Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the Planck Mission
Kurki-Suonio, Hannu
2012-01-01
This lecture is a sketch of the physics of the cosmic microwave background. The observed anisotropy can be divided into four main contributions: variations in the temperature and gravitational potential of the primordial plasma, Doppler effect from its motion, and a net red/blueshift the photons accumulate from traveling through evolving gravitational potentials on their way from the primordial plasma to here. These variations are due to primordial perturbations, probably caused by quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The ongoing Planck satellite mission to observe the cosmic microwave background is also described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benetti, Micol; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Calabrese, Erminia; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2011-01-01
We update the constraints on possible features in the primordial inflationary density perturbation spectrum by using the latest data from the WMAP7 and ACT (Atacama Cosmology Telescope) cosmic microwave background experiments. The inclusion of new data significantly improves the constraints with respect to older work, especially to smaller angular scales. While we found no clear statistical evidence in the data for extensions to the simplest, featureless, inflationary model, models with a step provide a significantly better fit than standard featureless power-law spectra. We show that the possibility of a step in the inflationary potential like the one preferred by current data will soon be tested by the forthcoming temperature and polarization data from the Planck satellite mission.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Väliviita, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.valiviita@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)
2017-04-01
Compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIP), where the primordial baryon and cold dark matter density perturbations cancel, do not cause total matter isocurvature perturbation. Consequently, at the linear order in the baryon density contrast Δ, a mixture of CIP and the adiabatic mode leads to the same CMB spectra as the pure adiabatic mode. Only recently, Muñoz et al. showed that at the second order CIP leaves an imprint in the observable CMB by smoothing the power spectra in a similar manner as lensing. This causes a strong degeneracy between the CIP variance Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} ≡ (Δ{sup 2}) and the phenomenological lensing parameter A {sub L}. We study several combinations of the Planck 2015 data and show that the measured lensing potential power spectrum C {sub ℓ}{sup φφ} breaks the degeneracy. Nested sampling of the ΛCDM+Δ{sub rms}{sup 2}(+ A {sub L}) model using the Planck 2015 temperature, polarization, and lensing data gives Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} = (6.9{sup +3.0}{sub −3.1}) × 10{sup −3} at 68% CL. A non-zero value is favoured at 2.3σ (or without the polarization data at 2.8σ). CIP with Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} ≈ 7 × 10{sup −3} improves the bestfit χ{sup 2} by 3.6 compared to the adiabatic ΛCDM model. In contrast, although the temperature data favour A {sub L} ≅ 1.22, allowing A {sub L} ≠ 1 does not improve the joint fit at all, since the lensing data disfavour A {sub L} ≠ 1. Indeed, CIP provides a rare example of a simple model, which is capable of reducing the Planck lensing anomaly significantly and fitting well simultaneously the high (and low) multipole temperature and lensing data, as well as the polarization data. Finally, we derive forecasts for two future satellite missions (LiteBIRD proposal to JAXA/NASA and Exploring Cosmic Origins with CORE proposal to ESA's M5 call) and compare these to simulated Planck data. Due to its coarse angular resolution, LiteBIRD is not able to improve the constraints on Δ{sub rms}{sup 2} or A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.
2009-01-01
The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.
20 K continuous cycle sorption coolers for the Planck flight mission
Bhandari, P.; Prina, M.; Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Paine, C.; Pearson, D.; Nash, A.
2003-01-01
In this paper we present the level of maturity of the hydrogen sorption cooler technology at JPL by describing the design and how it has been validated at the subsystem and system levels. In addition, we will describe how such systems could be advantageously used for other space missions with similar needs and cooler attributes.
Maximilien Brice
2009-01-01
The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, launched the 14th of May 2009, is the next-generation space experiment in the field of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution. Planck will provide a major source of information relevant to many fundamental cosmological problems and will test current theories of the early evolution of the universe and the origin of structure. It will also address a wide range of areas of astrophysical research related to the our Galaxy as well as external galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The ability of Planck to measure polarization across a wide frequency range (30-350 GHz), with high precision and accuracy, and over the whole sky, will provide unique insight not only into specific cosmological questions, but also into the properties of the interstellar medium. This paper is part of a larger package which describes the technical capabilities of the Planck sc...
Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the Planck nominal mission data. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources containing reliable sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers th...
CERN. Geneva; Grojean, Christophe
2010-01-01
Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk reques...
Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2014-01-01
We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to be ns = 0.9603 ± 0:0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 sigma P...
Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the "nominal" mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30--857\\,GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180 mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution (from ~33' to ~5') than previous all-sky surveys in this frequency band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. In this paper we present the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.
Planck 2015 results: XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arguëso, F.
2016-01-01
The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sour...
Planck constraints on monodromy inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael
2014-01-01
We use data from the nominal Planck mission to constrain modulations in the primordial power spectrum associated with monodromy inflation. The largest improvement in fit relative to the unmodulated model has Δχ 2 ≈ 10 and we find no evidence for a primordial signal, in contrast to a previous analysis of the WMAP9 dataset, for which Δχ 2 ≈ 20. The Planck and WMAP9 results are broadly consistent on angular scales where they are expected to agree as far as best-fit values are concerned. However, even on these scales the significance of the signal is reduced in Planck relative to WMAP, and is consistent with a fit to the ''noise'' associated with cosmic variance. Our results motivate both a detailed comparison between the two experiments and a more careful study of the theoretical predictions of monodromy inflation
The Planck Telescope reflectors
Stute, Thomas
2004-09-01
The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.
Planck 2013 Cosmology Results: a Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Alberto Rubino-Martín
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This talk presents an overview of the cosmological results derived from the first 15.5 months of observations of the ESA’s Planck mission. These cosmological results are mainly based on the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra, although we also briefly discuss other aspects of the Planck data, as the statistical characterization of the reconstructed CMB maps, or the constraints on cosmological parameters using the number counts of galaxy clusters detected by means of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in the Planck maps. All these results are described in detail in a series of papers released by ESA and the Planck collaboration in March 2013.
Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.
2014-01-01
The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on dierent instrument technologies, with feeds...... in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3σ except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1.We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission...... located dierently in the focal plane, analysed independently by dierent teams using dierent software, and near∫ the minimum of diuse foreground emission, these channels are in eect two dierent experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.
Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...
Planck pre-launch status: The Planck mission
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tauber, J. A.; Mandoles, N.; Puget, J.-L.
2010-01-01
instruments, and of tests at fully integrated satellite level. It represents the best estimate before launch of the technical performance that the satellite and its payload will achieve in flight. In this paper, we summarise the main elements of the payload performance, which is described in detail...
Heilbron, John
2005-03-01
As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .
Planck 2015 results: XX. Constraints on inflation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the parameters of the base Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model are not significantly altered when more general initial conditions are admitted. In correlated mixed adiabatic and isocurvature models, the 95% CL upper...... are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and further constrain slow-roll single-field inflationary models, as expected from the increased precision of Planck data using the full set of observations....
Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We present results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the six-parameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/- 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/- 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/- 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/- 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/- 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be |Omega_K| < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the B-mode constraints fr...
Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.
2016-09-20
We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\\phi) \\propto \\phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...
Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, ...
Cosmology with the Planck Satellite
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Sketched out in 1992, selected by ESA in 1996, and launched in 2009, the Planck satellite was shut off in 2013, after a measuring mission that exceeded all expectations. The Planck collaboration delivered a first set of cosmological data and results in March 21st 2013, and the full set in February 2015. Part of the data delivery is a "definitive" map of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its angular power spectrum together with their full statistical characterisation. The 2015 delivery also includes pioneering polarisation data. The temperature anisotropy map displays minuscule variations as a function of the observing direction, of rms ~100microK, of the fossil radiation around its mean temperature of 2.725K. Other maps reveal the CMB polarisation. The anisotropies are the imprint of the primordial fluctuations which initiated the growth of the large scale structures of the Universe, as transformed by their evolution, in particular during the first 370 000 years, as well as finer e...
Planck Early Results: The thermal performance of Planck
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2011-01-01
The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20K for LFI and 0.1K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. Active coolers were chosen to minimize straylight on the detectors...... and to maximize lifetime. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency led to two detector technologies with widely dierent temperature and cooling needs. This made use of a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, SPITZER, AKARI), infeasible. Radiative cooling...... is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope bae. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (cooled in space to operating conditions...
Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2013-06-25
Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.
Planck satellite to be presented to media
2007-01-01
Planck will make the most accurate maps yet of the microwave background radiation that fills space. It will be sensitive to temperature variations of a few millionths of a degree and will map the full sky in nine wavelengths. The immediate outcome of the Big Bang and the initial conditions for the evolution in the universe’s structure are the primary target of this important mission. From the results, a great deal more will be learnt not only about the nature and amount of dark matter, the ‘missing mass’ of the universe, but also about the nature of dark energy and the expansion of the universe itself. To address such challenging objectives, Planck will need to operate at very low, stable temperatures. Once in space, its detectors will have to be cooled to temperature levels close to absolute zero (-273.15ºC), ranging from -253ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. The Planck spacecraft thus has to be a marvel of cryotechnology. After integration, Planck will start a series of tests that will continue into early-2008. It will be launched by end-July 2008 in a dual-launch configuration with Herschel, ESA’s mission to study the formation of galaxies, stars and planetary systems in the infrared. Interested media are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note to editors The Planck spacecraft was built by AAS Cannes, the prime contractor, leading a consortium of industrial partners with the AAS industry branch in Turin, Italy, responsible for the satellite’s service module. ESA and the Danish National Space Centre (Copenhagen, Denmark) are responsible for the hardware provision of Planck’s telescope mirrors, manufactured by EADS Astrium (Friedrichshafen, Germany). AAS Cannes is also responsible for the payload module, the platform that hosts the telescope and the two onboard instruments, HFI and LFI. The instruments themselves are being supplied by a consortium of scientists and institutes led by the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.
2015-12-01
The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.
Planck intermediate results XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151......The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based...... Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent...
Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to $n_s = 0.9603 \\pm 0.0073$, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 $\\sigma$. Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining $d n_s/d ln k = -0.0134 \\pm 0.0090$. Several analyses dropping the slow-roll approximation are carried out, including detailed model comparison and inflationary potential reconstruction. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit $\\chi^2$ by ~ 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining pow...
Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the Cosmic Microwave Background
van der Veen, J.
2010-08-01
The Planck Mission, launched May 14, 2009, will measure the sky over nine frequency channels, with temperature sensitivity of a few microKelvin, and angular resolution of up to 5 arc minutes. Planck is expected to provide the data needed to set tight constraints on cosmological parameters, study the ionization history of the Universe, probe the dynamics of the inflationary era, and test fundamental physics. The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University are preparing a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Two products currently under development are an interactive simulation of the mission which can be run in a virtual reality environment, and an interactive presentation on interpreting the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background with music. In this paper we present a brief overview of CMB research and the Planck Mission, and discuss how to explain, to non-technical audiences, the theory of how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giddings, Steven B.
2009-01-01
I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam
2014-01-01
We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H
Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40
Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...
Localizability and the planck mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX
1993-06-01
The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior
Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.
2016-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consi...
Planck 2015 results: XXIV. Cosmology from Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present cluster counts and corresponding cosmological constraints from the Planck full mission data set. Our catalogue consists of 439 clusters detected via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal down to a signal-to-noise ratio of 6, and is more than a factor of 2 larger than the 2013 Planck clus...
Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...
Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral, an...
Cosmic Microwave Background: cosmology from the Planck perspective
De Zotti, Gianfranco
2017-08-01
The Planck mission has measured the angular anisotropies in the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with an accuracy set by fundamental limits. These data have allowed the determination of the cosmological parameters with extraordinary precision. These lecture notes present an overview of the mission and of its cosmological results. After a short history of the project, the Planck instruments and their performances are introduced and compared with those of the WMAP satellite. Next the approach to data analysis adopted by the Planck collaboration is described. This includes the techniques for dealing with the contamination of the CMB signal by astrophysical foreground emissions and for determining cosmological parameters from the analysis of the CMB power spectrum. The power spectra measured by Planck were found to be very well described by the standard spatially flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. This is a remarkable result, considering that the six parameters account for the about 2500 independent power spectrum values measured by Planck (the power was measured for about 2500 multipoles), not to mention the about one trillion science samples produced. A large grid of cosmological models was also explored, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data from ground-based experiments. On the whole, the Planck analysis of the CMB power spectrum allowed to vary and determined 16 parameters. Many other interesting parameters were derived from them. Although Planck was not initially designed to carry out high accuracy measurements of the CMB polarization anisotropies, its capabilities in this respect were significantly enhanced during its development. The quality of its polarization measurements have exceeded all original expectations. Planck's polarisation data confirmed and improved the understanding of the details of the cosmological
Planck intermediate results: XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
obtain a Thomson optical depth τ = 0.058 ± 0.012 for the commonly adopted instantaneous reionization model. This confirms, with data solely from CMB anisotropies, the low value suggested by combining Planck 2015 results with other data sets, and also reduces the uncertainties. We reconstruct the history......We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the low-multipole polarization data to fit ΛCDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We...
2012-05-01
Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events
Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...
Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...
Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power......The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.......5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas
2000-10-01
The Planck radiation spectrum of ideal cubic and spherical cavities, in the region of small adiabatic invariance, γ = TV 1/3 , is shown to be discrete and strongly dependent on the cavity geometry and temperature. This behavior is the consequence of the random distribution of the state weights in the cubic cavity and of the random overlapping of the successive multiplet components, for the spherical cavity. The total energy (obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for low values of the adiabatic invariance) does not obey any longer Stefan-Boltzmann law. The new law includes a corrective factor depending on γ and imposes a faster decrease of the total energy to zero, for γ → 0. We have defined the double quantized regime both for cubic and spherical cavities by the superior and inferior limits put on the principal quantum numbers or the adiabatic invariance. The total energy of the double quantized cavities shows large differences from the classical calculations over unexpected large intervals, which are measurable and put in evidence important macroscopic quantum effects. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamora Carranza, M.
2001-01-01
This paper presents a brief review of the scientific events which led to the determination of the law of radiation and the quantisation of energy by Max Planck. From the separation of sunlight by Newton to the reasons which led Planck to quantised the energy of an oscillator. I discuss the theoretical and experimental difficulties which scientists overcame to derive the law of heat radiation. (Author) 6 refs
Planck 2015 results. XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
Ade, P.A.R.; Argueso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beichman, C.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven pol...
Point source detection using the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet on simulated all-sky Planck maps
Vielva, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Gallegos, J. E.; Toffolatti, L.; Sanz, J. L.
2003-09-01
We present an estimation of the point source (PS) catalogue that could be extracted from the forthcoming ESA Planck mission data. We have applied the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet (SMHW) to simulated all-sky maps that include cosmic microwave background (CMB), Galactic emission (thermal dust, free-free and synchrotron), thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and PS emission, as well as instrumental white noise. This work is an extension of the one presented in Vielva et al. We have developed an algorithm focused on a fast local optimal scale determination, that is crucial to achieve a PS catalogue with a large number of detections and a low flux limit. An important effort has been also done to reduce the CPU time processor for spherical harmonic transformation, in order to perform the PS detection in a reasonable time. The presented algorithm is able to provide a PS catalogue above fluxes: 0.48 Jy (857 GHz), 0.49 Jy (545 GHz), 0.18 Jy (353 GHz), 0.12 Jy (217 GHz), 0.13 Jy (143 GHz), 0.16 Jy (100 GHz HFI), 0.19 Jy (100 GHz LFI), 0.24 Jy (70 GHz), 0.25 Jy (44 GHz) and 0.23 Jy (30 GHz). We detect around 27 700 PS at the highest frequency Planck channel and 2900 at the 30-GHz one. The completeness level are: 70 per cent (857 GHz), 75 per cent (545 GHz), 70 per cent (353 GHz), 80 per cent (217 GHz), 90 per cent (143 GHz), 85 per cent (100 GHz HFI), 80 per cent (100 GHz LFI), 80 per cent (70 GHz), 85 per cent (44 GHz) and 80 per cent (30 GHz). In addition, we can find several PS at different channels, allowing the study of the spectral behaviour and the physical processes acting on them. We also present the basic procedure to apply the method in maps convolved with asymmetric beams. The algorithm takes ~72 h for the most CPU time-demanding channel (857 GHz) in a Compaq HPC320 (Alpha EV68 1-GHz processor) and requires 4 GB of RAM memory; the CPU time goes as O[NRoN3/2pix log(Npix)], where Npix is the number of pixels in the map and NRo is the number of optimal scales needed.
An atomistic interpretation of Planck's 1900 derivation of his radiation law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irons, F.E.
2000-01-01
In deriving his radiation law in 1900, Max Planck employed a simple harmonic oscillator to model the exchange of energy between radiation and matter. Traditionally the harmonic oscillator has been viewed as modelling an entity which is itself oscillating, although a suitable oscillating entity has not been forthcoming. (Opinion is divided between a material oscillator, an imaginary oscillator and a need to revise Planck's derivation to apply to cavity modes of oscillation). We offer a novel, atomistic interpretation of Planck's derivation wherein the harmonic oscillator models a transition between the internal quantum states of an atom|not a normal electronic atom characterised by possible energies 0 and hν, but an atom populated by subatomic bosons (such as pions) and characterised by multiple occupancy of quantum states and possible energies nhν (n = 0;1;2; ...). We show how Planck's derivation can be varied to accommodate electronic atoms. A corollary to the atomistic interpretation is that Planck's derivation can no longer be construed as support for the postulate that material oscillating entities can have only those energies that are multiples of hν. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia
Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration
Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on a combination of the Orbital Dipole plus the Solar Dipole, caused respectively by the motion of the Planck spacecraft with respect to the Sun and by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame. The latter provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectrum as the CMB anisotropies and is visible throughout the mission. In this data release we rely on the characterization of the Solar Dipole as measured by WMAP. We also present preliminary results (at 44GHz only) on the study of the Orbital Dipole, which agree with the WMAP value of the Solar System speed within our uncertainties. We compute the calibration constant for each radiometer roughly once per hour, in order to keep track of changes in the detectors' gain. Since non-idealities in the optical response of the beams proved to be important, we implemented a fast convolution algorithm which ...
Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.
2011-01-01
they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these data. We match the ERCSC catalogue to IRAS-detected galaxies in the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), so that we can measure the spectral energy distributions (SEDs......) of these objects from 60 to 850μm. This produces a list of 1717 galaxies with reliable associations between Planck and IRAS, from which we select a subset of 468 for SED studies, namely those with strong detections in the three highest frequency Planck bands and no evidence of cirrus contamination. The SEDs...
Arzano, Michele; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João
2018-06-01
We explore the possibility that well known properties of the parity operator, such as its idempotency and unitarity, might break down at the Planck scale. Parity might then do more than just swap right and left polarized states and reverse the sign of spatial momentum k: it might generate superpositions of right and left handed states, as well as mix momenta of different magnitudes. We lay down the general formalism, but also consider the concrete case of the Planck scale kinematics governed by κ-Poincaré symmetries, where some of the general features highlighted appear explicitly. We explore some of the observational implications for cosmological fluctuations. Different power spectra for right handed and left handed tensor modes might actually be a manifestation of deformed parity symmetry at the Planck scale. Moreover, scale-invariance and parity symmetry appear deeply interconnected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, Dieter
2010-01-01
Max Planck (1858-1947) is according to the words of Max von Laue the ''father of quantum physics''. This characteristic has until today continuance, although Planck stood for long time sceptically in front of his quantum hypothesis and so became a revolutionary in spite of his wishes. Eclipted by this pioneer role of the scholar for the foundation of the quantum theory are the numerous further works of the scholer, by which he has in many other fields provided eminent things. Starting with his fundamental contribution to thermodynamics, which make him to an excellent researcher of the field, until the works in the early history of relativity theory and the promotion of the young Einstein, which let him become also to a pioneer of the second central pillar of modern physics. The present collection attempts to show the whole spectrum of the physical works of Max Planck and his role in the formation of modern physics. [de
Duck, Ian M
2000-01-01
This invaluable book takes the reader from Planck's discovery of the quantum in 1900 to the most recent interpretations and applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.The introduction of the quantum idea leads off the prehistory of quantum mechanics, featuring Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Compton, and de Broglie's immortal contributions. Their original discovery papers are featured with explanatory notes and developments in Part 1.The invention of matrix mechanics and quantum mechanics by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan, Dirac, and Schrödinger is presented next, in Part 2.Following that, in Part 3,
Heijmans, H.G.; van Woerkom, P.Th.L.M.; Ankersmit, W.; Hagman, R.; Heijmans, H.G.; Olsder, G.J.; van de Schootbrugge, G.
2017-01-01
De Max-Planck-Medaille is een onderscheiding die sinds 1929 jaarlijks wordt uitgereikt door de toentertijd grootste vereniging van natuurkundigen ter wereld: de Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Het is als het ware de Nobelprijs voor de theoretische natuurkunde, volgens de natuurkundigen zelf. In
Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data
Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...
Planck 2015 results. VII. HFI TOI and beam processing
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This paper describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map-making are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the non-linearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a...
Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guth, Alan H., E-mail: guth@ctp.mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kaiser, David I., E-mail: dikaiser@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nomura, Yasunori, E-mail: ynomura@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, and Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2014-06-02
Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ω{sub k}=1−Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (n{sub s}−1=dlnP{sub R}/dlnk), among others—predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.
Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Nomura, Yasunori
2014-01-01
Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (Ω k =1−Ω) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (n s −1=dlnP R /dlnk), among others—predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.
Boudenot, Jean-Claude
2016-01-01
« Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...
Planck Collaboration, [Unknown; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Heinämäki, P.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.
The survey of galaxy clusters performed by Planck through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect has already discovered many interesting objects, thanks to its full sky coverage. One of the SZ candidates detected inthe early months of the mission near to the signal-to-noise threshold, PLCKG214.6+37.0, was
Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.
2016-01-01
Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data...... and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact...... against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy...
German science. Max Planck charts new path.
Koenig, R
2000-06-09
Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.
Planck 2013 results. XXIX. Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sampl...
Max Planck in the Social Context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1983-01-01
Planck was the founder of quantum theory, and therefore of modern physics. Moreover, because of the strength of his character and of his towering position in scientific life he had strong public influence. In respect to atomistics Planck went over from the negative position of Mach to the positive position of Boltzmann when he established his radiation law and introduced the quantum of action. Einstein was a supporter of atomistics all his life. From the beginning, Planck furthered the Theory of Relativity and Einstein. In the Weimar Republic he supported Einstein against the socalled 'German Physics'. Planck had the courage to praise Einstein in public even after Hitler came to power. Always interested in philosophy, Planck was initially under the influence of Mach's positivism, but later he turned, like Einstein, to realism. Boltzmann had always been arealist and materialist. Planck produced important ideas also on the problem of Free Will. In politics, Planck was a conventional, conservative, PrussianGerman patriot before the First War. However, under Hitler he became reserved towards the State. As well as he could, but with little success, Planck tried to prevent the worst. Planck was always religious, and he ascribed a strong role to religion also in public life. But he did not accept a personal, and therefore not a Christian, God. An attempt is made to interpret Planck's contradictory position in this respect. Planck's life was full of professional success, but it was tragically darkened by personal blows of fate. A relationship with the path of Germany and of her conservative intellectual leadership is sought. (author) [de
Planck 2015 results: XII. Full focal plane simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the 8th full focal plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18 144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, compris...
Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consiste...
On the Nernst-Planck equation.
Maex, Reinoud
2017-01-01
This review first discusses Nernst's and Planck's early papers on electro-diffusion, the brief priority conflict that followed, and the role these papers played in shaping the emerging concept of membrane excitability. The second part discusses in greater detail the constraints of the Nernst-Planck theory, and shows more recent examples of its applicability for neuronal modelling.
Planck 2015 results: V. LFI calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering four years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-syn...
Max Planck in the Social Context
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broda, E.
1983-07-01
Planck was the founder of quantum theory, and therefore of modern physics. Moreover, because of the strength of his character and of his towering position in scientific life he had strong public influence. In respect to atomistics Planck went over from the negative position of Mach to the positive position of Boltzmann when he established his radiation law and introduced the quantum of action. Einstein was a supporter of atomistics all his life. From the beginning, Planck furthered the Theory of Relativity and Einstein. In the Weimar Republic he supported Einstein against the socalled 'German Physics'. Planck had the courage to praise Einstein in public even after Hitler came to power. Always interested in philosophy, Planck was initially under the influence of Mach's positivism, but later he turned, like Einstein, to realism. Boltzmann had always been arealist and materialist. Planck produced important ideas also on the problem of Free Will. In politics, Planck was a conventional, conservative, PrussianGerman patriot before the First War. However, under Hitler he became reserved towards the State. As well as he could, but with little success, Planck tried to prevent the worst. Planck was always religious, and he ascribed a strong role to religion also in public life. But he did not accept a personal, and therefore not a Christian, God. An attempt is made to interpret Planck's contradictory position in this respect. Planck's life was full of professional success, but it was tragically darkened by personal blows of fate. A relationship with the path of Germany and of her conservative intellectual leadership is sought. (author) [German] Planck war der Begründer der Quantentheorie und daher der modernen Physik. Außerdem hatte er sowohl durch die Kraft seines Charakters als auch durch seine überragenden Funktionen im wissenschaftlichen Leben starken öffentlichen Einfluß. In Bezug auf die Stellung zur Atomistik ging Planck, als er sein Strahlungsgesetz begr
Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission
Ade, PAR; Aghanim, N; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, AJ; Barreiro, RB; Bartlett, JG; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A
2014-01-01
© 2014 ESO. The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30GHz to 857GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelength...
Fokker-Planck and quasilinear codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karney, C.F.F.
1985-11-01
The interaction of radio-frequency waves with a plasma is described by a Fokker-Planck equation with an added quasilinear term. Methods for solving this equation on a computer are discussed. 40 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.
2011-01-01
detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chown, R.; et al.
2018-03-28
We present three maps of the millimeter-wave sky created by combining data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Planck satellite. We use data from the SPT-SZ survey, a survey of 2540 deg$^2$ of the the sky with arcminute resolution in three bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, and the full-mission Planck temperature data in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz bands. A linear combination of the SPT-SZ and Planck data is computed in spherical harmonic space, with weights derived from the noise of both instruments. This weighting scheme results in Planck data providing most of the large-angular-scale information in the combined maps, with the smaller-scale information coming from SPT-SZ data. A number of tests have been done on the maps. We find their angular power spectra to agree very well with theoretically predicted spectra and previously published results.
The shape of the primordial power spectrum: A last stand before Planck data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia
2010-01-01
We present a minimally parametric reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using the most recent cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure data sets. Our goal is to constrain the shape of the power spectrum while simultaneously avoiding strong theoretical priors and over-fitting of the data. We find no evidence for any departure from a power-law spectral index. We also find that an exact scale-invariant power spectrum is disfavored by the data, but this conclusion is weaker than the corresponding result assuming a theoretically-motivated power-law spectral index prior. The reconstruction shows that better data are crucial to justify the adoption of such a strong theoretical prior observationally. These results can be used to determine the robustness of our present knowledge when compared with forthcoming precision data from Planck.
Planck 2015 results: XXVII. The second Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.
2016-01-01
Here, we present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest systematic all-sky surveyof galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing >103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the estimates of the SZ strength parameter Y5R500are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical, and X-ray data sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under-luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2015-01-01
We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark...
Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartlett, J.G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.
2013-01-01
We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags d...
Planck intermediate results XXV. The Andromeda galaxy as seen by Planck
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2015-01-01
The Andromeda galaxy (M 31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M 31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spir...
Planck 2013 results. XXXII. The updated Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2015-01-01
We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catal...
Analyzing Planck and low redshift data sets with advanced statistical methods
Eifler, Tim
The recent ESA/NASA Planck mission has provided a key data set to constrain cosmology that is most sensitive to physics of the early Universe, such as inflation and primordial NonGaussianity (Planck 2015 results XIII). In combination with cosmological probes of the LargeScale Structure (LSS), the Planck data set is a powerful source of information to investigate late time phenomena (Planck 2015 results XIV), e.g. the accelerated expansion of the Universe, the impact of baryonic physics on the growth of structure, and the alignment of galaxies in their dark matter halos. It is the main objective of this proposal to re-analyze the archival Planck data, 1) with different, more recently developed statistical methods for cosmological parameter inference, and 2) to combine Planck and ground-based observations in an innovative way. We will make the corresponding analysis framework publicly available and believe that it will set a new standard for future CMB-LSS analyses. Advanced statistical methods, such as the Gibbs sampler (Jewell et al 2004, Wandelt et al 2004) have been critical in the analysis of Planck data. More recently, Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC, see Weyant et al 2012, Akeret et al 2015, Ishida et al 2015, for cosmological applications) has matured to an interesting tool in cosmological likelihood analyses. It circumvents several assumptions that enter the standard Planck (and most LSS) likelihood analyses, most importantly, the assumption that the functional form of the likelihood of the CMB observables is a multivariate Gaussian. Beyond applying new statistical methods to Planck data in order to cross-check and validate existing constraints, we plan to combine Planck and DES data in a new and innovative way and run multi-probe likelihood analyses of CMB and LSS observables. The complexity of multiprobe likelihood analyses scale (non-linearly) with the level of correlations amongst the individual probes that are included. For the multi
Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; Xia, J.Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
Based on CMB maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the ISW effect, i.e., the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4 sigma, depending on which method is used. We investigate three separate approaches, which cover essentially all previous studies, as well as breaking new ground. (i) Correlation of the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection is made using the lensing-induced bispectrum; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5 sigma. (ii) Cross-correlation with tracers of LSS, yielding around 3 sigma significance, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) Aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yields a 4 sigma signal when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies...
Highly accurate photogrammetric measurements of the Planck reflectors
Amiri Parian, Jafar; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro
2017-11-01
The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. To achieve this aim, sophisticated reflectors are used as part of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of secondary and primary reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with mean diameters of 1 and 1.6 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at very low temperatures. For this investigation, among the various high accuracy measurement techniques, photogrammetry was selected. With respect to the photogrammetric measurements, special considerations had to be taken into account in design steps, measurement arrangement and data processing to achieve very high accuracies. The determinability of additional parameters of the camera under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources are considered. We have designed an optimal photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the flight model of the primary and the secondary reflectors with relative precisions better than 1:1000'000 and 1:400'000 to achieve the requested accuracies. A least squares best fit ellipsoid method was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflectors. In this paper we will report about the procedures, the network design and the results of real measurements.
Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-10-29
We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...
Planck driven by vision, broken by war
Brown, Brandon R
2015-01-01
Planck's Law, an equation used by physicists to determine the radiation leaking from any object in the universe, was described by Albert Einstein as "the basis of all twentieth-century physics." Max Planck is credited with being the father of quantum theory, and his work laid the foundation for our modern understanding of matter and energetic processes. But Planck's story is not well known, especially in the United States. A German physicist working during the first half of the twentieth century, his library, personal journals, notebooks, and letters were all destroyed with his home in World War II. What remains, other than his contributions to science, are handwritten letters in German shorthand, and tributes from other scientists of the time, including his close friend Albert Einstein. In Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, Brandon R. Brown interweaves the voices and writings of Planck, his family, and his contemporaries-with many passages appearing in English for the first time-to create a portrait of...
Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit
2014-01-01
We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small
Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation
Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huey, G; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marcos-Caballero, A; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schiavon, F; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Viel, M; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Xia, J -Q; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galact...
Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response
Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...
Planck intermediate results - LII. Planet flux densities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.
2017-01-01
Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100–857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates...... of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn at the three frequencies of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (30, 44, and 70 GHz). The results provide constraints on the intrinsic brightness and the brightness time-variability of these planets. The majority of the planet flux density estimates are limited by systematic...... errors, but still yield better than 1% measurements in many cases. Applying data from Planck HFI, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to a model that incorporates contributions from Saturn’s rings to the planet’s total flux density suggests a best...
Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinelli, M.
2015-01-01
Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release
Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spinelli, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Bat.200, 91400 Orsay (France)
2015-07-15
Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.
Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data
Spinelli, M.
2015-07-01
Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.
100th Les Houches Summer School : Post-Planck Cosmology
Peter, Patrick; Wandelt, Benjamin; Zaldarriaga, Matías; Cugliandolo, Leticia F
2015-01-01
This book is based on lectures given at the 100th Les Houches Summer School and presents a comprehensive pedagogical survey of the frontiers of theoretical and observational cosmology just after the release of the first cosmological results from the Planck mission. The cosmic microwave background is discussed as a possible window on the still-unknown laws of physics at very high energy and as a backlight for studying the late-time universe. Other chapters highlight connections of fundamental physics with other areas of cosmology and astrophysics, the successes and fundamental puzzles of the inflationary paradigm of the beginning of the universe, the cosmological constant problem, the themes of dark energy and dark matter, and the theoretical developments and observational probes that will shed light on these cosmic conundrums in the years to come.
Dosimetric radiation protection quantities. Impact of the forthcoming ICRP recommendations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradhan, A.S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.
2008-01-01
The physical quantities namely fluence, kerma and absorbed dose provide the base for the operational and the protection quantities. The absorbed dose continues to be the fundamental physical quantity for the radiological protection. The most striking feature relating the quantities in the forthcoming recommendations is the updating of the radiation and tissue weighting factors based on the latest available scientific information on radiobiology and the physics of radiation exposure. This is bound to make a significant impact in arriving at the equivalent doses and effective dose. For external exposures of neutrons, the forthcoming recommendations are going to improve the relationship between the operational and protection quantities. The changes in the tissue weighting factors of some tissues/organs, the inclusion of several new tissues/organs for the consideration of tissue weighting factors and the use of the proposed Reference Male and Reference Female voxel phantoms would require new conversion coefficients and dose coefficients for external and internal exposures. The other striking feature appears to be the details of the concepts to ensure that the protections quantities are used for the appropriate and intended purposes only and the misuse is avoided. (author)
Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains......The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere...
Quantum black holes and Planck's constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, D.K.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)
Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
is constrained to w =-1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints...... of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to â'mν
First Planck results and cosmological implications
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
The Planck satellite has measured CMB anisotropies over the full sky with unprecedented sensitivity. The collaboration has released its first CMB temperature maps and cosmological analysis on the 21st of March. I will present a summary of these new CMB results, focusing mainly on their implications for our understanding of the Universe.
Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission
Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model -- a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen t...
Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2014-01-01
We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on the Solar Dipole, caused by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame, which provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectr...
Planck 2013 results. XII. Component separation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrou...
Planck 2015 results: III. LFI systematic uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.
2016-01-01
We present the current accounting of systematic effect uncertainties for the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) that are relevant to the 2015 release of the Planck cosmological results, showing the robustness and consistency of our data set, especially for polarization analysis. We use two complement...
Baryon asymmetry from Planck-scale physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelmini, G.; Holman, R.; Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA
1992-06-01
It has been noted recently that Planck scale physics may induce the explicit breaking of global symmetries. We point out that in Majoron models, these explicit breakings, combined with sphaleron induced violation of B + L can give rise to the baryon asymmetry of the Universe
Stochastic reliability analysis using Fokker Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hari Prasad, M.; Rami Reddy, G.; Srividya, A.; Verma, A.K.
2011-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation describes the time evolution of the probability density function of the velocity of a particle, and can be generalized to other observables as well. It is also known as the Kolmogorov forward equation (diffusion). Hence, for any process, which evolves with time, the probability density function as a function of time can be represented with Fokker-Planck equation. In stochastic reliability analysis one is more interested in finding out the reliability or failure probability of the components or structures as a function of time rather than instantaneous failure probabilities. In this analysis the variables are represented with random processes instead of random variables. A random processes can be either stationary or non stationary. If the random process is stationary then the failure probability doesn't change with time where as in the case of non stationary processes the failure probability changes with time. In the present paper Fokker Planck equations have been used to find out the probability density function of the non stationary random processes. In this paper a flow chart has been provided which describes step by step process for carrying out stochastic reliability analysis using Fokker-Planck equations. As a first step one has to identify the failure function as a function of random processes. Then one has to solve the Fokker-Planck equation for each random process. In this paper the Fokker-Planck equation has been solved by using Finite difference method. As a result one gets the probability density values of the random process in the sample space as well as time space. Later at each time step appropriate probability distribution has to be identified based on the available probability density values. For checking the better fitness of the data Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of fit test has been performed. In this way one can find out the distribution of the random process at each time step. Once one has the probability distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This study describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map making are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the nonlinearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a factor of 10 relative to the2013 release. Noise correlations introduced by pipeline filtering function are assessed using dedicated simulations. Finally, angular cross-power spectra using data sets that are decorrelated in time are immune to the main systematic effects.
Massively parallel Fokker-Planck calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that the Fokker-Planck package FPPAC, which solves the complete nonlinear multispecies Fokker-Planck collision operator for a plasma in two-dimensional velocity space, has been rewritten for the Connection Machine 2. This has involved allocation of variables either to the front end or the CM2, minimization of data flow, and replacement of Cray-optimized algorithms with ones suitable for a massively parallel architecture. Calculations have been carried out on various Connection Machines throughout the country. Results and timings on these machines have been compared to each other and to those on the static memory Cray-2. For large problem size, the Connection Machine 2 is found to be cost-efficient
Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties
Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dick, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range $\\ell<20$, most notably at 30 GHz, and is likely caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibra...
Isotropy analyses of the Planck convergence map
Marques, G. A.; Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.
2018-01-01
The presence of matter in the path of relic photons causes distortions in the angular pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, modifying their properties in a slight but measurable way. Recently, the Planck Collaboration released the estimated convergence map, an integrated measure of the large-scale matter distribution that produced the weak gravitational lensing (WL) phenomenon observed in Planck CMB data. We perform exhaustive analyses of this convergence map calculating the variance in small and large regions of the sky, but excluding the area masked due to Galactic contaminations, and compare them with the features expected in the set of simulated convergence maps, also released by the Planck Collaboration. Our goal is to search for sky directions or regions where the WL imprints anomalous signatures to the variance estimator revealed through a χ2 analyses at a statistically significant level. In the local analysis of the Planck convergence map, we identified eight patches of the sky in disagreement, in more than 2σ, with what is observed in the average of the simulations. In contrast, in the large regions analysis we found no statistically significant discrepancies, but, interestingly, the regions with the highest χ2 values are surrounding the ecliptic poles. Thus, our results show a good agreement with the features expected by the Λ cold dark matter concordance model, as given by the simulations. Yet, the outliers regions found here could suggest that the data still contain residual contamination, like noise, due to over- or underestimation of systematic effects in the simulation data set.
The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.
Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration
Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...
Planck 2013 results. XXXII. The updated Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Feroz, F.; Ferragamo, A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Groeneboom, N., E.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Streblyanska, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2015-09-01
We update the all-sky Planck catalogue of 1227 clusters and cluster candidates (PSZ1) published in March 2013, derived from detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. As an addendum, we deliver an updated version of the PSZ1 catalogue, reporting the further confirmation of 86 Planck-discovered clusters. In total, the PSZ1 now contains 947 confirmed clusters, of which 214 were confirmed as newly discovered clusters through follow-up observations undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. The updated PSZ1 contains redshifts for 913 systems, of which 736 (~ 80.6%) are spectroscopic, and associated mass estimates derived from the Yz mass proxy. We also provide a new SZ quality flag for the remaining 280 candidates. This flag was derived from a novel artificial neural-network classification of the SZ signal. Based on this assessment, the purity of the updated PSZ1 catalogue is estimated to be 94%. In this release, we provide the full updated catalogue and an additional readme file with further information on the Planck SZ detections. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A14
The present and future of the most favoured inflationary models after Planck 2015
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escudero, Miguel; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 (Spain); Giusarma, Elena, E-mail: miguel.escudero@ific.uv.es, E-mail: hector.ramirez@ific.uv.es, E-mail: lboubekeur@usfq.edu.ec, E-mail: elena.giusarma@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: olga.mena@ific.uv.es [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy)
2016-02-01
The value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in the region allowed by the latest Planck 2015 measurements can be associated to a large variety of inflationary models. We discuss here the potential of future Cosmic Microwave Background cosmological observations in disentangling among the possible theoretical scenarios allowed by our analyses of current Planck temperature and polarization data. Rather than focusing only on r, we focus as well on the running of the primordial power spectrum, α{sub s} and the running thereof, β{sub s}. If future cosmological measurements, as those from the COrE mission, confirm the current best-fit value for β{sub s} ∼> 10{sup −2} as the preferred one, it will be possible to rule-out the most favoured inflationary models.
Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Qiong; Wei Guowei
2011-01-01
The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external
Poisson–Boltzmann–Nernst–Planck model
Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei
2011-01-01
The Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst–Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst–Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst–Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson–Boltzmann and Nernst–Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations
Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model.
Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei
2011-05-21
The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external
Safety Training: places available in the forthcoming sessions in May
Safety Commission
2010-01-01
There are places available in the forthcoming Safety courses. For updates and registrations, please refer to the Safety Training Catalogue. MAY 2010: Confined spaces – for supervisors, 4 May, in French, 1 day, 09:00 – 17:30 Laser safety, 5 May, in French, 4 hours, 13:30 – 17:30 Radiological Protection, 7 May, in English, 4 hours, 13:30 – 17:30 Secourisme - Cours de recyclage, 7 May, in French, 4 hours, 08:30 – 12:30 Secourisme - Cours de recyclage, 7 May, in French, 4 hours, 12:30 – 17:30 Cherry-picker driving (basic course), 10-11 May, in French, 2 days, 08:00 – 17:30 Habilitation électrique : Personnel électricien effectuant des opérations du domaine de tension BTA, 10-11 May, in English, 2 days, 09:00 – 17:30 Biocell Training, 11 May, in French, 1.5 hour, 08:30 – 10:00 Biocell Training, 11 May, in French, 1.5 hour, 10:30 – 12:00 Radiological Protection, 11 May, in English, ...
Reconstruction of a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum from Planck CMB data
Durakovic, Amel; Hunt, Paul; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Sarkar, Subir; Souradeep, Tarun
2018-02-01
We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation is direction-dependent. To first order this is parameterised by a quadrupolar modulation of the power spectrum and results in statistical anisotropy of the CMB, which can be quantified using `bipolar spherical harmonics'. We compute these for the Planck DR2-2015 SMICA map and estimate the noise covariance from Planck Full Focal Plane 9 simulations. A constant quadrupolar modulation is detected with 2.2 σ significance, dropping to 2σ when the primordial power is assumed to scale with wave number k as a power law. Going beyond previous work we now allow the spectrum to have arbitrary scale-dependence. Our non-parametric reconstruction then suggests several spectral features, the most prominent at k ~ 0.006 Mpc‑1. When a constant quadrupolar modulation is fitted to data in the range 0.005 <= k/Mpc‑1 <= 0.008, its preferred directions are found to be related to the cosmic hemispherical asymmetry and the CMB dipole. To determine the significance we apply two test statistics to our reconstructions of the quadrupolar modulation from data, against reconstructions of realisations of noise only. With a test statistic sensitive only to the amplitude of the modulation, the reconstructions from the multipole range 30 <= l <= 1200 are unusual with 2.1σ significance. With the second test statistic, sensitive also to the direction, the significance rises to 6.9σ. Our approach is easily generalised to include other data sets such as polarisation, large-scale structure and forthcoming 21-cm line observations which will enable these anomalies to be investigated further.
Astrochemical Properties of Planck Cold Clumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyễn Lu’o’ng, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Tie; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdaero 776, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ohashi, Satoshi [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Thompson, Mark A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Fuller, Gary [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871, Beijing (China); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Francesco, James Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory (Germany); Ristorcelli, Isabelle [IRAP, CNRS (UMR5277), Universite Paul Sabatier, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Juvela, Mika [Department of physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Shinnaga, Hiroko, E-mail: k.tatematsu@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35, Korimoto, Kagoshima, 890-0065 (Japan); Collaboration: JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” collaboration; and others
2017-02-01
We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC{sub 3}N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN{sup 13}C, N{sub 2}D{sup +}, and cyclic-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N{sub 2}D{sup +} is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH{sub 3} emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (≲20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N{sub 2}H{sup +} core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N{sub 2}D{sup +}. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.
Forthcoming Issue on Game Theory and Political Economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William D. Ferguson
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Game theory offers a rigorous set of concepts, relationships, and models that invite myriad applications to problems of political economy. Indeed, game theory can serve as a fundamental modeling technique that can bridge microfoundations of political and economic exchanges, with developmental processes and macro implications related to growth and distribution. Applications can range from localized interactions within workplaces, firms, political organizations, and community groups; to intermediate-level market, industry, community, or inter-organizational transactions; to encompassing national, regional, population, or global interactions. At any of these levels, game models can illustrate strategic responses of economic or political actors (individuals or organizations to specifiable conditions concerning any or all of the following: prevailing social context—notably informal institutions (such as social norms and formal institutions (such as mutually understood laws and regulations; available information (complete or not; accessible or strategically manipulated; agents’ motivations (material and/or social; and even levels of rationality—substantive (full cognition or bounded (limited cognition. Applicable models may operate on the basis of given institutional context and preference orientations or may explore associated developmental processes, including adaptive social learning. Of particular interest are representations of one or more of the myriad social dilemmas (or collective-action problems that inhabit political economy, associated exercises or distributions of power, and/or representations of potential resolutions to such dilemmas—perhaps with policy implications. Accordingly, this forthcoming issue of Economies seeks game-theoretic models based on classical, evolutionary, behavioral, or epistemic game theory that can be applied to one or more problems in political economy.
Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, R.F.
1983-01-01
Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror
Maximum Path Information and Fokker Planck Equation
Li, Wei; Wang A., Q.; LeMehaute, A.
2008-04-01
We present a rigorous method to derive the nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of anomalous diffusion directly from a generalization of the principle of least action of Maupertuis proposed by Wang [Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 23 (2005) 1253] for smooth or quasi-smooth irregular dynamics evolving in Markovian process. The FP equation obtained may take two different but equivalent forms. It was also found that the diffusion constant may depend on both q (the index of Tsallis entropy [J. Stat. Phys. 52 (1988) 479] and the time t.
Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of I, Q, and U Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps...... at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, which is enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce the effects of beam...
Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the output of all detection channels for radiation propagated through a continuously scanned polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. As there is no on-board spectrometer......, dust emission, Sunyaev Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers have already described the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI...
Massively parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batishcheva, A.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Craddock, G.G.; Djordjevic, V.
1996-01-01
The recently developed for workstations Fokker-Planck code ALLA simulates the temporal evolution of 1V, 2V and 1D2V collisional edge plasmas. In this work we present the results of code parallelization on the CRI T3D massively parallel platform (ALLAp version). Simultaneously we benchmark the 1D2V parallel vesion against an analytic self-similar solution of the collisional kinetic equation. This test is not trivial as it demands a very strong spatial temperature and density variation within the simulation domain. (orig.)
Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.
2011-01-01
We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (∼10 ks) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (4
Planck Intermediate Results. IX. Detection of the Galactic haze with Planck
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
Using precise full-sky observations from Planck, and applying several methods of component separation, we identify and characterize the emission from the Galactic "haze" at microwave wavelengths. The haze is a distinct component of diffuse Galactic emission, roughly centered on the Galactic centre...
Planck 2013 results. XXIX. Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bohringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P.R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Democles, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; N, E.Groeneboom; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; MacTavish, C.J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N.P.H.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) 10^{15}Msun. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization...
The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herreros, J M; Gomez, M F; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Franceschet, C; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Lopez, M; Alcala, C
2009-01-01
The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.
The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly
Herreros, J. M.; Gómez, M. F.; Rebolo, R.; Chulani, H.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Miccolis, M.; Peña, A.; Pereira, M.; Torrero, F.; Franceschet, C.; López, M.; Alcalá, C.
2009-12-01
The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.
The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herreros, J M; Gomez, M F; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bersanelli, M; Franceschet, C [Universita di Milano, Dipartamento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Lopez, M; Alcala, C, E-mail: rrl@iac.e [EADS Astrium CRISA, C/Torres Quevedo, 9, 28760 Tres Cantos (Spain)
2009-12-15
The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.
Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNL^local= 2.7+/-5.8, fNL^equil= -42+/-75, and fNL^ortho= -25+\\-39 (68% CL statistical). NG is detected in the data; using skew-C_l statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the ISW-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the LambdaCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C_l, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, 3-dimensional...
Planck 2015 results. XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background(CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity(NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators - separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal - we obtain consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone fNL^local=2.5+\\-5.7, fNL^equil=-16+\\-70 and fNL^ortho=-34+\\-33(68%CL). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain fNL^local=0.8+\\-5.0, fNL^equil=-4+\\-43 and fNL^ortho=-26+\\-21 (68%CL). The results are based on cross-validation of these estimators on simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with Minkowski functionals based measurements. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization da...
Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission
Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J.T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enblin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T.J.T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Preezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H.S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yoda, H. Yamamoto T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-10-29
Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \\Planck\\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground ...
Optimising Boltzmann codes for the PLANCK era
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamann, Jan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Balbi, Amedeo; Quercellini, Claudia
2009-01-01
High precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, as can be expected from the PLANCK satellite, will require high-accuracy theoretical predictions as well. One possible source of theoretical uncertainty is the numerical error in the output of the Boltzmann codes used to calculate angular power spectra. In this work, we carry out an extensive study of the numerical accuracy of the public Boltzmann code CAMB, and identify a set of parameters which determine the error of its output. We show that at the current default settings, the cosmological parameters extracted from data of future experiments like Planck can be biased by several tenths of a standard deviation for the six parameters of the standard ΛCDM model, and potentially more seriously for extended models. We perform an optimisation procedure that leads the code to achieve sufficient precision while at the same time keeping the computation time within reasonable limits. Our conclusion is that the contribution of numerical errors to the theoretical uncertainty of model predictions is well under control—the main challenges for more accurate calculations of CMB spectra will be of an astrophysical nature instead
Planck 2015 results. XVIII. Background geometry & topology
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Tent, F. Van; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
Full-sky CMB maps from the 2015 Planck release allow us to detect departures from global isotropy on the largest scales. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance $\\chi_{rec}$). We specialize to flat spaces with toroidal and slab topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology at a scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. The limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in the topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio $\\Delta\\ln{L}>-5$ relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}$ for the cubic torus and $R_i>0.56\\chi_{rec}$ for the slab. The limit for the cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}...
Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence
Newell, David B.
2000-04-01
Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.
Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lähteenmäki, A.; Lavonen, N.; León-Tavares, J.
2011-01-01
Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact So...
Herschel-ATLAS : Planck sources in the phase 1 fields
Herranz, D.; González-Nuevo, J.; Clements, D.; De, Zotti G.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lapi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Danese, L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Bonavera, L.; Carrera, F.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Massardi, M.; Michalowski, M.; Negrello, M.; Rigby, E.E.; Scott, D.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Werf, van der P.P.; Auld, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.
2013-01-01
We present the results of a cross-correlation of the Planck Early Release Compact Source catalogue (ERCSC) with the catalogue of Herschel-ATLAS sources detected in the phase 1 fields, covering 134.55{deg}$^{2}$. There are 28 ERCSC sources detected by Planck at 857 GHz in this area. As many as 16 of
Redefining Planck Mass: Unlocking the Fundamental Quantum of the Universe
Laubenstein, John
2008-04-01
The large value of the Planck Mass relative to the quantum scale raises unanswered questions as to the source of mass itself. While we wait for experimental verification of the elusive Higgs boson, it may be worth recognizing that Planck Mass is not the result of rigorous mathematics -- but rather derived from an intuitive manipulation of physical constants. Recent findings reported by IWPD suggest a quantum scale Planck Mass as small as 10 (-73) kg. At this scale, the Planck Mass joins Planck Length and Time as a truly fundamental quantum entity. This presentation will provide evidence supporting the fundamental quantum nature of a dramatically smaller Planck Mass while discussing the impact of this finding on both the quantum and cosmic scale. A quantum scale Planck Mass will require an accelerating expansion of the universe at an age of 14.2 billion years. No initial conditions are imposed at the earliest Planck Time of 10 (-44) s allowing the universe to evolve as a background free field propagating at the speed of light with a local degree of freedom. This model provides the basis for a quantum theory of gravity and provides a conceptual pathway for the unification of GR and QM.
Planck 2015 results: XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic cold clumps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (E...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...
Planck scale effects in neutrino physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, E.K.; Berezhiani, Z.G.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Z.
1993-01-01
We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles and the dark matter problem with the possible existence of a heavy (1--10 keV) neutrino. These gravitational effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron-neutrino mass in the range of 0.1--1 eV
Planck 2015 results. VI. LFI mapmaking
Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen}, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of $I,Q$, and $U$ Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce effects of beam shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce low-resolution versions of the maps, and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and para...
Planck scale still safe from stellar images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coule, D H
2003-01-01
The recent paper of Lieu and Hillman (2003 Astrophys. J. Lett. 585 L77) suggesting that a possible (birefringence-like) phase difference ambiguity coming from Planck effects would alter stellar images of distant sources is questioned. Instead for division of wavefront interference and diffraction phenomena, initial (lateral) coherence is developed simply by propagation of rays (cf the van Cittert-Zernike theorem). This case is strongly immune to quantum gravity influences that could tend to reduce phase coherence. The phase ambiguity, if actually present, could reduce any underlying polarization of the light rays. However, we argue that, as expected since any inherent quantum discreteness of space should become increasingly negligible over larger distances, such a phase ambiguity is rapidly cancelled if a more realistic constantly fluctuating quantum 'buffeting' occurs
Bayesian component separation: The Planck experience
Wehus, Ingunn Kathrine; Eriksen, Hans Kristian
2018-05-01
Bayesian component separation techniques have played a central role in the data reduction process of Planck. The most important strength of this approach is its global nature, in which a parametric and physical model is fitted to the data. Such physical modeling allows the user to constrain very general data models, and jointly probe cosmological, astrophysical and instrumental parameters. This approach also supports statistically robust goodness-of-fit tests in terms of data-minus-model residual maps, which are essential for identifying residual systematic effects in the data. The main challenges are high code complexity and computational cost. Whether or not these costs are justified for a given experiment depends on its final uncertainty budget. We therefore predict that the importance of Bayesian component separation techniques is likely to increase with time for intensity mapping experiments, similar to what has happened in the CMB field, as observational techniques mature, and their overall sensitivity improves.
Planck scale effects in neutrino physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao Zhijan; Berezhiani, Z.G.
1992-08-01
We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, dark matter and a 17 keV neutrino. These gravitation effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
From Planck's quanta to phonon in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez- Duart, J. M; Melo, O. de
2008-01-01
Planck's 1900 published results on the black body radiation had the first application in the quantification of radiation. This quantum hypothesis explained several noteworthy light- matter interaction effects in 1905. These were the electron emission, Stokes law and gas ionization. As soon as two years later, A. Einstein derived an expression for the specific heat of solids, applying the quantum hypothesis to the mechanical oscillation of the atoms. In the present work, the main ideas which led to the concept of phonon are discussed. From an historical point of view, the developments due to Einstein, Born, Debye, among others are analyzed and most important properties of the phonons are presented. Finally, the importance of this entity in the theory of solids is explained, in particular regarding the thermal and optical properties as well as the electrical conductivity
General quadrupolar statistical anisotropy: Planck limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazanov, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Rubtsov, G. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect of the 60th Anniversary of October 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thorsrud, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, P.O. Box 700, 1757 Halden (Norway); Urban, F.R., E-mail: sabir.ramazanov@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: grisha@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: mikjel.thorsrud@hiof.no, E-mail: federico.urban@kbfi.ee [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-03-01
Several early Universe scenarios predict a direction-dependent spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations. This translates into the violation of the statistical isotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation. Previous searches for statistical anisotropy mainly focussed on a quadrupolar direction-dependence characterised by a single multipole vector and an overall amplitude g {sub *}. Generically, however, the quadrupole has a more complicated geometry described by two multipole vectors and g {sub *}. This is the subject of the present work. In particular, we limit the amplitude g {sub *} for different shapes of the quadrupole by making use of Planck 2015 maps. We also constrain certain inflationary scenarios which predict this kind of more general quadrupolar statistical anisotropy.
Optimization of Planck-LFI on-board data handling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maris, M; Galeotta, S; Frailis, M; Zacchei, A; Fogliani, S; Gasparo, F [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Hildebrandt, S; Chulani, H; Gomez, F [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/o Via Lactea, s/n E38205 - La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rohlfs, R; Morisset, N; Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Franceschi, E [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: maris@oats.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)
2009-12-15
To asses stability against 1/f noise, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the Planck mission will acquire data at a rate much higher than the data rate allowed by the science telemetry bandwith of 35.5 Kbps. The data are processed by an on-board pipeline, followed on-ground by a decoding and reconstruction step, to reduce the volume of data to a level compatible with the bandwidth while minimizing the loss of information. This paper illustrates the on-board processing of the scientific data used by Planck/LFI to fit the allowed data-rate, an intrinsecally lossy process which distorts the signal in a manner which depends on a set of five free parameters (N{sub aver}, r{sub 1}, r{sub 2}, q, O) for each of the 44 LFI detectors. The paper quantifies the level of distortion introduced by the on-board processing as a function of these parameters. It describes the method of tuning the on-board processing chain to cope with the limited bandwidth while keeping to a minimum the signal distortion. Tuning is sensitive to the statistics of the signal and has to be constantly adapted during flight. The tuning procedure is based on a optimization algorithm applied to unprocessed and uncompressed raw data provided either by simulations, pre-launch tests or data taken in flight from LFI operating in a special diagnostic acquisition mode. All the needed optimization steps are performed by an automated tool, OCA2, which simulates the on-board processing, explores the space of possible combinations of parameters, and produces a set of statistical indicators, among them: the compression rate C{sub r} and the processing noise epsilon{sub Q}. For Planck/LFI it is required that C{sub r} = 2.4 while, as for other systematics, epsilon{sub Q} would have to be less than 10% of rms of the instrumental white noise. An analytical model is developed that is able to extract most of the relevant information on the processing errors and the compression rate as a function of the signal
Quantum Gravity corrections and entropy at the Planck time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basilakos, Spyros; Vagenas, Elias C.; Das, Saurya
2010-01-01
We investigate the effects of Quantum Gravity on the Planck era of the universe. In particular, using different versions of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle and under specific conditions we find that the main Planck quantities such as the Planck time, length, mass and energy become larger by a factor of order 10−10 4 compared to those quantities which result from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. However, we prove that the dimensionless entropy enclosed in the cosmological horizon at the Planck time remains unchanged. These results, though preliminary, indicate that we should anticipate modifications in the set-up of cosmology since changes in the Planck era will be inherited even to the late universe through the framework of Quantum Gravity (or Quantum Field Theory) which utilizes the Planck scale as a fundamental one. More importantly, these corrections will not affect the entropic content of the universe at the Planck time which is a crucial element for one of the basic principles of Quantum Gravity named Holographic Principle
Cosmological evidence for leptonic asymmetry after Planck
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caramete, A.; Popa, L.A., E-mail: acaramete@spacescience.ro, E-mail: lpopa@spacescience.ro [Institute of Space Science, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania)
2014-02-01
Recently, the PLANCK satellite found a larger and most precise value of the matter energy density, that impacts on the present values of other cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, the present cluster abundances S{sub 8}, and the age of the Universe t{sub U}. The existing tension between PLANCK determination of these parameters in the frame of the base ΛCDM model and their determination from other measurements generated lively discussions, one possible interpretation being that some sources of systematic errors in cosmological measurements are not completely understood. An alternative interpretation is related to the fact that the CMB observations, that probe the high redshift Universe are interpreted in terms of cosmological parameters at present time by extrapolation within the base ΛCDM model that can be inadequate or incomplete. In this paper we quantify this tension by exploring several extensions of the base ΛCDM model that include the leptonic asymmetry. We set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties by using the latest cosmological measurements, imposing also self-consistent BBN constraints on the primordial helium abundance. For all asymmetric cosmological models we find the preference of cosmological data for smaller values of active and sterile neutrino masses. This increases the tension between cosmological and short baseline neutrino oscillation data that favors a sterile neutrino with the mass of around 1 eV. For the case of degenerate massive neutrinos, we find that the discrepancies with the local determinations of H{sub 0}, and t{sub U} are alleviated at ∼ 1.3σ level while S{sub 8} is in agreement with its determination from CFHTLenS survey data at ∼ 1σ and with the prediction of cluster mass-observation relation at ∼ 0.5σ. We also find 2σ statistical preference of the cosmological data for the leptonic asymmetric models involving three massive neutrino species and neutrino direct
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)
Excess B‐modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik
2016-01-01
on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto‐correlation and cross‐correlation power spectra within...... a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a “high pass filter” in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron...... tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated. (© 2016 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...
Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.
2016-01-01
The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr......The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism...... for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends...
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: cross correlation with Planck maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Næss, Sigurd [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Addison, Graeme E.; Hincks, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A (United States); Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Huffenberger, Kevin [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Keen Physics Building, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, Florida (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Niemack, Michael D., E-mail: Thibaut.Louis@astro.ox.ac.uk [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others
2014-07-01
We present the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background obtained by cross-correlating maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and 218 GHz with maps from the Planck satellite at 143 and 217 GHz, in two overlapping regions covering 592 square degrees. We find excellent agreement between the two datasets at both frequencies, quantified using the variance of the residuals between the ACT power spectra and the ACT × Planck cross-spectra. We use these cross-correlations to measure the calibration of the ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz relative to Planck, to 0.7% and 2% precision respectively. We find no evidence for anisotropy in the calibration parameter. We compare the Planck 353 GHz power spectrum with the measured amplitudes of dust and cosmic infrared background (CIB) of ACT data at 148 and 218 GHz. We also compare planet and point source measurements from the two experiments.
Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale
Callender, Craig; Huggett, Nick
2001-04-01
Preface; 1. Introduction Craig Callendar and Nick Huggett; Part I. Theories of Quantum Gravity and their Philosophical Dimensions: 2. Spacetime and the philosophical challenge of quantum gravity Jeremy Butterfield and Christopher Isham; 3. Naive quantum gravity Steven Weinstein; 4. Quantum spacetime: what do we know? Carlo Rovelli; Part II. Strings: 5. Reflections on the fate of spacetime Edward Witten; 6. A philosopher looks at string theory Robert Weingard; 7. Black holes, dumb holes, and entropy William G. Unruh; Part III. Topological Quantum Field Theory: 8. Higher-dimensional algebra and Planck scale physics John C. Baez; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of General Relativity: 9. On general covariance and best matching Julian B. Barbour; 10. Pre-Socratic quantum gravity Gordon Belot and John Earman; 11. The origin of the spacetime metric: Bell's 'Lorentzian Pedagogy' and its significance in general relativity Harvey R. Brown and Oliver Pooley; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: 12. Quantum spacetime without observers: ontological clarity and the conceptual foundations of quantum gravity Sheldon Goldstein and Stefan Teufel; 13. On gravity's role in quantum state reduction Roger Penrose; 14. Why the quantum must yield to gravity Joy Christian.
Dynamically induced Planck scale and inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kannike, Kristjan [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Hütsi, Gert [Tartu Observatory,Observatooriumi 1, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia); Pizza, Liberato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa and INFN,Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Racioppi, Antonio [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Raidal, Martti [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Salvio, Alberto [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid andInstituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [NICPB,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa and INFN,Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)
2015-05-13
Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions n{sub s}≈0.96 for the spectral index and r≈0.13 for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, which can be reduced down to ≈0.04 in presence of large couplings. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multifield inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory and predicts n{sub s}≈0.96 and 0.003
Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole
Riaz, S. M. Jawwad
2018-04-01
In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.
The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1981-01-01
These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)
Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with Cluster Velocity Dispersions
Amodeo, Stefania; Mei, Simona; Stanford, Spencer A.; Bartlett, James G.; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Shim, Hyunjin; Marleau, Francine; Stern, Daniel
2017-08-01
We measure the Planck cluster mass bias using dynamical mass measurements based on velocity dispersions of a subsample of 17 Planck-detected clusters. The velocity dispersions were calculated using redshifts determined from spectra that were obtained at the Gemini observatory with the GMOS multi-object spectrograph. We correct our estimates for effects due to finite aperture, Eddington bias, and correlated scatter between velocity dispersion and the Planck mass proxy. The result for the mass bias parameter, (1-b), depends on the value of the galaxy velocity bias, {b}{{v}}, adopted from simulations: (1-b)=(0.51+/- 0.09){b}{{v}}3. Using a velocity bias of {b}{{v}}=1.08 from Munari et al., we obtain (1-b)=0.64+/- 0.11, I.e., an error of 17% on the mass bias measurement with 17 clusters. This mass bias value is consistent with most previous weak-lensing determinations. It lies within 1σ of the value that is needed to reconcile the Planck cluster counts with the Planck primary cosmic microwave background constraints. We emphasize that uncertainty in the velocity bias severely hampers the precision of the measurements of the mass bias using velocity dispersions. On the other hand, when we fix the Planck mass bias using the constraints from Penna-Lima et al., based on weak-lensing measurements, we obtain a positive velocity bias of {b}{{v}}≳ 0.9 at 3σ .
The pre-launch Planck Sky Model: a model of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths
Delabrouille, J.; Melin, J.-B.; Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Jeune, M.Le; Castex, G.; de Zotti, G.; Basak, S.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bouchet, F.R.; Clements, D.L.; da Silva, A.; Dickinson, C.; Dodu, F.; Dolag, K.; Elsner, F.; Fauvet, L.; Fay, G.; Giardino, G.; Leach, S.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Montier, L.; Mottet, S.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Piffaretti, R.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Ricciardi, S.; Roman, M.; Schaefer, B.; Toffolatti, L.
2012-01-01
We present the Planck Sky Model (PSM), a parametric model for the generation of all-sky, few arcminute resolution maps of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths, in both intensity and polarisation. Several options are implemented to model the cosmic microwave background, Galactic diffuse emission (synchrotron, free-free, thermal and spinning dust, CO lines), Galactic H-II regions, extragalactic radio sources, dusty galaxies, and thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals from clusters of galaxies. Each component is simulated by means of educated interpolations/extrapolations of data sets available at the time of the launch of the Planck mission, complemented by state-of-the-art models of the emission. Distinctive features of the simulations are: spatially varying spectral properties of synchrotron and dust; different spectral parameters for each point source; modeling of the clustering properties of extragalactic sources and of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic infrared back...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Ernst Peter
2010-06-15
The live of the physicist Max Planck was as exciting, conflicting, and rich on catastrophes as the epoch, in which he lived. Ernst Peter Fischer draws in this fascinatingly told biography the eventful history of the Nobel-price bearer and illustrates simultaneously the unique attainment of Planck, the quantum theory of whom not only revolted the science but also changed fundamentally our picture of the world.
JESS-D-17-00080.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00037.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00047.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
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BOMS-D-16-00748.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
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BOMS-D-16-00644.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
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BOMS-D-15-01104.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
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BOMS-D-16-00560.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
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JESS-D-17-00111.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00152.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00075.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00085.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00106.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00357.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
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BOMS-D-16-00562.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
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JESS-D-16-00026.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00198.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00349.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
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JESS-D-16-00140.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
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JESS-D-16-00159.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00046.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00319.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00407.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00003.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00569.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-15-00965.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00322.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00821.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00613.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00443.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-15-01110.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00288.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00449.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00790.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
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BOMS-D-16-00881.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00368.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00612.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00377.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00728.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-01004.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00023.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00399.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00178.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00315.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00654.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00540.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00015.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-15-00018.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00399.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00261.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00992.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00151.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JOAA-D-17-00074.pdf | forthcoming | joaa | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JOAA-D-17-00029.pdf | forthcoming | joaa | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-15-00514.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00606.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-17-00607.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00720.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00476.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public | Indian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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BOMS-D-16-00509.pdf | forthcoming | boms | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A
2000-01-01
After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waizmann, Jean-Claude
2010-11-24
One of the main objectives of the PLANCK mission is to perform a full-sky cluster survey based on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which leads to the question of how such a survey would be affected by cosmological models with a different history of structure formation than LCDM. To answer this question, I developed a fast semi-analytic approach for simulating full-sky maps of the Compton-y parameter, ready to be fed into a realistic simulation pipeline. I also implemented a filter and detection pipeline based on spherical multi-frequency matched filters, that was used to study the expected SZ cluster sample of PLANCK. It turned out that realistic samples will comprise 1000 clusters at low rate of contamination, significantly lower than originally anticipated. Driven by wrong estimates of the impact of early dark energy models on structure formation, we studied the spherical collapse model in dark energy model, finding that models with varying equation-of-state have a negligible impact on the structure formation. Yet, the different expansion history for the different models can be detected via volume effects, when counting objects in a known volume. Furthermore, it turned out that the different expansion history strongly affects the angular SZ power spectra for the various models, making them an interesting tool to distinguish and constrain alternative cosmologies. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waizmann, Jean-Claude
2010-01-01
One of the main objectives of the PLANCK mission is to perform a full-sky cluster survey based on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, which leads to the question of how such a survey would be affected by cosmological models with a different history of structure formation than LCDM. To answer this question, I developed a fast semi-analytic approach for simulating full-sky maps of the Compton-y parameter, ready to be fed into a realistic simulation pipeline. I also implemented a filter and detection pipeline based on spherical multi-frequency matched filters, that was used to study the expected SZ cluster sample of PLANCK. It turned out that realistic samples will comprise 1000 clusters at low rate of contamination, significantly lower than originally anticipated. Driven by wrong estimates of the impact of early dark energy models on structure formation, we studied the spherical collapse model in dark energy model, finding that models with varying equation-of-state have a negligible impact on the structure formation. Yet, the different expansion history for the different models can be detected via volume effects, when counting objects in a known volume. Furthermore, it turned out that the different expansion history strongly affects the angular SZ power spectra for the various models, making them an interesting tool to distinguish and constrain alternative cosmologies. (orig.)
Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a study of the ISW effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. The CMB is cross-correlated with different LSS tracers: the NVSS, SDSS and WISE catalogues, and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. This cross-correlation yields a detection at $4\\,\\sigma$, where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and NVSS. In fact, the ISW effect is detected only from the Planck data (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum) at $\\approx 3\\,\\sigma$, which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the catalogues. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, polarization data is used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locat...
Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca [Physics Department, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , and Sezione Roma1 INFN P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)
2009-10-15
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by xi, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate xiapprox =-0.097+-0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to xi achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-sigma confidence of 8.5x10{sup -4} (PLANCK), 6.1x10{sup -3} (Spider), and 1.0x10{sup -5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10{sup -6}.
Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca
2009-01-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ≅-0.097±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5x10 -4 (PLANCK), 6.1x10 -3 (Spider), and 1.0x10 -5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10 -6 .
Calibrating the Planck cluster mass scale with CLASH
Penna-Lima, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Rozo, E.; Melin, J.-B.; Merten, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Postman, M.; Rykoff, E.
2017-08-01
We determine the mass scale of Planck galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing mass measurements from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We have compared the lensing masses to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) mass proxy for 21 clusters in common, employing a Bayesian analysis to simultaneously fit an idealized CLASH selection function and the distribution between the measured observables and true cluster mass. We used a tiered analysis strategy to explicitly demonstrate the importance of priors on weak lensing mass accuracy. In the case of an assumed constant bias, bSZ, between true cluster mass, M500, and the Planck mass proxy, MPL, our analysis constrains 1-bSZ = 0.73 ± 0.10 when moderate priors on weak lensing accuracy are used, including a zero-mean Gaussian with standard deviation of 8% to account for possible bias in lensing mass estimations. Our analysis explicitly accounts for possible selection bias effects in this calibration sourced by the CLASH selection function. Our constraint on the cluster mass scale is consistent with recent results from the Weighing the Giants program and the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project. It is also consistent, at 1.34σ, with the value needed to reconcile the Planck SZ cluster counts with Planck's base ΛCDM model fit to the primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies.
Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in FRW spacetime
Rosati, Giacomo; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Marcianò, Antonino; Matassa, Marco
2015-12-01
In recent years, Planck-scale modifications of the dispersion relation have been attracting increasing interest also from the viewpoint of possible applications in astrophysics and cosmology, where spacetime curvature cannot be neglected. Nonetheless, the interplay between Planck-scale effects and spacetime curvature is still poorly understood, particularly in cases where curvature is not constant. These challenges have been so far postponed by relying on an ansatz, first introduced by Jacob and Piran. We propose here a general strategy of analysis of the effects of modifications of the dispersion relation in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes, applicable both to cases where the relativistic equivalence of frames is spoiled ("preferred-frame scenarios") and to the alternative possibility of "DSR-relativistic theories," theories that are fully relativistic but with relativistic laws deformed so that the modified dispersion relation is observer independent. We show that the Jacob-Piran ansatz implicitly assumes that spacetime translations are not affected by the Planck scale, while under rather general conditions, the same Planck-scale quantum-spacetime structures producing modifications of the dispersion relation also affect translations. Through the explicit analysis of one of the effects produced by modifications of the dispersion relation, an effect amounting to Planck-scale corrections to travel times, we show that our concerns are not merely conceptual but rather can have significant quantitative implications.
Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J
2004-06-01
The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.
Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padmanabhan, Thanu [Astrophysics (IUCAA), Poona University Campus, Post Bag No. 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)
2007-08-07
reading through the articles in this book and it must have been an exciting conference. (The book under review is based on the lectures given at the 40th Karpacz Winter School.) This is a valuable addition to any library and will serve as a useful source of information for any graduate student or researcher who wants to enter or appreciate this field. (Book review of Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology, G Amelino-Camelia and J Kowalski-Gilkman (eds), 2005 Berlin: Springer, ISBN: 978-3-540-25263-4)
Planck intermediate results XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.
2016-01-01
We present all-sky modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS, andWISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL, ApJ, 657, 810). We study the performance and results of this model, and discuss implications for future dust modelling....... The present work extends the DL dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data to Galactic dust emission. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density Sigma(Md), the dust optical extinction A(V), and the starlight intensity heating the bulk...... of the dust, parametrized by U-min. The DL model reproduces the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) satisfactorily over most of the sky, with small deviations in the inner Galactic disk and in low ecliptic latitude areas, presumably due to zodiacal light contamination. In the Andromeda galaxy (M31...
Preliminary Planck constant measurements via UME oscillating magnet Kibble balance
Ahmedov, H.; Babayiğit Aşkın, N.; Korutlu, B.; Orhan, R.
2018-06-01
The UME Kibble balance project was initiated in the second half of 2014. During this period we have studied the theoretical aspects of Kibble balances, in which an oscillating magnet generates AC Faraday’s voltage in a stationary coil, and constructed a trial version to implement this idea. The remarkable feature of this approach is that it can establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by one single experiment in the most natural way. Weak dependences on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, small size, and other useful features offered by this novel approach reduce the complexity of the experimental set-up. This paper describes the principles of the oscillating magnet Kibble balance and gives details of the preliminary Planck constant measurements. The value of the Planck constant determined with our apparatus is \\boldsymbol{h}/{{\\boldsymbol{h}}\\boldsymbol 90}={1}{.000} {004}~ , with a relative standard uncertainty of 6 ppm.
Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations Fundamentals and Applications
Frank, Till Daniel
2005-01-01
Providing an introduction to the theory of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, this book discusses fundamental properties of transient and stationary solutions, emphasizing the stability analysis of stationary solutions by means of self-consistency equations, linear stability analysis, and Lyapunov's direct method. Also treated are Langevin equations and correlation functions. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck Equations addresses various phenomena such as phase transitions, multistability of systems, synchronization, anomalous diffusion, cut-off solutions, travelling-wave solutions and the emergence of power law solutions. A nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective to quantum statistics, generalized thermodynamics, and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics is given. Theoretical concepts are illustrated where possible by simple examples. The book also reviews several applications in the fields of condensed matter physics, the physics of porous media and liquid crystals, accelerator physics, neurophysics, social sciences, popul...
Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kwon, Ohkyung [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
2015-06-22
A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robitaille P.-M.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available October 4th, 2007 marks the 60th anniversary of Planck’s death. Planck was not only the father of Quantum Theory. He was also a man of profound moral and ethical values, with far reaching philosophical views. Though he lived a life of public acclaim for his discovery of the Blackbody radiation formula which bares his name, his personal life was beset with tragedy. Yet, Planck never lost his deep faith and belief in a personal God. He was admired by Einstein, not so much for his contributions to physics, but rather, for the ideals which he embodied as a person. In this work, a brief synopsis is provided on Planck, his life, and his philosophical writings. It is hoped that this will serve as an invitation to revisit the philosophical works of the man who, more than any other, helped set the course of early 20th century physics.
Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.
2016-01-01
We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz......, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description...... of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses...
Planck 2015 results: XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.
2016-01-01
Here, this paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is cross-correlated with different large-scale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint cross-correlation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4σ where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at ≈3σ (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the dark-energy parameters; in particular, we show that Ω Λ is detected at more than 3σ. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with ΛCDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive cross-correlation with these large-scale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining
Planck 2013 results. II. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.
2013-01-01
We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data......) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the approximate to-20 dB level...
Planck pre-launch status: The optical system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.
2010-01-01
Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors......, based on the knowledge available at the time of launch. We also briefly describe the impact of the major systematic effects of optical origin, and the concept of in-flight optical calibration. Detailed discussions of related areas are provided in accompanying papers....
Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.
2011-01-01
We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...... statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈ -10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. © ESO, 2011....
Planck 2015 results: XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are B1 Mpc 4.4 nG (where B1 Mpc is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity. By considering the Planck likelihood, based only on parity-even angular power spectra, we obtain B1 Mpc ... to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is B1 Mpc Mpc 4.5 nG, whereas the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives B1 Mpc
Generalized Fokker-Planck equations for coloured, multiplicative Gaussian noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cetto, A.M.; Pena, L. de la; Velasco, R.M.
1984-01-01
With the help of Novikov's theorem, it is possible to derive a master equation for a coloured, multiplicative, Gaussian random process; the coefficients of this master equation satisfy a complicated auxiliary integro-differential equation. For small values of the Kubo number, the master equation reduces to an approximate generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The diffusion coefficient is explicitly written in terms of correlation functions. Finally, a straightforward and elementary second order perturbative treatment is proposed to derive the same approximate Fokker-Planck equation. (author)
JESS-D-16-00343 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
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JESS-D-16-00189 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
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JESS-D-16-00274 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00379 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00392 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00575 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00024 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00205R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00023 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00602 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00528 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00523 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00354R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00272 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00043 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00107 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00032 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00351 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00313 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00222 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00432 R1.pdf;Structural | forthcoming | jess | Volumes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00446 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00044 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00034 R3.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00263 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00005R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00389 R3.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00496 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00399R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-17-00004 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00451R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00510 R4.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00578 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00339 R3.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00482 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00067 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00247 R4.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00542 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00424 R3.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00170 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00450 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00500 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00589 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00197 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00199 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00508 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00457 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00571 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00396 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00266R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00432 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00418 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00405 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00096 R4.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00127R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00307 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00302 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00485 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00428 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00537 R3.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00082 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00429 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00657 R1.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00330 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00503 R3.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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JESS-D-16-00409 R2.pdf | forthcoming | jess | Volumes | public ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
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Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON
1992-01-01
Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale
Fokker-Planck transport in solid state accelerator concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.
1989-01-01
Particle transport in a crystalline solid under channeling conditions is considered by means of a Fokker-Planck description. The model includes electron multiple scattering, radiation damping and an accelerating electric field. Analytic solutions have been obtained using a harmonic potential model to describe the channeling forces. These solutions will be described
Steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovnev, A.; Trimper, S.
2010-01-01
The exact steady state solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. A more tractable approximate solution is derived which can be used to compare the results with experimental observations in binary electrolytes. The breakdown of the PNP for high concentration and high applied voltage is discussed.
Newton's 'Principia Mathematica Philosophia' and Planck's elementary constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rompe, R.; Treder, H.J.
1987-01-01
Together with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and 'exact' sciences of all directions. The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies. (author)
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...
Planck 2015 results: XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives....
IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma of Physics at Garching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
The cost accounting system of the IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics at Garching is described with all details as there are cost class accounting, cost centers, cost units and resulting overall cost summary. Detailed instructions are given about the implementation of this cost accounting system into the organisational structure of the IPP. (A.N.)
Planck intermediate results: VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.
2013-01-01
of a fraction of these missing baryons between pairs of galaxy clusters. Methods. Cluster pairs are good candidates for searching for the hotter and denser phase of the intergalactic medium (which is more easily observed through the SZ effect). Using an X-ray catalogue of clusters and the Planck data, we...
Chaotic inflation in supergravity after Planck and BICEP2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei
2014-05-01
We discuss the general structure and observational consequences of some of the simplest versions of chaotic inflation in supergravity in relation to the data by Planck 2013 and BICEP2. We show that minimal modifications to the simplest quadratic potential are sufficient to provide a controllable tensor mode signal and a suppression of CMB power at large angular scales.
Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release...
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...
Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions (EBWF) and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strat...
Planck intermediate results: XVI. Profile likelihoods for cosmological parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.
2014-01-01
We explore the 2013 Planck likelihood function with a high-precision multi-dimensional minimizer (Minuit). This allows a refinement of the CDM best-fit solution with respect to previously-released results, and the construction of frequentist confidence intervals using profile likelihoods. The agr...
Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.
2016-06-01
One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.
Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.
2011-01-01
spectrum measured by Planck and IRAS can be fitted pixel by pixel using a single modified blackbody. Some systematic residuals are detected at 353 GHz and 143 GHz, with amplitudes around -7% and +13%, respectively, indicating that the measured spectra are likely more complex than a simple modified...
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tauber, Jan; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best...
Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frejsel, Anne Mette
This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...
Inflation in the light of BICEP2 and PLANCK
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-13
Jan 13, 2016 ... The BICEP2/Keck+PLANCK joint analysis of the -model polarization and polarization by foreground dust sets an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of 0.05 < 0.12 at 95% CL. The popular Starorbinsky model Higgs-inflation or the conformally equivalent Higgs-inflation model allow low values ...
Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2014-01-01
they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes...
Planck intermediate results: XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.
2014-01-01
Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the position...
Multi-diffusive nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Casas, Gabriela A; Nobre, Fernando D
2017-01-01
Nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations, characterized by more than one diffusion term, have appeared recently in literature. Here, it is shown that these equations may be derived either from approximations in a master equation, or from a Langevin-type approach. An H-theorem is proven, relating these Fokker–Planck equations to an entropy composed by a sum of contributions, each of them associated with a given diffusion term. Moreover, the stationary state of the Fokker–Planck equation is shown to coincide with the equilibrium state, obtained by extremization of the entropy, in the sense that both procedures yield precisely the same equation. Due to the nonlinear character of this equation, the equilibrium probability may be obtained, in most cases, only by means of numerical approaches. Some examples are worked out, where the equilibrium probability distribution is computed for nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations presenting two diffusion terms, corresponding to an entropy characterized by a sum of two contributions. It is shown that the resulting equilibrium distribution, in general, presents a form that differs from a sum of the equilibrium distributions that maximizes each entropic contribution separately, although in some cases one may construct such a linear combination as a good approximation for the equilibrium distribution. (paper)
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ℓ, covering 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ℓ ≲ 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ℓs. For ℓ impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-ℓ cross-spectra with residuals below a few μK2 at ℓ ≲ 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ΛCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ℓ ≲ 1500. One specific example is the spectral index of scalar perturbations, for which we report a 5.4σ deviation from scale invariance, ns = 1. Increasing the multipole range beyond ℓ ≃ 1500 does not increase our accuracy for the ΛCDM parameters, but instead allows us to study extensions beyond the standard model. We find no indication of significant departures from the ΛCDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the Planck best-fit ΛCDM model and the low-ℓ spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at ℓ ≲ 40, with a statistical significance of 2.5-3σ. Without a theoretically motivated model for
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON CONTENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CrAlCN COATINGS DEPOSITED BY ... of hydroxyapatite/alumina ceramic nanocomposites for biomedical applications ... Properties of Shear Thickening Fluid Impregnated Kevlar Composites.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
NPadmaja
2018-05-03
May 3, 2018 ... bridged-atom in the formation of polysubstituted pyridines via. Hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of isotellurazoles with acetylenic dienophiles: A molecular electron density study abdo benallou abdo_benallou@yahoo.fr. Universite Chouaib. Doukkali safi. Morocco. 02 Apr. 34. JULY Spl. Issue-. MTIC. JCSC-D-18-.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.
2011-01-01
The data reported in Planck's Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) are exploited to measure the number counts (dN/dS) of extragalactic radio sources at 30, 44, 70, 100, 143 and 217 GHz. Due to the full-sky nature of the catalogue, this measurement extends to the rarest and brightest sou...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2015-01-01
Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diuse emission components of the inner Galaxy.The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside thesolar radius and ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2014-01-01
We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched w...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adair, Sarah K.; Hoppock, David C.; Monast, Jonas J.
2014-01-01
Forthcoming carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regulations for existing power plants in the United States have heightened interest in thermal efficiency gains for coal-fired power plants. Plant modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger New Source Review (NSR), a Clean Air Act requirement to adopt of state-of-the-art pollution controls. This article explores whether existing coal plants would likely face additional pollution control requirements if they undertake modifications that trigger NSR. Despite emissions controls that are or will be installed under the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) and Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) or its replacement, 80% of coal units (76% of capacity) that are expected to remain in operation are not projected to meet the minimum NSR requirements for at least one pollutant: nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide. This is an important consideration for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state policymakers as they determine the extent to which CO 2 regulation will rely on unit-by-unit thermal efficiency gains versus potential flexible compliance strategies such as averaging, trading, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. NSR would likely delay and add cost to thermal efficiency projects at a majority of coal units, including projects undertaken to comply with forthcoming CO 2 regulation. - Highlights: • We explore the status of the U.S. coal-fired fleet relative to New Source Review (NSR) requirements. • Modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger NSR. • Thermal efficiency gains may also be an important strategy for forthcoming CO 2 regulation. • 80% Of non-retiring coal-fired units are projected not to meet minimum NSR requirements. • NSR is an important consideration for the design of CO 2 regulations for existing plants
Dark radiation sterile neutrino candidates after Planck data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Mena, Olga, E-mail: eleonora.divalentino@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, 46071, Valencia (Spain)
2013-11-01
Recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results from the Planck satellite, combined with previous CMB data and Hubble constant measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a constraint on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom 3.62{sup +0.50}{sub −0.48} at 95% CL. New Planck data provide a unique opportunity to place limits on models containing relativistic species at the decoupling epoch. We present here the bounds on sterile neutrino models combining Planck data with galaxy clustering information. Assuming N{sub eff} active plus sterile massive neutrino species, in the case of a Planck+WP+HighL+HST analysis we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.36 eV and 3.14 < N{sub eff} < 4.15 at 95% CL, while using Planck+WP+HighL data in combination with the full shape of the galaxy power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS Data Relase 9 measurements, we find that 3.30 < N{sub eff} < 4.43 and m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.33 eV both at 95% CL with the three active neutrinos having the minimum mass allowed in the normal hierarchy scheme, i.e. ∑m{sub ν} ∼ 0.06 eV. These values compromise the viability of the (3+2) massive sterile neutrino models for the parameter region indicated by global fits of neutrino oscillation data. Within the (3+1) massive sterile neutrino scenario, we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.34 eV at 95% CL. While the existence of one extra sterile massive neutrino state is compatible with current oscillation data, the values for the sterile neutrino mass preferred by oscillation analyses are significantly higher than the current cosmological bound. We review as well the bounds on extended dark sectors with additional light species based on the latest Planck CMB observations.
Planck's view on the spectrum of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect
Erler, Jens; Basu, Kaustuv; Chluba, Jens; Bertoldi, Frank
2018-05-01
We present a detailed analysis of the stacked frequency spectrum of a large sample of galaxy clusters using Planck data, together with auxiliary data from the AKARI and IRAS missions. Our primary goal is to search for the imprint of relativistic corrections to the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (tSZ) spectrum, which allow to measure the temperature of the intracluster medium. We remove Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds with a matched filtering technique, which is validated using simulations with realistic mock data sets. The extracted spectra show the tSZ signal at high significance and reveal an additional far-infrared (FIR) excess, which we attribute to thermal emission from the galaxy clusters themselves. This excess FIR emission from clusters is accounted for in our spectral model. We are able to measure the tSZ relativistic corrections at 2.2σ by constraining the mean temperature of our cluster sample to 4.4^{+2.1}_{-2.0} keV. We repeat the same analysis on a subsample containing only the 100 hottest clusters, for which we measure the mean temperature to be 6.0^{+3.8}_{-2.9} keV, corresponding to 2.0σ. The temperature of the emitting dust grains in our FIR model is constrained to ≃20 K, consistent with previous studies. Control for systematic biases is done by fitting mock clusters, from which we also show that using the non-relativistic spectrum for SZ signal extraction will lead to a bias in the integrated Compton parameter Y, which can be up to 14% for the most massive clusters. We conclude by providing an outlook for the upcoming CCAT-prime telescope, which will improve upon Planck with lower noise and better spatial resolution.
(Lack of) Cosmological evidence for dark radiation after Planck
Verde, Licia; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V
2013-01-01
We use Bayesian model comparison to determine whether extensions to Standard-Model neutrino physics -- primarily additional effective numbers of neutrinos and/or massive neutrinos -- are merited by the latest cosmological data. Given the significant advances in cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations represented by the Planck data, we examine whether Planck temperature and CMB lensing data, in combination with lower redshift data, have strengthened (or weakened) the previous findings. We conclude that the state-of-the-art cosmological data do not show evidence for deviations from the standard cosmological model (which has three massless neutrino families). This does not mean that the model is necessarily correct -- in fact we know it is incomplete as neutrinos are not massless -- but it does imply that deviations from the standard model (e.g., non-zero neutrino mass) are too small compared to the current experimental uncertainties to be inferred from cosmological data alone.
Planck and the local Universe: quantifying the tension
Verde, Licia; Protopapas, Pavlos
2013-01-01
We use the latest Planck constraints, and in particular constraints on the derived parameters (Hubble constant and age of the Universe) for the local universe and compare them with local measurements of the same quantities. We propose a way to quantify whether cosmological parameters constraints from two different experiments are in tension or not. Our statistic, T, is an evidence ratio and therefore can be interpreted with the widely used Jeffrey's scale. We find that in the framework of the LCDM model, the Planck inferred two dimensional, joint, posterior distribution for the Hubble constant and age of the Universe is in "strong" tension with the local measurements; the odds being ~ 1:50. We explore several possibilities for explaining this tension and examine the consequences both in terms of unknown errors and deviations from the LCDM model. In some one-parameter LCDM model extensions, tension is reduced whereas in other extensions, tension is instead increased. In particular, small total neutrino masses ...
Planck 2015 results. XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvatelli, V.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-09-20
We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG), beyond the cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state, principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as k-essence, f(R) theories and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses we use baryonic acoustic oscillations, type-Ia supernovae and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshif...
Frozen up dilaton and the GUT/Planck mass ratio
Davidson, Aharon; Ygael, Tomer
2017-09-01
By treating modulus and phase on equal footing, as prescribed by Dirac, local scale invariance can consistently accompany any Brans-Dicke ω-theory. We show that in the presence of a soft scale symmetry breaking term, the classical solution, if it exists, cannot be anything else but general relativistic. The dilaton modulus gets frozen up by the Weyl-Proca vector field, thereby constituting a gravitational quasi-Higgs mechanism. Assigning all grand unified scalars as dilatons, they enjoy Weyl universality, and upon symmetry breaking, the Planck (mass)2 becomes the sum of all their individual (VEV)2s. The emerging GUT/Planck (mass)2 ratio is thus ∼ ωgGUT2 / 4 π.
The Status of Cosmic Topology after Planck Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Pierre Luminet
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the last decade, the study of the overall shape of the universe, called Cosmic Topology, has become testable by astronomical observations, especially the data from the Cosmic Microwave Background (hereafter CMB obtained by WMAP and Planck telescopes. Cosmic Topology involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. It deals with questions such as whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected, and smaller or greater than its observable counterpart. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected small universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the last CMB (Planck data fit well the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they remain consistent with more complex shapes such as the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. We review the theoretical and observational status of the field.
Probing nuclear rates with Planck and BICEP2
Di Valentino, Eleonora; Lesgourgues, Julien; Mangano, Gianpiero; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Miele, Gennaro; Pisanti, Ofelia
2014-01-01
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) relates key cosmological parameters to the primordial abundance of light elements. In this paper, we point out that the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies by the Planck satellite and by the BICEP2 experiment constrain these parameters with such a high level of accuracy that the primordial deuterium abundance can be inferred with remarkable precision. For a given cosmological model, one can obtain independent information on nuclear processes in the energy range relevant for BBN, which determine the eventual ^2H/H yield. In particular, assuming the standard cosmological model, we show that a combined analysis of Planck data and of recent deuterium abundance measurements in metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha systems provides independent information on the cross section of the radiative capture reaction d(p,\\gamma)^3He converting deuterium into helium. Interestingly, the result is higher than the values suggested by a fit of present experimental data in the B...
Fokker-Planck equation resolution for N variables. Application examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz, A.; Garcia-Olivares, A.
1994-01-01
A set of problems which are reducible to Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Those problems have been solved by using the CHAPKOL library. This library of programs solves stochastic Fokker-Plank equations in one or several dimensions by using the Chapman- Kolmogorov integral. This method calculates the probability distribution at a time t + dt from a distribution given at time t through a convolution integral in which the integration is the product of the distribution function at time t and the Green function of the Fokker-Planck equation. The method have some numerical advantages when compared with finite differences algorithms. The accuracy of the method is analysed in several specific cases. (Author) 9 refs
Resurrecting power law inflation in the light of Planck results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun
2013-01-01
It is well known that a canonical scalar field with an exponential potential can drive power law inflation (PLI). However, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such models turns out to be larger than the stringent limit set by recent Planck results. We propose a new model of power law inflation for which the scalar spectra index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the non-gaussianity parameter f NL equil are in excellent agreement with Planck results. Inflation, in this model, is driven by a non-canonical scalar field with an inverse power law potential. The Lagrangian for our model is structurally similar to that of a canonical scalar field and has a power law form for the kinetic term. A simple extension of our model resolves the graceful exit problem which usually afflicts models of power law inflation
Modelling Planck-scale Lorentz violation via analogue models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinfurtner, Silke; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt
2006-01-01
Astrophysical tests of Planck-suppressed Lorentz violations had been extensively studied in recent years and very stringent constraints have been obtained within the framework of effective field theory. There are however still some unresolved theoretical issues, in particular regarding the so called 'naturalness problem' - which arises when postulating that Planck suppressed Lorentz violations arise only from operators with mass dimension greater than four in the Lagrangian. In the work presented here we shall try to address this problem by looking at a condensed-matter analogue of the Lorentz violations considered in quantum gravity phenomenology. specifically, we investigate the class of two-component BECs subject to laserinduced transitions between the two components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. We shall show that such a model can be considered to be an explicit example high-energy Lorentz violations where the 'naturalness problem' does not arise
Inflation in the light of BICEP2 and PLANCK
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The BICEP2/Keck+PLANCK joint analysis of the B-model polarization and polar- ization by foreground dust sets an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.05 < 0.12 at 95%. CL. The popular Starorbinsky model Higgs-inflation or the conformally equivalent Higgs-inflation model allow low r values (∼10−3).
Time-space limitations of Nernst-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pellicer, J.; Aguilera, V.M.; Mafe, S.
1988-01-01
The nature and applicability of Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations are considered, concerning the problem of electrolyte transport in non-homogeneous solutions. Some approximations related to the model of transport are discussed, specially those referring to the electrodynamical aspects. Thus, the connection between the classical electrostatics approximations and the time-space limitations of the model is shown. A detailed analysis leads to conclude that some of the aspects of the charge separation process have not been completely understood. (Author)
Universe before Planck time: A quantum gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1983-01-01
A model for quantum gravity can be constructed by treating the conformal degree of freedom of spacetime as a quantum variable. An isotropic, homogeneous cosmological solution in this quantum gravity model is presented. The spacetime is nonsingular for all the three possible values of three-space curvature, and agrees with the classical solution for time scales larger than the Planck time scale. A possibility of quantum fluctuations creating the matter in the universe is suggested
Thermal architecture design tests for the Planck/HFI instrument
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piat, M.; Leriche, B.; Torre, J.-P.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Benoit, A.; Crussaire, J.-P
2000-04-07
The ESA satellite project Planck is designed to survey the sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths in a drift scan mode. The High-Frequency Instrument (HFI) will use 48 bolometers cooled to 100 mK by a dilution cooler. In this paper, we describe how the scan strategy leads to requirements on the 0.1 K stage temperature stability and how a combination of a passive and an active system can be used to approach this specification.
FIFPC, a fast ion Fokker--Planck code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, R.H.; Callen, J.D.; Rome, J.A.; Smith, J.
1976-07-01
A computer code is described which solves the Fokker--Planck equation for the velocity space distribution of fast ions injected into a tokamak plasma. The numerical techniques are described and use of the code is outlined. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and is modularized in order to provide greater flexibility to the user. A program listing is provided and the results of sample cases are presented
COSMOLOGY FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS AND PLANCK DATA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Sonnenfeld, A.; Hilbert, S.; Spiniello, C.; Auger, M. W.; Collett, T.; Blandford, R. D.; Marshall, P. J.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Tewes, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.
2014-01-01
Under the assumption of a flat ΛCDM cosmology, recent data from the Planck satellite point toward a Hubble constant that is in tension with that measured by gravitational lens time delays and by the local distance ladder. Prosaically, this difference could arise from unknown systematic uncertainties in some of the measurements. More interestingly—if systematics were ruled out—resolving the tension would require a departure from the flat ΛCDM cosmology, introducing, for example, a modest amount of spatial curvature, or a non-trivial dark energy equation of state. To begin to address these issues, we present an analysis of the gravitational lens RXJ1131–1231 that is improved in one particular regard: we examine the issue of systematic error introduced by an assumed lens model density profile. We use more flexible gravitational lens models with baryonic and dark matter components, and find that the exquisite Hubble Space Telescope image with thousands of intensity pixels in the Einstein ring and the stellar velocity dispersion of the lens contain sufficient information to constrain these more flexible models. The total uncertainty on the time-delay distance is 6.6% for a single system. We proceed to combine our improved time-delay distance measurement with the WMAP9 and Planck posteriors. In an open ΛCDM model, the data for RXJ1131–1231 in combination with Planck favor a flat universe with Ω k =0.00 −0.02 +0.01 (68% credible interval (CI)). In a flat wCDM model, the combination of RXJ1131–1231 and Planck yields w=−1.52 −0.20 +0.19 (68% CI)
Quantum magnification of classical sub-Planck phase space features
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hensinger, W.K.; Heckenberg, N.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Delande, D.
2002-01-01
Full text: To understand the relationship between quantum mechanics and classical physics a crucial question to be answered is how distinct classical dynamical phase space features translate into the quantum picture. This problem becomes even more interesting if these phase space features occupy a much smaller volume than ℎ in a phase space spanned by two non-commuting variables such as position and momentum. The question whether phase space structures in quantum mechanics associated with sub-Planck scales have physical signatures has recently evoked a lot of discussion. Here we will show that sub-Planck classical dynamical phase space structures, for example regions of regular motion, can give rise to states whose phase space representation is of size ℎ or larger. This is illustrated using period-1 regions of regular motion (modes of oscillatory motion of a particle in a modulated well) whose volume is distinctly smaller than Planck's constant. They are magnified in the quantum picture and appear as states whose phase space representation is of size h or larger. Cold atoms provide an ideal test bed to probe such fundamental aspects of quantum and classical dynamics. In the experiment a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded into a far detuned optical lattice. The lattice depth is modulated resulting in the emergence of regions of regular motion surrounded by chaotic motion in the phase space spanned by position and momentum of the atoms along the standing wave. Sub-Planck scaled phase space features in the classical phase space are magnified and appear as distinct broad peaks in the atomic momentum distribution. The corresponding quantum analysis shows states of size Ti which can be associated with much smaller classical dynamical phase space features. This effect may considered as the dynamical equivalent of the Goldstone and Jaffe theorem which predicts the existence of at least one bound state at a bend in a two or three dimensional spatial potential
On the analytical demonstration of Planck-Einstein relation
Molina Morales, Eddy Luis
2016-01-01
In this paper a possible analytical demonstration of Planck's Law for the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic energy radiated by hot bodies is presented, but in this case, the solutions of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic radiation problem of Hertz’s dipole are used. The concepts of quantum energy and of photon are redefined from the classical point of view, relating them to the possible electronic nature of electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic field in general. B...
Chaotic universe dynamics using a Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coule, D.H.; Olynyk, K.O.
1987-07-01
A Fokker-Planck equation that accounts for fluctuations in field and its conjugate momentum is solved numerically for the case of a λ phi 4 potential. Although the amount of inflation agrees closely with that expected classically, in certain cases (large initial fields or large dispersions),the ''slow rolling'' approximation appears invalid. In such cases inflation would stop prematurely before possibly restarting. 18 refs., 2 figs
Planck intermediate results XXIV. Constraints on variations in fundamental constants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2015-01-01
cosmological probes. We conclude that independent time variations of the fine structure constant and of the mass of the electron are constrained by Planck to Δ Α/Α = (3.6±3.7) x 10-3 and Δ me/me = (4 ±11) x 10-3 at the 68% confidence level. We also investigate the possibility of a spatial variation of the fine...
Joint Analysis of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ahmed, Z.
2015-01-01
We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400 deg2 patch of sky centered on RA 0 h, Dec. -57.5°. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck...... GHz to a lensed-ΛCDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r), using a prior on the frequency spectral behavior of polarized dust emission from previous Planck analysis of other regions of the sky. We...... present an alternative analysis which is similar to a map-based cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for r, and yields an upper limit r 0.05
Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Lowe, S R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mendes, L [Planck Science Office, European Space Agency, ESAC, P.O. box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, 2 Trieste I-34127 (Italy); Salmon, M J [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: tomasi@lambrate.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy)
2009-12-15
The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.
Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M; Galeotta, S; Maris, M; Lowe, S R; Mendes, L; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P; Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Gregorio, A; Salmon, M J; Binko, P; D'Arcangelo, O
2009-01-01
The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.
Vectorized Fokker-Planck package for the CRAY-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCoy, M.G.; Mirin, A.A.; Killeen, J.
1979-08-01
A program for the solution of the time-dependent, two dimensional, nonlinear, multi-species Fokker-Planck equation is described. The programming is written such that the loop structure is highly vectorizable on the CRAY FORTRAN Compiler. A brief discussion of the Fokker-Planck equation itself is followed by a description of the procedure developed to solve the equation efficiently. The Fokker-Planck equation is a second order partial differential equation whose coefficients depend upon moments of the distribution functions. Both the procedure for the calculation of these coefficients and the procedure for the time advancement of the equation itself must be done efficiently if significant overall time saving is to result. The coefficients are calculated in a series of nested loops, while time advancement is accomplished by a choice of either a splitting or an ADI technique. Overall, timing tests show that the vectorized CRAY program realizes up to a factor of 12 advantage over an optimized CDC-7600 program and up to a factor of 365 over a non-vectorized version of the same program on the CRAY
Internal delensing of Planck CMB temperature and polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carron, Julien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Lewis, Antony; Challinor, Anthony, E-mail: j.carron@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: Antony.Lewis@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: a.d.challinor@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2017-05-01
We present a first internal delensing of CMB maps, both in temperature and polarization, using the public foreground-cleaned (SMICA) Planck 2015 maps. After forming quadratic estimates of the lensing potential, we use the corresponding displacement field to undo the lensing on the same data. We build differences of the delensed spectra to the original data spectra specifically to look for delensing signatures. After taking into account reconstruction noise biases in the delensed spectra, we find an expected sharpening of the power spectrum acoustic peaks with a delensing efficiency of 29 % ( TT ) 25 % ( TE ) and 22 % ( EE ). The detection significance of the delensing effects is very high in all spectra: 12 σ in EE polarization; 18 σ in TE ; and 20 σ in TT . The null hypothesis of no lensing in the maps is rejected at 26 σ. While direct detection of the power in lensing B -modes themselves is not possible at high significance at Planck noise levels, we do detect (at 4.5 σ (under the null hypothesis)) delensing effects in the B -mode map, with 7 % reduction in lensing power. Our results provide a first demonstration of polarization delensing, and generally of internal CMB delensing, and stand in agreement with the baseline ΛCDM Planck 2015 cosmology expectations.
Large-scale alignments from WMAP and Planck
Copi, Craig J.; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2015-01-01
We revisit the alignments of the largest structures observed in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the seven and nine-year WMAP and first-year Planck data releases. The observed alignments -- the quadrupole with the octopole and their joint alignment with the direction of our motion with respect to the CMB (the dipole direction) and the geometry of the Solar System (defined by the Ecliptic plane) -- are generally in good agreement with results from the previous WMAP data releases. However, a closer look at full-sky data on the largest scales reveals discrepancies between the earlier WMAP data releases (three to seven-year) and the final nine-year release. There are also discrepancies between all the WMAP data releases and the first-year Planck release. Nevertheless, both the WMAP and Planck data confirm the alignments of the largest observable CMB modes in the Universe. In particular, the p-values for the mutual alignment between the quadrupole and octopole, and the alignment of the plane defined by ...
Derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation for bunched beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, A.G.
1993-01-01
This report investigates the derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation which is commonly used to evaluate the evolution with time of an ensemble of particles under the effect of external rf forces, cooling and forces of stochastic nature like intrabeam scattering. The conventional approach based on the classical work by Chandrasekhar is first exposed, where the phase delay and the momentum error of the particle are used. The method is then extended to the case the distribution function is expressed in terms of the amplitude of motion instead of the original rectilinear variables. The new Fokker-Planck equation is obtained with an averaging process over the phase distribution instead of the time-averaging as it was usually performed earlier, to avoid the appearance of a singularity behavior. The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is chosen in the proper form which makes easier the evaluation of the beam lifetime in the presence of the separatrix of the rf buckets. Finally the numerical applications apply the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
Numerical method for the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, D.S.; Wei, G.W.; Kouri, D.J.; Hoffman, D.K.
1997-01-01
A practical method based on distributed approximating functionals (DAFs) is proposed for numerically solving a general class of nonlinear time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. The method relies on a numerical scheme that couples the usual path-integral concept to the DAF idea. The high accuracy and reliability of the method are illustrated by applying it to an exactly solvable nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, and the method is compared with the accurate K-point Stirling interpolation formula finite-difference method. The approach is also used successfully to solve a nonlinear self-consistent dynamic mean-field problem for which both the cumulant expansion and scaling theory have been found by Drozdov and Morillo [Phys. Rev. E 54, 931 (1996)] to be inadequate to describe the occurrence of a long-lived transient bimodality. The standard interpretation of the transient bimodality in terms of the flat region in the kinetic potential fails for the present case. An alternative analysis based on the effective potential of the Schroedinger-like Fokker-Planck equation is suggested. Our analysis of the transient bimodality is strongly supported by two examples that are numerically much more challenging than other examples that have been previously reported for this problem. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Inflation after False Vacuum Decay observational Prospects after Planck
Bousso, Raphael; Senatore, Leonardo
2015-01-01
We assess potential signals of the formation of our universe by the decay of a false vacuum. Negative spatial curvature is one possibility, but the window for its detection is now small. However, another possible signal is a suppression of the CMB power spectrum at large angles. This arises from the steepening of the effective potential as it interpolates between a flat inflationary plateau and the high barrier separating us from our parent vacuum. We demonstrate that these two effects can be parametrically separated in angular scale. Observationally, the steepening effect appears to be excluded at large l; but it remains consistent with the slight lack of power below l about 30 found by the WMAP and Planck collaborations. We give two simple models which improve the fit to the Planck data; one with observable curvature and one without. Despite cosmic variance, we argue that future CMB polarization and most importantly large-scale structure observations should be able to corroborate the Planck anomaly if it is...
MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission
Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.
2008-09-01
MetNet Mars Mission will provide a crucial support for the safety of large landing missions in general and manned Mars missions in particular. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric conditions and weather data is essential to guarantee safe landings of the forthcoming Mars mission elements. The MetNet Mars Mission is exactly this type of tool that is needed both for the Martian atmospheric science as well as for the mission safety issues.
Similarity solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, W.-T.; Ho, C.-L.
2012-01-01
In this work, we consider the solvability of the Fokker–Planck equation with both time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients by means of the similarity method. By the introduction of the similarity variable, the Fokker–Planck equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Adopting the natural requirement that the probability current density vanishes at the boundary, the resulting ordinary differential equation turns out to be integrable, and the probability density function can be given in closed form. New examples of exactly solvable Fokker–Planck equations are presented, and their properties analyzed. - Highlights: ► Scaling form of the Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients is derived. ► Exact similarity solution of the Fokker–Planck equation is given in closed forms. ► New examples of Fokker–Planck equations exactly solvable by similarity methods are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com; Rivas, Jesus Morales [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, CBI - Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada, Av. San Pablo 180, Reynosa Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jmr@correo.azc.uam.mx; Pena Gil, Jose Juan [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, CBI - Area de Fisica Atomica Molecular Aplicada, Av. San Pablo 180, Reynosa Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jjpg@correo.azc.uam.mx; Garcia-Ravelo, Jesus [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ravelo@esfm.ipn.mx; Roy, Pinaki [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta-700108 (India)], E-mail: pinaki@isical.ac.in
2009-04-20
We generalize the formalism of nth order Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (n-SUSY) to the Fokker-Planck equation for constant diffusion coefficient and stationary drift potential. The SUSY partner drift potentials and the corresponding solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are given explicitly. As an application, we generate new solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation by means of our first- and second-order transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Rivas, Jesus Morales; Pena Gil, Jose Juan; Garcia-Ravelo, Jesus; Roy, Pinaki
2009-01-01
We generalize the formalism of nth order Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (n-SUSY) to the Fokker-Planck equation for constant diffusion coefficient and stationary drift potential. The SUSY partner drift potentials and the corresponding solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are given explicitly. As an application, we generate new solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation by means of our first- and second-order transformation.
Unsteady analytical solutions to the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schönke, Johannes
2012-01-01
It is shown that the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations for a single ion species can be formulated as one equation in terms of the electric field. This previously not analyzed equation shows similarities to the vector Burgers equation and is identical with it in the one dimensional case. Several unsteady exact solutions for one and multidimensional cases are presented. Besides new mathematical insights which these first known unsteady solutions give, they can serve as test cases in computer simulations to analyze numerical algorithms and to verify code. (paper)
Planck-scale effects on WIMP dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofiane M Boucenna
2014-01-01
Full Text Available There exists a widely known conjecture that gravitational effects violate global symmetries. We study the effect of global-symmetry violating higher-dimension operators induced by Planck-scale physics on the properties of WIMP dark matter. Using an effective description, we show that the lifetime of the WIMP dark matter candidate can satisfy cosmological bounds under reasonable assumptions regarding the strength of the dimension-five operators. On the other hand, the indirect WIMP dark matter detection signal is significantly enhanced due to new decay channels.
Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA. Letter of intent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, V.; Balewski, K.
2016-02-15
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space- time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10{sup -35} m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10{sup -19} m at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity 10{sup -31} m for doubly and 10{sup -28} m for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.
Planck 2013 results. VI. High Frequency Instrument data processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
We describe the processing of the 531 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 473 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143,217, 353, 545......, these two high frequency channels are calibrated to within 5% and the 353 GHz channel to the percent level. The 100 and217 GHz channels, which together with the 143 GHz channel determine the high-multipole part of the CMB power spectrum (50
The traces of anisotropic dark energy in light of Planck
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Hollenstein, Lukas, E-mail: wilmar.cardona@unige.ch, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@zhaw.ch, E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch [IAS Institute of Applied Simulation, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Grüental, PO Box, 8820 Wädenswil (Switzerland)
2014-07-01
We study a dark energy model with non-zero anisotropic stress, either linked to the dark energy density or to the dark matter density. We compute approximate solutions that allow to characterise the behaviour of the dark energy model and to assess the stability of the perturbations. We also determine the current limits on such an anisotropic stress from the cosmic microwave background data by the Planck satellite, and derive the corresponding constraints on the modified growth parameters like the growth index, the effective Newton's constant and the gravitational slip.
Reconsiderations of long debated subjects: uncertainty relations and Planck's constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumitru, S.
2005-01-01
Some earlier unresolved controversies about uncertainty relations and quantum measurements have persisted to this day. They originate in the shortcomings of the conventional interpretation of uncertainty relations. In this paper, we showed that those shortcomings exposed credible, unavoidable facts making it imperative that the conventional interpretation should be dropped. So, the primitive uncertainty relations appeared as being either figments or fluctuation formulae. Subsequently, we showed that for quantum microparticles the Planck constant h acted as an indicator of stochasticity, a role entirely similar to the one the Boltzmann constant k played in respect of the thermodynamic stochasticity of macroscopic systems. (author)
Planck 2013 results. XVIII. Gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.
A fractional Fokker-Planck model for anomalous diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kim, Eun-jin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Moradi, Sara [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7648, LPP, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)
2014-12-15
In this paper, we present a study of anomalous diffusion using a Fokker-Planck description with fractional velocity derivatives. The distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degree of fractionality of the stable Lévy distribution. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized normalized expectation measure and entropy in terms of Tsallis statistical mechanics. We find that the ratio of the generalized entropy and expectation is increasing with decreasing fractionality towards the well known so-called sub-diffusive domain, indicating a self-organising behavior.
Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA. Letter of intent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gharibyan, V.; Balewski, K.
2016-02-01
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space- time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10 -35 m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10 -19 m at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity 10 -31 m for doubly and 10 -28 m for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.
Fokker-Planck modeling of pitting corrosion in underground pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camacho, Eliana Nogueira [Risco Ambiental Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Saldanha, Pedro Luiz C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e Ciclo do Combustivel; Silva, Edson de Pinho da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Physics
2011-07-01
Full text: The stochastic nature of pitting corrosion has been recognized since the 1930s. It has been learned that this damage retains no memory of its past. Instead, the future state is determined only by the knowledge of its present state. This Markovian property that underlies the stochastic process governing pitting corrosion has been explored as a discrete Markovian process by many authors since the beginning of the 1990s for underground pipelines of the oil and gas industries and nuclear power plants. Corrosion is a genuine continuous time and space state Markovian process, so to model it as a discrete time and/or state space is an approximation to the problem. Markovian chains approaches, with an increasing number of states, could involve a large number of parameters, the transition rates between states, to be experimentally determined. Besides, such an increase in the number of states produces matrices with huge dimensions leading to time-consuming computational solutions. Recent approaches involving Markovian discrete process have overcome those difficulties but, on the other hand, a large number of soil and pipe stochastic variables have to be known. In this work we propose a continuous time and space state approach to the evolution of pit corrosion depths in underground pipelines. In order to illustrate the application of the model for defect depth growth a combination of real life data and Monte Carlo simulation was used. The process is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is completely determined by the knowledge of two functions known as the drift and diffusion coefficients. In this work we also show that those functions can be estimated from corrosion depth data from in-line inspections. Some particular forms of drift and diffusion coefficients lead to particular Fokker-Planck equations for which analytical solutions are known, as is the case for the Wiener process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Brownian motion
Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing
Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places in which our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions on the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.
Integral solution for the spherically symmetric Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donoso, J.M.; Soler, M.
1993-01-01
We propose an integral method to deal with the spherically symmetric non-linear Fokker-Planck equation appearing in plasma physics. A probability transition expression is obtained, which takes into account the proper domain for the radial velocity component. The analytical and computational results are new, and the time evolution is completely satisfactory. The main achievement of the method is conservation of both the initial norm and energy for unlimited times, which has not been attained in the differential approach to the problem. (orig.)
The discrete Planck spectrum of a spherical cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, V.I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.
1999-03-01
The energy spectrum of black body radiation at the absolute temperature, T, in an ideal spherical cavity of radius, R, is studied. The departures from the classical predictions of Planck's theory, due to the discrete energies of the radiation quanta confined inside the cavity, depend on the adiabatic invariant RT and are significant for RT ≤ 40 cm · K. Special attention was paid to evidence strong changes in the spectrum intensities, forbidden bands of frequency, as well as major modifications of the total energy for RT ≤ 2 cm · K. Similar effects were present in the case of a cubic cavity. (author)
Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob
2005-01-01
Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at
Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the processing applied to the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) cleaned, time-ordered information to produce photometrically calibrated maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the 2.5 year full mission include almost five independent full-sky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To get the best accuracy on the calibration over such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are calibrated using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are calibrated using the time-variable cosmological microwave background dipole which we call the orbital dipole. This source of calibration only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system and permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.5 +/- 0.8 \\mu K) which is 1\\sigma\\ higher than the WMAP measurement wit...
Planck intermediate results. XXIV. Constraints on variation of fundamental constants
Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Dore, O.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Uzan, J.P.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2015-01-01
Any variation of the fundamental physical constants, and more particularly of the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$, or of the mass of the electron, $m_e$, would affect the recombination history of the Universe and cause an imprint on the cosmic microwave background angular power spectra. We show that the Planck data allow one to improve the constraint on the time variation of the fine structure constant at redshift $z\\sim 10^3$ by about a factor of 5 compared to WMAP data, as well as to break the degeneracy with the Hubble constant, $H_0$. In addition to $\\alpha$, we can set a constraint on the variation of the mass of the electron, $m_{\\rm e}$, and on the simultaneous variation of the two constants. We examine in detail the degeneracies between fundamental constants and the cosmological parameters, in order to compare the limits obtained from Planck and WMAP and to determine the constraining power gained by including other cosmological probes. We conclude that independent time variations of the fine structu...
Integral propagator solvers for Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donoso, J M; Rio, E del
2007-01-01
We briefly discuss the use of short-time integral propagators on solving the so-called Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of a distribution function. For this equation, the diffusion tensor is singular and the usual Gaussian representation of the short-time propagator is no longer valid. However, we prove that the path-integral approach on solving the equation is, in fact, reliable by means of our generalized propagator, which is obtained through the construction of an auxiliary solvable Fokker-Planck equation. The new representation of the grid-free advancing scheme describes the inherent cross- and self-diffusion processes, in both velocity and configuration spaces, in a natural manner, although these processes are not explicitly depicted in the differential equation. We also show that some splitting methods, as well as some finite-difference schemes, could fail in describing the aforementioned diffusion processes, governed in the whole phase space only by the velocity diffusion tensor. The short-time transition probability offers a stable and robust numerical algorithm that preserves the distribution positiveness and its norm, ensuring the smoothness of the evolving solution at any time step. (fast track communication)
Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck-scale phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Smolin, Lee; Starodubtsev, Artem
2004-01-01
We present a simple algebraic mechanism for the emergence of deformations of Poincare symmetries in the low-energy limit of quantum theories of gravity. The deformations, called κ-Poincare algebras, are parametrized by a dimensional parameter proportional to the Planck mass, and imply modified energy-momentum relations of a type that may be observable in near future experiments. Our analysis assumes that the low energy limit of a quantum theory of gravity must also involve a limit in which the cosmological constant is taken very small with respect to the Planck scale, and makes use of the fact that in some quantum theories of gravity the cosmological constant results in the (anti)de Sitter symmetry algebra being quantum deformed. We show that deformed Poincare symmetries inevitably emerge in the small-cosmological-constant limit of quantum gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions, where geometry does not have local degrees of freedom. In 3 + 1 dimensions we observe that, besides the quantum deformation of the (anti)de Sitter symmetry algebra, one must also take into account that there are local degrees of freedom leading to a renormalization of the generators for energy and momentum of the excitations. At the present level of development of quantum gravity in 3 + 1 dimensions, it is not yet possible to derive this renormalization from first principles, but we establish the conditions needed for the emergence of a deformed low energy limit symmetry algebra also in the case of 3 + 1 dimensions
Linear analysis of the momentum cooling Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.B.
1989-01-01
In order to optimize the extraction scheme used to take antiprotons out of the accumulator, it is necessary to understand the basic processes involved. At present, six antiproton bunches per Tevatron store are removed sequentially by RF unstacking from the accumulator. The phase space dynamics of this process, with its accompanying phase displacement deceleration and phase space dilution of portions of the stack, can be modelled by numerical solution of the longitudinal equations of motion for a large number of particles. We have employed the tracking code ESME for this purpose. In between RF extractions, however, the stochastic cooling system is turned on for a short time, and we must take into account the effect of momentum stochastic cooling on the antiproton energy spectrum. This process is described by the Fokker-Planck equation, which models the evolution of the antiproton stack energy distribution by accounting for the cooling through an applied coherent drag force and the competing heating of the stack due to diffusion, which can arise from intra-beam scattering, amplifier noise and coherent (Schottky) effects. In this note we examine the aspects of the Fokker-Planck in the regime where the nonlinear terms due to Schottky effects are small. This discussion ultimately leads to solution of the equation in terms of an orthonormal set of functions which are closely related to the quantum simple-harmonic oscillator wave-functions. 5 refs
Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, wi...
Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...
The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-04-05
We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.
Planck satellite constraints on pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson quintessence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smer-Barreto, Vanessa; Liddle, Andrew R., E-mail: vsm@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: arl@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2017-01-01
The pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) potential, defined through the amplitude M {sup 4} and width f of its characteristic potential V (φ) = M {sup 4}[1 + cos(φ/ f )], is one of the best-suited models for the study of thawing quintessence. We analyse its present observational constraints by direct numerical solution of the scalar field equation of motion. Observational bounds are obtained using Supernovae data, cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing data from Planck , direct Hubble constant constraints, and baryon acoustic oscillations data. We find the parameter ranges for which PNGB quintessence gives a viable theory for dark energy. This exact approach is contrasted with the use of an approximate equation-of-state parametrization for thawing theories. We also discuss other possible parameterization choices, as well as commenting on the accuracy of the constraints imposed by Planck alone. Overall our analysis highlights a significant prior dependence to the outcome coming from the choice of modelling methodology, which current data are not sufficient to override.
The evolving Planck mass in classically scale-invariant theories
Kannike, K.; Raidal, M.; Spethmann, C.; Veermäe, H.
2017-04-01
We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories. Field oscillations around the fixed point, if not damped, contribute to the dark matter density of the Universe.
From Planck Constant to Isomorphicity Through Justice Paradox
Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra
2015-05-01
Robert E. Scott in his ``Chaos theory and the Justice Paradox'', William & Mary Law Review, v 35, I 1, 329 (1993) wrotes''...As we approach the 21-st Century, the signs of social disarray are everywhere. Social critics observe the breakdown of core structure - the nuclear family, schools, neighborhoods & political groups''. For completions for ``soliton'' first coined by Morikazu TODA, comparing the ``Soliton on Scott-Russell aqueduct on the Union Canal near Heriot-WATT University, July 12, 1995 to Michael Stock works: ``a Fine WATT-Balance: Determination of Planck constant & Redefinition of Kilogram'', January 2011, we can concludes the inherencies between `chaos' & `soliton'. Further through ``string theory'' from Michio KAKU sought statements from Peter Mayr: Stringy world brane & Exponential hierarchy'', JHEP 11 (2000): ``if the 5-brane is embedded in flat 10-D space time, the 6-D Planck mass on the brane is infinite'' who also describes the relation of isomorphicity & ``string theory'', from whom denotes the smart city. Replace this text with your abstract body. Incredible acknowledgments to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Dr-HC Jakob OETAMA.
Planck 2015 results. XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis...
Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement
Quincey, Paul
2013-01-01
The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…
Darboux transformations for (1+2)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations with constant diffusion matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel
2012-01-01
We construct a Darboux transformation for (1+2)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations with constant diffusion matrix. Our transformation is based on the two-dimensional supersymmetry formalism for the Schrödinger equation. The transformed Fokker-Planck equation and its solutions are obtained in explicit form.
Planck intermediate results XXXIV. The magnetic field structure in the Rosette Nebula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
Planck has mapped the polarized dust emission over the whole sky, making it possible to trace the Galactic magnetic field structure that pervades the interstellar medium (ISM). We combine polarization data from Planck with rotation measure (RM) observations towards a massive star-forming region, ...
Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.
2016-01-01
Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous gro...
Planck's orders of magnitude and the limits of the quantum gravity conception
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H.H. von.
1988-02-01
In this paper it is shown how the universal constants h, c and G prevent that one can derive measurable quantum GRT effects for energies near the Planck energy. Planck's units thus screen those GRT regions where difficulties for the quantization procedure occur, from a physically sensible quantum-field (or graviton) interpretation. 22 refs
Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education: Annual Report 1990.
Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).
The Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education in Germany consists of four research centers dealing with the following topics: sociology and the study of the life course; development and socialization; psychology and human development; and school systems and instruction. This English-language annual report of the Planck Institute,…
The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.
Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.
1997-01-01
Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)
Solving the Fokker-Planck equation on a massively parallel computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.
1990-01-01
The Fokker-Planck package FPPAC had been converted to the Connection Machine 2 (CM2). For fine mesh cases the CM2 outperforms the Cray-2 when it comes to time-integrating the difference equations. For long Legendre expansions the CM2 is also faster at computing the Fokker-Planck coefficients. 3 refs
Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We report that Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100–353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature
Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pietrobon, Davide
2016-01-01
Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν −0.8 ) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a dark
Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena [University of Southern California, 3620 McClintock Ave., SGM 408, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Gaskins, Jennifer M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pietrobon, Davide, E-mail: egorov@usc.edu, E-mail: jgaskins@uva.nl, E-mail: pierpaol@usc.edu, E-mail: daddeptr@gmail.com [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Rd, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)
2016-03-01
Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν{sup −0.8}) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a
Detection of CMB lensing in Planck-HFI data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavabre, Alexis
2011-01-01
The Planck satellite is the third generation experiment dedicated to the observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The resolution and sensibility of its instruments allow for the first time the detection of the weak lensing effect on CMB. This thesis present a original detection method of this effect in the data of the HFI instrument of Planck.The first part give a general description of the standard model of cosmology et the physics of the CMB. The part then presents the details of the weak lensing effect, concentrating on its impact on the CMB observables. This part ends with a description of the Planck satellite and its instruments.The second part, describes the set of simulations and analysis tools that I have developed allowing me to make the first measurement of the weak lensing effect on CMB. It presents the original method that I used which is based on a patch analysis of the full sky data, that is able to only take into account the less contaminated regions. This part also present the characterisation of the lensing potential estimator for masked maps in the presence of inhomogeneous noise and introduce a method, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, that is used to correct for the bias produced by the analysis method.The last part, concentrates on the work on HFI data. The first chapter presents the application of the above method to the maps of the combined observations at 143 GHz and 217 GHz and the maps from component separation using GMCA algorithm. The results show a deflection power spectrum compatible with the one expect in a lambda CMB universe, calculated with the cosmological parameters estimated by WMAP including seven years of observations. Using the points, from the combined estimation from the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps, for multipole smaller than 500, gives a 1.26 Chi2 by degree of freedom. Finally, the last chapter presents the compression algorithm used onboard to compression HFI data. It gives the details of the tuning and the
The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. HUAN-NIEMI
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar
Irreversible Thermodynamics of the Universe: Constraints from Planck Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy; Biswas, Atreyee
2014-01-01
The present work deals with irreversible universal thermodynamics. The homogenous and isotropic flat model of the universe is chosen as open thermodynamical system and nonequilibrium thermodynamics comes into picture. For simplicity, entropy flow is considered only due to heat conduction. Further, due to Maxwell-Cattaneo modified Fourier law for nonequilibrium phenomenon, the temperature satisfies damped wave equation instead of heat conduction equation. Validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) has been investigated for universe bounded by apparent or event horizon with cosmic substratum as perfect fluid with constant or variable equation of state or interacting dark species. Finally, we have used three Planck data sets to constrain the thermal conductivity λ and the coupling parameter b 2 . These constraints must be satisfied in order for GSLT to hold for universe bounded by apparent or event horizons
Fokker-Planck simulation study of Alfven eigenmode burst
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Sato, T.
2001-01-01
Recurrent bursts of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are reproduced with a Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a fast-ion source and slowing down are incorporated self-consistently. The bursts take place at regular time intervals and the behaviors of all the TAEs are synchronized. The fast-ion transport due to TAE activity spatially broadens the classical fast-ion distribution and significantly reduces its peak value. Only a small change of the distribution takes place with each burst, leading to loss of a small fraction of the fast ions. The system stays close to the marginal stability state established through the interplay of the fast-ion source, slowing down, and TAE activity. (author)
Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing
Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated...
QED corrections to Planck's radiation law and photon thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partovi, M.H.
1994-01-01
Leading corrections to Planck's radiation formula and other photon thermodynamic functions arising from the pair-mediated photon-photon interaction are calculated. This interaction is found to be attractive and to cause a small increase in occupation number for all modes and a corresponding correction to the equation of state. The results are valid for the range of temperatures well below T e =5.9 GK, the temperature equivalent to the electron mass, a range for which the photon gas is essentially free of pair-produced electrons and positrons. An interesting effect of these corrections is the behavior of the photon gas as an elastic medium and its ability to propagate density perturbations. It is found that the cosmic photon gas subsequent to electron-positron annihilation would have manifested these elastic properties were it not for the presence of the free electrons and their dominance of the photon thermodynamics
NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.
Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.
1973-01-01
NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rath, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3 sigma). However, we find little evidence for non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist to scales corresponding to about l=600, and can be described in the low-l regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial powe...
Planck 2015 results: XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below ∼2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when...... of state, early DE, general potentials in minimally-coupled scalar fields or principal component analysis) are in agreement with ΛCDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to ΛCDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is ∼2σ......-space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations (expansion of the equation...
The Effective Planck Mass and the Scale of Inflation
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2015-01-01
Observable quantities in cosmology are dimensionless, and therefore independent of the units in which they are measured. This is true of all physical quantities associated with the primordial perturbations that source cosmic microwave background anisotropies such as their amplitude and spectral properties. However, if one were to try and infer an absolute energy scale for inflation-- a priori, one of the more immediate corollaries of detecting primordial tensor modes-- one necessarily makes reference to a particular choice of units, the natural choice for which is Planck units. In this note, we discuss various aspects of how inferring the energy scale of inflation is complicated by the fact that the effective strength of gravity as seen by inflationary quanta necessarily differs from that seen by gravitational experiments at presently accessible scales. The uncertainty in the former relative to the latter has to do with the unknown spectrum of universally coupled particles between laboratory scales and the pu...
Wess-Zumino Inflation in Light of Planck
Croon, Djuna; Mavromatos, Nick E
2013-01-01
We discuss cosmological inflation in the minimal Wess-Zumino model with a single massive chiral supermultiplet. With suitable parameters and assuming a plausible initial condition at the start of the inflationary epoch, the model can yield scalar perturbations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) of the correct strength with a spectral index n_s ~ 0.96 and a tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r < 0.1, consistent with the Planck CMB data. We also discuss the possibility of topological inflation within the Wess-Zumino model, and the possibility of combining it with a seesaw model for neutrino masses. This would violate R-parity, but at such a low rate that the lightest supersymmetric particle would have a lifetime long enough to constitute the astrophysical cold dark matter.
Quantifying the BICEP2-Planck tension over gravitational waves.
Smith, Kendrick M; Dvorkin, Cora; Boyle, Latham; Turok, Neil; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary; Gold, Ben
2014-07-18
The recent BICEP2 measurement of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (r = 0.2(-0.05)(+0.07)), a possible indication of primordial gravity waves, appears to be in tension with the upper limit from WMAP (r < 0.13 at 95% C.L.) and Planck (r < 0.11 at 95% C.L.). We carefully quantify the level of tension and show that it is very significant (around 0.1% unlikely) when the observed deficit of large-scale temperature power is taken into account. We show that measurements of TE and EE power spectra in the near future will discriminate between the hypotheses that this tension is either a statistical fluke or a sign of new physics. We also discuss extensions of the standard cosmological model that relieve the tension and some novel ways to constrain them.
Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker-Planck equations.
Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali
2009-07-07
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori-Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems.
Multitracer CMB delensing maps from Planck and WISE data
Yu, Byeonghee; Hill, J. Colin; Sherwin, Blake D.
2017-12-01
Delensing, the removal of the limiting lensing B -mode background, is crucial for the success of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) surveys in constraining inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs). In recent work, delensing with large-scale structure tracers has emerged as a promising method both for improving constraints on IGWs and for testing delensing methods for future use. However, the delensing fractions (i.e., the fraction of the lensing-B mode power removed) achieved by recent efforts have been only 20%-30%. In this work, we provide a detailed characterization of a full-sky, dust-cleaned cosmic infrared background (CIB) map for delensing and construct a further-improved delensing template by adding additional tracers to increase delensing performance. In particular, we build a multitracer delensing template by combining the dust-cleaned Planck CIB map with a reconstructed CMB lensing map from Planck and a galaxy number density map from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. For this combination, we calculate the relevant weightings by fitting smooth templates to measurements of all the cross-spectra and autospectra of these maps. On a large fraction of the sky (fsky=0.43 ), we demonstrate that our maps are capable of providing a delensing factor of 43 ±1 % ; using a more restrictive mask (fsky=0.11 ), the delensing factor reaches 48 ±1 % . For low-noise surveys, our delensing maps, which cover much of the sky, can thus improve constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r ) by nearly a factor of 2. The delensing tracer maps are made publicly available, and we encourage their use in ongoing and upcoming B -mode surveys.
PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein's equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 10$^{-7}$ of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn't depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M.Robitaille, according to which the 2.7K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein's theory.
Hypersonic expansion of the Fokker--Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Feria, R.
1989-01-01
A systematic study of the hypersonic limit of a heavy species diluted in a much lighter gas is made via the Fokker--Planck equation governing its velocity distribution function. In particular, two different hypersonic expansions of the Fokker--Planck equation are considered, differing from each other in the momentum equation of the heavy gas used as the basis of the expansion: in the first of them, the pressure tensor is neglected in that equation while, in the second expansion, the pressure tensor term is retained. The expansions are valid when the light gas Mach number is O(1) or larger and the difference between the mean velocities of light and heavy components is small compared to the light gas thermal speed. They can be applied away from regions where the spatial gradient of the distribution function is very large, but it is not restricted with respect to the temporal derivative of the distribution function. The hydrodynamic equations corresponding to the lowest order of both expansions constitute two different hypersonic closures of the moment equations. For the subsequent orders in the expansions, closed sets of moment equations (hydrodynamic equations) are given. Special emphasis is made on the order of magnitude of the errors of the lowest-order hydrodynamic quantities. It is shown that if the heat flux vanishes initially, these errors are smaller than one might have expected from the ordinary scaling of the hypersonic closure. Also it is found that the normal solution of both expansions is a Gaussian distribution at the lowest order
PLANCK, the Satellite: a New Experimental Test of General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borissova L.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available If the origin of a microwave background (EMB is the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole anisotropy measured at different altitudes from the surface of the Earth? The mathematical methods of the General Theory of Relativity are applied herein to answer these questions. The density of the EMB is answered by means of Einstein’s equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The dipole anisotropy, which is due to the rapid motion of the source (the Earth in the weak intergalactic field, is analysed by using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons, which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the EMB decreases with altitude so that the density of its energy at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25 km. Furthermore, the density at the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites should be only 1E-7 of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the EMB doesn’t depend on altitude from the surface of the Earth, it should be the same irrespective of the altitude at which measurements are taken. This result is in support to the experimental and observational analysis conducted by P.-M. Robitaille, according to which the 2.7 K microwave background, first observed by Penzias and Wilson, is not of cosmic origin, but of the Earth, and is generated by the oceans. WMAP indicated the same anisotropy of the microwave background at the 2nd Lagrange point that near the Earth. Therefore when PLANCK, which is planned on July, 2008, will manifest the 2.7 K monopole microwave signal deceased at the 2nd Langrange point, it will be a new experimental verification of Einstein’s theory.
Constraining brane inflationary magnetic field from cosmoparticle physics after Planck
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, Sayantan
2015-01-01
In this article, I have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on a generic class of large field (|Δϕ|>M_p) and small field (|Δϕ|< M_p) models of brane inflationary magnetic field from: (1) tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), (2) reheating, (3) leptogenesis and (4) baryogenesis in case of Randall-Sundrum single braneworld gravity (RSII) framework. I also establish a direct connection between the magnetic field at the present epoch (B_0) and primordial gravity waves (r), which give a precise estimate of non-vanishing CP asymmetry (ϵ_C_P) in leptogenesis and baryon asymmetry (η_B) in baryogenesis scenario respectively. Further assuming the conformal invariance to be restored after inflation in the framework of RSII, I have explicitly shown that the requirement of the sub-dominant feature of large scale coherent magnetic field after inflation gives two fold non-trivial characteristic constraints- on equation of state parameter (w) and the corresponding energy scale during reheating (ρ_r_h"1"/"4) epoch. Hence giving the proposal for avoiding the contribution of back-reaction from the magnetic field I have established a bound on the generic reheating characteristic parameter (R_r_h) and its rescaled version (R_s_c), to achieve large scale magnetic field within the prescribed setup and further apply the CMB constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck+BICEP2+Keck Array joint constraints. Using all these derived results I have shown that it is possible to put further stringent constraints on various classes of large and small field inflationary models to break the degeneracy between various cosmological parameters within the framework of RSII. Finally, I have studied the consequences from two specific models of brane inflation- monomial and hilltop, after applying the constraints obtained from inflation and primordial magnetic field.
Neutrinos help reconcile Planck measurements with the local universe.
Wyman, Mark; Rudd, Douglas H; Vanderveld, R Ali; Hu, Wayne
2014-02-07
Current measurements of the low and high redshift Universe are in tension if we restrict ourselves to the standard six-parameter model of flat ΛCDM. This tension has two parts. First, the Planck satellite data suggest a higher normalization of matter perturbations than local measurements of galaxy clusters. Second, the expansion rate of the Universe today, H0, derived from local distance-redshift measurements is significantly higher than that inferred using the acoustic scale in galaxy surveys and the Planck data as a standard ruler. The addition of a sterile neutrino species changes the acoustic scale and brings the two into agreement; meanwhile, adding mass to the active neutrinos or to a sterile neutrino can suppress the growth of structure, bringing the cluster data into better concordance as well. For our fiducial data set combination, with statistical errors for clusters, a model with a massive sterile neutrino shows 3.5σ evidence for a nonzero mass and an even stronger rejection of the minimal model. A model with massive active neutrinos and a massless sterile neutrino is similarly preferred. An eV-scale sterile neutrino mass--of interest for short baseline and reactor anomalies--is well within the allowed range. We caution that (i) unknown astrophysical systematic errors in any of the data sets could weaken this conclusion, but they would need to be several times the known errors to eliminate the tensions entirely; (ii) the results we find are at some variance with analyses that do not include cluster measurements; and (iii) some tension remains among the data sets even when new neutrino physics is included.
CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a | forthcoming | boms | Volumes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...
The contrasting roles of Planck's constant in classical and quantum theories
Boyer, Timothy H.
2018-04-01
We trace the historical appearance of Planck's constant in physics, and we note that initially the constant did not appear in connection with quanta. Furthermore, we emphasize that Planck's constant can appear in both classical and quantum theories. In both theories, Planck's constant sets the scale of atomic phenomena. However, the roles played in the foundations of the theories are sharply different. In quantum theory, Planck's constant is crucial to the structure of the theory. On the other hand, in classical electrodynamics, Planck's constant is optional, since it appears only as the scale factor for the (homogeneous) source-free contribution to the general solution of Maxwell's equations. Since classical electrodynamics can be solved while taking the homogenous source-free contribution in the solution as zero or non-zero, there are naturally two different theories of classical electrodynamics, one in which Planck's constant is taken as zero and one where it is taken as non-zero. The textbooks of classical electromagnetism present only the version in which Planck's constant is taken to vanish.
Does the planck mass run on the cosmological-horizon scale?
Robbers, Georg; Afshordi, Niayesh; Doran, Michael
2008-03-21
Einstein's theory of general relativity contains a universal value of the Planck mass. However, one may envisage that in alternative theories of gravity the effective value of the Planck mass (or Newton's constant), which quantifies the coupling of matter to metric perturbations, can run on the cosmological-horizon scale. In this Letter, we study the consequences of a glitch in the Planck mass from subhorizon to superhorizon scales. We show that current cosmological observations severely constrain this glitch to less than 1.2%.
Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.
2011-01-01
We present the statistical properties of the Cold Clump Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), the first all-sky catalogue of cold objects, in terms of their spatial distribution, dust temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We have combined Planck and IRAS data to extract 10342 cold sources...... dark clouds where the latter have been catalogued. These cold clumps are not isolated but clustered in groups. Dust temperature and emissivity spectral index values are derived from their spectral energy distributions using both Planck and IRAS data. The temperatures range from 7K to 19K...
Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma Cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ~ 3 X R_500. We test previously proposed models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged...... data. We find that the Arnaud et al. universal pressure profile does not fit Coma, and that their pressure profile for merging systems provides a good fit of the data only at rR_500 than the mean pressure profile predicted by the simulations. The Planck image shows significant local steepening of the y...
Isocurvature perturbations and tensor mode in light of Planck and BICEP2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@helsinki.fi, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shu@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)
2014-08-01
We investigate the degeneracy of the isocurvature perturbations and the primordial gravitational waves, by using recent observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) reported by Planck and BICEP2 collaborations. We show that the tension in the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r between Planck and BICEP2 can be resolved by introducing the anti-correlated isocurvature perturbations. Quantitatively, we find that with the anti-correlated isocurvature perturbations the constraints on r from Planck alone and BICEP2 results can be consistent at 68 % C.L.
Planck 2015 results: XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓ data and of Planck polarization......This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based...... information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck...
Forthcoming Break-Even Conditions of Tokamak Plasma Performance for Fusion Energy Development
Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi
The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value ΒN), confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fnGW), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of Btmax = 16 T, ηe = 40 %, plant availability 60 %, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires ΒN ˜ 5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with ΒN ˜ 3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break-even price in the present world energy scenario, which implies that it is necessary to improve the plasma performance beyond that of the ITER advanced plasma operation.
NRAO Astronomer Wins Max-Planck Research Award
2005-04-01
Dr. Christopher Carilli, a National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer in Socorro, New Mexico, has been chosen to receive the prestigious Max Planck Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society in Germany. Christopher Carilli Dr. Christopher Carilli Click on image for more photos CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Carilli, a radio astronomer, and German particle physicist Christof Wetterich are the 2005 recipients of the award, conferred on "one researcher working in Germany and one working abroad who have already gained an international reputation and who are expected to produce outstanding achievements in the framework of international collaboration," according to an announcement from the Humboldt Foundation. "This is a great honor for Chris, and we are proud to see him receive such important international recognition for the excellence of his research," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. Carilli's research has focused on studying very distant galaxies in the early Universe, and a quest to find the first luminous objects, such as stars or galaxies, to emerge. His most recent interests focus on unveiling the mysteries of what cosmologists call the "Epoch of Reionization," when the first stars and galaxies ionized the neutral hydrogen that pervaded the young Universe. Carilli and his research colleagues have used NRAO's Very Large Array and other radio telescopes to discover that the molecular raw material for star formation already was present in a galaxy seen as it was about 800 million years after the Big Bang, less than 1/16 the current age of the Universe. The Max Planck Research Award provides 750,000 Euros (currently about $900,000), to be used over five years, for research. The funding is provided by the German Ministry of Education and Research. Carilli will use the funding to support young researchers and to build scientific instrumentation, with a focus on fostering radio studies of cosmic reionization and the first
Comments on microscopic mechanics, generalizations of classical mechanics and Planck's oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yussouff, M.
1983-05-01
The new microscopic mechanics removes the dichotomy of physics into classical and quantum phenomena. Its physical picture and connections with generalizations of classical mechanics are discussed. It gives a new meaning to Bohr's frequency relation and Planck's oscillators. (author)
On the Connection between the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman and the Fokker-Planck Control Frameworks
Annunziato, Mario; Borzì , Alfio; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul
2014-01-01
appropriate assumptions it is shown that the two strategies are equivalent in the case of expected cost functionals, while the FokkerPlanck formalism allows considering a larger class of objectives. To illustrate the connection between the two control
The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron's velocity about its average value. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is $h=2pi e^2/alpha c$, where $e$, $alpha$, and $c$ are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.
The Compton Radius, the de Broglie Radius, the Planck Constant, and the Bohr Orbits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daywitt W. C.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The Bohr orbits of the hydrogen atom and the Planck constant can be derived classically from the Maxwell equations and the assumption that there is a variation in the electron’s velocity about its average value [1]. The resonant nature of the circulating electron and its induced magnetic and Faraday fields prevents a radiative collapse of the electron into the nuclear proton. The derived Planck constant is h = 2 e 2 = c , where e , , and c are the electronic charge, the fine structure constant, and the speed of light. The fact that the Planck vacuum (PV theory [2] derives the same Planck constant independently of the above implies that the two derivations are related. The following highlights that connection.
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Alexander
2016-01-01
Understanding the magnetic fields that can develop in high-power-laser interactions with solid-density plasma is important because such fields significantly modify both the magnitude and direction of electron heat fluxes. The dynamics of such fields evidently have consequences for inertial fusion energy applications, as the coupling of the laser beams with the walls or pellet and the development of temperature inhomogeneities are critical to the uniformity of the implosion and potentially the success of, for example, the National Ignition Facility. To study these effects, we used the code Impacta, a two-dimensional, fully implicit, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code with self-consistent magnetic fields and a hydrodynamic ion model, designed for nanosecond time-scale laser-plasma interactions. Heat-flux effects in Ohm's law under non-local conditions was investigated; physics that is not well captured by standard numerical models but is nevertheless important in fusion-related scenarios. Under such conditions there are numerous interesting physical effects, such as collisional magnetic instabilities, amplification of magnetic fields, re-emergence of non-locality through magnetic convection, and reconnection of magnetic field lines and redistribution of thermal energy. In this project highlights included the first full-scale kinetic simulations of a magnetized hohlraum and the discovery of a new magnetic reconnection mechanism, as well as a completed PhD thesis and the production of a new code for Inertial Fusion research.
X-Ray Morphological Analysis of the Planck ESZ Clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovisari, Lorenzo; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Randall, Scott; Kraft, Ralph [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ettori, Stefano [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Arnaud, Monique; Démoclès, Jessica; Pratt, Gabriel W. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique—CEA/DRF—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2017-09-01
X-ray observations show that galaxy clusters have a very large range of morphologies. The most disturbed systems, which are good to study how clusters form and grow and to test physical models, may potentially complicate cosmological studies because the cluster mass determination becomes more challenging. Thus, we need to understand the cluster properties of our samples to reduce possible biases. This is complicated by the fact that different experiments may detect different cluster populations. For example, Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) selected cluster samples have been found to include a greater fraction of disturbed systems than X-ray selected samples. In this paper we determine eight morphological parameters for the Planck Early Sunyaev–Zeldovich (ESZ) objects observed with XMM-Newton . We found that two parameters, concentration and centroid shift, are the best to distinguish between relaxed and disturbed systems. For each parameter we provide the values that allow selecting the most relaxed or most disturbed objects from a sample. We found that there is no mass dependence on the cluster dynamical state. By comparing our results with what was obtained with REXCESS clusters, we also confirm that the ESZ clusters indeed tend to be more disturbed, as found by previous studies.
Quantum gravity fluctuations flatten the Planck-scale Higgs potential
Eichhorn, Astrid; Hamada, Yuta; Lumma, Johannes; Yamada, Masatoshi
2018-04-01
We investigate asymptotic safety of a toy model of a singlet-scalar extension of the Higgs sector including two real scalar fields under the impact of quantum-gravity fluctuations. Employing functional renormalization group techniques, we search for fixed points of the system which provide a tentative ultraviolet completion of the system. We find that in a particular regime of the gravitational parameter space the canonically marginal and relevant couplings in the scalar sector—including the mass parameters—become irrelevant at the ultraviolet fixed point. The infrared potential for the two scalars that can be reached from that fixed point is fully predicted and features no free parameters. In the remainder of the gravitational parameter space, the values of the quartic couplings in our model are predicted. In light of these results, we discuss whether the singlet-scalar could be a dark-matter candidate. Furthermore, we highlight how "classical scale invariance" in the sense of a flat potential of the scalar sector at the Planck scale could arise as a consequence of asymptotic safety.
Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattingly, David M.; Maccione, Luca; Galaverni, Matteo; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter
2010-01-01
We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E 2 M Pl 2 ) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter η ν . We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10 19 eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10 17 eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as η ν ∼ −4 on the neutrino LV parameter, depending on how LV is distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on η ν < 0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector
Planck early results. VI. The High Frequency Instrument data processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Colley, J.-M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.
2011-01-01
We describe the processing of the 336 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545...... and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4′. The white noise level is around 1.5 μK degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217 GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created...... by the HFI Data Processing Centre reach our goals in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and photometric accuracy. They are already sufficiently accurate and well-characterised to allow scientific analyses which are presented in an accompanying series of early papers. At this stage, HFI data appears...
Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams
Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...
Reconciliation of high energy scale models of inflation with Planck
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashoorioon, Amjad; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Shiu, Gary
2014-01-01
The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale M. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, M has an upper bound of a few tens of H, with H being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for M ∼ 20H, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that such a choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple ½m 2 φ 2 chaotic model with the Planck data [1-3
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling of magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Alexander [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-08-01
Understanding the magnetic fields that can develop in high-power-laser interactions with solid-density plasma is important because such fields significantly modify both the magnitude and direction of electron heat fluxes. The dynamics of such fields evidently have consequences for inertial fusion energy applications, as the coupling of the laser beams with the walls or pellet and the development of temperature inhomogeneities are critical to the uniformity of the implosion and potentially the success of, for example, the National Ignition Facility. To study these effects, we used the code Impacta, a two-dimensional, fully implicit, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code with self-consistent magnetic fields and a hydrodynamic ion model, designed for nanosecond time-scale laser-plasma interactions. Heat-flux effects in Ohm’s law under non-local conditions was investigated; physics that is not well captured by standard numerical models but is nevertheless important in fusion-related scenarios. Under such conditions there are numerous interesting physical effects, such as collisional magnetic instabilities, amplification of magnetic fields, re-emergence of non-locality through magnetic convection, and reconnection of magnetic field lines and redistribution of thermal energy. In this project highlights included the first full-scale kinetic simulations of a magnetized hohlraum and the discovery of a new magnetic reconnection mechanism, as well as a completed PhD thesis and the production of a new code for Inertial Fusion research.
New limits on coupled dark energy model after Planck 2015
Li, Hang; Yang, Weiqiang; Wu, Yabo; Jiang, Ying
2018-06-01
We used the Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background anisotropy, baryon acoustic oscillation, type-Ia supernovae, redshift-space distortions, and weak gravitational lensing to test the model parameter space of coupled dark energy. We assumed the constant and time-varying equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treated dark matter and dark energy as the fluids whose energy transfer was proportional to the combined term of the energy densities and equation of state, such as Q = 3 Hξ(1 +wx) ρx and Q = 3 Hξ [ 1 +w0 +w1(1 - a) ] ρx, the full space of equation of state could be measured when we considered the term (1 +wx) in the energy exchange. According to the joint observational constraint, the results showed that wx = - 1.006-0.027+0.047 and ξ = 0.098-0.098>+0.026 for coupled dark energy with a constant equation of state, w0 = -1.076-0.076+0.085, w1 = - 0.069-0.319+0.361, and ξ = 0.210-0.210+0.048 for a variable equation of state. We did not get any clear evidence for the coupling in the dark fluids at 1 σ region.
Planck 2013 results. VI. High Frequency Instrument data processing
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L. -Y; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Désert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herent, O.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Jeune, M. Le; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; MacTavish, C.J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savini, G.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Techene, S.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We describe the processing of the 531 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (hereafter HFI), which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 473 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.7 to 4.6 arcmin. The detector noise per (effective) beam solid angle is respectively, 10, 6, 12 and 39 microKelvin in HFI four lowest frequency channel (100--353 GHz) and 13 and 14 kJy/sr for the 545 and 857 GHz channels. Using the 143 GHz channel as a reference, these two high frequency channels are intercalibrated within 5% and the 353 GHz relative calibration is at the percent level. The 100 and 217 GHz channels, which together with the 143 GHz channel determine the high-multipole part of the CMB power spectrum (50 < l <2500), are intercalibrated at better than 0.2 %.
Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattingly, David M. [New Hamshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States); Maccione, Luca [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Galaverni, Matteo [INAF-IASF Bologna (Italy); Liberati, Stefano [INFN, Trieste (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2009-11-15
We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter {eta}{sub {nu}}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19} eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17} eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as {eta}{sub {nu}}
Planck 2015 results. XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds
Ade, P.A.R.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vidal, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
(abridged) We discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100GHz based on observations by Planck/WMAP. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with RRL templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Halpha emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (~30%) of Halpha having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak ranging from below 20GHz to more than 50GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent HII regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photodissociation regions around the n...
Development of parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batishcheva, A.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Koniges, A.E.
1996-01-01
We report on our ongoing development of the 3D Fokker-Planck code ALLA for a highly collisional scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma. A SOL with strong gradients of density and temperature in the spatial dimension is modeled. Our method is based on a 3-D adaptive grid (in space, magnitude of the velocity, and cosine of the pitch angle) and a second order conservative scheme. Note that the grid size is typically 100 x 257 x 65 nodes. It was shown in our previous work that only these capabilities make it possible to benchmark a 3D code against a spatially-dependent self-similar solution of a kinetic equation with the Landau collision term. In the present work we show results of a more precise benchmarking against the exact solutions of the kinetic equation using a new parallel code ALLAp with an improved method of parallelization and a modified boundary condition at the plasma edge. We also report first results from the code parallelization using Message Passing Interface for a Massively Parallel CRI T3D platform. We evaluate the ALLAp code performance versus the number of T3D processors used and compare its efficiency against a Work/Data Sharing parallelization scheme and a workstation version
A multigroup flux-limited asymptotic diffusion Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chengan
1987-01-01
A more perfrect flux-limited method is applied to combine with asymptotic diffusion theory of the radiation transpore, and the high peaked component in the scattering angle is treated with Fokker-Planck methods, thus the flux-limited asymptotic diffusion Fokker-Planck equation has been founded. Since the equation is of diffusion form, it retains the simplity and the convenience of the classical diffusion theory, and improves precision in describing radiation transport problems
A local analytic approach for the fast solution of the Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sajjadi, S.G.; Nicholas, D.J.
1987-11-01
In this report we describe a method of obtaining a closed form for the Focker-Planck equation rendering it amenable to solution in time-step with a complete hydrodynamic treatment of a plasma. We present a local expression for the heat flux, by solving the Focker-Planck equation for electrons in one space and two velocity dimensions in the presence of a self consistent electronic field. (author)
Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS)
Haasnoot, Irene
2016-01-01
Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) is an international theoretical physics competition for bachelor and master students. The intention of PLANCKS is to increase international collaboration and stimulate the personal development of individual contestants. This is done by organizing a three-day-event which take place every year and is hosted by different countries. Besides the contest, social and scientific activities will be organised, including an opening symposium where leading physicists give lectures to inspire the participants.
Nier, Francis
2018-01-01
This article is concerned with the maximal accretive realizations of geometric Kramers-Fokker-Planck operators on manifolds with boundaries. A general class of boundary conditions is introduced which ensures the maximal accretivity and some global subelliptic estimates. Those estimates imply nice spectral properties as well as exponential decay properties for the associated semigroup. Admissible boundary conditions cover a wide range of applications for the usual scalar Kramer-Fokker-Planck equation or Bismut's hypoelliptic laplacian.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T.D.
2002-01-01
We study many particle systems in the context of mean field forces, concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, generalized equilibrium distributions, and quantum statistics. Using kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics we derive for these systems a generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that this Fokker-Planck equation describes relaxation processes, has stationary maximum entropy distributions, can have multiple stationary solutions and stationary solutions that differ from Boltzmann distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, John
2014-01-01
Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l ∼< 50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r
Forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for fusion energy development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi
2005-01-01
The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value β N , confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fn GW ), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 N GW tmax =16 T, thermal efficiency η e =30%, and current drive power P NBI N ∼1.8, HH≠1.0, and fn GW ∼0.9, which correspond to the ITER reference operation parameters, have a strong potential to achieve the electric break-even condition. The second condition is the economic break-even condition, which is required for fusion energy to be selected as an alternative energy source in the energy market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of B tmax =16 T, η e =40%, plant availability 60%, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires β N ∼5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with β N ∼3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break
Löhr, Gebhard
2012-03-01
The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.
2011-01-01
An all sky map of the apparent temperature and optical depth of thermal dust emission is constructed using the Planck-HFI (350μm to 2 mm) andIRAS(100μm) data. The optical depth maps are correlated with tracers of the atomic (Hi) and molecular gas traced by CO. The correlation with the column dens...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Fromenteau, S.
2013-01-01
A comparison is presented of Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements for 11 galaxy clusters as obtained by Planck and by the ground-based interferometer, the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager. Assuming a universal spherically-symmetric Generalised Navarro, Frenk and White (GNFW) model for the cluster gas press...
Electroneutral models for dynamic Poisson-Nernst-Planck systems
Song, Zilong; Cao, Xiulei; Huang, Huaxiong
2018-01-01
The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system is a standard model for describing ion transport. In many applications, e.g., ions in biological tissues, the presence of thin boundary layers poses both modeling and computational challenges. In this paper, we derive simplified electroneutral (EN) models where the thin boundary layers are replaced by effective boundary conditions. There are two major advantages of EN models. First, it is much cheaper to solve them numerically. Second, EN models are easier to deal with compared to the original PNP system; therefore, it would also be easier to derive macroscopic models for cellular structures using EN models. Even though the approach used here is applicable to higher-dimensional cases, this paper mainly focuses on the one-dimensional system, including the general multi-ion case. Using systematic asymptotic analysis, we derive a variety of effective boundary conditions directly applicable to the EN system for the bulk region. This EN system can be solved directly and efficiently without computing the solution in the boundary layer. The derivation is based on matched asymptotics, and the key idea is to bring back higher-order contributions into the effective boundary conditions. For Dirichlet boundary conditions, the higher-order terms can be neglected and the classical results (continuity of electrochemical potential) are recovered. For flux boundary conditions, higher-order terms account for the accumulation of ions in boundary layer and neglecting them leads to physically incorrect solutions. To validate the EN model, numerical computations are carried out for several examples. Our results show that solving the EN model is much more efficient than the original PNP system. Implemented with the Hodgkin-Huxley model, the computational time for solving the EN model is significantly reduced without sacrificing the accuracy of the solution due to the fact that it allows for relatively large mesh and time-step sizes.
Cosmic reionization after Planck II: contribution from quasars
Mitra, Sourav; Choudhury, T. Roy; Ferrara, Andrea
2018-01-01
In the light of the recent Planck downward revision of the electron scattering optical depth, and of the discovery of a faint active galactic nuclei (AGN) population at z > 4, we reassess the actual contribution of quasars to cosmic reionization. To this aim, we extend our previous Markov Chain Monte Carlo based data-constrained semi-analytic reionization model and study the role of quasars on global reionization history. We find that the quasars can alone reionize the Universe only for models with very high AGN emissivities at high redshift. These models are still allowed by the recent cosmic microwave background data and most of the observations related to H I reionization. However, they predict an extended and early He II reionization ending at z ≳ 4 and a much slower evolution in the mean He II Ly-α forest opacity than what the actual observation suggests. Thus, when we further constrain our model against the He II Ly-α forest data, this AGN-dominated scenario is found to be clearly ruled out at 2σ limits. The data seems to favour a standard two-component picture where quasar contributions become negligible at z ≳ 6 and a non-zero escape fraction of ∼ 10 per cent is needed from early-epoch galaxies. For such models, mean neutral hydrogen fraction decreases to ∼10-4 at z = 6.2 from ∼0.8 at z = 10.0 and helium becomes doubly ionized at much later time, z ∼ 3. We find that these models are as well in good agreement with the observed thermal evolution of IGM as opposed to models with very high AGN emissivities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girard, D.
2010-01-01
Cosmology is a very old science. It's goal is to describe the Universe at large scales. The standard model of cosmology is an inflation-CDM Big-Bang model. It is based on General Relativity. The cosmic microwave background is one of the three pillars of this model, with the expansion of the Universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. It is the oldest detectable radiation in the Universe. The study of its temperature and polarisation anisotropies allow us to access direct information about the content and the geometry of the primordial Universe. The Planck satellite, launched on May 14 of 2009, represents the third generation of satellite missions which study the cosmic microwave background. The exceptional sensitivity of its instruments, High Frequency Instrument and Low Frequency Instrument, will allow us to constrain very strongly the cosmological models describing the early Universe, particularly the inflationary period, and to measure the cosmological parameters which describe the evolution of the Universe with an accuracy down to the percent. To reach these ambitious scientific objectives, each systematic instrumental effect has to be severely controlled and corrected by the data analysis. The effect of cosmic rays interacting with the bolometers of HFI, which is one of the most important effects, and which differs significatively from predictions, is corrected during the time ordered data analysis. The detailed understanding of this phenomenon and its modeling are necessary to correct it and to reach an optimal effective sensitivity. They will permit to take this effect into account in the conception of the future instruments detectors. This thesis proposes a first part focused on cosmology, a second part describing the Planck satellite, the HFI instrument and particularly its detectors and a third part dedicated to the HFI instrument data analysis. I concentrate on time ordered data analysis and on the corrections of instrumental systematic effects. Then I
Intelligent Mission Controller Node
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Perme, David
2002-01-01
The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...
Critical Robotic Lunar Missions
Plescia, J. B.
2018-04-01
Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.
Dukovany ASSET mission preparation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)
1997-12-31
We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.
Dukovany ASSET mission preparation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouklik, I.
1996-01-01
We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future
Rocco, David A.
1994-01-01
Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.
A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cooray, Asantha, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: acooray@uci.edu [Center for Cosmology, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
2009-08-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup −4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup −3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup −6}.
A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha
2009-01-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10 −4 (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10 −3 (Spider), and 1.0 × 10 −5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10 −6
Planck-scale Lorentz violation constrained by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Hamburg, II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Taylor, A.M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Mattingly, D.M.; Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)
2009-09-15
We investigate the consequences of higher dimension Lorentz violating, CPT even kinetic operators that couple standard model fields to a non-zero vector field in an Effective Field Theory framework. Comparing the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum reconstructed in the presence of such terms with data from the Pierre Auger observatory allows us to establish two sided bounds on the coefficients of the mass dimension five and six operators for the proton and pion. Our bounds imply that for both protons and pions, the energy scale of Lorentz symmetry breaking must be well above the Planck scale. In particular, the dimension five operators are constrained at the level of 10{sup -3}M{sup -1}{sub Planck}. The magnitude of the dimension six proton coefficient is bounded at the level of 10{sup -6}M{sup -2}{sub Planck} except in a narrow range where the pion and proton coefficients are both negative and nearly equal. In this small area, the magnitude of the dimension six proton coefficient must only be below 10{sup -3}M{sup -2}{sub Planck}. Constraints on the dimension six pion coefficient are found to be much weaker, but still below M{sup -2}{sub Planck}. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We use Planck data to detect the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and the infrared emission from the galaxies that make up the the cosmic infrared background (CIB). We first perform a stacking analysis towards Planck-confirmed galaxy clusters. We detect infrared...... that infrared galaxies in the outskirts of clusters have higher infrared flux than cluster-core galaxies. We also study the cross-correlation between tSZ and CIB anisotropies, following three alternative approaches based on power spectrum analyses: (i) using a catalogue of confirmed clusters detected in Planck...... data; (ii) using an all-sky tSZ map built from Planck frequency maps; and (iii) using cross-spectra between Planck frequency maps. With the three different methods, we detect the tSZ-CIB cross-power spectrum at significance levels of (i) 6σ; (ii) 3σ; and (iii) 4σ. We model the tSZ-CIB cross-correlation...
Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.;
2011-01-01
Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.
Consistency of the Planck CMB data and ΛCDM cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shafieloo, Arman [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar, E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: dhiraj.kumar.hazra@apc.univ-paris7.fr [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC)/Paris Centre for Cosmological Physics, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, Paris Cedex 13, 75205 France (France)
2017-04-01
We test the consistency between Planck temperature and polarization power spectra and the concordance model of Λ Cold Dark Matter cosmology (ΛCDM) within the framework of Crossing statistics. We find that Planck TT best fit ΛCDM power spectrum is completely consistent with EE power spectrum data while EE best fit ΛCDM power spectrum is not consistent with TT data. However, this does not point to any systematic or model-data discrepancy since in the Planck EE data, uncertainties are much larger compared to the TT data. We also investigate the possibility of any deviation from ΛCDM model analyzing the Planck 2015 data. Results from TT, TE and EE data analysis indicate that no deviation is required beyond the flexibility of the concordance ΛCDM model. Our analysis thus rules out any strong evidence for beyond the concordance model in the Planck spectra data. We also report a mild amplitude difference comparing temperature and polarization data, where temperature data seems to have slightly lower amplitude than expected (consistently at all multiples), as we assume both temperature and polarization data are realizations of the same underlying cosmology.
Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions
Jeletic, James F.
1990-01-01
The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.
EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans
Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben
2012-01-01
The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.