived contaminants at 5, 10, 15, and 25°C storage for 144 h. The artificially inoculated L. monocytogenes presented lower growth rates and shorter lag phases than the naturally contaminated populations at all temperatures except for 5°C, where the reverse was observed. At 25°C, lag phases of the naturally and artificially contaminated L. monocytogenes were 11.6 and 7.8 h, respectively. The highest increase in population was observed for the artificially inoculated pathogen at 15°C after 96 h (6.16 log CFU/mL) of storage. Growth models for both contamination states in milkshakes were determined. In addition, this study evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of flavoring agents, including strawberry, chocolate and mint, on the growth of the pathogen in milkshakes during 10°C storage. All flavor additions resulted in decreased growth rates of L. monocytogenes for both contamination states. The addition of chocolate and mint flavoring also resulted in significantly longer lag phases for both contamination states. This study provides insight into the differences in growth between naturally and artificially contaminated L. monocytogenes in a food product. PMID:29416531

  12. Effect of different sweetener blends and fat types on ice cream properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieste da Silva Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of processed foods requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions normally used in food formulations, as well as the effects of the numerous operations involved in the processing of the final product. In ice creams, sugars are responsible for taste, but they also affect the freezing behavior and viscosity of processed mixes. Components such as fats influence mechanical properties, melting resistance, and palatability of final products. The objective was to study the technological effects of different sugars and fats on the structure of ice cream formulations. Fructose syrup was used as a substitute for glucose syrup in blends with sucrose, and palm fat was employed as an alternative to hydrogenated vegetable fat. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in chemical compositions. Hygroscopicity of fructose syrup increased the solids content in the formulations. Melting rate and overrun were higher in products added with this sugar. Palm fat caused changes in melting ranges of formulations, and higher melting rate was observed in the combination of palm fat and fructose syrup.

  13. Flow behavior characteristics of ice cream mix made with buffalo milk and various stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Kuldip S; Sidhu, Jiwan S; Mudahar, Gurmail S; Singh, A K

    2002-01-01

    Ice cream made with buffalo milk, using optimum levels of various stabilizers of plant origin, was evaluated for its flow behavior characteristics, with the objective of producing an acceptable quality product. The minimum variation in the viscosity of mix was observed at three rates of shear (348.88, 523.33 and 1046.66 S(-1)) for all ice cream mixes. The flow behavior index (n) of all the mixes having optimum levels of various stabilizers was observed to be less than 1; indicating their pseudoplastic nature. Consistency coefficient (m) of sodium alginate was found to be 1.19; highest among all the stabilizers, followed by gelatin (1.17), karaya (1.08), guar gum (0.75), acacia gum (0.70), ghatti gum (0.36), and the control (0.29). The consistency coefficient (m) signifies the apparent viscosity of the pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity of the mixes having various stabilizers (optimum levels) was found to be in descending order: Sodium alginate, gelatin, karaya, guar gum, acacia, ghatti and control.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes Growth Kinetics in Milkshakes Made from Naturally and Artificially Contaminated Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Joelle K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Carstens, Christina K; Narula, Sartaj S; Shazer, Arlette; Stewart, Diana; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in milkshakes made using the process-contaminated ice cream associated with a listeriosis outbreak in comparison to milkshakes made with artificially contaminated ice cream. For all temperatures, growth kinetics including growth rates, lag phases, maximum populations, and population increases were determined for the naturally and artificially derived contaminants at 5, 10, 15, and 25°C storage for 144 h. The artificially inoculated L. monocytogenes presented lower growth rates and shorter lag phases than the naturally contaminated populations at all temperatures except for 5°C, where the reverse was observed. At 25°C, lag phases of the naturally and artificially contaminated L. monocytogenes were 11.6 and 7.8 h, respectively. The highest increase in population was observed for the artificially inoculated pathogen at 15°C after 96 h (6.16 log CFU/mL) of storage. Growth models for both contamination states in milkshakes were determined. In addition, this study evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of flavoring agents, including strawberry, chocolate and mint, on the growth of the pathogen in milkshakes during 10°C storage. All flavor additions resulted in decreased growth rates of L. monocytogenes for both contamination states. The addition of chocolate and mint flavoring also resulted in significantly longer lag phases for both contamination states. This study provides insight into the differences in growth between naturally and artificially contaminated L. monocytogenes in a food product.

  15. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...... of food, the paracetamol adsorption capacity of the 2 activated charcoals was reduced by max. 19% (Pice cream was mixed with the charcoal...

  16. Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gobbi de LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The feasibility of incorporating beta-carotene-loaded solid lipid microparticles (BCSLM into vanilla ice creams was investigated, through the physico-chemical characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of the products products. The BCSLM were produced with palm stearin as the lipid phase, hydrolyzed soy protein isolate as the surfactant, and xanthan gum as the thickener. The results showed similar values of proximate composition, total soluble solids, pH, and overrun for all formulations. On the other hand, colorimetric evaluations showed that the ice cream produced with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol presented a more intense color, while in the product with non-encapsulated beta-carotene, a fast degradation of carotenoid was confirmed, highlighting the importance of the encapsulation techniques. The results of the sensorial analysis of the products were highly satisfactory and showed that the panelists preferred the ice creams produced with BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol and with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol, confirming the feasibility of incorporating BCSLM into ice creams to reduce the application of artificial dyes to the product.

  17. Vestibular schwannomas: Accuracy of tumor volume estimated by ice cream cone formula using thin-sliced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsing-Hao; Li, Ya-Hui; Lee, Jih-Chin; Wang, Chih-Wei; Yu, Yi-Lin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Hsu, Hsian-He; Juan, Chun-Jung

    2018-01-01

    We estimated the volume of vestibular schwannomas by an ice cream cone formula using thin-sliced magnetic resonance images (MRI) and compared the estimation accuracy among different estimating formulas and between different models. The study was approved by a local institutional review board. A total of 100 patients with vestibular schwannomas examined by MRI between January 2011 and November 2015 were enrolled retrospectively. Informed consent was waived. Volumes of vestibular schwannomas were estimated by cuboidal, ellipsoidal, and spherical formulas based on a one-component model, and cuboidal, ellipsoidal, Linskey's, and ice cream cone formulas based on a two-component model. The estimated volumes were compared to the volumes measured by planimetry. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver agreement was tested. Estimation error, including absolute percentage error (APE) and percentage error (PE), was calculated. Statistical analysis included intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), linear regression analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and paired t-tests with P ice cream cone method, and ellipsoidal and Linskey's formulas significantly reduced the APE to 11.0%, 10.1%, and 12.5%, respectively (all P ice cream cone method and other two-component formulas including the ellipsoidal and Linskey's formulas allow for estimation of vestibular schwannoma volume more accurately than all one-component formulas.

  18. Recovery of biogas as a source of renewable energy from ice-cream production residues and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Burak; Orok, Murat; Hot, Elif; Erkişi, Selin; Albükrek, Metin; Onay, Turgut T

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of waste streams and residues from agro-industry is very important to prevent environmental pollution. In particular, the anaerobic co-digestion process can be used as an important tool for safe disposal and energy recovery from agro-industry waste streams and residues. The primary objective of this laboratory-scale study was to determine whether it was possible to recover energy (biogas) from ice-cream production residues and wastewater, through a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process. A high methane yield of 0.338 L CH4/gCOD(removed) could be achieved from anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater alone, with almost 70% of methane in biogas, while anaerobic digestion of ice-cream production residue alone did not seem feasible. When wastewater and ice-cream production residue were anaerobically co-digested at a ratio of 9:1 by weight, the highest methane yield of 0.131 L CH4/gCOD(removed) was observed. Buffering capacity seemed to be imperative in energy recovery from these substrates in the anaerobic digestion process.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of biosynthesized colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles for a fortified cold cream formulation: A potent nanocosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sonia; H, Linda Jeeva Kumari; K, Ruckmani; M, Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Nanocosmeceuticals are promising applications of nanotechnology in personal care industries. Zinc oxide is an inorganic material that is non-toxic and skin compatible with self-cleansing and microbicidal properties. Herein, exploitation of colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONps) as potent biomaterial for a topical formulation of cosmetic and dermatological significance is employed. ZnONps were green synthesized using environmentally benign Adhatoda vasica leaf extract and characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results reveal that the biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit an absorption peak at 352nm. XRD and HR-TEM analyses confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnONps with particle size of about 10nm to 12nm. Elemental analysis by EDX confirms the presence of zinc and oxygen. Zeta potential of -24.6mV affirms the stability of nanoparticles. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit mean zone of inhibition from 08.667±0.282 to 21.666±0.447 (mm) and 09.000±0.177 to 19.000±0.307 (mm) respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 value exerted from the antioxidant activity of ZnONps is found to be 139.27μgmL -1 . ZnONps infused cold cream formulation of microbicidal and antioxidant properties was further tested against clinical skin pathogens. The nano-based cold cream exhibited significant inhibitory action against Candida sp., which showed resistance against a commercial antifungal cream (2%). Therefore, this study demonstrates the exploitation of ZnONps as promising colloidal drug carriers in cosmeceuticals that can significantly alleviate human skin infections and oxidative stress induced cellular damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Frozen yogurt and ice cream were less healthy than yogurt, and adding toppings reduced their nutrition value: evidence from 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Jiang, Ning

    2017-06-01

    It was hypothesized that frozen yogurt and ice cream would be less healthy than yogurt. We examined daily energy and nutrient intake from yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream among US adults. In-person 24-hour dietary recall data (n=6453) came from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Regression analyses were performed to examine the differences in energy/nutrient intake from frozen yogurt and ice cream (with/without toppings) in comparison to yogurt. Approximately 5.3%, 0.9%, and 14.3% of US adults consumed yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream on any given day, respectively. Among frozen yogurt and ice cream consumers, 29.7% and 14.8% added toppings to their consumption, respectively. Compared with yogurt, frozen yogurt consumption with and without toppings was associated with increased daily energy intake by 214.6 and 97.9kj, respectively; whereas ice cream consumption with and without toppings was associated with increased daily energy intake by 427.2 and 343.5kj, respectively. Compared with yogurt, frozen yogurt consumption was associated with a decreased intake of most vitamins/minerals under examination, but increased intake of sugar, total/saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, and iron. Adding toppings to frozen yogurt further increased total and saturated fat intake. Compared with yogurt, ice cream consumption was associated with a decreased intake of multiple micronutrients, but increased intake of sugar, total/saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, vitamins A and E, and iron. Adding toppings to ice cream further increased sugar intake. In conclusion, frozen yogurt and ice cream were less healthy than yogurt, and adding toppings made them even less desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental design and multicriteria decision making methods for the optimization of ice cream composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rojas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to optimize the sensorial and technological features of ice cream. The experimental work was performed in two stages: 1 optimization of lactose enzymatic hydrolysis, and 2 optimization of the process and product. For the first stage a complete factorial design was developed, optimized using both response surface and the steepest ascent method. In the second stage a mixture design was performed, combining the process variables. The product with the best sensorial acceptance, high yield and low cost was selected. The acceptance of the product was developed by an untrained taster’s panel. As a main result the sensorial and technological features of the final product were improved, establishing the optimum parameters for its elaboration.

  2. Cryogenic Ice Cream Days at CERN | 21-22 September 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the LHC being the world’s largest superconducting installation, it’s not surprising that CERN is a world leader in cryogenic safety. On 21 and 22 September, over 100 experts in cryogenic safety will be coming to CERN to take part in CERN’s first Cryogenic Safety Seminar, which aims to stimulate collaboration and further the state of the art in this increasingly important field.   Come and learn more about the vital role played by CERN, and as the summer days start to fade, enjoy a taste of the deliciously light ice cream that results from rapid freezing with liquid nitrogen. *Building 500 lobby, 12:00-14:00 21 and 22 September*

  3. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  4. Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Klontz, Karl C; Chen, Yi; Burall, Laurel S; Macarisin, Dumitru; Doyle, Matthew; Bally, Kären M; Strain, Errol; Datta, Atin R; Hammack, Thomas S; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between the number of ingested Listeria monocytogenes cells in food and the likelihood of developing listeriosis is not well understood. Data from an outbreak of listeriosis linked to milkshakes made from ice cream produced in 1 factory showed that contaminated products were distributed widely to the public without any reported cases, except for 4 cases of severe illness in persons who were highly susceptible. The ingestion of high doses of L. monocytogenes by these patients infected through milkshakes was unlikely if possible additional contamination associated with the preparation of the milkshake is ruled out. This outbreak illustrated that the vast majority of the population did not become ill after ingesting a low level of L. monocytogenes but raises the question of listeriosis cases in highly susceptible persons after distribution of low-level contaminated products that did not support the growth of this pathogen.

  5. A 4-D dataset for validation of crystal growth in a complex three-phase material, ice cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P; Karagadde, S; Guo, E; Kingsley, M; Lee, P D; Bent, J; Hazekamp, J; Vila-Comamala, J

    2015-01-01

    Four dimensional (4D, or 3D plus time) X-ray tomographic imaging of phase changes in materials is quickly becoming an accepted tool for quantifying the development of microstructures to both inform and validate models. However, most of the systems studied have been relatively simple binary compositions with only two phases. In this study we present a quantitative dataset of the phase evolution in a complex three-phase material, ice cream. The microstructure of ice cream is an important parameter in terms of sensorial perception, and therefore quantification and modelling of the evolution of the microstructure with time and temperature is key to understanding its fabrication and storage. The microstructure consists of three phases, air cells, ice crystals, and unfrozen matrix. We perform in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of ice cream samples using in-line phase contrast tomography, housed within a purpose built cold-stage (-40 to +20 o C) with finely controlled variation in specimen temperature. The size and distribution of ice crystals and air cells during programmed temperature cycling are determined using 3D quantification. The microstructural evolution of three-phase materials has many other important applications ranging from biological to structural and functional material, hence this dataset can act as a validation case for numerical investigations on faceted and non-faceted crystal growth in a range of materials. (paper)

  6. A 4-D dataset for validation of crystal growth in a complex three-phase material, ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, P.; Karagadde, S.; Guo, E.; Bent, J.; Hazekamp, J.; Kingsley, M.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Lee, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Four dimensional (4D, or 3D plus time) X-ray tomographic imaging of phase changes in materials is quickly becoming an accepted tool for quantifying the development of microstructures to both inform and validate models. However, most of the systems studied have been relatively simple binary compositions with only two phases. In this study we present a quantitative dataset of the phase evolution in a complex three-phase material, ice cream. The microstructure of ice cream is an important parameter in terms of sensorial perception, and therefore quantification and modelling of the evolution of the microstructure with time and temperature is key to understanding its fabrication and storage. The microstructure consists of three phases, air cells, ice crystals, and unfrozen matrix. We perform in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of ice cream samples using in-line phase contrast tomography, housed within a purpose built cold-stage (-40 to +20oC) with finely controlled variation in specimen temperature. The size and distribution of ice crystals and air cells during programmed temperature cycling are determined using 3D quantification. The microstructural evolution of three-phase materials has many other important applications ranging from biological to structural and functional material, hence this dataset can act as a validation case for numerical investigations on faceted and non-faceted crystal growth in a range of materials.

  7. Modeling of the effect of freezer conditions on the principal constituent parameters of ice cream by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Ochi, H; Taketsuka, M; Saito, H; Sakurai, K; Ichihashi, N; Iwatsuki, K; Kokubo, S

    2008-05-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out by using response surface methodology to create a quantitative model of the synergistic effects of conditions in a continuous freezer [mix flow rate (L/h), overrun (%), cylinder pressure (kPa), drawing temperature ( degrees C), and dasher speed (rpm)] on the principal constituent parameters of ice cream [rate of fat destabilization (%), mean air cell diameter (mum), and mean ice crystal diameter (mum)]. A central composite face-centered design was used for this study. Thirty-one combinations of the 5 above-mentioned freezer conditions were designed (including replicates at the center point), and ice cream samples were manufactured and examined in a continuous freezer under the selected conditions. The responses were the 3 variables given above. A quadratic model was constructed, with the freezer conditions as the independent variables and the ice cream characteristics as the dependent variables. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were greater than 0.9 for all 3 responses, but Q(2), the index used here for the capability of the model for predicting future observed values of the responses, was negative for both the mean ice crystal diameter and the mean air cell diameter. Therefore, pruned models were constructed by removing terms that had contributed little to the prediction in the original model and by refitting the regression model. It was demonstrated that these pruned models provided good fits to the data in terms of R(2), Q(2), and ANOVA. The effects of freezer conditions were expressed quantitatively in terms of the 3 responses. The drawing temperature ( degrees C) was found to have a greater effect on ice cream characteristics than any of the other factors.

  8. The Survey on Contamination Value of Staphylococcus aureus, Coliform and E.coli in Traditional Ice Cream Offered in Ahvaz Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ekhtelat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The diseases due of the consumption septic and unsafe nutrition are one of the major problems in developed and developing countries yet. Ice cream is a dairy product which favors the growth of microorganisms. Production of non-pasteurized hand made ice cream as traditional ice cream is very popular in Iran. In attention to more consumption of ice cream in warm seasons, especially in tropical areas, this study was conducted from the aspect of indicator microorganisms in ice cream. In this research, totally 120 samples were collected during summer of 2009 from different part of Ahvaz. According to reference methods and in order to examine Coliform and E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus contamination of samples, selective media and finally biochemical test were carried out. The results showed that 94 (78.33% and 13 (10.83% samples were contaminated to coliform and E.coli respectively, while 38 (31.67% out of 120 samples were contaminated to coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus. The result of this study showed that in attention the standard limits, the most of the examined ice creams were not allowed for consumption. Therefore, the more seriously monitoring to prevent bacterial contaminations should be considered by responsible authorities.

  9. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey's honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined.

  10. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro...... and compared with results from previous investigations showing a maximum adsorption capacity to the two activated charcoal-water slurries at about 0.62-0.72 g paracetamol/g activated charcoal. Activated charcoal (Carbomix or Norit Ready-To-Use), simulated gastric (pH 1.2) or intestinal (pH 7.2) fluid......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  11. Prevalence and Level of Listeria monocytogenes in Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y I; Burall, Laurel S; Macarisin, Dumitru; Pouillot, Régis; Strain, Errol; DE Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Klontz, Karl; Parish, Mickey; Evans, Peter S; Brown, Eric W; Hammack, Thomas S; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R

    2016-11-01

    A most-probable-number (MPN) method was used to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in 2,320 commercial ice cream scoops manufactured on a production line that was implicated in a 2015 listeriosis outbreak in the United States. The analyzed samples were collected from seven lots produced in November 2014, December 2014, January 2015, and March 2015. L. monocytogenes was detected in 99% (2,307 of 2,320) of the tested samples (lower limit of detection, 0.03 MPN/g), 92% of which were contaminated at ice cream products linked to a listeriosis outbreak provided a unique data set for further understanding the risk associated with L. monocytogenes contamination for highly susceptible populations.

  12. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Survey on the Bacterial Contamination of Traditional & Pasteurized ice Cream Produced in Arak City (summer and fall 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    M Rezaei; M Parviz; MR Javanmard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ice-cream, being full of nutrients and enjoying favorable conditions may cause poisoning and intestinal diseases for the consumers in case of not considering rules of hygiene in the stages of production, maintenance and delivery.It is in fact considered as one of the dairy products providing a suitable environment for the development of different kinds of microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial contamination found in traditional (unpasteurized) and...

  14. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  15. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  16. Intransience of functional components and distinctive properties of amla (Indian gooseberry) ice cream during short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2018-05-01

    Inclusion of processed amla have been found to enhance the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream by augmenting the fiber content, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity. The present investigation assessed the changes in these constituents, color values (L, a* and b*), melting rate, sensory scores and microbiological quality of ice cream containing amla shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder during 60 days' storage at - 18 to - 20 °C. The total solids increased slightly whereas the antioxidant activity, total phenols, ascorbic acid and tannins decreased on storage. The L values declined whereas a* and b* values amplified, the rate of change being highest in candy containing sample followed by preserve. The first drip time of all the samples increased whereas melting rate decreased. The overall acceptability scores declined non significantly. Standard plate count of all the ice cream samples decreased significantly whereas yeast and molds were not detected throughout the storage. The psychrophiles were not spotted up to 30 days, thereafter, a small increase was observed.

  17. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  18. Hygienic Shortcomings of Frozen Dessert Freezing Equipment and Fate of Listeria monocytogenes on Ice Cream-Soiled Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuwa, A; Lunt, A; Czuprynski, C; Miller, G; Rankin, S A

    2017-10-19

    Although frozen dairy desserts have a strong record of safety, recent outbreaks of foodborne disease linked to ice creams have brought new attention to this industry. There is concern that small-scale frozen dessert equipment may not comply with or be reviewed against published comprehensive design and construction sanitation specifications (National Sanitation Foundation or 3-A sanitary standards). Equipment sanitary design issues may result in reduced efficacy of cleaning and sanitation, thus increasing the likelihood of postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria. In this context, and given that Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks are of great concern for the frozen dessert industry, a complementary study was conducted to evaluate the fate of L. monocytogenes in ice cream mix on a stainless steel surface. Our results showed that L. monocytogenes survived for up to 6 weeks at room temperature and 9 weeks at 4°C in contaminated ice cream on a stainless steel surface. Furthermore, chlorine- and acid-based surface sanitizers had no detrimental effect on the L. monocytogenes when used at a concentration and contact time (1 min) recommended by the manufacturer; significant reduction in CFU required 5 to 20 min of contact time.

  19. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  20. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimizing a portable biosensor system for bacterial detection in milk based mix for ice cream

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    A. Biscotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary focuses of the food industry is providing products compliant with safety standards. The microbiological analysis helps in the identification of the presence of pathogen microorganisms in the food. The analysis with Agar Plate is the classic method. This approach guarantees a high accuracy, but it needs a long detection time (twenty-four to forty-eight hours, beyond high costs and skilled technician. In recent times have been proposed many different methods to have a faster response, and between them there is the impedance method. One of its features is that it is fast, in fact it requires between three to fourteen hours to obtain a reliable measurement. The system is accurate, and suitable to be executed automatically. To test this method has been used UHT Ice Cream Mix. A known volume of mix has been inoculated with increasing percentage of cultures of E. coli. The measurement of the impedance of the inoculated mix has been done by an electronic board designed for the application, and by applying a sinusoidal voltage to the test tube. The signal was digitally generated by the microprocessor, and supplied externally through a D.A. converter. The signal was then filtered to delete from its spectrum the high frequency components typical of the digitally generated signals. The data obtained from impedance instrument showed a reliable correspondence with those from the plate count. By working in less time compared to traditional methods, this tool is well suited for in-situ preliminary analysis in commercial and professional foodservice environment.

  2. Exame microbiológico de sorvetes não pasteurizados Microbiological examination of non pasteurized ice cream

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    Deise Pasetto Falcão

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se exame microbiológico em 24 amostras de sorvetes não pasteurizados, todos preparados de maneira não industrial e à base de leite (creme, nata, chocolate, fabricados por 12 sorveterias diferentes da cidade de Araraquara, SP. Colheram-se duas amostras de cada sorveteria com intervalo de 15 dias entre as colheitas. Realizaram-se as seguintes provas: contagem de bactérias aeróbicas ou facultativas mesófilas e psicrófilas e de Staphylococcus aureus; determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP de coliformes totais e fecais e da presença de Salmonella. As técnicas utilizadas foram aquelas convencionalmente usadas para tais determinações. Não foi encontrada Salmonella em nenhuma das amostras e de cerca de 16,6% delas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus. Em proporções variáveis verificou-se a presença de microrgarnismos deteriorantes e daqueles indicadores de poluição de origem fecal.A microbiological examination was made on 24 samples of non pasteurized, non industrial ice cream, all made with milk collected from 12 different ice cream shops in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. For the study, two samples were collected 15 days apart, from each store. The following" tests were made using ice-cream samples: presence or absence of Salmonella; counts of mesophilic and psichrophilic bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus and verification of the Most Probable Number (MPN of enteric organisms (faecal coliforms and other coliforms. The techniques used were the conventional ones used in such calculations. All samples were negative for Salmonella while about 16.6% showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. There were deteriorative microorganisms and faecal coliforms present in varying proportions.

  3. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  4. The Study of Alginate and Whey Protein Hydrolyzed Suplementation Utilization for Cell Release and Microencapsulated Lactobacillus Acidophilus Viability in Probiotic Ice Cream

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    Purwadi Purwadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to increase viability and activity of L. acidophilus encapsulated with alginate and whey protein hydrolyzed for cell release and microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus viability in probiotic ice cream. The methods used were factorial experiment using Completely Randomized Design. Data was analysed with Variance Analysis. The results showed that the interaction between alginate and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented could be increased the function of CaCl2 and also encapsulated L. acidophilus viability. The used alginate of 1% and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented of 0,5% produced encapsulated L. acidophilus viability higher than before, but however, the utilization of alginate of 1% and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented of 0% could release a few cell. Therefore, the utilization of alginate 1% and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented 0,5% in ice cream produced L. acidophilus highest than other.   Keywords :   Lactobacillus acidophilus, microencapsulation, alginate, whey protein hydrolyzed, cell release, ice cream

  5. Response surface optimization of low-fat ice cream production by using resistant starch and maltodextrin as a fat replacing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, Mojtaba; Khomeiri, Morteza; Ghafouri-Oskuei, Hamed; Aghajani, Narjes

    2017-04-01

    In this research, maltodextrin (0, 1 and 2% w/w) and resistant starch (0, 1 and 2% w/w) were used in the formulation of low-fat ice cream (4% fat) and their effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties were investigated. The optimum levels of maltodextrin and resistant starch were determined by response surface methodology. Increment of maltodextrin and resistant starch increased acidity, viscosity, melting rate, time of dripping and overrun but decreased melting rate of ice cream. Results showed that the incorporation of maltodextrin and resistant starch at 0 and 2% w/w respectively, resulted into ice cream with suitable viscosity, melting rate, first dripping time, overrun and acidity.

  6. Microbial Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Traditional Ice Cream in Hamadan City, West of Iran

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    Ghadimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Foodborne diseases are one of the most major public health concerns in the world. Ice cream flavors, especially the traditional ones, have a high potential for the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study is to investigate the microbiological status and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional ice cream. Methods A total of 114 traditional ice creams were randomly collected from retail stores in Hamadan, Iran. Samples were investigated for the total bacteria count (TBC and contamination with the coliform, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella as well as the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results The count of Enterobacteriaceae (89.47%, mold and yeast (50%, coliform (40.35% and TBC (28.07% of samples was higher than Iran’s standard. Salmonella was not found in all samples. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed in 50% and 37.72% of samples, respectively. Collected Escherichia coli had the highest antibiotic resistance to ampicillin 67.44%, nalidixic acid 39.53% and co-amoxyclav 37.21%. Staphylococcus aureus showed a higher antibiotic resistance to penicillin (82.46% of isolates and oxacillin (38% of isolates. Conclusions The results showed high contamination levels of traditional ice cream with spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as considerable resistance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to common antibiotics. Therefore, good hygienic practice during processing and personal hygiene should be considered to improve the quality of ice cream. In addition, it is necessary that the regulatory authorities carry out more control on the production centers of traditional ice cream.

  7. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c

    OpenAIRE

    Pederiva,Norma B. Barbini de; Guzmán,Ana M. Stefanini de

    2000-01-01

    The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123) and non-industrial ice cream (80). Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ic...

  8. Caracterização reológica de sorvetes Rheological characterization of ice cream

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    Katherine Helena Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento reológico é de grande importância no processamento, manuseio, controle de qualidade e desenvolvimento de produtos alimentícios. A literatura relata que a maioria dos alimentos apresenta comportamento não newtoniano, em que a sua viscosidade pode variar com o tempo e com as condições de escoamento. Neste trabalho foi realizada a caracterização reológica de cinco diferentes tipos de sorvetes. As amostras nos sabores creme, creme light, limão, iogurte e soja banana foram fornecidas pela empresa Amoratto Sorvetes Artesanais, localizada na cidade de Florianópolis/SC. Os dados reológicos foram obtidos através de um reômetro com geometria de cilindros concêntricos. Os ensaios foram realizados em três diferentes temperaturas (-2, 0 e 2 °C e os resultados experimentais foram ajustados pelos modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Lei da Potência. As diferentes amostras apresentaram comportamento não newtoniano nas três temperaturas. Os parâmetros reológicos (K e n foram obtidos através do ajuste dos modelos e o da Lei da Potência mostrou o melhor ajuste aos resultados, com coeficientes de correlação (r iguais a 0,99 para quatro das cinco amostras, nas três diferentes temperaturas.The knowledge of rheological behavior is an important part of processing, handling, quality control and development of food products. Literature shows that most foodstuffs present non-Newtonian behavior, where their viscosity may vary with time, as well as with flow conditions. The rheological characterization of five different kinds of ice cream was carried out in this work. The samples studied were vanilla flavor, light vanilla flavor, lemon, yoghurt and banana soy, supplied by Amoratto Sorvetes Artesanais, located in Florianópolis/SC, Brazil. The rheological data were obtained using a rotational viscosimeter with concentric cylinder geometry. The trials were carried out at three different temperatures (-2, 0

  9. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Devasya; Ke, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (pice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored.

  11. Synbiotic Amazonian palm berry (açai, Euterpe oleracea Mart.) ice cream improved Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG survival to simulated gastrointestinal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Ooki, Gabriela Namur; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-02-22

    The effect of açai pulp ice cream and of its supplementation with inulin (I), whey protein concentrate (WC), and/or whey protein isolate (WI) on the viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal stress of the probiotic Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus GG strain throughout storage at -18 °C for up to 112 days was evaluated and morphological changes during stress were monitored. Lb. rhamnosus GG viability was stable in all formulations for up to 112 days of storage, preserving populations around 9 log CFU g -1 . Compared to the fresh culture, Lb. rhamnosus GG showed higher survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions when incorporated into açai ice cream, indicating that the presence of the food matrix contributed to the microorganism survival. A reduction of at least 5 log cycles of Lb. rhamnosus GG was observed in all formulations after the gastrointestinal simulation in all storage periods assessed. The addition of I, WC, and/or WI did not show any significant effect on the probiotic survival under simulated gastrointestinal stress (p ice cream. Thus, the açai pulp ice cream was shown to be a suitable matrix for Lb. rhamnosus GG, improving its survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

  12. Sensory Profile, Drivers of Liking, and Influence of Information on the Acceptance of Low-Calorie Synbiotic and Probiotic Chocolate Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Juliana; Esmerino, Erick; da Silva, Alessandra Lins; Racowski, Ilana; Bolini, Helena

    2018-04-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile and the influence of the information on the acceptance of the symbiotic chocolate ice cream made with sucrose and different sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, neotame, Stevia with 60%, 85%, 95%, and 97% of rebaudioside A) through analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's test, and partial least of square (PLS) regression. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was carried out by 18 assessors, who evaluated the samples in relation to the raised descriptors. Additionally, two acceptance tests (blind/informed) were performed with 120 consumers. The samples sweetened with sucralose and rebaudioside 97% presented similar profile to the control sample, thus having a better potential to replace sucrose in chocolate ice cream. The acceptance test carried out with information had higher scores for the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression. The correlation between data from the acceptance tests and QDA showed that the descriptors "low-energy" and "natural sweetener" claims interfered negatively in the drivers of liking of chocolate ice cream. Therefore, we can conclude that some characteristics unnoticed by consumers were highlighted after providing the information about the product's characteristics. This research is important and contributes to the manufacture and development of low-calorie chocolate ice cream with functional properties, guiding, through suitable sensory and statistical tools, the application of stevia and other artificial sweeteners in products with reduction or total absence of sucrose and highlighting the impact of the labeling of these products on consumer perception. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

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    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  14. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10 3  CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 10 0  CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Reconstruction After Hemipelvectomy With the Ice-Cream Cone Prosthesis: What Are the Short-term Clinical Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Ruiz, Irene; Ortiz-Cruz, Eduardo José; Peleteiro-Pensado, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Reconstruction after internal hemipelvectomy resection likely provides better function than hindquarter amputation. However, many reconstruction methods have been used, complications with these approaches are common, and function often is poor; because of these issues, it seems important to investigate alternative implants and surgical techniques. The purposes of this study were (1) to identify the frequency of surgical site complications and infection associated with the use of the Ice-Cream Cone prosthesis for reconstruction after hemipelvectomy for oncological indications; (2) to evaluate the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) outcomes scores in a small group of patients treated with this implant in the short term; and (3) to quantify the surgical margins and frequency of local recurrence in the short term in this group of patients. Between 2008 and 2013, one center performed a total of 27 internal hemipelvectomies for oncological indications. Of those, 23 (85%) were treated with reconstruction. Our general indications for reconstruction were patients whose pelvic stability was affected by the resection and whose general condition was sufficiently strong to tolerate the reconstructive procedure. Of those patients undergoing reconstruction, 14 (61%) were treated with an Ice-Cream Cone-style implant (Coned ® ; Stanmore Worldwide Ltd, Elstree, UK; and Socincer ® custom-made implant for the pelvis, Gijón, Spain), whereas nine others were treated with other implants or allografts. The indications during this time for using the Ice-Cream Cone implant were pelvic tumors affecting the periacetabular area without iliac wing involvement. Of those 14, 10 were available for followup at a minimum of 2 years (median, 3 years; range, 2-5 years) unless a study endpoint (wound complication, infection, or local recurrence) was observed earlier. Study endpoints were ascertained by chart review performed by one of the authors. Surgical site complications occurred in five

  16. THE STUDY OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF MILK MIXES, MILK AND FRUIT AND BERRY ICE CREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological features of milk mixes and ice were studied during the principal process stages, which enabled to detect the highest risk points for bacterial contamination. Compared to known information, the impact was established of vegetable raw chemical composition and preliminary treatment on the presence and activity of certain groups of germs in higher water content mixes and ice. The microbiological features of higher water content milk mixes and ice were studied. The study purported to survey the bacterial contamination of milk mixes and ice of various chemical composition throughout the whole production cycle. Microbiological features were studied of typical composition milk mixes and ice stabilized with wheat flour and modern stabilization system. Comparative evaluation of microbiological features was conducted for new types of milk ices with apple puree and wheat germs. We analyzed the stage of development, stability, and die-off for various groups of germs at certain process stages. The initial raw materials as well as equipment, especially during freezing, were detected to be the worst sources of bacterial contamination. The necessity was proved to ensure thermal processing of cereals prior to adding them to the mix, before it is sent for pasteurization and freezing. The results of our study can be used to develop operational procedures for production of new types of ice, with due consideration for all specific conditions for prior treatment of vegetable raw and for sanitary state of facilities for production, sales, and consumption of finished product.

  17. How Small Businesses Market Their Products during the Different Phases of the Product Life Cycle: The Case of Swedish Ice Cream Manufacturers

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    Annika Hallberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish ice cream market of today is dominated by a few major market leaders, which makes it a challenge for small firms to make themselves visible and survive on a long-term basis. The aim of this article is to investigate and understand how small firms in the ice cream business market their products, based on the marketing mix and the portfolio matrix, during the different phases of the product life cycle. The combination of the two models for strategic planning enables the marketing manager to conduct a more complete analysis of existing products and their place on the market and in the product life cycle. Eight CEOs of small-scale ice cream companies were interviewed. This study found that the marketing activities and strategies of large companies cannot be transferred to and implemented in small-scale businesses. Different marketing theories are developed for big businesses that have many employees and expert knowledge, which small companies do not possess. They also have less resources and knowledge to invest in expensive marketing activities in the marketing mix, and therefore the marketing mix models need to incorporate more of inexpensive marketing.

  18. LCA of an ice cream cup of polyethylene coated paper: how does the choice of the end-of-life affect the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Carla; Ferrara, Carmen; Malvano, Carmela; De Feo, Giovanni

    2017-11-07

    This study presents an evaluation of the environmental performance of an ice cream cup made of polyethylene (PE)/paper laminate using a life cycle assessment approach 'from cradle to grave'. Two opposite alternative disposal scenarios, as well as their intermediate combinations, were considered: 100% incineration and 100% landfilling. The environmental impacts were calculated using the EPD 2013 evaluation method since the study was developed in an Environmental Product Declaration perspective as well as the method ReCiPe 2008 H at the endpoint level. PE/paper laminate production was the most impactful process since it provided the highest contribution to total impacts in four of six impact categories considered. Ice cream cup production was the second impactful process. The 100% incineration scenario provided negligible contribution to life cycle total impact for all impact categories; while considering the landfilling scenario, the percentage contributions to the total impact provided by the end-of-life phase increased considerably, until to be comparable to the contributions provided by the production processes of the PE/paper laminate and the ice cream cup. The obtained results highlighted that different disposal scenarios can affect significantly the conclusions of a study. At the endpoint level, incineration was more environmentally sound than landfilling for all the ReCiPe damage categories.

  19. Comparative evaluation of direct plating and most probable number for enumeration of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pouillot, Régis; S Burall, Laurel; Strain, Errol A; Van Doren, Jane M; De Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Sheth, Ishani; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Brown, Eric W; Parish, Mickey; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2017-01-16

    A precise and accurate method for enumeration of low level of Listeria monocytogenes in foods is critical to a variety of studies. In this study, paired comparison of most probable number (MPN) and direct plating enumeration of L. monocytogenes was conducted on a total of 1730 outbreak-associated ice cream samples that were naturally contaminated with low level of L. monocytogenes. MPN was performed on all 1730 samples. Direct plating was performed on all samples using the RAPID'L.mono (RLM) agar (1600 samples) and agar Listeria Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA; 130 samples). Probabilistic analysis with Bayesian inference model was used to compare paired direct plating and MPN estimates of L. monocytogenes in ice cream samples because assumptions implicit in ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression analyses were not met for such a comparison. The probabilistic analysis revealed good agreement between the MPN and direct plating estimates, and this agreement showed that the MPN schemes and direct plating schemes using ALOA or RLM evaluated in the present study were suitable for enumerating low levels of L. monocytogenes in these ice cream samples. The statistical analysis further revealed that OLS linear regression analyses of direct plating and MPN data did introduce bias that incorrectly characterized systematic differences between estimates from the two methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effectiveness of prerequisites and the HACCP plan in the control of microbial contamination in ice cream and cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Eva; Amorós, José Antonio; Escriche, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    In food safety, implementation of prerequisites and application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) guarantee the control of processes, and microbiological criteria permit validation of their effectiveness. With these aims in mind, this article presents the results obtained by the official control carried out by the Valencian administration in ice cream and cheese companies, located in the Xativa/Ontinyente area (Valencian region, Spain) in the period between 2005 and 2010. The audits of Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) and HACCP show that "Structure & Design" followed by "Hygiene & Cleaning" and "Traceability" were the evaluated items with most nonconformities. Pathogenic microorganisms were not found in any of the final products analyzed. Microorganism indicators of unhygienic conditions were present in 100% of the analyses; however, 87.98% of them had low levels, which did not exceed the microbiological criteria. These results highlight the general good effectiveness of the safety management systems implemented and emphasize that companies and official control must continue working in order to guarantee the consumers' welfare.

  1. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  2. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except that...

  3. Mapa de preferência de sorvetes ricos em fibras Preference map of high-fiber ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes de Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro amostras de sorvete foram preparadas adicionando-se diferentes concentrações de granola e Frutooligossacarídeo (FOS. Foi avaliado o teor de fibras segundo método AOAC. A avaliação da aceitabilidade sensorial foi realizada por 78 consumidores, com idade entre 15 e 25 anos. Estes avaliaram a aceitação global das formulações, utilizando a escala hedônica de nove pontos, em uma única seção, de forma monádica. O experimento foi estruturado segundo delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, ao teste de médias de Tuckey e à metodologia do Mapa de Preferência interno para análise dos componentes principais. As amostras controle e as adicionadas de FOS tiveram melhor aceitação. A amostra contendo somente FOS foi a que mais se aproximou do produto tradicional, não diferindo significativamente quanto à aceitação global. A granola distinguiu-se estatisticamente do produto tradicional. O teor de fibras analisado foi superior ao fornecido pelo fabricante da granola. As concentrações de fibras nos sorvetes variaram de 0,9 a 5,45 g.100 g-1 de sorvete, com a maior concentração de fibras provenientes do FOS. Esse resultado permite concluir que o FOS é um ingrediente promissor no desenvolvimento de produtos ricos em fibras.Four samples of ice cream were prepared with four different concentrations of granola and fructooligosaccharide (FOS. The concentration of fiber was evaluated using the AOAC method. The acceptance evaluation was conducted by 78 consumers between 15 and 25 years of age. The consumers evaluated the global acceptance of the formulations through the structured 9-point hedonic scale, in a single section, in a monadic form. The experiment was structured by a Randomized Complete Block Design. The results were submitted to the analysis of variance, Tukey test, and to the preference mapping technique for principal component analysis. The control samples

  4. Comparison of sorbitol MacConkey and hemorrhagic coli agars for recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from brie, ice cream, and whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, T S; Feng, P; Amaguaña, R M; June, G A; Sherrod, P S; Andrews, W H

    1997-01-01

    The relative efficacies of hemorrhagic coli (HC) agar and several formulations of sorbitol MacConkey (SorMac) agar, with and without 0.1% (w/v) 4-methyllumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG), in recovering unstressed and heat-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese, ice cream, and whole milk were determined. Recovery of unstressed E. coli O157:H7 was determined quantitatively by spread-plating diluted samples onto different agars and performing plate counts. Recovery of stressed E. coli O157:H7 was determined qualitatively by enriching samples in modified trypticase soy broth, streaking the incubated enrichments, and isolating E. coli O157:H7 colonies from the agars. HC agar and the SorMac agar formulations did not differ significantly in their ability to recover unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from ice cream and whole milk; however, HC agar recovered significantly more unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese than did the SorMac agar formulations. Bacteriological Analytical Manual and Oxoid SorMac agar formulations made from individual ingredients, did not differ significantly in recovering unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese. The efficiency of the commercially available Oxoid SorMac agar could not be determined because of overgrowth by indigenous microflora. HC and SorMac agars did not differ significantly in recovering stressed E. coli O157:H7 from Brie cheese, ice cream, and whole milk. MUG had no apparent effect on recovery of either stressed or unstressed E. coli O157:H7 from the dairy foods examined.

  5. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Yi eChen; Emma eAllard; Anna eWooten; Minji eHur; Ishani eSheth; Anna eLassri; Thomas S Hammack; Dumitru eMacarisin

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Mil...

  6. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Commitment on Word of Mouth of Wall€™s Ice Cream in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda Pandowo; Kindangen, Citra Pingkan

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage products and the followed improvement in industry are familiar for common people in every part of this world. The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and brand commitment on word of mouth. To achieve the objectives, the research method used is causal research by using multiple regression analysis as the analytical tool. The population of this research is the consumers in Manado who ever taste wall€™s Ice cream with sample...

  7. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  8. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in traditional ice cream, Yazd, IRAN (1394 and compared to other studies in different parts of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Hamidian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 1-Mortazavi S, Gods rohani M, Juyande H. milk and dairy products technology. The University Ferdowsi Mashhad; 1996. p. 266. 2-Azadnia P, Ghasemi M, Abbasi M, Taarof N, Jashni M. Microbial Quality of Traditional Ice Cream Produced by Small-Scale Manufacturers in Khormoj and Its Comparison with the Iranian National Standard. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2011;10(6:742-4. 3- Ziabari Mirnezami H. What do you know about milk (Milk chemical technology: Tehran University; 1996. 4-Movassagh MH, Movassagh A, Mahmoodi H, Servatkhah F, Sourorbakhsh MR. Microbiological contamination of the traditional chocolate Ice cream sold in the Northwest Region of Iran. Global Veterinaria 2011;6(3:269-71. 5-Karim G, Razavilar V, Akhonndzade A. survey contamination of traditional ice cream to bacteria causing the infection and food poisoning[persian]. Tehran University Faculty of Veterinary 1374;50:71-8. 6-Kanbakan U, Con A, Ayar A. Determination of microbiological contamination sources during ice cream production in Denizli, Turkey. Food Control 2004;15(6:463-70. 7- Fallah AA, Saei-Dehkordi SS, Rahnama M, Tahmasby H, Mahzounieh M. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of  Listeria  species isolated from poultry products marketed in Iran. Food Control 2012;28(2:327-32. 8-Farber J, Peterkin P. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiological reviews 1991;55(3:476. 9-Navratilova P, Schlegelova J, Sustackova A, Napravnikova E, Lukasova J, Klimova E. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in milk, meat and foodstuff of animal origin and the phenotype of antibiotic resistance of isolated strains. Veterinarni Medicina-UZPI 2004;49. 10-Williams SK, Roof S, Boyle EA, Burson D, Thippareddi H, Geornaras I, et al. Molecular ecology of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in small and very small ready-to-eat meat processing plants. J Food Prot 2011;74(1:63-77. 11-Halter E, Neuhaus K, Scherer S. Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov

  9. Enrichment dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and the associated microbiome from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Andrea; Ramachandran, Padmini; Reed, Elizabeth; White, James R; Hasan, Nur; Subramanian, Poorani; Ryan, Gina; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Christopher; Daquiqan, Ninalynn; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc; Colwell, Rita; Brown, Eric; Chen, Yi

    2016-11-16

    Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally greater at hour 0 than when tested 4, 8, and 12 h later with all three enrichment schemes. The corresponding increase in Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus spp.indicated these taxa co-enriched in competition with L. monocytogenes during early enrichment hours. L. monocytogenes became dominant after 24 h in all three enrichments. DNA sequences obtained from shotgun metagenomic data of Listeria monocytogenes at 48 h were assembled to produce a consensus draft genome which appeared to have a similar tracking utility to pure culture isolates of L. monocytogenes. All three methods performed equally well for enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes. The observation of potential competitive exclusion of L. mono by Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus in early enrichment hours provided novel information that may be used to further optimize enrichment formulations. Application of Resphera Insight for high-resolution analysis of 16S amplicon sequences accurately identified L. monocytogenes

  10. Commercial nonindustrial production of pastries and ice cream in Naples, Italy: results from the inspection of 34 food businesses during a 2-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tanucci Nannini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Ice cream and cream-based pastries are an excellent media for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Foods that are prepared without due respect to the rules of food hygiene can carry microorganisms and/or toxins and could be responsible of toxinfections. The main objective of this study was to obtain an overall picture of the hygiene/sanitation conditions found in businesses that produce hand-made pastries and/or ice cream in Naples, Italy.

    Methods: We inspected 34 businesses to assess the following aspects: hygiene/sanitation conditions of the work area and equipment, implementation of good food hygiene principles, evaluation of HACCP plans, licensing/authorization, quality control and sampling protocols, as well as systems for ensuring food traceability. In 28 of the businesses, samples (environment, foods, workers were collected for microbiological analysis.

    Results: Sanctions were issued for nonconformities in 8 businesses (23.5%, and 25 businesses (73.5% received warnings with orders to correct minor nonconformities (inadequate documentation of compliance with current regulations, incorrect implementation of the quality-control protocol within specified time periods. Microbiological analyses revealed irregularities in 24/28 businesses (85.7%, and 138 of the 280 samples collected displayed contamination levels exceeding the limits adopted for this study (49.3%. In particular, 80% of the surfaces sampled and 23.8% of the hand swabs collected were shown to be contaminated. All food samples collected met the process-hygiene and food-safety standards prescribed by the European Community. Results obtained were statistically significant (p < 0.05.

    Conclusions: Our experience of food safety surveillance system indicates that Neapolitan food business operators involved in the production of hand-made ice cream or pastries do not

  11. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 hours. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.15 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h. The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case-study.

  12. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  14. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  15. Penciclovir Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penciclovir comes as a cream. It is usually used externally every 2 hours while you are awake for 4 days. Follow the directions on your ... Clean and dry the area before applying the cream to avoid spreading the infection. Rub the cream ...

  16. Sensorial evaluation of ice-cream elaborated with goat milk/ Avaliação sensorial de sorvetes elaborados com leite de cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Domingos Benedet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate sensory and economically formulations obtained from of goat powder milk, vegetable fat and strawberry aroma. At least of twenty seven formulations listed in an experimental design, were choiced three best formulations, that they also were elaborated in triplicate to the powder goat milk and pasteurized goat milk. Finally it was choiced the best formulation. The final and the best ice-cream had the following formulation: 80 g of vegetable fat, 0.80 L of goat milk (powder – reconstituted or pasteurized milk and 0.12 g of strawberry aroma. These formulations shown Acceptability Index (AI of 87.1 % to ice-cream elaborated with powder milk and 84.3 % to pasteurized milk. Considering just the last and the best AI formulation, it were realized the cost analysis of ice-creams. The price icecream with powder goat milk was equally to R$ 3.15 per liter, while with pasteurized milk was price per liter was equally to 2.68 per liter.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sensorial e economicamente formulações de sorvetes obtidos a partir do uso de leite de cabra em pó ou pasteurizado, gordura vegetal hidrogenada e aroma de morango. De vinte e sete formulações inicialmente previstas em um delineamento experimental, utilizando leite de cabra em pó, foram escolhidas as três melhores formulações. Estas três formulações foram avaliadas sensorialmente em três repetições utilizando leite de cabra em pó e três repetições utilizando o leite de cabra pasteurizado. Tanto para o leite em pó quanto para o pasteurizado as formulações escolhidas pelos julgadores foram as elaboradas com as seguintes variáveis: 80 g de gordura vegetal hidrogenada, 0,80 litros de leite de cabra (pó – reconstituído ou pasteurizado e 0,12 g de aroma de morango. Estas formulações apresentaram Índice de aceitabilidade de 87,1 % para o sorvete elaborado com leite de cabra em pó e 84,3 % para o leite de cabra pasteurizado

  17. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UBI JALAR UNGU TERHADAP SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ES KRIM SUSU KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWA [The Influence of Purple Sweet Potato Increment og Organoleptic Characteristic of Goat Milk Ice Cream of Etawa Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is perishable foodstuffs and has  low shelf life. One way to preserve it is process goat milk into ice cream. This is usefulforreducingthe damagenutritiongoat milk. Purple sweet potatoes which contain some anthosianin can be added to inprove the texture. However, the amount of purple sweet potato  added will affect the texture and body of icecream.  Therfore this research is needed. This research was purposed to find concentration of purple sweet potato that will produce the best ice cream especially on organoleptic characteristic. The experiment was arranged in  Latin Square design in single factor that consist of 5 levels  concentrations of purple sweet potato paste. There were 0% (reference, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (b/b with 5 replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance . furtehre tested using the HSD Test in 5% level of signiificance. The The results showed that addition of  30%  sweet potato paste produced the best quality of goat milk ice cream of Etawa . The score of aroma was 3,5 (not specific goat milk, the taste’s score was 3,47 (sweet, color’s score was 2,8 (rather purple, texture’s score was 3,5 (soft, and the overall  of acceptance was 3,203 (rather like. This ice cream contained water, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and total carbohidrate as amuch as 66,98%, protein was 5,5%, 11,86%, 1,34%, 0,3% and 14,2%. Keyword : goat milk, ice cream, purple sweet potato

  18. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST sequence type (ST 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5. WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5

  19. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Luo, Yan; Curry, Phillip; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Doyle, Matthew; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S; Allard, Marc W; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol A

    2017-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from

  20. Development and optimization of sweet cream butter from buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... making methods for getting good quality and yield of butter by standardizing cream fat levels and altering churning ... Key words: Butter quality, churning temperature, optimization, cottage scale, sweet cream. INTRODUCTION ..... fruit concentration on the physical properties of vanilla and fruit ice cream-type ...

  1. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Hasnani; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Azizan, Noor Zalmy

    2012-08-16

    The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. A case-control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent's family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p consumptions was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Females in the case group had a higher daily energy intake compared to their counterparts in the control group, 1812 ± 331 and 1590 ± 148 kcal respectively (p Body Mass Index, and body fat percentage between case and control groups (p > 0.05). Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  2. Evaluation of the Escherichia coli (E.coli Strains based on protein profiles obtained from traditional Ice cream in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacterial strains present in food products undergo different thermal processes such as coldness and warmth. Such cases cause a shock in bacteria and force the bacteria to produce proteins and partly, develop a change in the production of enzyme. This can give the strain a special characteristic, knowledge of this characteristic will contribute to a timely and more precise identification. Materials and methods: During this time more than 100 samples have been examined, out of which, 48 Indol positive isolation samples were examined by phenotypic tests and sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE. Results: – The results of numerical analysis of phenotypic characteristics and protein patterns showed that only 79% of the collected isolates (phenon 1 and 2 could be identified as E.coli compared with reference strains. E.coli strains from ice creams were showed some Variation in banding patterns. Major differences were observed in protein bands between 23.59 - and 20.79 -kDa molecular mass range which the isolates were compared with reference strains. Discussion and conclusion: Our study concluded that food’s bacterial strains are influenced by temperatures in different processes and also it could stimulate the production of proteins or change the enzymes. Therefore, The reason of taking care of the issues is that changes in the proteins’ structures can lead to change in the biochemical properties, and finally this change can misguide us. Further research is being performed to characterize these atypical strains by molecular methods.

  3. Sports cream overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  4. Pelvic reconstructions following peri-acetabular bone tumour resections using a cementless ice-cream cone prosthesis with dual mobility cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Samir-Pierre; Biau, David; Babinet, Antoine; Dumaine, Valérie; Le Hanneur, Malo; Anract, Philippe

    2018-01-27

    Despite numerous reconstructive techniques and prosthetic devices, pelvic reconstructions following peri-acetabular malignant tumours resections are highly challenging. In the present study, we describe our experience with the Integra® (Lépine, Genay, France) ice-cream cone prosthesis in such indications. The objective was to assess the mid-term outcomes of this device. Twenty-four patients' chart with peri-acetabular malignant tumours, who underwent types II or II + III peri-acetabular resections according to Enneking and Dunham with subsequent reconstruction using the Integra® prosthesis between February 2009 and February 2015, were reviewed. Seventeen cases were primary surgeries and seven cases were revisions (i.e., failures of previous reconstructions for pelvic tumours). All living patients with the prosthesis implanted were functionally assessed, using the musculoskeletal tumour society (MSTS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) scores. After a mean follow-up of 49 ± 26 months (range, 8 to 94 months), 21 patients were alive (88%), including 15 patients continuously disease-free (63%). MSTS and PMA scores averaged 72 ± 13% (range, 43 to 87%) and 14.6 ± 2.6 (range, 9 to 18), respectively. Fourteen patients (58%) presented at least one complication during follow-up, including four cases of deep infection (17%), four cases of dislocation (17%), and two mechanical failures (8%). At 5 years, the implant survival rate was 75%. In comparison to previous reconstructive techniques that we used in similar indications, functional and oncologic outcomes were improved with the Integra® implant. However, as commonly observed in pelvic bone tumour surgery, complication rates remain significant. Therapeutic, Level IV-Retrospective Cases Series.

  5. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  6. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and ice cream produced in the State of Paraná, Brazil Ocorrência de Listeria monocytogenes em queijos e sorvetes produzidos no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Moscalewski Abrahão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in Brazilian ice cream and in some soft and semi-soft cheeses produced and sold in the State of Paraná, Brazil was evaluated. Ninety samples of cheese and sixty samples of ice creams were analyzed following the guidelines outlined by the official institutes, AOAC and FDA. In the ice cream samples no isolation of Listeria spp. was found. The percentage of these ninety samples of cheeses positive for Listeria spp. was 12.20%. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in six (6.70% of the same samples. The presence of Listeria innocua was five (5.50% in the samples analyzed was also observed. According to the results of the work it is possible to presume that there is a potential health risk to the brazilian population, heightened by aging and the increase in immunodepressed. These results indicate the need for the implementation of monitoring of these microorganisms as much by producers as by health inspectors. The results also show that the VIP (visual immunoprecipitation assay is a viable triage method of contaminated samples for the liberation of products for commercialization, as it is quick, reliable and does not require additional equipment other than that normally found in production labs, while presenting reliable results.A ocorrência de Listeria monocytogenes em sorvetes e alguns tipos de queijos macios e semi-macios produzidos e vendidos no Estado do Paraná Brasil foram avaliados. Noventa amostras de queijo e sessenta amostras de sorvete foram analisadas seguindo os protocolos da AOAC e FDA. Nas amostras de sorvete, não ocorreu o isolamento de Listeria spp. Foi detectada Listeria spp em 12,20% de amostras de queijo, das quais 6 (6,70% foram positivas para Listeria monocytogenes. Foi também observada a presença de Listeria innocua em 5 amostras (5,50% das mesmas amostras. Pelos resultados deste trabalho pode-se pressupor que existe um risco potencial à saúde da população brasileira com o

  7. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes Sorvete de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez preparado com substitutos de gordura e açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.O efeito da substituição de gordura vegetal hidrogenada e sacarose nas propriedades físicas, químicas e aceitabilidade de sorvete com mangaba foi avaliado. As formulações de sorvete foram testadas com os substitutos de gordura: Selecta Light, Litesse e Dairy-Lo e os substitutos de sacarose: Lactitol e Splenda. As formulações foram submetidas às análises físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e teste de aceitação. Verificou-se no teste sensorial uma maior aceitação das formulações elaboradas com Selecta Light (SL e combinação de Litesse, Lactitol e Splenda (LLS. A maior redução do valor energético (50% foi observada na

  8. Job submission and management through web services the experience with the CREAM service

    CERN Document Server

    Aiftimiei, C; Bertocco, S; Fina, S D; Ronco, S D; Dorigo, A; Gianelle, A; Marzolla, M; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Verlato, M; Zangrando, L; Corvo, M; Miccio, V; Sciabà, A; Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Grandi, C

    2008-01-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of ...

  9. Avaliação sensorial de sorvete formulado com produto de soro ácido de leite bovino Ice-cream sensory evaluation formulated with product of acid bovine milk serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O soro de leite bovino é um subproduto da fabricação do queijo ou da caseína, existente na forma ácida ou doce. Constituído basicamente de água, proteínas, lactose e minerais, quando concentrado, implica na obtenção de vários ingredientes protéicos de alta funcionalidade e valor nutricional. Entretanto, a concentração do soro tem sido realizada apenas ao soro doce, sendo o soro ácido, devido às suas características, geralmente tratado como resíduo. Neste contexto, este artigo apresenta os resultados obtidos com a introdução de produto de soro ácido de leite na formulação de sorvete, em sistema modelo, verificando a percepção dos provadores para diferentes percentuais de substituição do leite desnatado. As amostras de sorvete foram preparadas com composição de mistura: 2,5% de gordura látea, 18,3% de sacarose, 2,3% de gema de ovo em pó e 0,3% de estabilizante-emulsificante e essência de baunilha. O sorvete padrão (P foi formulado com 10,09% de leite desnatado em pó. Quatro outras misturas foram preparadas com o produto de soro ácido em pó (SAP, substituindo o leite desnatado, em níveis 100, 80, 60 e 30%. A avaliação do efeito provocado no sorvete, devido à substituição do leite desnatado por SAP, foi efetuada por ensaio sensorial direcionado à percepção do gosto doce. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (pWhey, by-product of cheese or casein production, is classified in sweet or acid whey. Composed by water, proteins, lactose and minerals, when concentrated it produces proteins ingredients with high functionality and nutritional value. However, whey protein manufacturing has been applied only to sweet whey. Acid whey has been generally dumped down as dairy waste. This paper shows results obtained from acid whey product addition in ice cream formulation, in model system, ascertaining by sensory evaluation the panelists acceptance for five different milk substitutions levels. Ice cream

  10. ENSAYO Y FUNCIONALIDAD DE UN SUSTITUYENTE DE SÓLIDOS NO GRASOS LÁCTEOS EN UNA MEZCLA PARA HELADO ESSAY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF A NON FAT MILK SOLIDS SUBSTITUTE IN AN ICE CREAM MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Nataly López Barón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objeto ensayar y evaluar la influencia de dos formulaciones de sólidos no grasos lácteos (F1 y F2, sobre las características fisicoquímicas de mezclas de helado. Mediante criterios bromatológicos (contenido de proteína se seleccionó la formulación F1, ya que una prueba sensorial que se aplicó simultáneamente, no aportó diferencias entre ambas formulaciones. Posteriormente se usaron tres niveles de la mezcla escogida, sustituyendo 20% (T2, el 40% (T3 y el 60% (T4, de los sólidos no grasos lácteos de la formulación, a los cuales se les realizaron pruebas de calidad física, química y sensorial, comparándolos contra una mezcla testigo sin sustitución (T1. El valor de viscosidad de los tratamientos, varió en un intervalo 398,7 cP a 1108,6 cP a una temperatura de 4 °C, siendo este aumento directamente proporcional al porcentaje de sustitución. Los valores de acidez titulable de la mezcla oscilaron entre 0,17% a 0,12% con un valor más alto (P This study was designed to test and evaluate the influence of two non fat milk solids formulations F1 and F2 on the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream mixes. By bromatological analysis (protein content, formulation F1 was selected, since a sensory test that was applied simultaneously, did not provide differences between the two formulations. Later, three levels of the chosen mixture were used, replacing 20% (T2, 40% (T3 and 60% (T4 of the non fat milk solids in the formulation, to which physical, chemical and sensorial quality tests were conducted and were compared against a control mixture without replacement (T1. The viscosity value of the treatments differ between 398.7 cP to 1108.6 cP at 4 °C, being this increase directly proportional to the percentage of substitution. The ice cream values for acidity were in a range of 0.17% to 0.12% with a highest value (P <0.05 for T1. Treatment T3 presented the following results: pH 6.84; P 542.2 mg/kg; Ca 717.2 mg

  11. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet. Listed in the " ...

  14. Job submission and management through web services: the experience with the CREAM service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Fina, S. D.; Ronco, S. D.; Dorigo, A.; Gianelle, A.; Marzolla, M.; Mazzucato, M.; Sgaravatto, M.; Verlato, M.; Zangrando, L.; Corvo, M.; Miccio, V.; Sciaba, A.; Cesini, D.; Dongiovanni, D.; Grandi, C.

    2008-07-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of CREAM and ICE in gLite. We also discuss recent work towards enhancing CREAM with a BES and JSDL compliant interface.

  15. Job submission and management through web services: the experience with the CREAM service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Andreetto, P; Bertocco, S; Fina, S D; Ronco, S D; Dorigo, A; Gianelle, A; Marzolla, M; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Verlato, M; Zangrando, L; Corvo, M; Miccio, V; Sciaba, A; Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Grandi, C

    2008-01-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of CREAM and ICE in gLite. We also discuss recent work towards enhancing CREAM with a BES and JSDL compliant interface

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge ... for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant or is in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified ... in many forms. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 requires that all such products ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population ... the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by ... problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report Problems If you believe ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... foods or iron-fortified foods with an iron-absorption enhancer, such as foods high in vitamin C. ... ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased iron absorption. Folic Acid (folate): High levels may, especially in ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director ...

  5. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adoles...

  6. Fortified settlement Veletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vojislav S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the fortified settlement Veletin are located on a hill of the same name (map marking 969 near the small town Janjevo, in the vicinity of the Monastery Gračanica in Kosovo, in a region rich in metal ore (pic. 1-3. Veletin is mentioned for the first time as a landmark in King Milutin’s charter for the Monastery Gračanica issued in 1321. Namely, the boundary of villages donated to the monastery ran "from Oštri vrh on Veletjen between Sušica and between Gušterica". Villages of Sušica and Gušterica still exist under the same names. The mentioned Veletin refers to the hill with a fortified settlement or fortress at the top. In the past the hill and the fortress were for a long time a characteristic part of the historical landscape. Thanks to its favourable geostrategic position, vicinity of important roads and above all to the nearness of rich silver mines, the hill of Veletin was settled and fortified in pre-historic time, then in antiquity and in the middle ages. It is supposed that the Roman town Ulpiana (Justiniana Secunda, near the Monastery Gračanica, developed because of the vicinity of silver mines and that as a municipium became a center of administration of Janjevo - Novo Brdo metals in the II c. Mining reached its peak in this area only in the first half of the XV c., during the reign of Serbian despots. When this part of Serbia fell under Turkish rule in 1455, mining began to decline. In 1488, during the reign of Sultan Bajazet II, special regulations were made for the organization of work in Janjevo silver mines, which testify about their importance. It is hard to form an opinion about the appearance of Veletin at the time the Gračanica Charter was issued. Mining was growing at that time and it is possible that there was a fortress with a small crew to protect Janjevo and other nearby mining settlements. Veletin is explicitly mentioned as a fortress only in three cartographic sources of a later date. The first was

  7. Genótipos melhorados de mamão (Carica papaya L.: avaliação tecnológica dos frutos na forma de sorvete Improved genotypes of papaya (Carica papaya L.: technological evaluation as ice-cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R.R. Santana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação tecnológica na forma de sorvete, de frutos de cinco genótipos selecionados de mamão (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047, provenientes do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Estes genótipos foram identificados em estudos anteriores por apresentarem cor atraente, sabor agradável e valores elevados de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix. As amostras de sorvete foram submetidas à avaliação sensorial para os atributos aparência, cor, aroma, sabor e textura, através de testes afetivos, utilizando-se escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Realizou-se determinações de pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, "ratio", ácido ascórbico, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores. Os resultados das avaliações sensoriais e físico-químicas foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os sorvetes demonstraram elevada aceitação, obtendo médias correspondentes ao conceito "gostei moderadamente" para todos os atributos avaliados. Os genótipos CMF020 e CMF031 destacaram-se alcançando média correspondente ao termo da escala hedônica "gostei muito" para o atributo sabor. Os provadores não indicaram prevalência entre os produtos quanto à aparência, cor e textura; portanto, os genótipos pouco atraentes como fruto de mesa, poderão ser aproveitados na indústria para elaboração de sorvete. Além disso, podem ser considerados como uma sobremesa valiosa e nutritiva, pois apresentaram níveis satisfatórios de carboidratos e razoáveis de vitamina C e proteínas. O estudo demonstrou que o sorvete de mamão é uma excelente alternativa para o aproveitamento da fruta.The objective of the present work was to evaluate as an alternative of consumption the ice-cream of five selective papaya genotypes (CMF012, CMF020, CMF023, CMF031, CMF047 obtained from the Active

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The ...

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    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or iron-fortified foods with an iron- ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... in the first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of folate from a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... to food forms of folate from a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods ... supplement the diet. Listed in the "dietary ingredient" category are not ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or iron-fortified foods with an iron- ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  16. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade AA or...

  18. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  20. Isolation and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in ice cream at different pH values, stored at -18°c Isolamento e sobrevivência de Yersinia enterocolitica em sorvetes de distintos pH, armazenados a -18°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma B. Barbini de Pederiva

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was investigated in 203 samples of industrial (123 and non-industrial ice cream (80. Two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from non-industrial ice cream, which suggests the possibility of post-manufacturing contamination. One strain was typed as B:1A, O: 3,50,51; lis Xz, while the other one was biotyped as: B:1A but not serologically typed. Survival of Y. enterocolitica was investigated by inoculating nine samples of industrially manufactured ice cream to contain 20 CFU/ml of Y. enterocolitica and stored at -18°C for 480 days. The inoculated samples were classified into three different groups according to their pH (Group 1: pH 4-5; Group 2: pH 5-6 and Group 3: pH 6-7. Viability was determined by a combination of direct plating and enrichment. In Group 1, Y. enterocolitica was not detected after 150 days of storage, while in Groups 2 and 3, this microorganism was isolated until day 480 of storage. These findings suggest that the survival time of Y. enterocolitica in ice cream stored at -18°C is significantly (p Neste estudo pesquisou-se a presença de Yersinia enterocolitica em 203 amostras de sorvetes, sendo 123 de fabricação industrial e 80 de fabricação artesanal. Isolaram-se 2 cepas a partir de sorvetes artesanais, uma das quais foi caracterizada como B:1A, O:3,50, 51; lis Xz e a outra se tipificou como Y. enterocolitica B:1A mas não se tipificou sorologicamente, o que sugere uma contaminação pós processo. Em 9 dos sorvetes de fabricação industrial de distintos pH, estudou-se a sobrevivência desse microrganismo, inoculando-os com 20 UFC/ml de Y. enterocolitica, quando armazenados durante 480 dias a -18°C. Esses sorvetes, segundo seu pH, agruparam-se em: Grupo 1: pH: 4-5, Grupo 2: pH 5-6 e Grupo 3: pH: 6-7. Determinou-se a viabilidade pelas curvas de morte usando semeadura direta e enriquecimento. Nos sorvetes do grupo 1, Y. enterocolitica só foi detectada até o 150° dia de

  1. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or frozen cream), including sterilized cream, or a mixture of cream and milk or skim milk containing 9 percent or...

  2. Using CREAM and CEMonitor for job submission and management in the gLite middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Andreetto, P; Bertocco, S; Dalla Fina, S; Dorigo, A; Frizziero, E; Gianelle, A; Mazzucato, M; Sgaravatto, M; Traldi, S; Zangrando, L; Marzolla, M; Lorenzo, P Mendez; Miccio, V

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of CREAM and CEMonitor services for job submission and management within the gLite Grid middleware. Both CREAM and CEMonitor address one of the most fundamental operations of a Grid middleware, that is job submission and management. Specifically, CREAM is a job management service used for submitting, managing and monitoring computational jobs. CEMonitor is an event notification framework, which can be coupled with CREAM to provide the users with asynchronous job status change notifications. Both components have been integrated in the gLite Workload Management System by means of ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment). These software components have been released for production in the EGEE Grid infrastructure and, for what concerns the CEMonitor service, also in the OSG Grid. In this paper we report the current status of these services, the achieved results, and the issues that still have to be addressed.

  3. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terconazole comes as a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for either 3 or 7 days. ... prescribed by your doctor.To use the vaginal cream or vaginal suppositories, read the instructions provided with ...

  4. Determinação simultânea de açúcares e polióis por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-IR em sorvetes de baixas calorias ("diet"/ "light" Simultaneous determination of sugars and polyols in low calorie ice creams (diet/light by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice I. Druzian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método simples e rápido para a preparação da amostra e quantificação simultânea de açúcares e polióis em sorvetes "diet"/"light" por CLAE-IR foi investigado. Os açúcares frutose, glicose, lactose, maltose, sacarose, juntamente com glicerol e sorbitol foram separados. Diferentes variáveis foram testadas na preparação da amostra e nas condições cromatográficas para a separação dos componentes. A melhor condição para a separação dos analitos da matriz foi obtida através de duas extrações consecutivas com água : etanol (1:8 v/v, seguida de 1:4 v/v. Para a separação cromatográfica em uma coluna CLC-NH2 , a fase móvel foi composta de acetonitrila: água (77,5:22,5 v/v na vazão de 1mL/min, a 30 ºC. O tempo de corrida foi menor do que 20 min. Amostras de sorvetes "diet"/"light" de 3 diferentes marcas, com sabores de morango, chocolate, flocos e baunilha, recolhidas em Campinas-SP, apresentaram valores de açúcares totais entre 9-15%. Somente os sorvetes com sabor morango apresentaram frutose (0,1-0,5%, e somente aqueles sorvetes com sabor de flocos mostraram a presença de sacarose em maiores quantidades. Os maiores valores de açúcares foram encontrados para lactose, independente da marca ou sabor testados (3,5-10%. As quantidades de sorbitol variaram de 3-4%. A mesma análise foi realizada com sorvete normal (controle que apresentou valor de açúcares totais de aproximadamente 29%, sendo que destes 16,8%, foi sacarose. Não foram detectados polióis. Na amostra de sorvete controle foi realizado teste de recuperação de sorbitol (99,3%. Os valores encontrados foram comparados com os valores permitidos pela legislação.A simple fast method for sample preparation and the simultaneous quantification of sugars and polyols in diet/light ice creams, using HPLC-RI, was investigated. The sugars fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose and sucrose, together with glycerol and sorbitol, were separated. Different variables were

  5. Analytical, nutritional and biological evaluation of various brands of fortified and non-fortified wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Sohail; Hussain, Khalid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Latif, Abida; Islam, Muhammad; Karim, Sabiha; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Hussain, Amjad; Danish, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-05-01

    In Pakistan, a funded flour fortification program was launched for malnourished population, residing mainly in rural low income areas, but the urban population having comparatively better nutritional as well as economic status was focused wherein excessive intake of fortificants might cause complications. Therefore, the present study describes the physicochemical properties, elemental composition, nutritional components and hemoglobin/ferritin increasing potential of fortified and non-fortified flour. Domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), either sex, age one month, weight 380 ± 18.28 g, were randomly segregated into 4 groups (n=6). The group I, II and III were fed on fortified flour, whereas group IV was fed on non-fortified flour for 30 days. The birds were weighed and blood samples of each of the birds were analyzed for determination of markers of iron status, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF). Moisture, ash and iron contents were found to be lower in non-fortified flour than that of the fortified samples. Hb and SF levels in groups fed on fortified flour were significantly higher than the one received non-fortified flour (P fortified flour increases iron stores in the body without any further complication but long-term usage needs to be monitored.

  6. Quality of handmade milk cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality and food safety are important issues nowadays. In this context, the present work aimed to evaluate the microbiological and physico-chemical of handmade milk creams, known as cream of the backlands. Thus, samples of creams of the hinterland acquired thirty merchants of Rio Grande do Norte. These samples were subjected to microbiological analysis: standard plate count of mesophilic aerobic micro-organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and determination of the most probable number (MPN of total and fecal coliforms, and physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity content fat and moisture. It was found that all samples were outside the legal standards in mesophilic count, where the values were greater than 105 CFU / g. A percentage of 90% of the creams milk showed high counts of S. aureus above those permitted by legislation (maximum 102 CFU / g. The acidity was above the allowed 90% of creams evaluated. Thus, the cream produced by hand showed low microbiological and physicalchemical, so its consumption may cause health risks to the consumer.

  7. RHEOLOGIC BEHAVIOR OF PASTRY CREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Vizireanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased social and economic importance of ready–made food production, together with the complexity of production technology, processing, handling and acceptance of these fragile and perishable products requires extensive knowledge of their physical properties. Viscoelastic properties play an important role in the handling and quality attributes of creams.Our study was to investigate the rheological properties of different confectionary creams, by scanning the field of shear rates at constant temperature and frequency, angular frequency scanning at small deformations and quantification of rheological changes during application of deformation voltages. The creams tested were made in the laboratory using specific concentrates as fine powders, marketed by the company “Dr. Oetker” compared with similar creams based on traditional recipes and techniques. Following the researches conducted we could conclude that both traditional creams and the instant ones are semi fluid food products with pseudoplastic and thixotropic shear flow behavior, with structural viscosity. Instant and traditional creams behaved as physical gels with links susceptible to destruction, when subjected to deformation forces.

  8. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a... of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraph (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  9. 21 CFR 131.150 - Heavy cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.150 Heavy cream. (a... concentrated fruit and fruit juice). (ii) Natural and artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the method prescribed in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association...

  10. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a...) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the method prescribed in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), sections 16.156 and 16.059...

  11. 7 CFR 58.322 - Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream. 58.322 Section 58.322 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....322 Cream. Cream separated at an approved plant and used for the manufacture of butter shall have been...

  12. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolnaftate cream. 524.2350 Section 524.2350 Food... Tolnaftate cream. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 1 percent tolnaftate (2-naphthyl-N-methyl-N-(3-tolyl) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c...

  13. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by...

  14. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  15. Fortified foods, new opportunity for irradiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Sabato, Susy F.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important steps, in order to improve the quality of foodstuffs, in the last forty years is represented by fortified foods. The fortification foods means complementary addition of nutrients to content of foodstuffs. The macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) are relativity steady when submitted to irradiation. The micro-nutrients, speciality the vitamins, can be sensible to any method. This work has analysed fortified foods with Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, riboflavine, vitamin C and folic acid , as well as, the perspective of adjusting the food irradiation process with fortification foods

  16. The IceProd Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2015-01-01

    IceCube is a one-gigaton instrument located at the geographic South Pole, designed to detect cosmic neutrinos, iden- tify the particle nature of dark matter, and study high-energy neutrinos themselves. Simulation of the IceCube detector and processing of data require a significant amount...... of computational resources. IceProd is a distributed management system based on Python, XML-RPC and GridFTP. It is driven by a central database in order to coordinate and admin- ister production of simulations and processing of data produced by the IceCube detector. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of other...... middleware and can take advantage of a variety of computing resources, including grids and batch systems such as CREAM, Condor, and PBS. This is accomplished by a set of dedicated daemons that process job submission in a coordinated fashion through the use of middleware plugins that serve to abstract...

  17. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet, pleasing...

  18. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet, pleasing...

  19. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  20. Glycemic index of chocolate fortified with pumpkin ( Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine Glycemic Index of chocolate fortified with pumpkin and taro powder and observed its effect on mood and cognitive functions of UniSZA female students. Two groups of female students (n = 30) were asked to consume control chocolate (Group A) and fortified chocolate (Group B) for four weeks.

  1. Ice Cream Seminars for Graduate Students: Imparting Chemical Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritano, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information on a chemical information literacy program designed primarily for new graduate students. The full implementation of this program is discussed, including defining its purpose, topics covered, content presented, methods of marketing, and evaluation. The result is a series of voluntary seminars given biweekly…

  2. I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…

  3. Bundled-Up Babies & Dangerous Ice Cream: Correlation Puzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenholley, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    The Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York City is fourth among all community colleges in awarding degrees to minority students and in awarding degrees to African Americans. The BMCC student body is approximately 37 percent Hispanic, 33 percent black, 15 percent white, and 15 percent Asian. In addition, a significant proportion…

  4. Bioavailability of vitamin D₂ and calcium from fortified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ravinder; Sachdeva, Bhawana; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman; Wadhwa, Balbir Kaur

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine bioavailability of calcium and vitamin D₂ from milk fortified with either calcium or vitamin D₂ alone or when both were used for preparation of multiple micronutrient fortified milk and also to study its interaction with iron and zinc bioavailability. 32 weanling male rats (aged 21-28 days) were assigned into four groups and were fed milk and milk fortified with calcium, vitamin D₂ and calcium+vitamin D₂. Vitamin D₂ increased calcium bioavailability. In multiple micronutrient fortified milk, the bioavailability of both calcium+vitamin D₂ increased in comparison to single fortification. Calcium fortification decreased, whereas vitamin D₂ increased the absorption of iron and zinc. However, calcium and vitamin D₂ when fortified in combination, the iron and zinc bioavailability was similar to control group. There was positive association between bioavailability of calcium and vitamin D₂. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abdelazez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548 were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044 for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  6. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. ( Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture ( Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at -18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  7. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only. PMID:28691028

  8. Growth is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate nutrients for growth. A human milk fortifier (HMF) made from donor human milk has recently been introduced. However, limited data are available comparing the growth outcomes of this product with current fortifiers. We evalu...

  9. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...

  10. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  11. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. These food products shall be pasteurized, sweet, have a pleasing and desirable flavor and be free from objectionable flavors, and shall be obtained from milk which complies with the quality requirements as specified...

  12. Double blind study of sertaconazole 2% cream vs. clotrimazole 1% cream in treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Rouhani, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is an important issue in dermatology. This study was undertaken to compare efficiency of sertaconazole 2% cream vs. clotrimazole 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. One hundred twenty eight patients suffering from SD were studied. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty four patients received local sertoconazole 2% cream and in control group 64 patients received clotrimazole 1% cream. They were recommended to use the cream twice a day for 4 weeks. At the beginning of referring and 2 and 4 weeks after first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to assess improvement of clinical symptoms. The mean age of sertaconazole and clotrimazole group patients was 34.78+/-13.54 and 38.68+/-11.88, respectively. The highest level of satisfaction (87.6%) was observed 28 days after sertaconazole administration and in clotrimazole group it was 50%. Relapse of the disease one month after stopping treatment was not observed in groups treated with sertaconazole 2% cream and clotrimazole 1% cream. This study suggests that sertaconazole 2% cream is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for moderate to severe facial seborrheic dermatitis.

  13. Skin treatment with bepanthen cream versus no cream during radiotherapy. A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loekkevik, E.; Skovlund, E.; Oslo Univ.; Reitan, J.B.; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo; Hannisdal, E.; Tanum, G.

    1996-01-01

    In several radiotherapy departments, dexpanthenol cream (Bepanthen 'Roche') has been used extensively to ameliorate acute radiotherapy skin reactions. The evidence base for this practice is obscure as no randomized trials have been performed. In the present clinical prospective study of 86 patients we have compared Bepanthen cream with no topical ointment at all. The cream was applied on randomly selected parts of treatment fields in laryngeal and breast cancer patients, and so each patient acted as his own control. Seven patients were widthdrawn from analysis. Scoring of skin reactions in 16 laryngeal and 63 breast cancer patients was performed without knowledge of which are that had been given cream or not. Endpoints were a modified skin reaction grading according to EORTC/RTOG, and itching/apin in treated fields. The study did not indicate any clinically important benefits of using Bepanthen cream for ameliorating radiogenic skin reactions under the conditions applied. (orig.)

  14. Research on the Starokuybyshevskoye Fortified Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubaydullin Ayrat M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Starokuybyshevskoye (Old-Kuybyshev fortified settlement is situated on the bank of the Bezdna river, 200 m to the northeast of Bolgar city. The site is being considerably eroded by the waters of the river and the Kuibyshev water reservoir. Currently it is situated on an island, under threat of complete destruction. In this regard, in 1946, 1987 and 1996, conservation and rescue excavations were conducted on the site. The detailed results of the 1996 studies are offered in the article. The ruins of an above-ground dwelling with an oven and three household pits were excavated. The ceramic assemblage of these structures has obvious features of the pre-Mongol Bulgar culture. In general, the findings make it possible to conclude that the settlement had existed only in the 11th through to the 13th century and that its collapse was associated with the Mongol invasion.

  15. Release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from different creams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saene, J.J.M.; Trooster, J.F.G.; Meulenhoff, A.M.C.; Lerk, C.F.; Bult, A.

    The release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from five different creams were studied: unguentum emulsilicans aquosum, unguentum hydrophy. licum non ionogenicum, paraffin cream (15 per cent), a homemade preparation and a commercially available preparation (Flamazine). A diffusion

  16. Influence of full cream milk powder on the characteristics of sweet potato puree instant cream soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Marleen; Djali, Mohamad; Dwiastuti, Intan Btari

    2018-02-01

    A ready to use food such as instant cream soup become the most suitable choice for those who prefer being practical and also can be applied in any emergency situation such as areas affected by disaster. The adding of milk powder as the main ingredient in cream soup creates a complex bounding of fat and starch which complicates the rehydration process and affects other physical appearance. This research was aimed to find the proper concentration of full cream milk powder concentration to obtain the best characteristics of instant cream soup of dried sweet potato puree. The method used in this research was randomized block design with 6 treatments (12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5% and 25%, with an addition of full cream milk powder) and twice repetition. Instant cream soup with 20% of full cream milk powder concentration gave the best physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical characteristic shows that it has 6% water content, 95.47% rehydration value, 18% protein, 20.7% fat, 1080.25 cP viscosity and 30.5% rendement.

  17. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: comparison of sertaconazole 2 % cream versus pimecrolimus 1 % cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldust, M; Rezaee, E; Raghifar, R

    2013-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and trunk. The treatment of SD is an important issue in dermatology. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of sertaconazole 2 % cream versus pimecrolimus 1 % cream in the treatment of SD. In this clinical trial study, 60 patients suffering from SD were studied. Thirty patients received local sertaconazole 2 % cream and in control group, 30 patients received pimecrolimus 1 % cream. Patients were recommended to use the cream twice a day for 4 weeks. At the beginning of referring and also 2 and 4 weeks after first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to control improvement of clinical symptoms. The mean age of members of the sertaconazole and pimecrolimus groups was 30.12 ± 12.56 and 34.67 ± 10.98 years, respectively. The highest level of satisfaction (90 %) was observed 28 days after sertaconazole application since it was 80 % in pimecrolimus group. The relationship between patients' satisfaction and receipt of sertaconazole cream (on the 28th day) was statistically significant (P = 0.006). Sertaconazole 2 % cream may be an excellent alternative therapeutic modality for treating SD.

  18. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, comparison of sertaconazole 2% cream versus ketoconazole 2% cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Torello; Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham

    2013-05-06

    Objective: There are controversies in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sertaconazole 2% cream as against ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Methods: A total of 132 patients, who had been diagnosed of seborrheic dermatitis were studied. The first group received sertaconazole 2% cream (group A), and the other received ketoconazole 2% cream (group B). At the beginning of referring and also 2 and 4 weeks after first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to control improvement of clinical symptoms and drug side effects. Results: The mean age of sertaconazole and ketoconazole group was 30.18 ± 12.36 and 34.68 ± 10.16, respectively. Patients with moderate Scoring Index (SI) had the most frequency (76.6%) at pretreatment stage with ketoconazole 2% cream. This is when patients with mild SI had the highest frequency (53.3%) at posttreatment stage. In patients who received the sertaconazole 2% cream, the highest frequency was observed in 80% of cases with moderate SI at pretreatment stage, while patients with slight SI had the highest frequency (83.3%) at posttreatment stage. Conclusion: Sertaconazole 2% cream may be an excellent alternative therapeutic modality for treating seborrheic dermatitis.

  19. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: the efficiency of sertaconazole 2% cream vs. tacrolimus 0.03% cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) includes topical antifungal agents to eradicate Malassezia spp. corticosteroids to treat the inflammatory component of the disease, and keratolytics to remove scale and crust. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sertaconazole 2% cream and tacrolimus 0.03% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In this clinical trial study, sixty patients suffering from SD were studied. Thirty patients received local sertaconazole 2% cream with a recommendation to use the cream twice a day for 4 weeks. In the control group, thirty patients received tacrolimus 0.03% cream twice a day for four weeks. At the time of referral, and 2 and 4 weeks after first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to check the improvement of clinical symptoms. The mean ages of the sertaconazole and tacrolimus groups were 30.98 +/- 12.24 and 34.67 +/- 10.82, respectively. The highest level of satisfaction (90%) was observed 28 days after sertaconazole use. Only 83.3% satisfaction was noted in the tacrolimus group. The relationship between patient satisfaction and sertaconazole 2% cream receive in 28th day was significant (P = 0.006). Sertaconazole 2% cream may be an excellent alternative therapeutic modality for treating seborrheic dermatitis.

  20. Population dose assessment: characteristics of PC CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Maria T.; Curti, Adriana R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the PC CREAM, a program for performing radiological impact assessments due to radioactive discharges into the environment during the operation of radioactive and nuclear facilities. PC CREAM is a suite of six programs that can be used to estimate individual and collective radiation doses. The methodology of PC CREAM is based on updated environmental and dosimetric models, including ICRP 60 recommendations. The models include several exposure pathways and the input files are easy to access. The ergonomics of the program improves the user interaction and makes easier the input of local data. This program is useful for performing sensitivity analysis, siting studies and validation of model comparing the activity concentration output data with environmental monitoring data. The methodology of each module is described as well as the output data. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification. Surgeon's gloving cream is an ointment intended to be used to lubricate the user...

  2. The Use of Creams in Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, May-Lin; Frost, Else; Bergmansen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: At the Danish wards for radiotherapy there are different rules regarding the intervals that have to pass from the moment the patients applies moisturizer until they can be treated. This is due to the fact that it is unclear whether the cream can cause bolus effect, thereby...... causing the dose to move towards the skin. This would increase the damages to the patient’s skin during the radiotherapy. There is no evidence on the use of moisturizers. Materials and Methods: We have carried out an experimental trial testing whether creams cause bolus effect. We used two pieces of pork...

  3. Impact evaluation of iron & iodine fortified salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K M; Brahmam, G N; Ranganathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sivakumar, B; Krishnaswamy, K

    1998-11-01

    As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and

  4. 78 FR 50420 - Determination That LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream and LIDEX-E (fluocinonide) Cream and Nine Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream and LIDEX-E (fluocinonide) Cream and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or... NDA 016908 LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream; Topical, Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp., 7720 0.05%,. North...

  5. Iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Sullivan, Kevin M; Alasfoor, Deena; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Suleiman, Ali Jaffer Mohammed; Kaur, Meenu; Al-Hatmi, Fatima Obaid; Ruth, Laird J

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to impact more than 1.6 billion individuals worldwide, affecting child, maternal, and perinatal mortality. Iron supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are strategies to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency. However, there are relatively few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of iron-fortified wheat flour as an intervention. To assess the relationship between average monthly per capita household consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women of childbearing age in Oman. Data were obtained from the National Micronutrient Status and Fortified Food Coverage Survey, 2004. Iron deficiency status was compared between women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of 1 kg or more and women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of less than 1 kg. The analyses excluded women with elevated or unknown levels of C-reactive protein and controlled for characteristics of the women and household demographics. Consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour was associated with a lower prevalence of iron deficiency among women in our sample (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60), after controlling for age, employment status, marital status, intake of iron or multivitamin supplements, self-reported presence of a blood disorder, household income, educational level of head of household, and family size. These results suggest that women in our study living in households with a greater consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour have a lower prevalence of iron deficiency; however, additional study is needed.

  6. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Sodani, Prahlad R; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  7. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  8. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... has variously been reported (WHO, 1991; Al-. Saleh and Al-Doush, 1997; Kahatano et al., 1998;. Glahder, 1999). Product Name. Mercury. (µg g-1) ... 0.008. USA. White. Fair & Beautiful (Maxi-Tone). <0.001. Switzerland. Pale brown. Faire Age. 0.008. Unknown. White. Fashion Fair Cream. 0.045. Italy. White.

  9. Clinical study of sertaconazole 2% cream vs. hydrocortisone 1% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Masoudnia, Sima; Raghifar, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and trunk, however, there are controversies surrounding its treatment. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of sertaconazole 2% cream with hydrocortisone 1% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In total, 138 patients suffering from seborrheic dermatitis were studied. Sixty-nine patients received local sertoconazole 2% cream and they were recommended to use the cream twice a day and for 4 weeks. To create a control group, 69 patients received hydrocortisone 1% cream twice a day for four weeks. At the time of referral, and at 2 and 4 weeks after their first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to check the improvement of clinical symptoms. The mean age of patients was 36.45 +/- 13.23. The highest level of satisfaction (85.1%) was observed 28 days after sertaconazole consumption: 76.9% was recorded for the hydrocortisone group. No relapse of the disease one month after stopping treatment was observed in either the sertaconazole 2% group or the hydrocortisone 1% group. Sertaconazole 2% cream may be an excellent alternative therapeutic modality for treating seborrheic dermatitis.

  10. Optimally Fortifying Logic Reliability through Criticality Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With CMOS technology aggressively scaling towards the 22-nm node, modern FPGA devices face tremendous aging-induced reliability challenges due to bias temperature instability (BTI and hot carrier injection (HCI. This paper presents a novel anti-aging technique at the logic level that is both scalable and applicable for VLSI digital circuits implemented with FPGA devices. The key idea is to prolong the lifetime of FPGA-mapped designs by strategically elevating the VDD values of some LUTs based on their modular criticality values. Although the idea of scaling VDD in order to improve either energy efficiency or circuit reliability has been explored extensively, our study distinguishes itself by approaching this challenge through an analytical procedure, therefore being able to maximize the overall reliability of the target FPGA design by rigorously modeling the BTI-induced device reliability and optimally solving the VDD assignment problem. Specifically, we first develop a systematic framework to analytically model the reliability of an FPGA LUT (look-up table, which consists of both RAM memory bits and associated switching circuit. We also, for the first time, establish the relationship between signal transition density and a LUT’s reliability in an analytical way. This key observation further motivates us to define the modular criticality as the product of signal transition density and the logic observability of each LUT. Finally, we analytically prove, for the first time, that the optimal way to improve the overall reliability of a whole FPGA device is to fortify individual LUTs according to their modular criticality. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to draw such a conclusion.

  11. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  12. Ancient ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Simon Belt, Guillaume Massé and colleagues rammed their way through sheets of ice, spotting some polar bears on the way, in their attempt to reconstruct Arctic sea-ice records covering thousands of years.

  13. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  14. Storage Stability of Unstabilized Predigested Soymilk Fortified with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... calcium content, and strongest negative significant (P < 0.05) effects on visible coagulation time (VCT) of the fortified soymilk. Vitamin C had linear significant (p < 0.05) effects to increase soymilk vitamin C content and VCT. Keywords: Storage stability, micronutrient fortification, predigested soymilk, complementary feeding ...

  15. Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feeding trials with broilers (1-31 days of age) were carried out to determine the effect of fortifying grain amaranth based diets with lysine, methionine, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) on broiler performance, amino acid availability, plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen and mineral retention.

  16. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  17. Evaluation of nutrient and energy contents of fortified predigested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soymilk extracted from TGX923-2E soybean variety was fortified with three independent variables (fortificants) namely: ferric ammonium citrate, calcium carbonate and vitamin C each with 5 level combinations. Nutrient analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods and the data obtained were subjected to ...

  18. Quality Evaluation of Maize Chips ( Kokoro ) Fortified with Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality evaluation of “kokoro” fortified with cowpea flour (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 %) was studied. The blends were reconstituted into a thick paste, manually moulded into kokoro stick and deep fried in hot vegetable oil at about 1700C for 5 minutes. These flour blends were analyzed for pasting, proximate and functional ...

  19. Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana. As an effort by the Ministry of Health to enhance the nutrient content of this lownutrient- density weaning food, a product called weanimix, which is Tom Brown fortified with legumes (cowpeas or soybeans and groundnuts), was introduced ...

  20. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team's recent work suggests that crude sunflower oil maintains shelf life for more than 70 days when fortified with vitamin A. The project will verify shelf life findings. It will also build a sustainable business ... IDRC panel tackles early marriage at UN Status of Women forum. IDRC-supported researchers share ...

  1. Thermogravimetric investigations of cream with minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gnitko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil is one of the most effective and modern medications, which is used in modern trichology for hair growth stimulation in case of androgenic and other forms of alopecia. Clinical effect of this substance is caused by the intensification of metabolic processes in the skin due to intensification of microcirculation. For local application domestic dermatology uses imported minoxidil medicines in form of alcohol-water lotions and aerosols. The use of semisolid dosage form with minoxidil for external administration will allow to increase its efficacy and will widen the arsenal of domestic pharmacotherapeutic agents for hair growth stimulation. Rational composition of minoxidil semisolid dosage form for external use with 2% of active substance has been developed at the Department of Medicinal Preparations Technology, Zaporozhye State Medical University as a result of complex physical-chemical, microbiological and biopharmaceutical investigations. The aim of this work is the study of thermal treatment effects of cream-mask with minoxidil for external use over the temperature range, which is used in technological process of this dosage form manufacturing. Materials and methods. Cream with 2% of minoxidil on the emulsion base and its excipients have been used as the object for the thermogravimetric investigations. Thermogravimetric analysis has been carried out on the derivatograph «Shimadzu DTG-60», Japan, with the platinum and platinum-rhodium thermopair with samples’ heating in aluminium crucibles from 25 to 200ºС. Results. According to thermogravimetric experimental data minoxidil is a thermal stable substance from 26 to 240ºС. During experimental process insignificant endothermic effect was determined at 191,72ºС. However the mass of the example to the end of experiment practically didn’t change (decrease on 0,32%. Thermal effects on the derivatogram of minoxidil emulsion cream match with thermal effects of the base components and

  2. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  3. Design and development of Unani anti-inflammatory cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Zaman, Roohi; Haider, Nafis; Shamsi, Shariq; Alam, Anzar

    Inflammation is the symptom of many diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Many side effects are associated with the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) used as conventional treatment for these conditions. In Unani, there are large number of single and compound drugs for inflammatory conditions. One dosage form of Unani system of medicine is named as Zimad in which paste is formed by mixing powder in oil, water, herbal extract. Zimadat is prepared just before application and used in many disease conditions as resolving, styptic, astringent, and antiseptic. As the pre-application procedure is difficult and also complicated for patients, hence, the present study attempted to modify the form of Zimad into cream. Various batches of cream of Zimad Mohallil were prepared by using extracts of the formulation and by adding additives. Various physicochemical parameters of prepared cream were carried and compared with market cream. The optimized cream of Zimad Mohallil (F 4 ) was selected after preliminary tests and evaluated further. The optimized cream showed good results in physicochemical parameters equivalent to market sample. Zimad Mohallil was converted into convenient cream form by adding minimum additives and benefits could be achieved without any hassle and cumbersome work, which is encountered in crude or paste form. The optimized cream was equivalent to standard market cream. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and characterization of guava cream with addition of okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ricardo de Castro Leite Júnior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing fresh guava cream with addition of 1 and 3 % of okara flour. There was an expressive amount of protein, fat and fiber in the flour. After manufacturing the sweets, acidity and Aw did not differ. On the other hand, pH, TSS, protein, and fat, the sample containing 3% of flour presented the highest averages. This increase is desirable, since okara has a high concentration of essential amino acids, besides containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, and obtaining the lowest averages in the sensory evaluation for purchase intention. Despite the differences, all samples were classified from “liked it slightly” to “liked it very much”. After 70 days, control provided the highest means for pH and Aw. As for color, the control sample differed from that added 3% for L*, a* e b*, and after 70 days only L* differ. The samples were in accordance with the legislation for molds and yeasts. Thus, fortified products had a high nutritional value and good acceptance, which shows that the product comes as a new alternative for the fruit processing industry with the reutilization of byproducts.

  5. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  6. Mercury poisoning associated with a Mexican beauty cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Minda M; Smolinski, Mark S; Maroufi, Azarnoush; Hasty, Brian W; Gilliss, Debra L; Boulanger, L Lucy; Balluz, Lina S; Dutton, Ronald J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To describe demographic characteristics, patterns of use, and symptoms associated with mercury poisoning among persons who used aMexican beauty cream containing mercurous chloride and to estimate the prevalence of cream use in Texas near the Mexico border. Design Case series and cross-sectional survey. Setting Border communities ofArizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Participants Persons who used the cream and contacted a health department in response to announcements about the cream and households that participated in the Survey of Health andEnvironmental Conditions in Texas Border Counties and Colonias, 1997. Mainoutcome measures Urine mercury concentrations, self-reported symptoms, and prevalence of cream use among households. Results Of 330 cream users who contacted their health department, 96% were women, and 95% were Hispanic.The mean urine mercury concentration was 146.7 μg/L (reference range : 0-20μg/L). In 5% of 2,194 randomly selected Texas households near the Mexico border, at least 1 person had used “Crema de Belleza-Manning”(Laboratorios Vida Natural, S.A., Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico) in the previous year. Conclusions Most cream users had increased urine mercury concentrations. Cream use was common in Texas near the Mexico border.Physicians should consider toxicity in patients with neurologic symptoms of unclear cause and use public health departments when investigating unusual illnesses. PMID:10903281

  7. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.162.... (c) Methods of analysis. Referenced methods in paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section are from “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is...

  8. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light... artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the method prescribed in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed...

  9. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of formulated creams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their performances were compared with those of standard antiseptic creams and ointments. The results of agar diffusion studies on cream and ointment formulations revealed that the topical bases used to disperse the medicaments could significantly affect the antimicrobial effectiveness of the formulation. Formulations ...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  17. 21 CFR 524.981a - Fluocinolone acetonide cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluocinolone acetonide cream. 524.981a Section 524.981a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Fluocinolone acetonide cream. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 0.025 percent fluocinolone acetonide. (b...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16. ...

  1. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for...

  2. Fractional calcium absorption is similar in premature infants fed human milk fortified with a human milk or bovine milk-based fortifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) to provide adequate calcium for bone mineralization. A HM-based fortifier has recently been introduced. However, the bioavailability of the calcium in this product and the ability of a HM-based fortifier to meet preterm infants mineral needs a...

  3. Studies on Decontamination of Cosmetic Creams by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 50 cosmetic cream samples were purchased from the market in Egypt. Cream samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria and fungi in the range of 1.0 x10 5 to 1.0 x 10 8 and 1.3 x 10 3 to 2.1 x 10 6 respectively. The contaminating organisms were gram positive cocci, gram positive rods, gram negative cocci, gram negative rods, gram negative cocci, Aspergillus species and penicillium species. The effect of consumer handling and time on the microbial levels of the tested cream samples which showed, in the present investigations, no microbial contamination were used. The results reveal that the level of contamination was found to increase with time and during use. The contamination were identified as gram positive rods, gram positive cocci. Aspergillus species and Penicillium species. Samples were subjected to gamma radiation, bacterial sublethal dose levels ranged between 1.5 and 20 kGy, 5 and 7 kGy, 3 and 5 kGy, while the fungal sublethal dose levels ranged between 3 and 5 kGy, 3 and 5 kGy also 3 and 5 kGy for foundation creams, foundation moisturizing and moisturizing creams, respectively. Bacteria survived sublethal dose levels were identified as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus sp. Bacillus brevis, Staphylococcus hominis-novo, Bacillus spharicus, Bacillus-pantothenticus and Bacillus Alvei in foundation cream. While, Acenatobacter baumann / haem, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus pumilus are the bacteria that survived the sublethal dose levels in foundation-moisturizing cream. Bacillus pantothenticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Micrococcus. sp. were recorded in moisturizing cream samples. The surviving fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus in foundation cream, and Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari and Penicillium chrysogenum in foundation-moisturizing cream, while the fungi surviving is Aspergillus niger in moisturizing cream. For foundation cream, the sterilizing doses were calculated to be (6

  4. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  5. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  6. Iron and calcium bioavailability of fortified foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Teucher, Birgit

    2002-11-01

    Bioavailability is a key consideration when developing strategies for preventing mineral deficiencies through improved dietary supply. Factors that affect the bioavailability of iron and calcium, forms used for fortification and supplementation, and methods used to assess bioavailability are described. Illustrations of the impact of introducing iron-fortified foods in developing and industrialized countries are given, and the alternative approach of supplementation with iron and calcium is discussed.

  7. Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Qualities of Iron Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein content was between 0.46 and 1.13%, sugar was between 0.42 and 0.86%, starch was between 60.79 and 79.03%, fat was between 0.00 and 0.50%, ash was between 1.19 and 1.55%. The iron and zinc contents of the fortified gari were higher and safe for consumption compared to unfortified gari (control), the ...

  8. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF SOY-FORTIFIED CUSTARD

    OpenAIRE

    Okoye J.I; Nkwocha A.C; Agbo A.O

    2008-01-01

    The proximate composition and characteristics of custard formulation fortified with soybean flour were studied. The corn starch (CS) was composite with soybean flour (SF) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 305, 40% and 50%. The custard formulations prepared from the flour blends were evaluated for their proximate composition and sensory characteristics. Form the results, the protein content of the formulations increased steadily with increasing supplementation of soybean flour from 10.65% in 90:10 (C...

  9. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  10. Use of Highly Fortified Products among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila; French, Steven

    2015-01-01

    It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005. In 2011, 33% of adults reported using HFP; use was significantly higher among males, African Americans, Hispanics, and more highly educated individuals (e.g. some college or more) and those sports drinks, 37% fortified foods/beverages, 32% protein bars, 27% energy drinks, 24% energy bars, and 12% energy shots. For those HFP products as a group, prevalence of use was 36% (n=2039) in 2005, 35% in 2009 (n=2010), and 30% in 2011 (n=2355). Although use was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2005 especially among females, non-Hispanics, and those with high school education or less (P≤0.05). HFP, particularly energy and sports drinks, continue to be widely used by many U.S. adults.

  11. EXPERIMENTS OF FORTIFIED EGG YOLK POWDER IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kiss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The egg contains inorganic binding nutrients, which are essential in human feeding. Besides a great number of nutrients, vitamins and microelements can be accumulated in egg yolk. The enrichment of vitamins and carotinoids in egg yolk can be achieved by addition of desired supplementary compounds to the feed. Fortified egg yolk can be a good source of different carotenoids, and vitamin C. Carotenoids have protecting effect as follows: antioxidant activity, immunostimulation effect and antimutagenous effect. The ascorbic acid’s biological effect is ability of oxidation-reduction. It has reduction capacity, and takes part in regeneration after glutation oxidation. In our experiment BALBc mice were fed by fortified egg yolk powder. Carotenoid, lutein, lycopene, and vitamin C were mixed into the egg yolk before lyophilisation (lutein 0.014 %; vitamin C 0.035 %, likopin 0.035 % in food. The other mice group was fed with syntetic form of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C. Mice were bled at 5th and 10th day of experiment. Blood and liver concentrations of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C were measured by HPLC method. In our experiment we compared utilization of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C concentration in different fortified food of BALBc mice.

  12. Quality attributes of bread fortified with staghorn sumac extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesive), and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an antistaling agent in bread formulation. The rising healthy food market demands bakery products fortified with novel functional ingredients. Staghorn sumac is an emerging healthy food ingredient that has attracted much research attention recently. This study provides a scientific basis to develop bread fortified with sumac-derived functional ingredients. The results pointed out the feasibility of making sumac-fortified breads with enhanced phenolic content, increased shelf life, and acceptable sensory profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Review of the cost components of introducing industrially fortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roks, Eveline

    2014-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Fortification of staple foods with multiple micronutrients is a cost-effective strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. The objective of this paper is to review the cost elements of industrially fortified rice by identifying the costs related to the implementation of rice fortification programs, using the experience of the United Nations World Food Programme in its pilot countries. The actual total costs of rice fortification are not easily captured. Core cost elements include the production of fortified rice kernels, transportation to the point of blending, blending of fortified with unfortified rice, costs related to sales or distribution, quality control and assurance, and additional planning. In the introduction phase, organizations or coalitions seeking to advance rice fortification will face additional costs related to the initiation of rice fortification. In the scale-up phase, greater efficiency in the supply chain and economies of scale can be expected. Different cost elements are normally borne by different stakeholders. This makes the implementation of rice fortification programs a feasible option to reach vulnerable populations with inadequate access to affordable nutrition solutions. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (Pfiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Iron Fortified Wheat Flour on the Biology and Physiology of Red Flour Beetle, (Herbst)

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail Ahmed; Waqas Wakil; H.M. Salman Saleem; Mohammad Shahid; M. Usman Ghazanfar

    2010-01-01

    Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm) on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.). Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compare...

  16. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  17. Increased bioavailability of hydrocortisone dissolved in a cream base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greive, Kerryn A; Barnes, Tanya M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vasoconstrictor activity and, by inference, the clinical anti-inflammatory effectiveness of hydrocortisone in two different formulations: 1% dissolved hydrocortisone cream and 1% dispersed hydrocortisone cream. Moisturising capacity and safety were also determined. Both topical preparations were applied without occlusion on forearms twice daily for 5 days. An assessment of vasoconstriction was performed in a double-blinded manner pretreatment and then thrice daily for 6 days and once 7 days post-application, using an objective rating scale. For the dissolved preparation only, moisturising capacity was determined by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h, and also by the measurement of water content at 0 and 24 h. Safety was assessed by repeat insult patch tests (RIPT). In all, 10 volunteers completed the vasoconstrictor and moisturising studies, while 52 completed the RIPT. For 1% dissolved hydrocortisone cream and 1% dispersed hydrocortisone cream, respectively, areas under the blanching curves were 1240 and 295; total scores were 129.0 and 31.5; summed % total possible scores were 161.3 and 39.4; Tm/10 mean values were 3.47 and 1.64. The 1% dissolved hydrocortisone cream was found to be statistically more potent than the 1% dispersed hydrocortisone cream. Furthermore, the 1% dissolved hydrocortisone cream was found to be moisturising compared to no treatment. No adverse events were observed. A cream containing 1% dissolved hydrocortisone exhibits greater vasoconstrictor activity than a cream containing 1% dispersed hydrocortisone. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. Mixing sweet cream buttermilk with whole milk to produce cream cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk is an important by-product of the manufacture of butter. Sweet-cream buttermilk (SCBM is similar in composition to skim milk, except for its high phospholipid and milk fat globular membrane protein content. The main objective of this investigation was to produce optimum quality cream cheese by replacing whole milk with different proportions of SCBM (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50%. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05 between the chemical and organoleptic properties of the samples. As the percentage of SCBM increased, the chemical composition of total solids, fat, protein, fat in dry matter (FDM and ash of cheese milk decreased significantly, leading to a softer, moister curd. Samples prepared with more than 25% SCBM were not acceptable to the taste panel. The cream cheeses prepared using 25% and 30% SCBM had the highest yields. Total solids and FDM were strong predictors of cheese yield (r2 ≈ 0.589. The results also showed that the best range for replacement using SCBM is 20–25%.

  19. Adjuvant therapy of patients with chronic dermatoses using Bedan cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.F. Kutasevych

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of treatment of chronic dermatopathies. There are demonstrated the data of study of therapeutic efficiency and tolerance of Bedan cream I patients with dermatopathies. Bedan cream used in a complex therapy of chronic dermatopathies was shown to lead to earlier reduction of objective and subjective signs of chronic dermatosis and clinical regression. It was found a good tolerance of Bedan cream: its application was not associated with deterioration of general condition of skin, its irritation and allergization.

  20. Deltamethrin: the cream of the crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, David A

    2011-04-13

    Replacement of the pyrethronyl alcohol portion of the natural pyrethrins with the 5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl moiety gave bioresmethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid of high potency and safety but with limited photostability. Introduction of novel substituents at the 3-position of the cyclopropane ring then led to the discovery of insecticidally active compounds with greatly improved potency. Systematic changes of both the alcohol and acid components gave second-generation pyrethroids (permethrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) with improved potency and photostability suitable for agricultural use. Metabolic studies showed that the photostabilized compounds remained biodegradable. Deltamethrin, discovered in 1974, was the cream of the crop and remains 36 years later as one of the most important synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.

  1. ``Peeps,'' cream, heads, and food coloring in a vacuum jar

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePino, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    This note describes some methods of adding interest to the standard vacuum jar demonstrations. Marshmallow animals, shaving cream, doll heads, and food coloring add some spark to these demos. These new twists have been well received by the students.

  2. Tetracaine gel vs EMLA cream for percutaneous anaesthesia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømsing, Janne; Henneberg, S W; Walther-Larsen, S

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the anaesthetic effect of tetracaine gel 1 g, applied for 45 min, compared with EMLA cream 2 g, applied for 60 min, in a randomized, double-blind study in 60 children aged 3-15 yr. Venous cannulation was performed 15 min after removal of the EMLA cream (n = 20) and tetracaine gel...... (n = 20). Cannulation was performed up to 215 min after removal of the tetracaine gel in another 20 patients. Significantly lower pain scores were recorded by the children treated with tetracaine gel compared with EMLA cream (P ... no pain compared with only 10% in the EMLA group. Only minor adverse effects were observed. We conclude that tetracaine gel provided effective, rapid, long-lasting and safe local anaesthesia, and was significantly better than EMLA cream in reducing pain during venous cannulation in children using...

  3. Potential effect of fortified pan bread with Aloe vera juice on alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was designed to investigate (1) the potential use of Aloe vera juice (AVJ) for fortification of pan bread with evaluates the sensory characteristics and the nutritive value. (2) The possible beneficial role of 5% and 10% AVJ-fortified bread against diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Bread fortified with ...

  4. Organoleptic qualities and acceptability of fortified rice in two Southeast Asian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanh Van, Tran; Burja, Kurt; Thuy Nga, Tran

    2014-01-01

    the acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and hot extruded) in Vietnam and Cambodia, triangle tests were conducted in Vietnam (53 women) and Cambodia (258 adults), testing fortified rice against conventional rice, with participants being asked to score the organoleptic qualities. In addition, Cambodian...

  5. Bioavailability of folic acid from fortified pasteurised and UHT-treated milk in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.J. de; Verwei, M.; West, C.E.; Vliet, T. van; Siebelink, E.; Berg, H. van den; Castenmiller, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether milk fortified with folic acid enhances the folate status of humans and whether the presence of folate-binding proteins (FBP) in pasteurised milk affects the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified milk. In untreated and pasteurised

  6. Bioavailability of folic acid from fortified pasteurised and UHT-treated milk in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.J.; Verwei, M.; West, C.E.; Vliet, van T.; Siebelink, E.; Berg, van den H.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether milk fortified with folic acid enhances the folate status of humans and whether the presence of folate-binding proteins (FBP) in pasteurised milk affects the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified milk. In untreated and pasteurised

  7. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  8. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  9. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  10. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  11. Development and characterization of rosin-based polymer and its application as a cream base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanorkar, V T; Gawande, R S; Gogte, B B; Dorle, A K

    2002-01-01

    The literature contains many references to the wide range of uses of rosin-based polymers, but little has appeared in the area of rosin-based polymers used as cream bases. Various rosin polymers based on glycerol, sorbitol, and pentaerythritol were prepared and screened for efficacy as cream bases. Among these polymers, polymer 2 (glycerol-based) is reported in the present study as it produced creams with a better stability and release profile as compared to other creams. The creams were formulated employing polymer 2 (P2) and Tween 60 as surfactants. The stability of the prepared creams, as well as the diclofenac diethylammonium release pattern, was investigated using particle size analysis, conductivity, relative dielectric constant, spreadability, and irritation potential measurement, and was compared with that of creams containing Tween 60 (RT) prepared in the laboratory. The release of the drug, diclofenac diethylammonium, was measured after eight hours and compared with a standard cream (RT) and a marketed cream (RM).

  12. A comparative evaluation of the macronutrient and micronutrient profiles of soybean-fortified gari and tapioca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolapo, Adelodun Lawrence; Sanni, Morenike Olayinka

    2009-03-01

    Gari and tapioca are storage-cupboard convenience foods obtained from the tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). They are important staples in Nigeria and many African countries where malnutrition is a major problem. Tapioca is a quick-cooking food made from partly gelatinized starch and gari is a fermented, roasted, granular food made from cassava pulp. Gari and tapioca are nutritionally inferior and need to be fortified. This paper reports the macro- and micronutrient profiles of soybean-fortified gari and tapioca. Gari and tapioca were fortified with soybean flour or soybean residue at 25% of dry weight. Standard methods were used for the determination of proximate parameters such as crude protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate and moisture content. All the samples were analyzed for phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc. Unfortified tapioca had significantly lower (p fortification of both gari and tapioca significantly (p < .05) increased the contents of crude protein, phosphorus, fat, and ash as well as all the monitored macro- and micronutrients. These values (%) increased from 1.50-9.31, 0.06-0.11, 1.56-4.31 and 1.35-1.64 for gari-soybean fortified gari; and 0.31-12.56, 0.03-0.12, 0.17-5.45 and 0.34-1.41 for tapioca to soybean fortified tapioca respectively. Soybean flour increased the nutrient content of the fortified gari and tapioca compared to soybean residue. Data from this study suggest that both soybean flour-fortified tapioca and soybean flour-fortified gari are effective means of meeting the daily requirements of minerals, protein, and energy. Both soybean flour-fortified tapioca and soybean flour-fortified gari could be used to fight macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies, not only in Nigeria and other African countries where these two cassava products are staples, but also in other cassava-consuming developing nations.

  13. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  14. A Randomised Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Milking Cream and a Homeopathic Complex Topical Cream on Diaper Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Pellow

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diaper dermatitis (DD is an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area and is the most common cutaneous disease among infants and children. Calendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Sulphuricum acidum are homeopathic remedies which have been purported to be beneficial in wound healing and conditions affecting the skin, however, to date, no research has been conducted on the use of these remedies for DD. The aim of this seven-day, double-blind, controlled pilot study was to assess the efficacy of milking cream and a homeopathic complex cream as topical treatments for DD. Forty children between the ages of three to 24 months with DD were recruited. The homeopathic complex cream (n= 20 or unmedicated milking cream (n = 20 was applied after every nappy change for seven days. Efficacy on the severity of symptoms and the percentage of area affected was assessed by means of the 4-Point Grading Scale and the Modified Lund and Browder Charts respectively, on days 1, 2, 4 and 7. The results revealed that both groups showed statistically-significant improvements on rash severity and the percentage of area affected between consecutive visits, as well as over the entire research study period. Trends indicated that the treatment group had a faster resolution of symptoms and outperformed the control in certain affected body regions. Preliminary findings suggest that both milking cream and the homeopathic complex cream may be effective alternative treatment options for DD, and further investigation is warranted.

  15. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  16. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 American

  17. Rheological studies of creams. I. Rheological functions and structure of creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erös, I; Thaleb, A

    1994-05-01

    Large number of washable (o/w type) creams were prepared for rheological investigation. The rheological functions known from the literature were determined in our studies. Rheological constants were determined by measurements and calculations. From these, we selected those ones which were applicable to characterize the energy status of the coherent structure and which gave the most information for practical work, elaboration of composition and evaluation of stability. These functions and parameters are the following: flow curves, viscosity vs shear time and viscosity vs temperature functions, Bingham-type yield value, plastic viscosity, structure breakdown rate constant, activation energy.

  18. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-04-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  19. In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Topical Cream of Cassia tora L. Leaves Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.; Rathore, D. S.; Kansara, Niraj P.; Badiger, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of study was to determine the in vivo antioxidant activity of newly formulated O/W cream of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves. Methods. Oil in water (O/W) creams (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%), cream base, methanolic extract of C. tora L. leaves (CTM), and standard (0.05% tretinoin cream) were screened for in vivo antioxidant activity. The ultraviolet- (UV-) B-induced rats were treated with different standard, O/W creams, cream base, and methanolic extract of Cassia tora...

  20. Hydrocortisone Cream to Reduce Perineal Pain after Vaginal Birth: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfre, Margaret; Adams, Donita; Callahan, Gloria; Gould, Patricia; Lang, Susan; McCubbins, Holly; Mintz, Amy; Williams, Sommer; Bishard, Mark; Dempsey, Amy; Chulay, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    To determine if the use of hydrocortisone cream decreases perineal pain in the immediate postpartum period. This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT), crossover study design, with each participant serving as their own control. Participants received three different methods for perineal pain management at three sequential perineal pain treatments after birth: two topical creams (corticosteroid; placebo) and a control treatment (no cream application). Treatment order was randomly assigned, with participants and investigators blinded to cream type. The primary dependent variable was the change in perineal pain levels (posttest minus pretest pain levels) immediately before and 30 to 60 minutes after perineal pain treatments. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, with p creams, with average perineal pain change scores of -4.8 ± 8.4 mm after treatment with hydrocortisone cream (N = 27) and -6.7 ± 13.0 mm after treatment with the placebo cream (N = 27). Changes in pain scores with no cream application were 1.2 ± 10.5 mm (N = 27). Analysis of variance found a significant difference between treatment groups (F2,89 = 3.6, p = 0.03), with both cream treatments having significantly better pain reduction than the control, no cream treatment (hydrocortisone vs. no cream, p = 0.04; placebo cream vs. no cream, p = 0.01). There were no differences in perineal pain reduction between the two cream treatments (p = .54). This RCT found that the application of either hydrocortisone cream or placebo cream provided significantly better pain relief than no cream application.

  1. Physical properties of cream reformulated with fractionated milk fat and milk-derived components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L L; Duncan, S E; Sumner, S S; Waterman, K M

    2003-11-01

    Emulsifying properties of milk-derived components influence the physical characteristics of reformulated creams. Fractionated butter oils with different melting ranges (low-melt: 10 to 25 degrees C; medium-melt: 25 to 35 degrees C) were recombined into fluid dairy systems using skim milk, or sweet buttermilk and butter-derived aqueous phase to manufacture 20% milk fat creams. Separation temperature (49 degrees C or 55 degrees C) in obtaining emulsifying components was examined for its effect on physical properties of pasteurized reformulated creams. Rate of creaming, viscosity, feathering, and sensory characteristics of reformulated and natural creams stored at 3.3 degrees C were evaluated over a 13-d period. Creaming rate of reformulated and natural creams was unaffected by formulation and was most influenced by duration of storage. Melting characteristics of butter oils influenced viscosity at some shear rates. With the exception of natural cream, all formulations were consistent in apparent viscosity during the 2-wk storage period. All creams feathered in a pH range of 4.70 to 5.20 and were classified as moderately stable to slightly unstable. All reformulated and natural creams met sensory quality specifications with the exception of creams formulated with skim milk and lower melting range butteroil. Creams formulated with buttermilk, butter-derived aqueous phase, and lower-melting range butter oil most closely mimicked natural creams with regard to sensory quality and viscosity.

  2. Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Kehoe, Laura; Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette

    2017-12-01

    To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40-309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % 'overage' for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.

  3. Comparative trial of Aloe vera/olive oil combination cream versus phenytoin cream in the treatment of chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Y; Izadi, M; Sayyadi, N; Rezaee, R; Jonaidi-Jafari, N; Beiraghdar, F; Zamani, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to accelerate wound healing. Olive oil is also a natural product that may contribute to wound healing owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an Aloe vera-olive oil (AVO) combination cream on the healing process of chronic wounds. In this randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with chronic wounds were treated with either AVO cream or phenytoin cream as the standard treatment for a period of 30 days. Wound healing was evaluated using Bates-Jensen assessment tool and the severity of pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). After initial assessment, 60 patients with chronic wounds (41 with pressure ulcer, 13 with diabetic wounds and 6 with venous ulcers), were recruited and randomised into 2 groups of 30. After 30 days of treatment, significant improvements in the wound size, depth, and edges; necrotic tissue type and amount; exudate type and amount; colour of wound surroundings; and peripheral tissue oedema score were observed in the AVO cream group (p<0.001). The total score of wound healing showed significant improvement with both AVO (p<0.001) and phenytoin (p<0.01) creams, although AVO was more efficacious (p<0.001). Likewise, although both treatments reduced the initial VAS score, the efficacy of AVO was significantly greater (p<0.001). AVO cream significantly accelerates biological healing of chronic wounds and helps to reduce pain severity with a higher efficacy compared with phenytoin cream.

  4. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  5. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  6. Dried tomato-flavored probiotic cream cheese with Lactobacillus paracasei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Marilsa S S; Koga, Evelyn C; Aragon, Davi C; Santana, Elsa H W; Costa, Marcela R; Costa, Giselle N; Aragon-Alegro, Lina C

    2012-11-01

    A dried tomato-flavored probiotic cream cheese (P) containing Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37 was developed for the purpose of this study. The same product, but without probiotic addition (C) was used as control. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris were used as lactic starter cultures. Chemical composition analyses and sensory tests were performed on days 1 and 7, respectively. Titratable acidity, pH value and L. paracasei population were determined every 7 d during the refrigerated storage (21 d) of the cream cheeses. The experiment and analyses were performed in triplicate, using standard methods. Probiotic population remained greater than 10(7) CFU/g throughout the storage period, thereby characterizing the product as potentially probiotic. Cream cheeses C and P did not differ on the sensory tests, both obtaining good overall acceptance by the consumers, of which 82.6% stated that they certainly or probably would buy the product. Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37 is a probiotic bacterium and clinical studies have shown that this microorganism beneficially affects its host. In general, dried tomato-flavored products and cream cheese are products with good acceptance by the consumers. Thus, regular consumption of the probiotic cream cheese developed in this study may have positive effects on health and well being of people if incorporated into their diet. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Chemical, Pasting and Sensory Properties of Whole Fermented Maize (Ogi) Fortified with Pigeon Pea Flour

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Fasoyiro; K. A. Arowora

    2013-01-01

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) blanched for 20min was dehulled and milled into flour. The flour was incorporated into dried whole fermented maize (Ogi) at five levels. The resultant products were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties. The fortified Ogi samples were also assessed for sensory attributes: appearance, color, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The protein content in the whole Ogi fortified samples was in the range of 11.2-16.6% and crude fibre 3.22-3.46%. Fortified w...

  8. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  9. Iron-fortified flour: can it induce lipid peroxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Mitra; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Pouraram, Hamed; Siassi, Fereydoun; Dorosty, Ahmad Reza; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Doustmohammadian, Aazam

    2014-08-01

    This community-based study was conducted to evaluate the effects of iron-fortified bread consumption on certain biomarkers of oxidative stress in an apparently healthy population. Evaluation of food intake, anthropometric and laboratory variables was performed in the beginning and after the 8-month intervention for all participants. There was no significant change in oxidative stress biomarkers in women following 8 months intervention. However, in men, final values of total antioxidant capacity, compared to the initial ones, showed a significant decrease in (p = 0.01) which was accompanied by a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (p = 0.002). It could be concluded that although the short-term period (8 months) of extra iron intake did not show severe effects of lipid per oxidation, significant changes of serum iron and some oxidative stress indices suggested that fortification of flour with iron among non-anemic adults in the long term was not without adverse effects.

  10. Nutritional aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) fortified cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A. E.; Osman, Y.; Yousif, H.

    2003-01-01

    Defatted cowpea flour was used to replace 10%, 20% and 30% of wheat flour in cookies. The wheat flour and cowpea-fortified cookies were prepared with standardized levels of ingredients. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and sensory characteristics of the different cookies were investigated. The fortification with cowpea flour increased the contents of moisture, ash, protein, crude fibre, calcium, phosphorus and reducing non-reducing and total sugars. The fortification resulted in slight reduction in the in vitro digestibility. The products were accepted by the panelists who gave high scores for most of the attributes, although the fortification with more than 10% cowpea flour significantly (P<0.05) affected those attributes when compared with the control sample.(Author)

  11. Brick-Burning Kiln from the Zhaiyk Fortified Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmenov Murat D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a description of the brick-burning kiln, which was discovered during the 2012 excavations on the medieval Zhaiyk fortified site (Western Kazakhstan oblast. A similar object had been discovered on the site in 2002. Kilns of similar design were known on the vast territories of Southeastern Europe and Central Asia in the 10th-15th cc. In the 13th-15th centuries, they were widely spread in the territory of the Golden Horde. The analysis of their design, combined with written sources and ethnographic data, allows reconstructing the operation process of such kilns in general lines. The finds of kilns on the Zhaiyk settlement make it possible to suggest that in the 13th-14th centuries there existed a developed construction materials production in the territory of the settlement.

  12. Validation of the quality control methods for active ingredients of Fungirex cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Navarro, Maikel; Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania

    2014-01-01

    Fungirex cream is a two-drug product, that is, undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate over a suitable basis. Since this is a product not documented in the official monographs of the pharmacopoeia, simple analytical methods were suggested for quantitation of analytes of interest in the cream, which are useful for release of newly prepared cream batches. To validate two volumetric methods for the quality control of active ingredients in Fungirex cream

  13. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Boobphachart, Disaphon; Thuwakum, Worrawut; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Hamlin, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14% concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Seventy-five untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately following the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in all groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantially reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by -82% (95% CI = -155% to -6%, P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (-34%, -96% to 27%, P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a small non-significant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the following 7 d (-40%, -116% to 36%, P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantially reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  14. Use of ice storage equipment in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The manufacture of foods in its widest sense demands a 'balanced supply of cooling'. Whenever 'cold requirement' occurs in different ways during production, the ice storage equipment in particular for 'cooling supplies'. The cooling performance (amount of cold from horizontal tubes and slabs or from horizontal pipes given off to the water flowing past) that can be expected from modern ice storage equipment, is made clear numerically. The way the storage vessel is constructed and its design have particular influence on the energy-saving quality (stirring mechanism with high performance at low pump capacity). Optimisation results for a plate evaporator design combined with a heat exchange system are presented. These include running cost savings of up to 18% in a yoghurt factory, a maltery and an ice cream factory. By means of this heat pump compound, environmental energy can be used in cold storage.

  15. Tazarotene 0.1% cream for the treatment of photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T J

    2004-04-01

    Tazarotene (Tazorac, Allergan) has been shown to be effective in reducing the effects of photoaging in short term studies. To determine its effectiveness in the longer term, a 24-week multicenter, double-blind, randomized, vehicle controlled intervention study of 562 patients with facial photodamage was carried out followed by a 28-week open label extension. Patients were treated with one daily application of tazarotene 0.1% cream or vehicle cream to the face for 24 weeks, then tazarotene 0.1% cream for another 28 weeks. At week 24, when compared to vehicle, tazarotene resulted in a significantly greater incidence of patients achieving treatment success (over 50 percent greater improvement) and at least a 1 grade improvement in fine wrinkling, mottled pigmentation, pore size, lentigines, elastosis, irregular depigmentation, tactile roughness, coarse wrinkling and overall integrated assessment of photodamage. Additional clinical improvement occurred with continued tazarotene treatment and had not plateaued by week 52.

  16. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  17. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  18. 21 CFR 1210.25 - Permits for pasteurized milk or cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for pasteurized milk or cream. 1210.25... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.25 Permits for pasteurized milk or cream. Permits to ship or transport pasteurized milk or cream into the United States will be granted only upon...

  19. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. Performance of CREAM Calorimeter Results of Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, M Y; Kim, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S W; Nutter, S; Park, N H; Park, H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Syed, S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zhang, H Q; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

  1. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  2. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    OpenAIRE

    Mara N.G. Santos; Joice V.C. Orsine; Alexandre I. de A. Pereira; Roberto Cañete; María R.C.G. Novaes

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck (BDB) in nature and processed. Method...

  3. Consumption of Iron-Fortified Cheese and Lipid Peroxidation in Females

    OpenAIRE

    Giunti, Gene J.

    1994-01-01

    Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined. Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified ...

  4. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of fiber blends, total solids, heat treatment, whey protein concentrate and stage of sugar incorporation on dietary fiber-fortifiedKheer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Simran Kaur; Patel, A A

    2017-10-01

    Owing to the proven beneficial role of dietary fiber (DF) on human health, feasibility of incorporating commercially available soluble and insoluble DF preparations into rice-milk-pudding ( kheer, a popular Indian delicacy) was studied through process modification. The novel approach of preparing reduced fat DF-fortified- kheer (DFFK) by developing liquid/cream phase and particulate/rice phase separately, and subsequently blending the two was developed. The major processing variables studied were total solids (TS) in the liquid phase, type of fiber blend, flavor-simulation through heat treatment or added whey protein, and the presence of sugar in water for pre-cooking of rice. Reduced fat DFFK made from three different pre-standardized fiber blends was quite acceptable to the sensory panel (overall rating 7.5). With increasing TS in milk up to 16.5%, sensory acceptability of DFFK increased. There was a small but perceivable improvement in the flavour of DFFK when precooking of rice was carried out in sweetened water. Reduced fat DFFK from different fiber blends was found to be reasonably close to conventional kheer . DFFK prepared from Blend-I provided 3.31 g dietary fiber/100 kcal (suitable for the claim "High-in-Fiber") with 38.71% Reduced-Fat. With the developed process of fortification of kheer with DF, it is possible to reduce fat (and thus calories) to cater to the needs of consumers seeking good health.

  6. Release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Burri, Betty J; Singh, R Paul

    2012-09-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: β-carotene oil (oil) and whey protein isolate (WPI)-alginate-chitosan capsules containing β-carotene oil (capsule). Shaking water bath and Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) digestion models assessed the impact of gastric peristalsis on the release of β-carotene. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene was measured as percent recovered from the micelle fraction. There was greater release of β-carotene from oil fortified almond butter in the HGS model (87.1%) due to peristalsis than the shaking water bath model (51.0%). More β-carotene was released from capsule fortified almond butter during intestinal digestion. However, more β-carotene was recovered from the micelle fraction of oil fortified almond butter. These results suggest that a WPI-alginate-chitosan capsule coating may inhibit the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter.

  7. The effectiveness of fortified flour on micro-nutrient status in rural female adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Wenxian; Wang, Lijuan; Selenje, Lilian; Gleason, Gary R; Yu, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of fortified flour on micronutrient status in poor rural adult women. A total of 4,700 farmers as the intervention group were supplied with multi-nutrient fortified wheat flour for three years, while 2750 farmers as the control group were supplied with unfortified wheat flour. Wheat flour was fortified with vitamins A, B-1, B-2, niacin, folic acid, iron and zinc in mg/kg at 2, 3.5, 3.5, 35, 1, 20 and 25, respectively. Blood samples were taken at baseline and annually from about 300 volunteer adult females aged 20-60 years in each group. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum retinol, serum iron, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum zinc were measured annually and a dietary survey conducted every 6 months. Average intakes of fortified micronutrients increased to adequate levels with average consumption of fortified flour at 117 g per person per day. Intervention groups showed a significant increase in terms of Hb levels from 24 m to 36 m and anemia rate decreased from 15.1% at baseline to 10.8% at 36 m. Serum iron levels of the intervention group significantly increased from 12 m to 36 m and erythrocyte protoporphyrin decreased from 24 m to 36 m respectively. Serum retinol and serum zinc of intervention group improved significantly from 12 m to 36 m compared with baseline and control group. The results showed that the fortified flour could improve micronutrient status of adult females in poor rural region.

  8. A fortified street food to prevent nutritional deficiencies in homeless men in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole

    2009-04-01

    To develop a food policy approach to prevent nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition in homeless men in France. A dietary survey was conducted among homeless men visiting an emergency shelter in Paris to assess their nutritional status and the quality of food aid provided. The use of a fortified food easy to eat in the street was identified as the best strategy to improve nutrient intake in this population. A fortified street food was therefore designed and its acceptability was tested in eight emergency centers. The dietary survey showed that there is a high frequency of malnutrition and inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals in homeless men in France although they are receiving food aid. A chocolate-flavored spread, naturally rich in potassium and n-3 fatty acids and fortified with nutritional doses of calcium, zinc, vitamins C, D, E, B(12), thiamin, niacin and folic acid was designed. It presents multiple advantages in the context of homeless nutrition: good resistance to bacterial contamination, a suitable viscosity for people with limited chewing capacity and high energy density. The acceptability study showed that approximately two thirds of the homeless men visiting emergency centers in Paris would consume the fortified food often, or daily, if available. Another advantage of this fortified street food is its high quality/price ratio, demonstrated by linear programming analysis in the present study. Encouraging the use of fortified street foods in food aid programs is a practical and economic way to prevent nutritional deficiencies in homeless individuals.

  9. Comparison of foscarnet cream, acyclovir cream, and acyclovir ointment in the topical treatment of experimental cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Spruance, S L; Freeman, D J; Sheth, N V

    1986-01-01

    Topical foscarnet (PFA) and acyclovir (ACV) were compared in the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. The relative order of efficacy was PFA cream greater than ACV cream greater than ACV ointment. In vitro studies demonstrated that PFA and ACV formulated in cream vehicles penetrated through guinea pig skin 7- to 10-fold faster than did ACV in ointment.

  10. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  11. Effect of cream formulation of fenugreek seed extract on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella Foneum-Graecum L) seed extract on some mechanical parameters of the skin of healthy human volunteers. Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, and a similar formulation ...

  12. Studies on cleaning validation for a cream and ointment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufacturing line. Aliaa A Badawi1, Khaled Hegazy2, Dina Louis1*. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 2Central Administration of ... Purpose: To validate a new and simple method for cleaning a manufacturing line for creams and ..... Geneva, Switzerland;. 2006 ...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of extract and topical cream formulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained for the crude extract was 4 % both for C. albicans and Staph. aureus and 20 % for Klebsiella sp. While E. coli and Proteus vulgaris showed a high degree of resistance to concentrations > 20 %. The MIC for the cream formulations were 5 % for both C. albicans and Staph.

  14. Efficacy of nitric oxide-liberating cream on pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowkar, Farideh; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Pakniyat, Soroush; Namazi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-03-01

    Tinea versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts. Tinea versicolor is a common disease and has a high rate of recurrence. This is a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Faghihi Hospital Dermatology Department. Participants were older than 10 years with a clinical diagnosis of tinea versicolor and positive KOH preparation, and were divided in two groups: active and control (32 individuals in each). They were randomized to receive either nitric oxide (NO)-liberating cream as the active group and placebo as a control. Creams were applied twice daily on the affected sites for 10 days. Sixty-four patients were entered into the study (31 male and 33 female). No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of severity, age and sex distribution. There was significant improvement with acidified nitrite cream in the active group after 10 days (p = 0.000). NO is an important cytotoxic effector in immune defense against fungi that are too large to phagocyte. This study shows the efficacy of an exogenous NO-releasing cream in treating tinea versicolor.

  15. Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream prepared from cassava starch and soy protein concentrates was studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends were prepared with 30% soy protein concentrate and incorporated into 70% cassava starch. The cassava-soy protein concentrate blend was ...

  16. Use of EMLA cream as a topical anaesthetic before venepuncture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Needle phobia is a recognised medical disorder, affecting approximately 10% of the world population and resulting in fear and avoidance behaviour.[12] In the current study, 13.0% of the children who received EMLA cream were anxious about the procedure v. 60.0% in the control group. In an era when health of children.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have ha...

  18. Effect of Cream Formulation of Fenugreek Seed Extract on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, ... Galactomannan is a natural effective .... single site at face. The Cutometer generates a graph depicting immediate deformation or skin extensibility (Ue), delayed distension. (Uv), final deformation (Uf), immediate.

  19. Instant foam physics : formation and stability of aerosol whipped cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The formation and stability of aerosol whipped cream, as an example of an instant foam, were studied from a physical point of view. Instant foam production out of an aerosol can is based on the principle that a soluble gas (laughing gas) is dissolved under elevated pressure (5-10 bar) in

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...

  1. Skin depigmentation activity of Crocus sativus extract cream | Aktar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of Crucus sativus extract and its effect on human skin using a non-invasive probe mexameter. Methods: The antioxidant activity of C. sativus extract was determined using DPPH method. Water in oil (w/o) topical cream of C. sativus extract (3 %) was formulated and compared ...

  2. Sexual abuse and anti-wrinkle cream: evidence from octocrylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamey, Carole; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2012-02-10

    We report an alleged case of sexual assault in which an anti-wrinkle cream could have been used as a lubricant. Three anorectal samples taken from the victim were given to us in an attempt to document the presence of remains of the cream involved. After examining the composition of the cream, octocrylene (OCT) was selected as the most relevant marker for this analysis. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification of OCT. Anorectal samples were diluted with methanol and injected onto an Acquity BEH C18 column using a gradient mode with 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Data were acquired using positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring. Three transitions were selected for OCT (m/z 362.2>250.0, m/z 362.2>232.0 and m/z 362.2>204.0). The analysis of the cream seized at the offender's home confirmed the presence of OCT as an ingredient, and the analysis of extracts from the anorectal samples also allowed the formal identification of OCT. These results strongly suggest that a cosmetic containing octocrylene as an ingredient has in fact been applied to the anus of the alleged victim. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ... filter paper and solvent was allowed to evaporate. The weight of the residue was calculated (Weight of the container plus extract minus the weight of the empty container) and the extracts were kept at room temperature. Preparation of Repellant for Testing:- Five different concentrations of neem oil in Vanishing Cream base ...

  4. Listeria monocytogenes and other contaminants in fresh cheese and cream from Zagreb city area domestic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Markov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether the cream cheese and cream that are produced in the traditional manner at home and are free to sale on Zagreb markets, meet microbiological requirements for foodstuffs (OG 46/94, 20/01, 40/01. Particular attention is given to research of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes presence in these foods, because of its exceptional hazards to human health. It was found that a majority of 64 (53 % from a total of 120 studied dairy products samples were contaminated with microbial pathogens, of which 16 % are waste in the cream cheese, and 37 % in cream samples. 39 samples of cheese and 50 samples of cream did not fulfil the conditions prescribed by the Croatian Guidelines, primarily due to the contamination with yeasts and moulds. In 10 cheese and cream samples where L. monocytogenes is proven by classical microbiological methods, PCR method confirmed L. monocytogenes in only one cream sample.

  5. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  6. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  7. Terbinafin 1% Cream and Ketoconazole 2% Cream in the Treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor: A randomized comparative clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Farrokh; Nik-Khoo, Bahram; Yaghmaee, Roxana; Gharibi, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    To make a comparison between terbinafine 1% cream and ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. This randomized single blind study included 110 patients with clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor and positive mycological test for Malassezia furfur. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 used terbinafine cream and group 2 applied ketoconazole cream on the skin lesions for two weeks. Each group consisted of 55 patients. Clinical and mycological examinations were performed at baseline, at the end of the 2(nd), 4(th) and 8(th) week of starting the treatment regimens. At the end of the 2(nd) week we achieved cure rates of 72% and 64.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively. At the end of the 4(th) week the respective cure rates for group 1 and group 2 were 81.2% and 69%, and at the end of the 8(th) week 70.8% of the patients in group 1 and 61.9% of the patients in group 2 were cured. The results of this study showed no significant statistical differences between the two groups in regard to cure and recurrence rates. But the numbers of cured patients were higher and recurrent cases were lower in group 1.

  8. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  9. Development of fortified dried broken rice as a complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpan, Monthana; Chavasit, Visith; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2005-12-01

    Commercially produced dried broken rice is widely used to prepare complementary foods for Thai infants, and it is both convenient and acceptable to persons from all socioeconomic classes. However, inadequate levels of calcium, iron, thiamine, and folate are common in complementary foods for breastfed infants. We developed dried broken rice fortified with these nutrients at levels recommended by the 2001 guidelines of the World Health Organization. The fortification process involved predrying broken rice at 90 degrees C for 1 hour, soaking in a nutrient solution (2:1 ratio of rice to solution), and drying at 70 degrees C for 1 hour and 50 minutes. Calcium lactate or calcium lactate gluconate was the calcium source, and ferrous sulfate, ferrous lactate, or ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) was the iron source. The vitamin sources were thiamine hydrochloride and folic acid. The product contained 40 mg of calcium, 5.3 mg of iron, 0.08 mg of thiamine, and 11 microg of folate per 20-g serving. Approximately 5% and 10% of calcium and iron, respectively, were lost during processing, with a thiamine loss of approximately 13%, and a folate loss ranging from 17% to 23%. The thiamine loss during accelerated storage (42 degrees C for three months) was not significant (p > .05). NaFeEDTA was the most appropriate iron fortificant because it provided prolonged product stability and high in vitro dialyzability.

  10. Isker – Kuchum fortifi ed settelment (archaeological research of 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova Bronislava B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of the Ural Archaeological Expedition (UAE investigations of the Isker settlement site headed by V.A. Gening in 1961–1969. The expedition was aimed at survey investigations on the Iron Age sites located in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Irtysh area and at determining their periodization. In particular, a number of sites referring to the Siberian Khanate period were excavated by the UAE, including a Kuchum fortified settlement named Isker (excavations were headed by the author. The site is located on the right bank of the Irtysh River near present-day Tobolsk city. The 1968 studies confirmed the apprehension expressed by scholars as N. Spathari, P.A Slovtsov, G.F Miller, M.S Znamensky, V.N. Pignatti and others, who had visited the site in the 17th through to early 20th cc., concerning an inevitable collapse of the hill fort site in the near future. The complex stratigraphy of the site was noted; an assemblage supposedly connected with the metallurgical process (the fact confirmed by written sources was discovered.

  11. Krasnoye Syundyukovo I Fortifi ed Settlement: Investigation in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismatulin Marat R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to the results of new investigations of Krasnoye Syundyukovo I fortified settlement situated on the right bank of the Sviyaga river in the Ulyanovsk region. The site is one of the pre-Mongol towns of the Volga Bulgaria. A brick bath-house built in the 11th – 12th is its most well-known structure studied in 1991. Archaeological investigation of this site resumed in the summer of 2014. Two digs of 60 m2 (number VI and VII were organized on the territory of the settlement. Dig VII in the western part of the settlement yielded a household structure (cellar and numerous and various finds typical for the material culture of the population of a pre-Mongol Bulgar town: local ceramics, metal ware, as well as residues and slag, fragments of clothing and garnishment, etc. Dig VII had a significant number of artefacts associated with crafts and trade, which characterizes the activities of the population.

  12. Organoleptic testing of fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minantyo, Hari; Hariohoedojo, Alexander; Winarno, Prasetyon Sepsi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, many people tried to create and invent new varieties of food. They all tried to enrich the life of many people and increasing their quality of life using their food. The food that they create must be nutritious, safe and healthy. This can be achieved by combining various meat and vegetable products available on the market today. Previously, the research team found that fish meat had relatively high nutrition value. The research team believed that further increase in nutrition value can be achieved by combining fish meat and rich colored vegetables. This research came up with the creation of improved fish meatball fortified with various colored vegetables. With the initiation of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, many culinary practitioners must pay more attention to the health and safety aspects of their food offerings. Indonesian government should also support this movement by providing education to those people who are not aware of the importance of healthy and safe food or snacks, especially meatballs. Meatballs are one of the most consumed snacks in Indonesia, because they are delicious and affordable. This new fish meatball creation will provide better alternatives to the commonly unhealthy meatballs available on Indonesian market today.

  13. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  14. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) Launch and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    We request continued NASA support for the on-going Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) project. The balloon-borne CREAM instrument was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Building on the success of those balloon missions, one of the two balloon payloads was successfully transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF). Following completion of its systemlevel qualification and verification, this ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to the NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. The ISS-CREAM mission would achieve the primary science objectives of the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), which was given high priority in the 2001 NRC Decadal Study Report. Its nuclei composition data between 10^12 and 10^15 eV would enable detailed study of the spectral hardening first reported by the CREAM balloon project and recently confirmed for protons and helium by the PAMELA and AMS-02 space missions using permanent magnet spectrometers. In addition, multiTeV energy electron data allow searches for local sources and the signature of darkmatter, etc. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors capable of precise measurements of elemental spectra for Z = 1 - 26 nuclei, as well as electrons. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. Its segmented scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors separate electrons from nuclei using shower profile differences. Its Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest

  15. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  16. How many universes are necessary for an ice cream to melt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Milan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a quantitative consequence of the Acausal-Anthropic approach to solving the long-standing puzzle of the thermo dynamical arrow of time. Notably, the size of the required multiverse is estimated on the basis of the classical Boltzmann connection between entropy and probability, as well as the thermodynamic properties of black holes.

  17. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  18. The Difference Between Ice Cream and Nazis: Moral Externalization and the Evolution of Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, P Kyle

    2017-07-06

    A range of empirical findings are first used to more precisely characterize our distinctive tendency to objectify or externalize moral demands, and it is then argued that this salient feature of our moral cognition represents a profound puzzle for evolutionary approaches to human moral psychology that existing proposals do not help to resolve. It is then proposed that such externalization facilitated a broader shift to a vastly more cooperative form of social life by establishing and maintaining a connection between the extent to which an agent is herself motivated by a given moral norm and the extent to which she uses conformity to that same norm as a criterion in evaluating candidate partners in social interaction generally. This connection ensures the correlated interaction necessary to protect those prepared to adopt increasingly cooperative, altruistic, and other prosocial norms of interaction from exploitation, especially as such norms were applied in novel ways and/or to novel circumstances and as the rapid establishment of new norms allowed us to reap still greater rewards from hypercooperation. A wide range of empirical findings are then used to support this hypothesis, showing why the status we ascribe to moral demands and considerations exhibits the otherwise puzzling combination of objective and subjective elements that it does as well as showing how the need to effectively advertise our externalization of particular moral commitments generates features of our social interaction so familiar that they rarely strike us as standing in need of any explanation in the first place.

  19. How many universes are necessary for an ice cream to melt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    We investigate a quantitative consequence of the Acausal-Anthropic approach to solving the long-standing puzzle of the thermodynamical arrow of time. Notably, the size of the required multiverse is estimated on the basis of the classical Boltzmann connection between entropy and probability, as well as the thermodynamic properties of black holes.

  20. An Entrepreneurial Strand in the Business Law Course: The Ice Cream Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    America is a nation of entrepreneurs. Whether engaged in a start-up operation, managing a family business, or as part of an entrepreneurial venture within a larger entity, American entrepreneurs have provided the vision and energy that have powered the U.S. economy for the last century. Educating entrepreneurs presents special challenges,…