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Sample records for forsmark area baltic

  1. Element composition of biota, water and sediment in the Forsmark area, Baltic Sea. Concentrations, bioconcentration factors and partitioning coefficients (K{sub d}) of 48 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda; Bradshaw, Clare (Dept. of Systems Ecology, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    In this study the elemental composition of biota, water and sediment from a shallow bay in the Forsmark region have been determined. The report presents data for 48 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Gd, Hg, Ho, I, K, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Ra, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) in all major functional groups of the coastal ecosystem (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic microalgae, macroalgae, macrophytes, benthic herbivores, benthic filter feeders, benthic detrivores, planktivorous fish, benthic omnivorous fish, carnivorous fish, dissolved and particulate matter in the water and the sediment) during spring 2005. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of ecological properties and processes that govern uptake and transfer of trace elements, heavy-metals, radionuclides and other non-essential elements/contaminants in coastal environments of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the data was collected to provide site-specific Bioconcentration Factors (BCF), Biomagnification Factors (BMF), partitioning coefficients (K{sub d}) and element ratios (relative to carbon) for use in ongoing SKB safety assessments. All these values, as well as the element concentration data from which they are derived, are presented here. As such, this is mainly a data report, although initial interpretations of the data also are presented and discussed. Reported data include element concentrations, CNP-stoichiometry, and multivariate data analysis. Elemental concentrations varied greatly between organisms and environmental components, depending on the function of the elements, and the habitat, ecosystem function, trophic level and morphology (taxonomy) of the organisms. The results show for instance that food intake and metabolism strongly influence the elemental composition of organisms. The three macrophytes had quite similar elemental composition (despite their taxonomic

  2. Element composition of biota, water and sediment in the Forsmark area, Baltic Sea. Concentrations, bioconcentration factors and partitioning coefficients (Kd) of 48 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, Linda; Bradshaw, Clare

    2008-08-01

    In this study the elemental composition of biota, water and sediment from a shallow bay in the Forsmark region have been determined. The report presents data for 48 different elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Gd, Hg, Ho, I, K, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, N, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Ra, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sm, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) in all major functional groups of the coastal ecosystem (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic microalgae, macroalgae, macrophytes, benthic herbivores, benthic filter feeders, benthic detrivores, planktivorous fish, benthic omnivorous fish, carnivorous fish, dissolved and particulate matter in the water and the sediment) during spring 2005. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of ecological properties and processes that govern uptake and transfer of trace elements, heavy-metals, radionuclides and other non-essential elements/contaminants in coastal environments of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the data was collected to provide site-specific Bioconcentration Factors (BCF), Biomagnification Factors (BMF), partitioning coefficients (K d ) and element ratios (relative to carbon) for use in ongoing SKB safety assessments. All these values, as well as the element concentration data from which they are derived, are presented here. As such, this is mainly a data report, although initial interpretations of the data also are presented and discussed. Reported data include element concentrations, CNP-stoichiometry, and multivariate data analysis. Elemental concentrations varied greatly between organisms and environmental components, depending on the function of the elements, and the habitat, ecosystem function, trophic level and morphology (taxonomy) of the organisms. The results show for instance that food intake and metabolism strongly influence the elemental composition of organisms. The three macrophytes had quite similar elemental composition (despite their taxonomic differences

  3. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva (Svensk Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)); Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  4. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by groundwater

  5. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by

  6. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  7. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  8. Characteristics and ontogeny of oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunberg, A.K.; Blomqvist, P.

    1999-12-01

    This is the first part of a report characterising the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area.The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny should also be identified. This first part of the study identifies and describes one of the most common lake types in the area, the oligotrophic hardwater lake. The geology in the catchments of the Forsmark area includes a bedrock dominated by granites and gneisses, covered by calcareous glacial till and postglacial clay. The catchments are dominated by forest, and the oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota;, the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites;, and the light exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. The oligotrophic hardwater lakes have their origin as depressions in the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which are successively transported upwards due to the land-rise process in the area. As the basins are isolated from the sea , a gradual change from a brackish to freshwater conditions occur. When the lakes have become completely isolated, the oligotrophic hardwater stage follows, due to inflow of carbonate-rich and well buffered groundwater. In the next successional stage, Sphagnum mosses start to

  9. Characteristics and ontogeny of oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunberg, A.K.; Blomqvist, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    1999-12-01

    This is the first part of a report characterising the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area.The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny should also be identified. This first part of the study identifies and describes one of the most common lake types in the area, the oligotrophic hardwater lake. The geology in the catchments of the Forsmark area includes a bedrock dominated by granites and gneisses, covered by calcareous glacial till and postglacial clay. The catchments are dominated by forest, and the oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota;, the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites;, and the light exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. The oligotrophic hardwater lakes have their origin as depressions in the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which are successively transported upwards due to the land-rise process in the area. As the basins are isolated from the sea , a gradual change from a brackish to freshwater conditions occur. When the lakes have become completely isolated, the oligotrophic hardwater stage follows, due to inflow of carbonate-rich and well buffered groundwater. In the next successional stage, Sphagnum mosses start to

  10. Sediment dynamics in the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar during an interglacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater that reach the sea bottom from below may bind to fine grained particles. When a nuclide binds to an immovable particle in the sea sediment, further transport may cease; however, if the nuclide binds to a moveable particle it may be repeatedly suspended, transported, and re-deposited. Whether the nuclide binds to a moveable or immovable particle determines the type of biota it encounters. Therefore, it is of great value to understand how bottom types are spread in the sea close to a proposed repository and how the distribution of these bottoms have changed over time, in order to predict what may happen if a nuclide leaks from a repository. In the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar, the sediment dynamics have been modelled for the period between 9500 BC and 9500 AD. The model is based on a wave model (STWAVE) included in the program package from SMS (Surface Water Modelling System). A sediment resuspension module was developed and is presented in this report. The model inputs are weather data (wind direction and wind speed) and bathymetry. The bathymetry is in a regular grid structure. The wave model is separated into two steps. The first is an outer model with coarse resolution (1000 m) that represents the whole Baltic Sea. This outer model gives border conditions to an inner model with higher resolution (100 m) that represents the coastal areas close to Forsmark and Laxemar. The outputs from the wave model are wave height, wave period and water depth for each cell in the model domains. A new program module, written in VisualBasic, reads the results from the wave module and calculates the maximum wave generated water velocity close to the sea bottom, and the maximum resuspendable grain size at that water velocity based on a semi-empirical relationship. The model is run with a time step of 500 years. Since the bathymetry is changing over time due to the positive shore displacement, a sub-model for the Baltic Sea evolution has

  11. Sediment dynamics in the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar during an interglacial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    2009-06-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater that reach the sea bottom from below may bind to fine grained particles. When a nuclide binds to an immovable particle in the sea sediment, further transport may cease; however, if the nuclide binds to a moveable particle it may be repeatedly suspended, transported, and re-deposited. Whether the nuclide binds to a moveable or immovable particle determines the type of biota it encounters. Therefore, it is of great value to understand how bottom types are spread in the sea close to a proposed repository and how the distribution of these bottoms have changed over time, in order to predict what may happen if a nuclide leaks from a repository. In the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar, the sediment dynamics have been modelled for the period between 9500 BC and 9500 AD. The model is based on a wave model (STWAVE) included in the program package from SMS (Surface Water Modelling System). A sediment resuspension module was developed and is presented in this report. The model inputs are weather data (wind direction and wind speed) and bathymetry. The bathymetry is in a regular grid structure. The wave model is separated into two steps. The first is an outer model with coarse resolution (1000 m) that represents the whole Baltic Sea. This outer model gives border conditions to an inner model with higher resolution (100 m) that represents the coastal areas close to Forsmark and Laxemar. The outputs from the wave model are wave height, wave period and water depth for each cell in the model domains. A new program module, written in VisualBasic, reads the results from the wave module and calculates the maximum wave generated water velocity close to the sea bottom, and the maximum resuspendable grain size at that water velocity based on a semi-empirical relationship. The model is run with a time step of 500 years. Since the bathymetry is changing over time due to the positive shore displacement, a sub-model for the Baltic Sea evolution has

  12. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the interim version (model version 1.1) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for Forsmark. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from Forsmark that were available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS at April 30, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data acquired during the initial site investigation phase to the date of data freeze 1.1 constitute the basis for the updating of version 0 to version 1.1. These data originate from surface investigations on the candidate area with its regional environment and from drilling and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were rather extensive whereas the data sets from boreholes were limited to information from one 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KFM01A) and eight 150 to 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes in the Forsmark candidate area. Discipline specific models are developed for a selected regional and local model volume and these are then integrated into a site description. The current methodologies for developing the discipline specific models and the integration of these are documented in methodology reports or strategy reports. In the present work, the guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible with the data and information available at the time for data freeze for model version 1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version 1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and much higher resolution surface data. The existence of highly fractured sub-horizontal zones has been verified and these are now part of the model of the deformation zones. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model has also been developed. The rock mechanics model is based on strength information from SFR and an empirical

  13. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the interim version (model version 1.1) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for Forsmark. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from Forsmark that were available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS at April 30, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data acquired during the initial site investigation phase to the date of data freeze 1.1 constitute the basis for the updating of version 0 to version 1.1. These data originate from surface investigations on the candidate area with its regional environment and from drilling and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were rather extensive whereas the data sets from boreholes were limited to information from one 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KFM01A) and eight 150 to 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes in the Forsmark candidate area. Discipline specific models are developed for a selected regional and local model volume and these are then integrated into a site description. The current methodologies for developing the discipline specific models and the integration of these are documented in methodology reports or strategy reports. In the present work, the guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible with the data and information available at the time for data freeze for model version 1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version 1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and much higher resolution surface data. The existence of highly fractured sub-horizontal zones has been verified and these are now part of the model of the deformation zones. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model has also been developed. The rock mechanics model is based on strength information from SFR and an empirical

  14. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  15. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  16. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    (boulders, rock) a luxuriant growth of the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) could be seen. Also, the moss Fontinalis dalecarlica was not unusual. This moss is frequently observed in the Gulf of Bothnia but does not occur in the Baltic proper. Among the animals, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was to a large extent missing, although suitable substrate was present. In the Bothnian Sea the marine mussel Mytilus extends up to the Northern Quark, but usually only scattered, few individuals are found at each site along the whole coast. The blue mussel never has the same mass-occurrence as can be observed in the Stockholm archipelago and further south in the Baltic proper. Thus, the ecosystem of the SFR-area has a function somewhat different from the Baltic proper as the filter feeders lack to a large extent. The species biomass was determined by collecting 54 quantitative samples (usually 12 samples per transect). At comparable depths, when excluding the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) the total depth distribution of plant and animal biomass was similar those of the Graesoe-Singoe area (ranging between 30-60 g dry weight m{sup -2} of plants and 20-50 g of animals). However, the total biomass of both the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) and the filter feeding blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was considerable lower in the Forsmark area. This can to some extent be explained by the difference in dominating substrate (mostly rocky) as well as a larger influence from the Baltic proper in the Graesoe-Singoe area. For the low amounts of Mytilus see explanation given above.

  17. Uncertainty aspects of the digital elevation model for the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemgren, Maarten; Brydsten, Lars

    2009-10-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) describes the terrain relief. A proper DEM is an important data source for many of the different site description models conducted in the Forsmark region. Input data for the Forsmark DEM is elevation data for both land and sea areas of different origin and quality. No statistical analysis of the error in the Forsmark DEM is so far carried out. However, the Forsmark DEM is part of the quality assessment of the regolith depth model for the Forsmark area since it represents the upper surface of the regolith depth model. The aim of this project was to calculate the errors in different areas in the Forsmark DEM and present them in terms of general descriptive statistics. Measurements have confirmed the knowledge that the 0.25-metre DEM produced from the laser scanning measurements in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area is of very high quality. The 0.25-metre DEM was used to calculate the errors of the 10 and 50-metre DEMs, and the errors for different sea shoreline sources. These error distributions were placed randomly among points for the same data sources in the Forsmark area and used for correction of the original elevation levels. Using the corrected input data for the 10 and 50-metre DEMs and for the sea shoreline, a new DEM was produced. All other input data remained unchanged. The error for the Forsmark DEM was calculated for areas within the data sources corrected from the 0.25-metre DEM. The 0.25-metre DEM from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area was also used for a calculation of how density of input data points used in interpolation affects quality in a 20-metre DEM. Part of the input data was removed in the sea area, new DEMs were produced and compared to the existing Forsmark DEM within the areas of the removed data, to get a measure of the error in these areas of the DEM. In areas of input data for the sea shoreline, the quality of the Forsmark DEM is high. The errors within the SKB 10-metre DEM are slightly less than within the extension

  18. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    lakes, i.e. they have low nutrient levels, whereas the amount of dissolved ions is very high. The primary production is dominated by benthic Stoneworths (Charales) and by cyanobacteria in the surficial lake sediments. This kind of lakes is typical for the coastal areas of the Uppsala county, which comparatively recently has emerged from the Baltic Sea. Additionally, the streams in the Forsmark area, which also are small, are often partially dry during summer. The water chemical composition in the freshwater systems is to a large extent affected by marine deposits from the latest glaciation period. In addition, intrusions of brackish water are more or less frequent in the lower stretches of some catchment areas. This area is comparatively young and the altitude is low, which implicates that some lakes are still in their latest stages of separation from the Baltic Sea. Contrastingly, some of the coastal sampling sites, mainly in the bay Kallrigafjaerden, are heavily affected by inflowing freshwater, which e.g. dilute the sodium and chloride content typical for marine environments. The main conclusion from the investigations of the coastal sites is that the water in the bay Kallrigafjaerden is largely affected by inflowing freshwater. This inflow dilute e.g. 'marine' ions like sodium, chloride, and bromide, whereas the concentration of other substances like TOC is elevated, as the level in freshwater is considerably higher. The other two coastal sites possess a fairly stable chemical composition, except from occasional inflow of water from melting snow or ice.

  19. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesten, Lars

    2005-06-01

    lakes, i.e. they have low nutrient levels, whereas the amount of dissolved ions is very high. The primary production is dominated by benthic Stoneworths (Charales) and by cyanobacteria in the surficial lake sediments. This kind of lakes is typical for the coastal areas of the Uppsala county, which comparatively recently has emerged from the Baltic Sea. Additionally, the streams in the Forsmark area, which also are small, are often partially dry during summer. The water chemical composition in the freshwater systems is to a large extent affected by marine deposits from the latest glaciation period. In addition, intrusions of brackish water are more or less frequent in the lower stretches of some catchment areas. This area is comparatively young and the altitude is low, which implicates that some lakes are still in their latest stages of separation from the Baltic Sea. Contrastingly, some of the coastal sampling sites, mainly in the bay Kallrigafjaerden, are heavily affected by inflowing freshwater, which e.g. dilute the sodium and chloride content typical for marine environments. The main conclusion from the investigations of the coastal sites is that the water in the bay Kallrigafjaerden is largely affected by inflowing freshwater. This inflow dilute e.g. 'marine' ions like sodium, chloride, and bromide, whereas the concentration of other substances like TOC is elevated, as the level in freshwater is considerably higher. The other two coastal sites possess a fairly stable chemical composition, except from occasional inflow of water from melting snow or ice

  20. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model, which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site and using greater grid resolution. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Forsmark area on a regional-scale based on the available data of 30 June 2004 and the previous Site Description. A more specific

  1. A study on landscape and the historical geography of two areas - Oskarshamn and Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Ulf; Berg, Johan; Bjoerklund, Annika

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the land-use; the settlement and the way people have used and affected the landscape in two areas, Forsmark and Simpevarp. This preliminary report aim mainly at describing the sources and methods used in the project. Some analyses are undertaken, but a more complete interpretation will take place in the final report of Phase two. This is a project that forms a part of the environmental impact assessment work that is done for examining potential locations for a plant for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Both areas are located on the East Coast of Sweden. A number of scientific studies are carried out in this project. Fields that are included studies for the EIA and the safety assessment include geology, quaternary geology, limnology, biology and other natural sciences that focus on vegetation and the terrestrial as well as the aquatic environment.The study that is carried out at the Department of Human geography at Stockholm university is basically a study of the historical land-use, the changes in settlement and how people have been working and using the landscape over the last centuries.The methods used include historical maps, cadastral material and in a later phase interviews and fieldwork. In the first phase that ends the summer 2004 the bulk of the historical material is probed and analysed. A big effort is put into the creation of GIS-data sets that can be used for further analyses. The work during spring 2004 resulted in this preliminary report that deal with historical land-use, population, settlement from medieval times to the present and both detailed and general descriptions and investigations of the historical geography of the areas.Both the investigated areas are located by the Baltic, but are very different both physically, especially with the land upheaval in the north, and historically with a different land-use system, ownership structure and distribution of settlement. The results of this study

  2. A study on landscape and the historical geography of two areas - Oskarshamn and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulf; Berg, Johan; Bjoerklund, Annika [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Human Geography

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the land-use; the settlement and the way people have used and affected the landscape in two areas, Forsmark and Simpevarp. This preliminary report aim mainly at describing the sources and methods used in the project. Some analyses are undertaken, but a more complete interpretation will take place in the final report of Phase two. This is a project that forms a part of the environmental impact assessment work that is done for examining potential locations for a plant for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Both areas are located on the East Coast of Sweden. A number of scientific studies are carried out in this project. Fields that are included studies for the EIA and the safety assessment include geology, quaternary geology, limnology, biology and other natural sciences that focus on vegetation and the terrestrial as well as the aquatic environment.The study that is carried out at the Department of Human geography at Stockholm university is basically a study of the historical land-use, the changes in settlement and how people have been working and using the landscape over the last centuries.The methods used include historical maps, cadastral material and in a later phase interviews and fieldwork. In the first phase that ends the summer 2004 the bulk of the historical material is probed and analysed. A big effort is put into the creation of GIS-data sets that can be used for further analyses. The work during spring 2004 resulted in this preliminary report that deal with historical land-use, population, settlement from medieval times to the present and both detailed and general descriptions and investigations of the historical geography of the areas.Both the investigated areas are located by the Baltic, but are very different both physically, especially with the land upheaval in the north, and historically with a different land-use system, ownership structure and distribution of settlement. The results of this study

  3. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  4. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  5. The potential for ore and industrial minerals in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, Hardy; Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been made of existing information concerning the potential for ore and industrial minerals in and near the candidate area for a deep repository in Forsmark. A deep repository for spent nuclear fuel should not be located in a rock type or an area where mineral extraction might be considered in the future, since this would make it impossible to exploit this natural resource. Avoiding such areas reduces the risk that people in the future will come into contact with the deep repository through mineral prospecting or mining activities. The survey has made use of all the geoscientific information that was compiled in the more regional investigations in Oesthammar Municipality in 1996-97. In cooperation with the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), a new, more detailed mineral resources map has been prepared. The map shows areas with an ore potential that may be unsuitable or unfavourable for siting of a deep repository. The results of the recently completed geophysical helicopter surveys of the Forsmark area are presented in a special chapter. The judgement of the area's ore potential is in part based on the geophysical evaluation of these measurements. Furthermore, the survey obtained information from ongoing deep drillings from the site investigation in Forsmark. In order to better be able to judge the ore potential, the survey has initiated a geochemical investigation of activated soil samples, plus an ore geology sampling of a section in the deep borehole KFM02A, where a hydrothermally altered zone was detected in 2003.The first results from these samplings are presented in the report, which also discusses prospecting efforts in the area as well as relevant Swedish mining legislation. Some suggestions are made for further ore geology investigations. The mineral resources map shows that there is an elongate northwest-southeast zone south and southwest of the candidate area which has a potential for skarn iron ore, and possibly for copper and zinc, although

  6. The potential for ore and industrial minerals in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Hardy [MIRAB Mineral Resurser AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been made of existing information concerning the potential for ore and industrial minerals in and near the candidate area for a deep repository in Forsmark. A deep repository for spent nuclear fuel should not be located in a rock type or an area where mineral extraction might be considered in the future, since this would make it impossible to exploit this natural resource. Avoiding such areas reduces the risk that people in the future will come into contact with the deep repository through mineral prospecting or mining activities. The survey has made use of all the geoscientific information that was compiled in the more regional investigations in Oesthammar Municipality in 1996-97. In cooperation with the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), a new, more detailed mineral resources map has been prepared. The map shows areas with an ore potential that may be unsuitable or unfavourable for siting of a deep repository. The results of the recently completed geophysical helicopter surveys of the Forsmark area are presented in a special chapter. The judgement of the area's ore potential is in part based on the geophysical evaluation of these measurements. Furthermore, the survey obtained information from ongoing deep drillings from the site investigation in Forsmark. In order to better be able to judge the ore potential, the survey has initiated a geochemical investigation of activated soil samples, plus an ore geology sampling of a section in the deep borehole KFM02A, where a hydrothermally altered zone was detected in 2003.The first results from these samplings are presented in the report, which also discusses prospecting efforts in the area as well as relevant Swedish mining legislation. Some suggestions are made for further ore geology investigations. The mineral resources map shows that there is an elongate northwest-southeast zone south and southwest of the candidate area which has a potential for skarn iron ore, and possibly for copper and zinc

  7. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold axis

  8. Uptake of elements by fungi in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl J.; Nikolova, Ivanka; Taylor, Andy F.S.; Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M.

    2004-10-01

    Samples were collected in a forest ecosystem close to the Nuclear Power Plant at Forsmark, Sweden. The soil was fractioned in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface and fungal mycelium. At the same sampling sites, fruit bodies of fungi were also collected. The concentration (mg/kg dw of soil) of K, Rb, Cs, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Ra, Th and U, were analysed in the various fractions using microspectrometry. The concentration of the stable potassium, rubidium and cesium in forest soil as well as in fungal compartment is discussed first and than the other 17 elements is discussed. Compared to bulk soil, rhizosphere was enriched with K, Rb and Cs by a factor 1.3, 1.7 and 1.5, and soil-root interface by factor 5.4, 2.6 and 1.0. Concentration of K, Rb and Cs was much higher in mycelium compared to bulk soil, indicating accumulation of these elements within fungi. The concentration ratios (CR) defined as mg/kg dw in mycelium divided by mg/kg dw in soil were found to be 4.5, 5.1 and 2.4 for K, Rb and Cs respectively. For fruit bodies of fungi, these ratios were about one order of magnitude higher than that for mycelium: 65, 3. 75.8 and 18.6 for K, Rb and Cs, respectively. In mycelium, only weak correlations were found between K and Rb uptake (r=0.33) and between K and Cs uptake (r=0.48). The concentrations of the elements in fruit bodies of fungi were species-dependent. Generally, fungi seemed to take up Rb more efficiently than K. Highest Cs concentrations were found in fruit bodies of Sarcodon imbricatus (25.1 mg/kg). Sarcodon imbricatus was found to accumulate K, Cs and especially Rb to greatest extent, followed by Cortinarius sp., and Suillus variegatus. Litter decomposing fungi Hypholoma capnoides and Collybia peronata showed relatively weak ability to accumulate K, Rb as well as Cs, compared to the mycorrhizal species. No correlation was found between concentration of K, Rb and Cs in fruit bodies of fungi and soil pH as well as

  9. Uptake of elements by fungi in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl J.; Nikolova, Ivanka; Taylor, Andy F.S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2004-10-01

    Samples were collected in a forest ecosystem close to the Nuclear Power Plant at Forsmark, Sweden. The soil was fractioned in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface and fungal mycelium. At the same sampling sites, fruit bodies of fungi were also collected. The concentration (mg/kg dw of soil) of K, Rb, Cs, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Ra, Th and U, were analysed in the various fractions using microspectrometry. The concentration of the stable potassium, rubidium and cesium in forest soil as well as in fungal compartment is discussed first and than the other 17 elements is discussed. Compared to bulk soil, rhizosphere was enriched with K, Rb and Cs by a factor 1.3, 1.7 and 1.5, and soil-root interface by factor 5.4, 2.6 and 1.0. Concentration of K, Rb and Cs was much higher in mycelium compared to bulk soil, indicating accumulation of these elements within fungi. The concentration ratios (CR) defined as mg/kg dw in mycelium divided by mg/kg dw in soil were found to be 4.5, 5.1 and 2.4 for K, Rb and Cs respectively. For fruit bodies of fungi, these ratios were about one order of magnitude higher than that for mycelium: 65, 3. 75.8 and 18.6 for K, Rb and Cs, respectively. In mycelium, only weak correlations were found between K and Rb uptake (r=0.33) and between K and Cs uptake (r=0.48). The concentrations of the elements in fruit bodies of fungi were species-dependent. Generally, fungi seemed to take up Rb more efficiently than K. Highest Cs concentrations were found in fruit bodies of Sarcodon imbricatus (25.1 mg/kg). Sarcodon imbricatus was found to accumulate K, Cs and especially Rb to greatest extent, followed by Cortinarius sp., and Suillus variegatus. Litter decomposing fungi Hypholoma capnoides and Collybia peronata showed relatively weak ability to accumulate K, Rb as well as Cs, compared to the mycorrhizal species. No correlation was found between concentration of K, Rb and Cs in fruit bodies of fungi and soil pH as well as

  10. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Svensson, Urban

    2005-12-01

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  11. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  12. A preliminary carbon budget for two oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for management and disposal of Swedish radioactive waste. The company is planning to construct repositories that will keep radioactive waste away from humans for hundreds of thousands of years. In a safety assessment of the repositories hypothetical releases are used to evaluate the robustness of the repositories. It is important to know how the radioactive nuclides would react if they were released and by which way they could enter the living biota. SFR are responsible for the disposal of low radioactive waste and close to the nuclear plant in Forsmark there is a storage for low radioactive waste. At the moment this storage is located in the bedrock far below the sea level but due to land-rise in the area it will in the future be located above sea level. Hence, it is of importance to know how the surface ecosystems in the area are functioning. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeresundsgrepen exist, but it is also important to have a carbon budget for the surface systems in the Forsmark area since SFR in the future will be situated above sea level. Carbon budgets can be used to get a picture of how an ecosystem functions. The carbon flow shows how carbon is transported through a food web from lower trophic levels, e.g. plants and bacteria to higher trophic levels such as fish. Oligotrophic hardwater lakes are the most important lakes in the Forsmark area. This report aims to give a picture of a potential flow of carbon through the ecosystem in two oligotrophic hard-water lakes, Lake Haellefjaerd and Lake Eckarfjaerden. Macrophyte, mainly Chara, were calculated to make up the largest part of the biomass and production in both lakes. Benthic bacteria and microphytobenthos (benthic photosynthesising microorganisms) were other large contributors to the production. Benthic bacteria were found responsible for a major part of respiration and, hence, consumption of carbon in the

  13. A preliminary carbon budget for two oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Eva

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for management and disposal of Swedish radioactive waste. The company is planning to construct repositories that will keep radioactive waste away from humans for hundreds of thousands of years. In a safety assessment of the repositories hypothetical releases are used to evaluate the robustness of the repositories. It is important to know how the radioactive nuclides would react if they were released and by which way they could enter the living biota. SFR are responsible for the disposal of low radioactive waste and close to the nuclear plant in Forsmark there is a storage for low radioactive waste. At the moment this storage is located in the bedrock far below the sea level but due to land-rise in the area it will in the future be located above sea level. Hence, it is of importance to know how the surface ecosystems in the area are functioning. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeresundsgrepen exist, but it is also important to have a carbon budget for the surface systems in the Forsmark area since SFR in the future will be situated above sea level. Carbon budgets can be used to get a picture of how an ecosystem functions. The carbon flow shows how carbon is transported through a food web from lower trophic levels, e.g. plants and bacteria to higher trophic levels such as fish. Oligotrophic hardwater lakes are the most important lakes in the Forsmark area. This report aims to give a picture of a potential flow of carbon through the ecosystem in two oligotrophic hard-water lakes, Lake Haellefjaerd and Lake Eckarfjaerden. Macrophyte, mainly Chara, were calculated to make up the largest part of the biomass and production in both lakes. Benthic bacteria and microphytobenthos (benthic photosynthesising microorganisms) were other large contributors to the production. Benthic bacteria were found responsible for a major part of respiration and, hence, consumption of carbon in the

  14. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility.

  15. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility

  16. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas; Saekerhetsrelaterade platsegenskaper - en relativ jaemfoerelse av Forsmark med referensomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  17. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  18. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  19. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake; Hyvoenen, Riitta

    2007-04-01

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m 2 respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m 2 . There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m 2 ), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m 2 ), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m 2 ). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m 2 /yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m 2 /yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m 2 /yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m 2 /yr). At the Forsmark sites, the N return in

  20. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  1. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  2. Post-glacial, land rise-induced formation and development of lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunberg, Anna-Kristina; Blomqvist, Peter

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area. The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny have also been identified. Three main types of lake ecosystems could be identified: The oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; i) the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota, ii) the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites, and iii) the light-exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. In later stages of the lake ontogeny, Sphagnum becomes more and more dominant in the system, which successively turns acidic. The final stage is likely to be a raised bog ecosystem with an autonomous hydrological functioning. The brown water lakes are typically found within the main part of the River Forsmarksaan and are characterised by a high flow-through of water from the upper parts of the drainage area, which are dominated by mires. Their lake water is highly stained by allochtonous organic carbon imported from the catchment area. Also in this lake type a Sphagnum-littoral successively develops, and in a mature lake three key habitats can be identified; i) the pelagic zone, most likely the dominant habitat in terms of production of organisms and in which bacterioplankton dominates the

  3. Post-glacial, land rise-induced formation and development of lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunberg, Anna-Kristina; Blomqvist, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre

    2000-03-15

    This report describes the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area. The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny have also been identified. Three main types of lake ecosystems could be identified: The oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; i) the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota, ii) the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites, and iii) the light-exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. In later stages of the lake ontogeny, Sphagnum becomes more and more dominant in the system, which successively turns acidic. The final stage is likely to be a raised bog ecosystem with an autonomous hydrological functioning. The brown water lakes are typically found within the main part of the River Forsmarksaan and are characterised by a high flow-through of water from the upper parts of the drainage area, which are dominated by mires. Their lake water is highly stained by allochtonous organic carbon imported from the catchment area. Also in this lake type a Sphagnum-littoral successively develops, and in a mature lake three key habitats can be identified; i) the pelagic zone, most likely the dominant habitat in terms of production of organisms and in which bacterioplankton dominates the

  4. Difference in particle transport between two coastal areas in the Baltic Sea investigated with high-resolution trajectory modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell, Hanna; Döös, Kristofer

    2013-05-01

    A particle-tracking model based on high-resolution ocean flow data was used to investigate particle residence times and spatial distribution of settling sediment for two geo-morphologically different Swedish coastal areas. The study was a part of a safety assessment for the location of a future nuclear-waste repository, and information about the particle-transport patterns can contribute to predictions of the fate of a possible leakage. It is also, to our knowledge, the first time particle-transport differences between two coastal areas have been quantified in this manner. In Forsmark, a funnel-shaped bay shielded by a number of islands, the average residence time for clay particles was 5 times longer than in the modeled part of Simpevarp, which is open to the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, <10 % of the released particles left the domain compared to 60-80 % in Simpevarp. These site-specific differences will increase over time with the differences in land uplift between the areas.

  5. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  6. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  7. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  8. Underwater Noise Modeling in Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Bagočius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with rising awareness of public and scientific societies about environmental and ecological impacts of underwater noise, the need for underwater noise modelling in the shallow Lithuanian area of Baltic Sea emerged. Marine Strategy Framework Directive issues regarding underwater noise indicators refers to possibility of evaluation of Good Environmental State using underwater noise measurements as well as possibility to model underwater noise. Main anthropogenic underwater noise contributor in the Seas is the shipping lanes as known due to date, with no exclusion of Lithuanian Baltic Sea area. In this manuscript, it is presented the methods of development of simplistic underwater ambient noise model purposed for computation of underwater soundscape in shallow area of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea.

  9. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  10. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca{sup 2+} associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca 2+ associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved

  13. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  14. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the

  15. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (ed.) (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Forsmark nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, O.

    1991-01-01

    The use of cooling water at such large power plants as Forsmark creates a considerable hazard for fish in the intake area, as they may be transported into the plant and killed. Several millions of Baltic herring and three-spined stickleback are lost each year at the intake screens. A release of cooling water to an open sea area is generally considered as a minor environmental problem, a presumption so far not contradicated by the results from the monitoring studies at Forsmark. In the Biotest basin, however, where the exposure to heat is maximal, a long series of effects ultimately changing populations of plants, benthic animals and fish have been documented. One important conclusion after ten years of studies in a heated Biotest basin, is that ecosystem stability seems to need very long time to be established, if it ever will. The monitoring of radioactivity controls the quality of the fish as food but is also directed to select special species accumulating these elements, bladder wrack etc. At Forsmark only small amounts of radionuclides from the plant so far have been detected in the marine environment. (KAE)

  17. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    variations in groundwater composition during the period 2005 to 2009 are presented in the report. The nitrogen concentration in the groundwater from soil pipe SFM0037 continued to be somewhat high also in August 2009, and especially the phosphate concentration was very high at that occasion. The sampled surface waters in the Forsmark area show similar seasonal variations as last year. Seasonal and annual variations in surface water composition during the period 2005 to 2009 are presented in the report. The waters are well buffered with high alkalinity, high pH and high calcium concentrations, and waters affected or recently affected by brackish sea water show high sodium chloride concentrations. Elevated tritium concentrations have been observed occasionally in samples collected close to the cooling water outlet from the nuclear power plant (Lake Biotestsjoen). This occurred once during 2009 (August)

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    variations in groundwater composition during the period 2005 to 2009 are presented in the report. The nitrogen concentration in the groundwater from soil pipe SFM0037 continued to be somewhat high also in August 2009, and especially the phosphate concentration was very high at that occasion. The sampled surface waters in the Forsmark area show similar seasonal variations as last year. Seasonal and annual variations in surface water composition during the period 2005 to 2009 are presented in the report. The waters are well buffered with high alkalinity, high pH and high calcium concentrations, and waters affected or recently affected by brackish sea water show high sodium chloride concentrations. Elevated tritium concentrations have been observed occasionally in samples collected close to the cooling water outlet from the nuclear power plant (Lake Biotestsjoen). This occurred once during 2009 (August)

  19. Baltic Area - a specific region of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevkunova, Emma; Mescherskaya, Anna; Jaani, Ago

    1999-01-01

    The article points out that the Baltic Sea area has several specific characters of meteorological regime that makes it remarkably different from other regions in the Northen Hemisphere. First of all, it is caused by the geographical situation of the region - on the connecting area of two opposite atmospheric macro-systems - North-Atlantic ocean and Eurasian continental. The specialities of atmospheric circulation create weather situation that often causes a dissonance between climate changes here and general trends in Eastern and Western Europe in the same periods. On the contrary, in the periods of a general warming in Northern Hemisphere, extremely cold winters may occur in Baltic region. On the basis of the analysis of the data from mid-latitudes in the whole Northern Hemisphere, the main result is that the centre of present warming in the hemisphere is located in the eastern part of Baltic area, between Tallinn and St. Petersburg. A 8-year cycle appears in long time series of annual mean temperature. There is no connection between solar activity and the occurrence of extremely warm and extremely cold winter. The warming during the last 11 years (1988-1998) has been the greatest in this century. The reason of warming is growth of intensity of cyclonic activity in the North Atlantic, and especially, a remarkable increase in frequency of deep cyclones

  20. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Hammarstroem, Angelica; Wallin, Kjell

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. To get relevant data on the dynamics of the mammal populations it is important to estimate the abundance and variations over time. Data achieved can be used to specifically monitor endangered species (like wolf, Canis lupus, and otter, Lutra lutra), detect effects from e.g. drilling activities on populations (important to hunters) and be used for assessment programs (MKB). One of the major goals is to monitor populations over several years and to obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclide. From late 2001 to late spring 2002 a pilot study was accomplished in the areas surrounding the suggested areas in the Tierp region and in Forsmark (Oskarshamn was not included in this pilot study). A reference area was chosen near the coast some 20 km north of Forsmark. The aim was to initiate surveys of most of the larger mammal species that were expected to be found in the region. Selected species were wolf, lynx, otter, marten, mink, red fox, beaver, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, moose, European hare and mountain hare. Several methods were used and adapted to expected habitat use and expected local density of the species. Line transects were used on snow to index (frequency of tracks crossing the transects) or calculate actual number (for example the Buffon method). Pellet counts were used in spring to calculate hare and cervid (moose and deer species) density. In mid winter an aerial (helicopter) survey was conducted along the coast to count moose. The aquatic mammals were tracked on snow along selected parts of the streams and

  1. Surveys of mammal populations in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Tierp. A pilot study 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Hammarstroem, Angelica; Wallin, Kjell [Svensk Viltfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. To get relevant data on the dynamics of the mammal populations it is important to estimate the abundance and variations over time. Data achieved can be used to specifically monitor endangered species (like wolf, Canis lupus, and otter, Lutra lutra), detect effects from e.g. drilling activities on populations (important to hunters) and be used for assessment programs (MKB). One of the major goals is to monitor populations over several years and to obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclide. From late 2001 to late spring 2002 a pilot study was accomplished in the areas surrounding the suggested areas in the Tierp region and in Forsmark (Oskarshamn was not included in this pilot study). A reference area was chosen near the coast some 20 km north of Forsmark. The aim was to initiate surveys of most of the larger mammal species that were expected to be found in the region. Selected species were wolf, lynx, otter, marten, mink, red fox, beaver, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, moose, European hare and mountain hare. Several methods were used and adapted to expected habitat use and expected local density of the species. Line transects were used on snow to index (frequency of tracks crossing the transects) or calculate actual number (for example the Buffon method). Pellet counts were used in spring to calculate hare and cervid (moose and deer species) density. In mid winter an aerial (helicopter) survey was conducted along the coast to count moose. The aquatic mammals were tracked on snow along selected parts of the streams and

  2. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Juston, John [DBE Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The results from the investigations at the sites are used as a basic input to the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDM). The SDM shall summarise the current state of knowledge of the site, and provide parameters and models to be used in further analyses within Safety Assessment, Repository Design and Environmental Impact Assessment. The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 'data freeze' (July 31, 2004). The groundwater is very shallow, with groundwater levels within one meter below ground as an annual mean for almost all groundwater monitoring wells. Also, the annual groundwater level amplitude is less than 1.5 m for most wells. The shallow groundwater levels mean that there is a strong interaction between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and groundwater. In the modelling, surface water and near-surface groundwater divides are assumed to coincide. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The observed differences in levels are not fully consistent with the good hydraulic contact between overburden and bedrock indicated by the hydraulic tests in the Quaternary deposits. However, the relatively lower groundwater levels in the bedrock may be caused by the horizontal to sub-horizontal highly

  3. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2008-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  4. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern (ed.)

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  5. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  6. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to provide

  8. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Ronny [Univ. of Kalmar (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    substrate shape file, were defined by means of the depth grid. The vegetation community and covering degree was defined according to adjacent polygons with information about both depth and substrate. In areas with diving or boat transects close to one another, polygons were defined by joining similar observations together. The covering degree of the vegetation within the new polygon was calculated as a mean of the joined observations. In areas which had not been visited in previous studies, a mean of other readings on a certain depth was used to estimate vegetation community and covering degree. The type of information used to define the vegetation community and covering degree was noted for all polygons in the GIS application. As a final step the area of the polygons was calculated. Six macrophyte communities were identified in the Forsmark area. The identified communities were Phanerogams, Chara, Filamentous (brown and green) algae, Vaucheria, Fucus and Red algae.

  9. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Ronny

    2005-12-01

    substrate shape file, were defined by means of the depth grid. The vegetation community and covering degree was defined according to adjacent polygons with information about both depth and substrate. In areas with diving or boat transects close to one another, polygons were defined by joining similar observations together. The covering degree of the vegetation within the new polygon was calculated as a mean of the joined observations. In areas which had not been visited in previous studies, a mean of other readings on a certain depth was used to estimate vegetation community and covering degree. The type of information used to define the vegetation community and covering degree was noted for all polygons in the GIS application. As a final step the area of the polygons was calculated. Six macrophyte communities were identified in the Forsmark area. The identified communities were Phanerogams, Chara, Filamentous (brown and green) algae, Vaucheria, Fucus and Red algae

  10. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  11. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  12. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark.

  14. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  15. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the

  16. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km 2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  17. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  18. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from shallow groundwater, precipitation, and regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  19. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  20. Risk and environmental impact assessments for the decommissioning of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) around the Baltic Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The removal and safe disposal of RTGs and their replacement with solar panel technology in the Baltic Sea is a priority area under the Norwegian Nuclear Action Plan. 26 of the 87 RTGs around the Baltic Sea have been removed as of 7th October 2009. The removal of RTGs around the Baltic Sea was initiated in 2009 as part of the Norwegian-Russian cooperation with funding from Norway, which requires that risk and environmental impact assessments are carried out during the planning phase. Finland and France will also be contributing to the work of removal and safe disposal of the RTGs around the Baltic Sea. (Author)

  1. Enhanced cooperation in energy economics in the Baltic area: possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhl, M.

    1993-01-01

    Preussen Elektra has been researching the possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Baltic area. The Baltic states; Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, together with the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad were reliant on energy imports from Russia. The main local resource is oil shale in Estonia, although wood and peat have also been used on a smaller scale. Latvia has hydroelectricity, while Lithuania has a nuclear power plant at Ignalina and a masut oil-fired plant at Elektreinai. Kaliningrad relies on energy imports from Lithuania or St Petersburg. Natural gas is a possible future fuel, but will have to be imported from Russia, the very situation from which the Baltic states wish to escape. Imported coal could be used in power plants - these would need to be constructed as West/East joint ventures. Alternatively electricity could be imported direct from States in the western Baltic, at least a Baltic Ring should be started on, but the problems of transformation from a command economy should not be underestimated

  2. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  3. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal

  4. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for

  5. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  6. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  7. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and density of fractures) and

  8. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and

  9. 137Cs dating of laminated sediments in Swedish archipelago areas of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meili, M.; Jonsson, P.; Carman, R.

    1998-01-01

    In deep off-shore areas of the Baltic Sea, sediment accumulation rates are typically on the order of one or a few millimeters per year, and even less in consolidated sediments, based on laming counts and radiometric dating. In lacustrine and marine basins, the highest sedimentation rates are usually found in the deepest part, since sediments and associated contaminants are known to be gradually 'focused' from shallow to deep areas by resuspension. Accordingly, net sedimentation in coastal areas is usually low or absent due to strong erosion forces. On the other hand, coastal sediments are likely to be important in controlling the fate and turnover of contaminants that are released into coastal waters. Since little is known about the turnover of coastal sediments, in particular for heterogeneous semi-enclosed areas such as the Baltic archipelagos, a study of sediment accumulation rates has been initaited, with a focus on areas where erosion is likely to be minimal. The study is part of a project focusing on the relationship between eutrophication and contaminant cycling (EUCON). 88 sediment cores were collected during summer 1996 from accumulation bottoms of 18 more or less protected bays in archipalgo areas along the swedish coast of the Baltic Sea

  10. Expected extreme sea levels at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp up until year 2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars; Engqvist, Anders; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Lindborg, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Literature data on factors that can affect the highest expected shoreline during the operational lifetime of a final repository up until ca 2100 AD have been compiled for Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp. The study takes into consideration eustasy (global sea level), isostasy (isostatic rebound) and their trends, as well as regional (North Sea) and local (Baltic Sea) annual extremes of today's sea levels and those in year 2100. The most uncertain factor of these is the future global sea level change. For this factor, three possible scenarios have been included from the literature, forming an rough uncertainty interval around a case with an 'intermediate' global sea level. To this end, the study thus makes use of information on global sea level change that has been published since the IPCC's (UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) most recent report (2007). The local cumulative impact on the shoreline of the eustatic and isostatic components for both the Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp coastal areas is that the maximum sea level occurs at the end of the investigation period, by year 2100. The interaction of these estimates is discussed in terms of coastal oceanographic aspects and estimated return periods for local extreme sea level-impacting events, including estimated storm surge. Maximum sea levels in year 2100 based on the sea level rise estimates by Rahmstorf are + 254 cm for Forsmark and + 297 cm for Laxemar/Simpevarp, both of these levels with an uncertainty interval of about ± 70 cm. The numbers apply for the worst possible case in regard to future sea level rise, and for occasions of short duration during heavy storms. In this context it is important to note that the data on which these estimates are based are the subject of intense research, and that revisions are therefore to be expected

  11. Expected extreme sea levels at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp up until year 2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); Engqvist, Anders (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Lindborg, Tobias (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    Literature data on factors that can affect the highest expected shoreline during the operational lifetime of a final repository up until ca 2100 AD have been compiled for Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp. The study takes into consideration eustasy (global sea level), isostasy (isostatic rebound) and their trends, as well as regional (North Sea) and local (Baltic Sea) annual extremes of today's sea levels and those in year 2100. The most uncertain factor of these is the future global sea level change. For this factor, three possible scenarios have been included from the literature, forming an rough uncertainty interval around a case with an 'intermediate' global sea level. To this end, the study thus makes use of information on global sea level change that has been published since the IPCC's (UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) most recent report (2007). The local cumulative impact on the shoreline of the eustatic and isostatic components for both the Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp coastal areas is that the maximum sea level occurs at the end of the investigation period, by year 2100. The interaction of these estimates is discussed in terms of coastal oceanographic aspects and estimated return periods for local extreme sea level-impacting events, including estimated storm surge. Maximum sea levels in year 2100 based on the sea level rise estimates by Rahmstorf are + 254 cm for Forsmark and + 297 cm for Laxemar/Simpevarp, both of these levels with an uncertainty interval of about +- 70 cm. The numbers apply for the worst possible case in regard to future sea level rise, and for occasions of short duration during heavy storms. In this context it is important to note that the data on which these estimates are based are the subject of intense research, and that revisions are therefore to be expected

  12. Monitoring Forsmark-Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  13. Displacement along extensive deformation zones at the two SKB sites: Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Fennoscandian shield, a part of the East European Craton, is distinguished by the exposed bedrock which is mainly composed of Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks. Large parts of the ground surface closely coincides with a late Precambrian denudation surface; the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Palaeozoic and younger sediments were deposited on the peneplain but these sediments have been removed from most areas that now form the mainland of Sweden and Finland and there are just a few remnants left. In the Baltic Sea, located in large-scale depressions on the boundary of in the Fennoscandian Shield/ in the East European Craton/, the Precambrian bedrock is still in large parts covered by Palaeozoic sediments. The Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, as they are well bedded, may form a memory of the late Palaeozoic and younger tectonic events in the underlying basement rocks. Such data are used here to complement the structural observations made at sites located on the mainland, giving information on displacement along faults. Significant for the Baltic Sea are faults oriented in N-S that appear as segments, displaced relative to each other. Other structures are oriented in E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE. The SKB Forsmark site is located in a relatively flat coastal area within the sub-Cambrian peneplain. The sea area at the Forsmark site has a more accentuated relief than what is found on the mainland, for example, a furrow along the western side of the N-S oriented island Graesoe northeast of Forsmark (below 30m b.s.l. and locally more than 50m lower than Graesoe) and the deep between Aaland and Sweden (301m b.s.l.) about 100km east-southeast of Forsmark. In the Forsmark-site area two sets of structures interfere: a WNWESE trending set with relatively straight faults along the north coast of Uppland and a NNW-SSE to N-S trending set, slightly curved, along the (north)east coast of Uppland. The Forsmark site is located in an elevated WNW trending lath-shaped rock block outlined by

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  15. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  16. Matrilinear phylogeography of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in Europe and postglacial colonization of the Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, J.; Gross, R.; Asplund, T.

    2001-01-01

    was analysed by RFLP of ND3/4/5/6. Representative RFLP haplotypes from different parts of the distribution area were sequenced and the phylogeny of European haplotypes and their relations to the North American lineage was described. The four common European haplotypes derive from the ancestral ND1-BBBA...... (rooting the European clade to the North American) by one-step substitutions: AAAA BBBB. The Swedish west- coast populations differ from the geographically close southern Baltic, indicating absence of inward and limited outward gene flow through the Danish straits during the last 8000 years....... Within the Baltic Sea, only three ND1 haplotypes were detected and there was no variation for ND3/4/5/6. In the whole southern Baltic and in lakes Vanern, Ladoga and Onega the haplotype AABA dominated. Proposed postglacial colonization routes to the Baltic Sea are discussed in relation to the haplotype...

  17. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  18. Long-term development of the super-regional area of Olkiluoto/Forsmark/Laxemar. Minutes from the Posiva and SKB workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Rubio Lind, Lotta (eds.)

    2006-12-15

    minutes were delimited in the description of the surface system part of the geosphere-biosphere system and its development in time, primarily in terms of geometry and sea water salinity. However, no effort was made to discuss the geological evolution of the area or any parameter in the bedrock separately. Instead, the focus was to list, describe and suggest the parameters and variables of the surface system that can be described in a common way for the three sites Olkiluoto (Finland), Forsmark and Laxemar (both in Sweden)

  19. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (SE)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (SE))

    2007-10-15

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  20. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2007-10-01

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  1. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus; Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Gimeno, Maria; Hallbeck, Lotta; Molinero, Jorge; Waber, Nick

    2008-12-01

    generally a high confidence in the description and understanding of the current spatial distribution of groundwater composition, mainly due to the consistency between different analyses and modelling of the chemical data, but also due to the agreement with the hydrogeological understanding of the area. The existence of a near-surface redox reaction zone appears to be plausible, but this is still unclear from uncertainties in data interpretation. Nevertheless, the abundance of calcite suggests there is active buffering capacity on dilute groundwaters low in calcite. Furthermore, even though quantification of the bedrock buffering capacity is not yet achieved, general indications from the Forsmark area as a whole point to a bedrock which has a sufficiently large buffering capacity to maintain pH values in the range 7 to 8.5 and Eh values lower than -140 mV. One important remaining uncertainty concerns the increase in sulphide concentrations measured in the on-going monitoring programme. Initial drilling and pumping may have disturbed the system or may have facilitated sulphate reduction, but this issue remains to be resolved. The monitoring programme will also support the overall understanding of the long term behaviour of other groundwater parameters such as uranium, DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and tritium

  2. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Molinero, Jorge (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)); Waber, Nick (Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland))

    2008-12-15

    generally a high confidence in the description and understanding of the current spatial distribution of groundwater composition, mainly due to the consistency between different analyses and modelling of the chemical data, but also due to the agreement with the hydrogeological understanding of the area. The existence of a near-surface redox reaction zone appears to be plausible, but this is still unclear from uncertainties in data interpretation. Nevertheless, the abundance of calcite suggests there is active buffering capacity on dilute groundwaters low in calcite. Furthermore, even though quantification of the bedrock buffering capacity is not yet achieved, general indications from the Forsmark area as a whole point to a bedrock which has a sufficiently large buffering capacity to maintain pH values in the range 7 to 8.5 and Eh values lower than -140 mV. One important remaining uncertainty concerns the increase in sulphide concentrations measured in the on-going monitoring programme. Initial drilling and pumping may have disturbed the system or may have facilitated sulphate reduction, but this issue remains to be resolved. The monitoring programme will also support the overall understanding of the long term behaviour of other groundwater parameters such as uranium, DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and tritium

  3. Hydrochemical patterns of a small lake and a stream in an uplifting area proposed as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel, Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnback, Pernilla; Åström, Mats

    2007-10-01

    SummaryThe overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the chemical dynamics of small catchments. The focus was on a small oligotropic lake and its major inflow stream in an uplifting area in eastern Sweden (Forsmark) proposed as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The hydrochemical sampling campaign lasted for nearly 4 years with sample collection monthly to semi-monthly, and continuous flow measurements carried out over the last 20 months. All this was done as part of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKBs) Site Investigation Programme. The major findings were: (1) as a result of the calcareous overburden caused by redistributed Paleozoic deposits, pH and the Ca and HCO3- concentrations were relatively high in both the stream and lake throughout the period, (2) limnic primary production resulted in decreased concentrations of Ca, HCO3-, NH4+, NO3- and Si, and increased pH and concentrations of chlorophyll a, O 2, DON, POC, PON and POP in the lake in summer, while in other seasons (in winter in particular) when the production was minimal or non-existent the concentrations in the lake and the inflow stream were similar, (3) intrusion of brackish-water resulted in moderately to strongly increased concentrations of Cl -, Na, Mg, Br -, SO42-, K and Sr in the lake: the ratio versus Cl - were for Na and Br - always similar to those in sea water, for Mg and SO42- similar to those in sea water at elevated Cl - concentrations (>3 mM), while K and Sr always occurred in relative excess as compared to sea water, (4) high U concentrations in both the stream and the lake was derived most likely from reduced U-minerals in the overburden and was predicted to be carried to >90% in the form of calcium uranyl carbonate, in a model in which colloidal Fe and Al oxyhydroxides were not considered, (5) the rare earth elements (REEs) had similar concentrations and fractionation patterns in the stream and lake, unlike those found in the

  4. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  5. [Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century] / Kaarel Vanamölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanamölder, Kaarel, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Ed. by Heiko Droste. Södertörn Studies in History, 9, Södertörn Academic Studies, 42 (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011)

  6. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke

    2011-04-01

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  7. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  8. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of benthic marine macroalgae to low salinities is believed to be a main determinant of their vertical distribution across the marine coastline and their horizontal distribution from oceanic regions into low-saline bays, fjords and estuaries. Salt tolerance should also be important...... for the distribution of the nearly 400 macroalgal species across the large salinity gradient in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area ranging from 30 psu at the entrance to 3 psu in the inner parts 1500 km away. Previous evaluations of interspecific differences in salt tolerance in relation to horizontal distribution patterns......, Denmark (salinity: 16 psu, tide 10 cm) to maintain photosynthesis after 4 days exposure to declining salinities (16 to 0 psu). Overall, the algal community had a high short-term tolerance to low salinities because 35 of 44 species maintained more than half the photosynthetic capacity at salinities lower...

  9. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  10. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  11. Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bryhn, Andreas; Bergenius, Mikaela; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems st...

  12. Results from Marine geological investigations outside Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, Johan; Elhammer, Anders; Sohlenius, Gustav; Kjellin, Bernt; Nordgren, Paer

    2011-08-01

    A detailed marine geological survey was conducted in a 10 km 2 large area outside Forsmark comprising hydro acoustic, 100 m spacing between survey lines, and groundtruthing. These data, together with reanalyzed survey data retrieved in 2002 from the same area, were used to produce maps of seabed and underlying bedrock surface morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments. An esker is discovered running approximately in a north northwesterly-south southeasterly direction in the area, which may be causing submarine groundwater discharge. Pockmarks, which are caused by sediment gas of thermogenic and/or microbial origin, are detected in the area. In addition to the original commissioned survey, bedrock surface and seabed morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments in a larger adjacent area were reanalyzed and produced from survey lines retrieved during a commission by SKB in 2002 and during SGUs regular mapping program in 2002, 2008 and 2009

  13. Results from Marine geological investigations outside Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Johan; Elhammer, Anders; Sohlenius, Gustav; Kjellin, Bernt; Nordgren, Paer (Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden))

    2011-08-15

    A detailed marine geological survey was conducted in a 10 km2 large area outside Forsmark comprising hydro acoustic, 100 m spacing between survey lines, and groundtruthing. These data, together with reanalyzed survey data retrieved in 2002 from the same area, were used to produce maps of seabed and underlying bedrock surface morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments. An esker is discovered running approximately in a north northwesterly-south southeasterly direction in the area, which may be causing submarine groundwater discharge. Pockmarks, which are caused by sediment gas of thermogenic and/or microbial origin, are detected in the area. In addition to the original commissioned survey, bedrock surface and seabed morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments in a larger adjacent area were reanalyzed and produced from survey lines retrieved during a commission by SKB in 2002 and during SGUs regular mapping program in 2002, 2008 and 2009

  14. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, p<0.0001). Such clear differences suggest that nematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  15. Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, J.; Lind, E. E.; Corell, H.; Grahn, M.; Smolarz, K.; Lönn, M.

    2017-08-01

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity.

  16. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity of pelagic, early life stages via transport by ocean currents may affect survival chances of offspring, recruitment success, and mixing of stocks across management units. Based on drift model studies, transport patterns of particles representing exogenously feeding cod larvae...... in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results...

  17. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Joakim P.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  18. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Dewitz, B. von; Lehmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971–2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery...... important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles...... to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep...

  20. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  1. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  2. People, lakes and seashores: Studies from the Baltic Sea basin and adjacent areas in the early and Mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Daniel; Zander, Annabell; Boethius, Adam; Dreibrodt, Stefan; Grøn, Ole; Hansson, Anton; Jessen, Catherine; Koivisto, Satu; Larsson, Lars; Lübke, Harald; Nilsson, Björn

    2018-04-01

    During the Early and Mid-Holocene significant changes in the ecology and socio-cultural spheres occurred around the Baltic Sea. Because of the underlying climatic changes and thus environmental alterations, the area was the scene for various cultural developments during the period under investigation. In the course of the melting of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age, isostatic and eustatic movements caused continual changes to the Baltic Sea basin. Changes in water level, however, affected not only the Early and Mid-Holocene coastlines, but also the whole Baltic Sea drainage system, including large lakes, rivers and watersheds in the hinterland were also dramatically impacted by these ecological changes. Prehistoric people were thus affected by changes in resource availability and reduction or enlargement of their territories, respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of changes in the water and land networks on the environment, resource availability, and human behaviour, and to reconstruct human responses to these changes, we pursue an interdisciplinary approach connecting environmental and archaeological research highlighted through different case studies.

  3. Ornithological surveys in the Baltic 2 wind farm area using high-resolution digital imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Nielsen, Rasmus Due; Stjernholm, Michael

    Beskrivelse af fugle antal og frodeling i et undersøgelsesområde omkring Baltic 2 havvindmølleparken i Tysk Østersø. Optælling foretages med højopløseligt Vexcel Ultracam XP kamera fra fly, og fugle lokaliseres ved hjælp af semi-automatiseret procedure vha. software eCognition....

  4. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  5. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  6. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2010-07-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  7. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled.

  8. Studying local earthquakes in the area Baltic-Bothnia Megashear using the data of the POLENET/LAPNET temporary array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltseva, Olga; Kozlovskaya, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Earthquakes in areas within continental plates are still not completely understood, and progress on understanding intraplate seismicity is slow due to a short history of instrumental seismology and sparse regional seismic networks in seismically non-active areas. However, knowledge about position and depth of seismogenic structures in such areas is necessary in order to estimate seismic hazard for such critical facilities such as nuclear power plants and nuclear waste deposits. In the present paper we address the problem of seismicity in the intraplate area of northern Fennoscandia using the information on local events recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET (Polar Earth Observing Network) temporary seismic array during the International Polar Year 2007-2009. We relocate the seismic events using the program HYPOELLIPS (a computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters) and grid search method. We use the first arrivals of P waves of local events in order to calculate a 3-D tomographic P wave velocity model of the uppermost crust (down to 20 km) for a selected region inside the study area and show that the velocity heterogeneities in the upper crust correlate well with known tectonic units. We compare the position of the velocity heterogeneities with the seismogenic structures delineated by epicentres of relocated events and demonstrate that these structures generally do not correlate with the crustal units formed as a result of crustal evolution in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic. On the contrary, they correlate well with the postglacial faults located in the area of the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear (BBMS). Hypocentres of local events have depths down to 30 km. We also obtain the focal mechanism of a selected event with good data quality. The focal mechanism is of oblique type with strike-slip prevailing. Our results demonstrate that the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear is an important large-scale, reactivated tectonic structure that has to be taken into

  9. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes; Inventering av daeggdjur i Forsmark och Haallnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-08-15

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous.

  10. Impact of a nitrogen emission control area (NECA) for ship traffic on the future air quality in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Geyer, Beate; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Fridell, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Deposition of nitrogen compounds originating from shipping activities contribute to eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and coastal areas in the Baltic Sea region. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from shipping on the Baltic Sea are comparable to the combined land-based emissions of NOx from Finland and Sweden and have been relatively stable over the last decade. However, expected future growth of maritime transport will result in higher fuel consumption and, if not compensated by increased transport efficiency or other measures, lead to higher total emissions of NOx from shipping. For the Baltic Sea a nitrogen emission control area (NECA) will become effective in 2021 - permitting only new built ships that are compliant with stringent Tier III emission limits - with the target of reducing NOx-emissions. In order to study the effect of implementing a Baltic Sea NECA-2021 on air quality and nitrogen deposition two future scenarios were designed; one with implementation of a NECA for the Baltic Sea starting in 2021 and another with no NECA implemented. The same increase of ship traffic was assumed for both future scenarios. Since complete fleet renewal with low NOx-emitting engines is not expected until 20-30 years after the NECA entry date, year 2040 was chosen as future scenario year. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to simulate the current and future air quality situation. The nested simulation runs with CMAQ were performed on a horizontal resolution of 4 km × 4 km for the entire Baltic Sea region. The meteorological year 2012 was chosen for the simulation of the current and future air quality situation since the 2m-temperature and precipitation anomalies of 2012 are closely aligned to the 2004-2014 decadal average over Baltic Proper. High-resolution meteorology obtained from COSMO-CLM was used for the regional simulations. Ship emissions were generated with the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) by the Finnish Meteorological

  11. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  12. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  13. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  14. Radionuclide particle transport, sedimentation and resuspension in the Forsmark and Laxemar coastal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, Hanna; Doeoes, Kristofer (Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    In the safety assessment of a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is important to assess the consequences of a hypothetical leak of radionuclides through the seabed and into a waterborne transport phase. Radionuclides adsorbed to sediment particles may be transported great distances through the processes of sedimentation and resuspension. This study investigates the transport patterns of sediment particles of two different sizes, released in the Forsmark and Laxemar area. The results show that the closed waters around Forsmark to a higher degree makes the particles stay in the area close to the release points

  15. Quantifying in situ stress magnitudes and orientations for Forsmark. Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C. Derek (Univ. of Alberta (Canada))

    2007-11-15

    Stephansson et al. concluded that in the Fennoscandia shield: (1) there is a large horizontal stress component in the uppermost 1,000 m of bedrock, and (2) the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses exceed the vertical stress assuming the vertical stress is estimated from the weight of the overburden. Several stress campaigns involving both overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, including the hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures (HTPF), have been carried out at Forsmark to establish the in situ stress state. The results from the initial campaigns were summarised by Sjoeberg et al. which formed the bases for the stresses provided in the Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. Since then additional stress measurement campaigns have been completed. The results from these stress measurement campaigns support the conclusions from Stephansson et al. In addition to these in situ stress measurements the following additional studies were undertaken to aid in assessing the stress state at Forsmark. 1. A detailed televiewer survey of approximately 6,900 m of borehole walls to depths of 1,000 m was carried out to assess borehole wall damage, i.e. borehole breakouts. 2. Evaluation of nonlinear strains in laboratory samples to depths of approximately 800 m to assess if stress magnitudes were sufficient to create stress-induced microcracking. 3. Assessment of the magnitudes required to cause core disking and survey of core disking observed at Forsmark. The magnitudes and orientations from the stress measurement campaigns were analysed to establish the most likely stress magnitudes and orientations for Design Step D2 within the Target Area of the Complete Site Investigations. The maximum and minimum horizontal stress components are essentially the same as the maximum and intermediate principal stresses, sigma1 and sigma2, respectively. The minimum principal stress (sigma3) is synonymous with the vertical stress. The most likely range in values to be used in the design is also

  16. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem

  17. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Eckersten, Henrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Crop Production Ecology

    2006-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem.

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Searching for evidence of late- or postglacial faulting in the Forsmark region. Results from 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, Robert; Sundh, Martin; Svedlund, Jan-Olov; Johansson, Helena

    2005-10-01

    The study was designed to determine whether any major late- or postglacial faulting occurred in the proposed repository area at Forsmark or in its vicinity. 'Major faulting' in this context is defined as dislocations in the order of several metres along faults several kilometres long. Faults of such dimensions may, if conditions are favourable, be detected by means of interpreting aerial photographs. Furthermore, they would have generated high magnitude earthquakes that could produce characteristic distortions in waterlogged sandy or silty sediments. Interpretation of aerial photographs was carried out in a relatively large area in northeast Uppland, with the purpose of looking for morphologically conspicuous lineaments, i.e. late- or postglacial fault candidates. A number of fairly prominent but short escarpments and crevasses were noted, but when later field-checked these candidates for young fault movement proved to be more or less strongly glacially eroded, i.e. formed prior to the last deglaciation. In order to search for seismically induced distortions, all gravel and sand pits being worked in the investigation area were visited and some fifty machine-dug trenches were excavated, mainly in sandy-silty glaciofluvial deposits along eskers. Contorted and folded sequences of glacial clay were encountered at many of the localities, but the disturbances were generally interpreted as caused by sliding. A seismic origin for the sliding cannot be excluded, but no conclusive evidence of this was found. As no distortions attributable to seismically induced liquefaction were noted in any of the trenches excavated along the Boerstil esker, to the southeast of Forsmark, it is concluded that no major (>M7) earthquakes occurred in the Forsmark area after the disappearance of the last inland ice sheet. An erosional unconformity accompanied by a laterally persistent layer of coarse-grained sediments was found in most of the investigated trenches and it is concluded that strong

  19. Forsmark site investigation. Searching for evidence of late- or postglacial faulting in the Forsmark region. Results from 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerbaeck, Robert; Sundh, Martin; Svedlund, Jan-Olov; Johansson, Helena [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-10-15

    The study was designed to determine whether any major late- or postglacial faulting occurred in the proposed repository area at Forsmark or in its vicinity. 'Major faulting' in this context is defined as dislocations in the order of several metres along faults several kilometres long. Faults of such dimensions may, if conditions are favourable, be detected by means of interpreting aerial photographs. Furthermore, they would have generated high magnitude earthquakes that could produce characteristic distortions in waterlogged sandy or silty sediments. Interpretation of aerial photographs was carried out in a relatively large area in northeast Uppland, with the purpose of looking for morphologically conspicuous lineaments, i.e. late- or postglacial fault candidates. A number of fairly prominent but short escarpments and crevasses were noted, but when later field-checked these candidates for young fault movement proved to be more or less strongly glacially eroded, i.e. formed prior to the last deglaciation. In order to search for seismically induced distortions, all gravel and sand pits being worked in the investigation area were visited and some fifty machine-dug trenches were excavated, mainly in sandy-silty glaciofluvial deposits along eskers. Contorted and folded sequences of glacial clay were encountered at many of the localities, but the disturbances were generally interpreted as caused by sliding. A seismic origin for the sliding cannot be excluded, but no conclusive evidence of this was found. As no distortions attributable to seismically induced liquefaction were noted in any of the trenches excavated along the Boerstil esker, to the southeast of Forsmark, it is concluded that no major (>M7) earthquakes occurred in the Forsmark area after the disappearance of the last inland ice sheet. An erosional unconformity accompanied by a laterally persistent layer of coarse-grained sediments was found in most of the investigated trenches and it is concluded

  20. Soil carbon effluxes in ecosystems of Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    Soil carbon effluxes were estimated in a number of ecosystems in Laxemar and Forsmark investigations areas. It was done in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, a wet deciduous stand, a poor fen and an agricultural field in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and in a pasture, two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands, a deciduous forest, a mire, a wet deciduous forest and a clear-cut in the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). It was measured with the closed chamber technique in 2005 and 2006. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate annual soil respiration. A hyperbolic curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR was used for modelling GPP for the growing season in the poor fen and the agricultural area of Laxemar. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 33.6% and 44.0% of the variation, respectively. GPP of the ground vegetation were reducing soil carbon effluxes, in all stands but one of the spruce stands, the deciduous forest, the mire and the wet deciduous forest of Forsmark. The significant (all but spruce 2 in Forsmark) curves with GPP against PAR explained on average 22.7% of the variation in GPP. The cubic regressions with GPP against air temperature were only significant for the poor fen and the agricultural field in Laxemar and it explained on average 34.8% of the variation in GPP for these ecosystems. The exponential regressions with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The hyperbolic curve with GPP against PAR could also be used for temporal extrapolation of GPP for the ecosystems without a tree layer, i.e. the poor fen and the agricultural

  1. Soil carbon effluxes in ecosystems of Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2007-12-01

    Soil carbon effluxes were estimated in a number of ecosystems in Laxemar and Forsmark investigations areas. It was done in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, a wet deciduous stand, a poor fen and an agricultural field in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and in a pasture, two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands, a deciduous forest, a mire, a wet deciduous forest and a clear-cut in the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). It was measured with the closed chamber technique in 2005 and 2006. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate annual soil respiration. A hyperbolic curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR was used for modelling GPP for the growing season in the poor fen and the agricultural area of Laxemar. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 33.6% and 44.0% of the variation, respectively. GPP of the ground vegetation were reducing soil carbon effluxes, in all stands but one of the spruce stands, the deciduous forest, the mire and the wet deciduous forest of Forsmark. The significant (all but spruce 2 in Forsmark) curves with GPP against PAR explained on average 22.7% of the variation in GPP. The cubic regressions with GPP against air temperature were only significant for the poor fen and the agricultural field in Laxemar and it explained on average 34.8% of the variation in GPP for these ecosystems. The exponential regressions with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The hyperbolic curve with GPP against PAR could also be used for temporal extrapolation of GPP for the ecosystems without a tree layer, i.e. the poor fen and the agricultural

  2. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  3. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  4. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  5. Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

  6. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of this report is to describe the limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp, identify important processes in a radionuclide perspective and provide a description of the radionuclide model for the biosphere used in SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components (biomass as well as production), water chemistry, and comparison with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. A separate chapter is included to specifically describe how and where these processes are included in the radionuclide model. The radionuclide model is described and parameterisation and guidance to parameter calculation is provided. The last chapter of the report provides a summary of the knowledge of the limnic systems at the two areas. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 25 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in the lakes

  7. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva

    2010-12-15

    The overall objective of this report is to describe the limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp, identify important processes in a radionuclide perspective and provide a description of the radionuclide model for the biosphere used in SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components (biomass as well as production), water chemistry, and comparison with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. A separate chapter is included to specifically describe how and where these processes are included in the radionuclide model. The radionuclide model is described and parameterisation and guidance to parameter calculation is provided. The last chapter of the report provides a summary of the knowledge of the limnic systems at the two areas. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 25 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in the lakes

  8. Man-machine communication at Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultquist, Goeran; Norberg, Soeren

    1984-01-01

    The design of Forsmark 3 began in 1976 and the control room layout and equipment were discussed right from the start. Susequent evolution and events in other nuclear power plants have, however, radically changed the direction of the development of the man-machine functions. (author)

  9. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group Baltic cod are determined, and their nursery areas are localised according to the environmental factors affecting them. Comparative statistical analyses of biological, hydrographic and hydroacoustic data are carried out based on standard ICES demersal trawl surveys and special integrated trawl and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001-2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution patterns related to the seabed topography, water layer depth, and the presence of hydrographic frontal zones (pycnoclines as well as intraspecific patterns in relation to the presence of adult cod. The extent of the nursery areas also depends on the cod year class strength. Juvenile cod (≥3 cm are present in all areas of the central Baltic Sea (CBS, showing broad dispersal. However, their highest density in the Baltic Basins is found at localities with a 40-70 m bottom depth in waters with oxygen concentrations above 2 ml O₂.l⁻¹ and temperatures above 5°C. The smallest juveniles are also found in deep sea localities down to a 100 m depth and at oxygen concentrations between 2-4 ml O₂.l⁻¹. The vertical, diurnally stratified and repeated trawling and hydroacoustic target strength-depth distributions obtained from the special surveys show juvenile cod concentrations in frontal zone water layers (pycnocline. However, the analyses indicate that in the CBS, juvenile cod of all sizes do not appear to aggregate in dense schooling patterns, which differs

  10. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, Emma; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona

    2008-09-01

    rock these were located at 140 m.b.s.l. In the PT simulations particles were entered both all over the model area and only inside the area for the planned repository. The pattern of recharge and discharge areas at the surface were studied, but also the flow paths in the bedrock. The PT simulations were run for 300 years and 5,000 years. The AD simulations were run for 200 years. The particle tracking results indicated a relative slow transport from the bedrock up to the ground surface. The horizontal fractures/sheet joints short-circuited the upward transport paths of the particles released in the area where these structures were represented. The particles reaching ground surface when introducing particles all over the model area were concentrated to lake areas, the depressions around the streams, and the sea. When introducing particles inside the planned repository area only, all exit points were found in the sea; no particles discharged in the land part of the model area. The overall pattern of exit points after 300 years did not change when running the model for 5,000 years. However, the exit points moved further out in the sea. The AD results from the case where the solute was introduced at 140 m.b.s.l. showed that the transport was directed both upwards and downwards. The upward transport in the bedrock was mainly directed towards the sea and the lake areas. When the transported solute reached a layer where the sheet joints were represented in the model, the horizontal component of the transport dominated. As a result, only a minor fraction of the injected solute appeared above the areas with high hydraulic conductivity. In summary, an extensive sensitivity analysis and calibration process is the basis for the results of the MIKE SHE model presented in this report. The general impression is that the model shows good agreement with field measurements, and hence confirms the conceptual model of the Forsmark site

  11. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark. Ekologisk faeltinventering och naturvaerdesklassificering samt beskrivning av skogsproduktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  12. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  13. Landscape Forsmark - data, methodology and results for SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2010-12-01

    This report presents an integrated description of the landscape at the Forsmark site during the succession from present conditions to the far future. It was produced as a part of the biosphere modelling within the SR-Site safety assessment. The report gives a description of input data, methodology and resulting models used to support the current understanding of the landscape used in SR-Site. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the site and to give information essential for demonstrating understanding. The report relies heavily on a number of discipline-specific background reports concerning details of the data analyses and modelling. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors, i.e. climate variations and shoreline displacement. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn determine the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, groundwater recharge and discharge, soil formation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. The biosphere at the site during the next 1,000 years is assumed to be quite similar to the present situation. The most important changes are the natural infilling of lakes and a slight withdrawal of the sea with its effects on the near-shore areas and the shallow coastal basins. The climate during the rest of the temperate period may vary considerably, with both warmer and colder periods. The main effect of temperature changes will be on the vegetation period. Changed temperatures may give rise to drier or wetter climate and to changed snow cover and frost characteristics, and this can in turn affect the dominant vegetation and mire build-up. The description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle is one of the main features of the SR-Site biosphere modelling. The future areas potentially affected by deep groundwater discharge are

  14. Landscape Forsmark - data, methodology and results for SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias (ed.) (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report presents an integrated description of the landscape at the Forsmark site during the succession from present conditions to the far future. It was produced as a part of the biosphere modelling within the SR-Site safety assessment. The report gives a description of input data, methodology and resulting models used to support the current understanding of the landscape used in SR-Site. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the site and to give information essential for demonstrating understanding. The report relies heavily on a number of discipline-specific background reports concerning details of the data analyses and modelling. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors, i.e. climate variations and shoreline displacement. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn determine the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, groundwater recharge and discharge, soil formation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. The biosphere at the site during the next 1,000 years is assumed to be quite similar to the present situation. The most important changes are the natural infilling of lakes and a slight withdrawal of the sea with its effects on the near-shore areas and the shallow coastal basins. The climate during the rest of the temperate period may vary considerably, with both warmer and colder periods. The main effect of temperature changes will be on the vegetation period. Changed temperatures may give rise to drier or wetter climate and to changed snow cover and frost characteristics, and this can in turn affect the dominant vegetation and mire build-up. The description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle is one of the main features of the SR-Site biosphere modelling. The future areas potentially affected by deep groundwater discharge are

  15. Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhn, Andreas C; Bergenius, Mikaela A J; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems studies make it possible to (1) estimate fish loss at plants where fish is not counted, and (2) to predict changes in fish loss from changes in electricity production or cooling water use. In 2010, 31,300,000 fish with a total biomass of 62,600 kg were impinged at Forsmark. In 2011, 27,300,000 fish weighing 38,500 kg were impinged. The maximum peak in total fish number and biomass occurred in spring. The most critical period for herring was in late summer and early autumn. Regarding eel, the largest impingement losses were recorded in November. The number of fish agreed with earlier established quantities of impinged fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. The study also estimated that 1,300 critically endangered eels could survive at Forsmark each year if a fish return system would be constructed to allow the passage of fish from the plant back to the Baltic Sea.

  16. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehls, John F.

    2006-04-01

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors

  17. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  18. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  19. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  20. Market led: Forsmark looks to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Forsmark nuclear power plant in Sweden includes three BWR reactors totalling 3200 MWe. From a design level of 70% the average capability factor has been increased to 90%. This has been achieved by a market-orientated approach with efficient outages and a total production cost identified with each unit in order to show how each stands in relation to the market price level and to outside competition. Forsmark's performance, as indicated by capacity factors, refuelling outage length and electricity production costs is better than most. Strategic planning is important and a refurbishment programme up to 2000 is planned to renew the electricity generators, replace the process computers and upgrade the preheater systems. (UK)

  1. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  2. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    . As the population dynamics of eastern Baltic cod depend strongly on the climate-driven hydrographic regime, we considered two production regimes of the stock. MPAs were only effective for stock recovery when they reduced overall fishing effort. The performance of MPAs needs to be evaluated relative to environmental...

  3. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...... developed by Gren (2000) and, Schou et al 2006, now being under further development and extension within the Baltic Nest Institute in Roskilde. The model is a cost minimizing model for the reduction of nutrients to the Baltic comprising all countries around the Baltic sea. The purpose of this model...

  4. Environmental reconstructions of Eemian Stage interglacial marine records in the Lower Vistula area, southern Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karen Luise; Jiang, Hui; Gibbard, Philip L

    2012-01-01

    is established on the basis of correlation with the annually laminated Bispingen sequence. Diatoms, foraminifera and ostracods are used as marine environmental proxies at both sites. An indication of marine conditions as early as pollen zone E1 or E2 at Licze and close to the E2–E3 boundary at Obrzynowo reflects...... the rapid relative sea-level rise in the area, which proceeded through ∼3000 years. A major salinity increase c. 1100 years after the beginning of the Eemian (early pollen zone E4) at both sites may be related to the opening of the Danish Straits. The Obrzynowo site became isolated from the sea at c. 3500...

  5. eHealth education of professionals in the Baltic Sea Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygholm, Ann; Günther, Julia; Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study on the extent, level and content of e-Health in existing formal educational systems in Lithuania, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark with the objectives of identifying future educational needs within this area. The study was carried out as a desk-top study and took place within the context of the ICT for Health project. The results of the study on the one hand revealed a wide range of programs and courses that included e-Health, but on the other hand also showed that in the educations of health care professionals (physicians, nurses etc.) the integration of e-Health elements are often marginal or non-existing. Thus the study indicates that there is a need for a higher integration of e-Health in the education of health care professionals. We discuss what kind of knowledge of e-Health is needed and how it could or should be integrated in these educations. We argue that providing possibilities for applying and experimenting with e-Health system in a concrete and tangible manner is central in order to raise the acceptance and capabilities of health care professionals to use e-Health systems.

  6. eHealth Education of Professionals in the Baltic Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Günther, Julia; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    and took place within the context of the ICT for Health project. The results of the study on the one hand revealed a wide range of programs and courses that included e-Health, but on the other hand also showed that in the educations of health care professionals (physicians, nurses etc.) the integration......In this paper we present a study on the extent, level and content of e-Health in existing formal educational systems in Lithuania, Germany, Finland, Norway and Denmark with the objectives of identifying future educational needs within this area. The study was carried out as a desk-top study...... of e-Health elements are often marginal or non-existing. Thus the study indicates that there is a need for a higher integration of e-Health in the education of health care professionals. We discuss what kind of knowledge of e-Health is needed and how it could or should be integrated in these educations...

  7. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Forsmark; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Pia [Atrax Energi AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged.

  8. The Forsmark incident 25th July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikdahl, Carl Erik

    2007-01-01

    An incident occurred at 13.20 on Tuesday 25th July 2006 at Forsmark 1, which was then in operation at full power, 990 MW. The origin of the incident lay in a short circuit in the 400 kV switchyard outside the plant. It resulted in severe voltage fluctuations which, in a complicated manner, spread into several of the electrical systems in the plant. At the time, Forsmark 2 was shut down for refuelling and maintenance. Forsmark 3 was operating at full output, but was not affected by the fault, as it is connected to another switchyard. The voltage fluctuation resulted in Forsmark 1 (F1) being disconnected from the external grid, and the reactor being scrammed. Parts of the battery backed AC internal distribution network were knocked out, and only two of the four diesel driven generators started automatically. After 22 minutes, power was restored manually from the control room, after which the two other diesel units started. Some of the control room equipment had also been partially knocked out, with the result that, initially, the control room operators were unable to obtain a full overview of the situation. The reactor core, however, was adequately cooled throughout the incident, and the reactor pressure vessel was not subjected to any abnormal pressure or temperature loads. What makes the Forsmark incident serious in terms of safety is instead that the defence-in-depth reactor safety systems did not operate satisfactorily. Several safety systems that are intended to operate independently of each other failed to do so as the result of a common external fault. An important principle for reactor safety - that safety systems are designed and intended to minimise the risk of such common cause failures - was not maintained. Nevertheless, the diversity of automatically operating safety systems was sufficient to ensure that the reactor was shut down automatically and independently of the operators, and that sufficient cooling was maintained throughout the duration of the

  9. Numerical studies on spatial variation of the in situ stress field at Forsmark - a further step. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Hossein [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The present work is an investigation into the depiction of a spatial distribution of the in situ stresses at the Forsmark candidate site. The methodology is based on numerical simulations of the pre-occurrences of perturbation of the stress field, produced by the deformations/displacements that rock mass/major fracture zones undergo. The distinct element program DEC, was used for the purpose. Forsmark area is dominated mainly by the Forsmark and the Singoe faults but also by a number of major fracture zones. Almost all these structures, not only that they are reported to dip vertically, but they more or less run sub-parallel with the inferred overall orientation of the major principal stress, s1. These zones, as a result, cause a fairly limited perturbation in the state of in situ stress at the site. At a diminished scale, however, fracture zones of a lesser extent - which dip obliquely and run at an angle in relation to the s1 orientation - produce a significant perturbation of the state of stress. This work also included two preliminary investigations on: - Assessing the remote orientation of the major principal stress. This was done by looking at the crustal shortening, which characterizes in part the past tectonic activities of the Fennoscandian shield. - Looking for the mechanically viable explanations for the formation of joints sub-parallel with ground surface within the uppermost section of the rock mass.

  10. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; André, Carl; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lind, Ulrika; Blomberg, Anders; Jonsson, Per J; Havenhand, Jon N

    2014-07-19

    Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species' capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system--Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses--notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity.

  11. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1; Saettningsanalys Forsmarks kaernkraftverk - aggregat 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied.

  12. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  13. Characterization of the Lower Cambrian sandstone aquifer in the Swedish Baltic Sea area - assessment regarding its potential suitability for storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlström, M.; Sivhed, U.

    2012-04-01

    In the Baltic region the Cambrian sandstone is considered to have great economic value concerning its aquifer and reservoir properties. Its potential as petroleum reservoir is well known, especially from the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian sectors of the Baltic Sea where oil and gas has been found in anticline traps in the sandstone sequence. Offshore exploration in the Swedish sector has so far not encountered any significant findings of oil and gas. However, the extensive exploration has generated data, which is now being used for assessing the overall properties regarding suitability for storage of CO2. The Swedish primary industry has a great interest in finding potential sites for storage of CO2. A suitable site in the Baltic Sea would be a most favourable alternative in comparison to more remote alternatives such as deep saline aquifers in the North Sea. The Lower Cambrian is in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea composed of three main sandstone units varying in thickness between 5 and 50 m occurring within an up to 250 m thick Cambrian sequence dominated by fine-grained terriclastic sediments. The limit of Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Baltic area is today defined by erosional truncation because of the gently dipping Lower Palaeozoic sequence. To the north and northwest, the limit is found in the Pre-Quaternary, whereas the erosional limit is deeply buried beneath Permian and Mesozoic sediments to the south. Here the Lower Palaeozoic limit is buried to depths reaching more than 2 km. The Cambrian sequence in the distal parts of the Swedish sector occurs at depths of c. 1300 m while it constitutes the bedrock surface in a narrow zone trending from Öland to the north of of Gotland. Sandstone beds constitute 40-60% of the total Cambrian sequence. The main sandstone units have a regional distribution of several thousands of square kilometres. The up to 50 m thick Faludden sandstone member exhibits the best reservoir properties including porosities in the

  14. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  15. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of the Forsmark site, model version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3D-Terra, Montreal (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, geochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in model version 1.1 which represents the first evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to May 1, 2003 (i.e. the first 'data freeze'). The HAG group had access to a total of 456 water samples collected mostly from the surface and sub-surface environment (e.g. soil pipes in the overburden, streams and lakes); only a few samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest samples reflected depths down to 200 m. Furthermore, most of the waters sampled (74%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Consequently, model version 1.1 focussed on the processes taking place in the uppermost part of the bedrock rather than at repository levels. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the flat topography and closeness to the Baltic Sea resulting in relative small hydrogeological driving forces which can preserve old water types from being flushed out, b) the changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, c) repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and d) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing processes. Based on the general geochemical character and the apparent age two major water types occur in Forsmark: fresh-meteoric waters with a bicarbonate imprint and low residence times (tritium values above detection limit), and brackish-marine waters with Cl contents up to 6,000 mg/L and longer residence times (tritium

  16. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rock types and ductile structures on a rock domain basis, and fracture orientation and mineralogy on a deformation zone basis. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    This report presents the results of the analysis of base geological data in order to establish the dominant rock type, the subordinate rock types and the orientation of ductile mineral fabrics within each rock domain included in the regional geological model, version 1.2. An assessment of the degree of homogeneity of each domain is also provided. The analytical work has utilised the presentation of data in the form of histograms and stereographic projections. Fisher means and K values or best-fit great circles and corresponding pole values have been calculated for the ductile structural data. These values have been used in the geometric modelling of rock domains in the regional model, version 1.2. Furthermore, all analytical results have been used in the assignment of properties to rock domains in this model. A second analytical component reported here addresses the orientation and mineralogy of fractures in the deterministic deformation zones that are included in the regional geological model, version 1.2. The analytical work has once again utilised the presentation of data in the form of histograms and stereographic projections. Fisher means and K values are presented for the orientation of fracture sets in the deterministic deformation zones that have been identified with the help of new borehole data. The frequencies of occurrence of different minerals along the fractures in these deformation zones as well as the orientation of fractures in the zones, along which different minerals occur, are also presented. The results of the analyses have been used in the establishment of a conceptual structural model for the Forsmark site and in the assignment of properties to deterministic deformation zones in model version 1.2.

  18. St. Canute Lavard around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Baltic Sea-area manifestations of the cult of the Danish Royal saint, Canute the Duke, in Danish, Knud Lavard, during the Middle Ages. It also applies theories of cultural memory by Jan and Aleida Assmann in order to approach an understanding of how the cult of St. Canute...... was culturally re-functionalized in Denmark in the sixteenth century, but not in any similar way in other areas around the Baltic Sea....

  19. Pollution in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, G

    1998-07-01

    The Baltic Sea is almost totally surrounded by land and therefore more endangered by pollution than other marine areas. The sources of marine pollution are municipal and industrial waste inputs directly into the sea or via rivers, and atmospheric inputs mainly from traffic and agriculture. The increase of inorganic plant nutrients (NH3, NOx, PO4) caused eutrophication and consequent oxygen depletion in coastal bottom waters as well as in the depths of the open sea. In the anoxic sediments, hydrogen sulfide can be produced by protein-decomposing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The bottom fauna will be destroyed and only H2S tolerant microorganisms can survive. Originating from cellulose manufacturing and from paper mills, large amounts of poisonous chlorinated compounds contaminated the coastal waters of Sweden and Finland until the 1980s. Most of this material is still present in sediments of the central Baltic Sea and can be resuspended by near bottom currents. To reduce pollution and improve the situation in the Baltic Sea, the surrounding countries organized the Helsinki Convention, which came into force on 3.5.1980. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) founded in 1974 acts as coordinator and is responsible for the enforcement of the Baltic monitoring program and international research projects. The activities of HELCOM have led to the reduction of dangerous pollutants which in turn has caused the regeneration of flora and fauna in some areas. Further improvements can be expected.

  20. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  1. Numerical modelling of solute transport at Forsmark with MIKE SHE. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. Data from the site investigations are used in a variety of modelling activities. This report presents model development and results of numerical transport modelling based on the numerical flow modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site. The numerical modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and is based on the site data and conceptual model of the Forsmark areas. This report presents solute transport applications based on both particle tracking simulations and advection-dispersion calculations. The MIKE SHE model is the basis for the transport modelling presented in this report. Simulation cases relevant for the transport from a deep geological repository have been studied, but also the pattern of near surface recharge and discharge areas. When the main part of the modelling work presented in this report was carried out, the flow modelling of the Forsmark site was not finalised. Thus, the focus of this work is to describe the sensitivity to different transport parameters, and not to point out specific areas as discharge areas from a future repository (this is to be done later, within the framework of the safety assessment). In the last chapter, however, results based on simulations with the re-calibrated MIKE SHE flow model are presented. The results from the MIKE SHE water movement calculations were used by cycling the calculated transient flow field for a selected one-year period as many times as needed to achieve the desired simulation period. The solute source was located either in the bedrock or on top of the model. In total, 15 different transport simulation cases were studied. Five of the simulations were particle tracking simulations, whereas the rest

  2. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Andersson, Eva

    2008-11-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  3. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Eva (SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  4. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  5. Electrical Dynamic Simulation Activities in Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamell, Per

    2015-01-01

    The original power system analysis was done in the seventies in former ASEA AB software. For approximate twenty years no major new studies was done because of limited numbers of renewal projects. In the end of the nineties the plant started to update the selectivity planning and study of the loading of the safety bus-bars. The simulation and start of the development of simulation models was done in a tool named Simpow. Simpow was also an ASEA/ABB AB software developed from the program used in the seventies. To continue to work with Simpow was a decision made after doing an extensive review of on the marked available commercially software. Also at that time we start to do our first attempt building electrical simulation models of unit 1 and 2 according to the original documentation. The development of models for the unit 1, 2 and 3 became more intensive some years after the millennium. Partly because of event July 25, 2006 and also because of the renewal of unit 1 and 2 and had subsequently been initiated for unit 3 also. Today we have initiated a conversion of our models to a new program called PowerFactory. That due to the withdrawal of support and development on SIMPOW a couple of years ago. To development relevance, accuracy and detail, models are an important issue for FKA (Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB). The model is initially created according to the plant documentation and also including requested information from the original supplier. Continued development and updates of the model is done according to the data received from the contractors via the demands according to requirements in our technical documents on different electrical components in renewal projects. The development of the model is driven by known weaknesses, depending of the type of studies and necessary data related to events. An important part that will be described is to have a verified simulation tool and validated models. An example is that the models have been validated by making start and

  6. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  7. Recharge and discharge of near-surface groundwater in Forsmark. Comparison of classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Johansson, Per-Olof; Brydsten, Lars; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten

    2007-03-01

    This report presents and compares data and models for identification of near-surface groundwater recharge and discharge (RD) areas in Forsmark. The general principles of groundwater recharge and discharge are demonstrated and applied to interpret hydrological and hydrogeological observations made in the Forsmark area. 'Continuous' RD classification methods considered in the study include topographical modelling, map overlays, and hydrological-hydrogeological flow modelling. 'Discrete' (point) methods include field-based and hydrochemistry-based RD classifications of groundwater monitoring well locations. The topographical RD modelling uses the digital elevation model as the only input. The map overlays use background maps of Quaternary deposits, soils, and ground- and field layers of the vegetation/land use map. Further, the hydrological-hydrogeological modelling is performed using the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 software packages, taking into account e.g. topography, meteorology, hydrogeology, and geometry of watercourses and lakes. The best between-model agreement is found for the topography-based model and the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 model. The agreement between the topographical model and the map overlays is less good. The agreement between the map overlays on the one hand, and the MIKE SHE and field-based RD classifications on the other, is thought to be less good, as inferred from the comparison made with the topography-based model. However, much improvement of the map overlays can likely be obtained, e.g. by using 'weights' and calibration (such exercises were outside the scope of the present study). For field-classified 'recharge wells', there is a good agreement to the hydrochemistry-based (Piper plot) well classification, but less good for the field-classified 'discharge wells'. In addition, the concentration of the age-dating parameter tritium shows low variability among recharge wells, but a large spread among discharge wells. The usefulness of hydrochemistry-based RD

  8. Recharge and discharge of near-surface groundwater in Forsmark. Comparison of classification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden); Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report presents and compares data and models for identification of near-surface groundwater recharge and discharge (RD) areas in Forsmark. The general principles of groundwater recharge and discharge are demonstrated and applied to interpret hydrological and hydrogeological observations made in the Forsmark area. 'Continuous' RD classification methods considered in the study include topographical modelling, map overlays, and hydrological-hydrogeological flow modelling. 'Discrete' (point) methods include field-based and hydrochemistry-based RD classifications of groundwater monitoring well locations. The topographical RD modelling uses the digital elevation model as the only input. The map overlays use background maps of Quaternary deposits, soils, and ground- and field layers of the vegetation/land use map. Further, the hydrological-hydrogeological modelling is performed using the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 software packages, taking into account e.g. topography, meteorology, hydrogeology, and geometry of watercourses and lakes. The best between-model agreement is found for the topography-based model and the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 model. The agreement between the topographical model and the map overlays is less good. The agreement between the map overlays on the one hand, and the MIKE SHE and field-based RD classifications on the other, is thought to be less good, as inferred from the comparison made with the topography-based model. However, much improvement of the map overlays can likely be obtained, e.g. by using 'weights' and calibration (such exercises were outside the scope of the present study). For field-classified 'recharge wells', there is a good agreement to the hydrochemistry-based (Piper plot) well classification, but less good for the field-classified 'discharge wells'. In addition, the concentration of the age-dating parameter tritium shows low variability among recharge wells, but a large spread among discharge

  9. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Pia

    2007-07-01

    This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged

  10. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing ecological data and data from disciplines such as hydrology, quaternary geology and chemistry. The description therefore includes a number of different processes that drive element fluxes in the ecosystems, such as net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, transpiration, and horizontal transport from land to streams and lakes. Moreover, the human appropriation of the landscape is described with regard to land use and potential and actual utilization of food resources both today and in a historical perspective

  11. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2010-12-01

    The ecosystem is in most cases the link between radionuclides released from a repository and the exposure of humans and other biota to them. This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing and performing cross-disciplinary analyses of data from a large number of reports produced during the site investigations, Figure 1-2. The report describes the terrestrial landscape, divided here into the three main categories: forests, wetlands and agriculture land, by identifying properties that are important for element accumulation and transport

  12. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders (ed.) (EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The ecosystem is in most cases the link between radionuclides released from a repository and the exposure of humans and other biota to them. This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing and performing cross-disciplinary analyses of data from a large number of reports produced during the site investigations, Figure 1-2. The report describes the terrestrial landscape, divided here into the three main categories: forests, wetlands and agriculture land, by identifying properties that are important for element accumulation and transport

  13. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders (EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden)) (ed.)

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing ecological data and data from disciplines such as hydrology, quaternary geology and chemistry. The description therefore includes a number of different processes that drive element fluxes in the ecosystems, such as net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, transpiration, and horizontal transport from land to streams and lakes. Moreover, the human appropriation of the landscape is described with regard to land use and potential and actual utilization of food resources both today and in a historical perspective

  14. Has anthropogenic land-cover change been a significant climate forcing in the past? - An assessment for the Baltic Sea catchment area based on a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kleinen, Thomas; Brigitte Nielsen, Anne; Poska, Anneli; Samuelsson, Patrick; Strandberg, Gustav; Trondman, Anna-Kari

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the recent published scientific literature on land cover-climate interactions at the global and regional spatial scales with the aim to assess whether it is convincingly demonstrated that anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) has been (over the last centuries and millennia) a significant climate forcing at the global scale, and more specifically at the scale of the Baltic Sea catchment area. The conclusions from this review are as follows: i) anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response in the past is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects, and to the biogeochemical vs biogeophysical effects; ii) there is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback; iii) several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes; iv) palaeoecological studies indicate a major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the study region occurring between 6000 and 3000/2500 calendar years before present (cal. BP) (1) ; v) the only modelling study so far of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in Europe suggests that a deforestation of the magnitude of that reconstructed for the past (between 6000 and 200 cal BP) can produce changes in winter and summer temperatures of +/- 1°, the sign of the change depending on the season and the region (2). Thus, if ALCC and their biogeophysical effects did matter in the past, they should matter today and in the future. A still prevailing idea is that planting trees will mitigate climate warming through biogeochemical effects. Therefore, there is

  15. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  16. BWR-stability investigation at Forsmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergdahl, B.G.; Reisch, F.; Oguma, R.; Lorenzen, J.; Aakerhielm, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of noise measurements have been conducted at Forsmark 1 during start-up operation after the revision summer '87. The main purpose was to investigate BWR-stability problems, i.e. resonant power oscillations of 0.5 Hz around 65% power and 4100 kg/s core flow, which tend to arise at high power and low core flow conditions. The analysis was performed to estimate the noise source which gives rise to the oscillation, to evaluate the measure of stability, i.e. the Decay Ratio (Dr) as well as to investigate other safety related problems. The result indicates that the oscillation is due to the dynamic coupling between the neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics via void reactivity feedback. The Dr ranged between values of 0.7 and > 0.9, instead of expected 0.6 (Dr=1 is defined as instability). These high values imply that the core cannot suppress oscillations fast enough and a small perturbation can cause scram. Further it was found that the entire core is oscillating in phase (LPRM's) with varying strength where any connection to the consequences of different fuel (8x8, 9x9) being present simultaneously cannot be excluded. This report elucidates the importance of an on-line BWR-stability surveillance system with functions like stability condition monitoring and control system diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; Mackenzie, Brian R; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-09-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  18. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  20. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  1. Contrasting responses to long-term climate change of carbon flows to benthic consumers in two different sized lakes in the Baltic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Freiberg, Rene; Poska, Anneli; Agasild, Helen; Alliksaar, Tiiu; Tõnno, Ilmar

    2018-05-01

    The study of lake sediments and archived biological remains is a promising approach to better understand the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. Small lakes have been shown to be strongly sensitive to past climate change, but similar information is lacking for large lakes. By identifying responses to climate change of carbon flows through benthic food web in two different sized lakes, we aimed to understand how lake morphometry can mediate the effects of climate change. We reconstructed the dynamics of phytoplankton community composition and carbon resources sustaining chironomid biomass during the Holocene from the combined analysis of sedimentary pigment quantification and carbon stable isotopic composition of subfossil chironomid head capsules (δ13CHC) in a large lake in the Baltic area (Estonia). Our results showed that chironomid biomass in the large lake was mainly sustained by phytoplankton, with no significant relationship between δ13CHC values and temperature fluctuations. We suggest that lake morphometry (including distance of the sampling zone to the shoreline, and lake volume for primary producers) mediates the effects of climate change, making large lakes less sensitive to climate change. Complementary studies are needed to better understand differences in organic matter dynamics in different sized lakes and to characterize the response of the aquatic carbon cycle to past climate change.

  2. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    optical parameterization of Baltic Case 2 waters, i.e. by the mathematical formulas of the model linking the coefficient of attenuation of downward irradiancewith the surface chlorophyll a concentration, as well as the method developed for the efficient and systematic satellite remote sensing of the chlorophyll a concentration over the entire Baltic Sea area.

  3. Baltijskaja Evropa: ot idei k strategii [From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmowski Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the historic prerequisites and forms of international cooperation in the Baltic region (“Baltic cooperation”. According to the author, Baltic Europe is being formed as a single administrative, economic, cultural and infrastructural area, which could become a new economic and cultural center of Europe. Special emphasis is given to policies and strategies of the EU in the Baltic Sea region.

  4. The distribution of heavy metals and 137Cs in the central part of the Polish maritime zone (Baltic Sea) - the area selected for wind farm acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Kosakowska, Alicja; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Szubska, Marta; Walkusz-Miotk, Jolanta; Żak, Adam; Ciechanowicz, Agnieszka; Wdowiak, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Disturbances of the marine sediments that may be induced by offshore wind energy (OWE) construction and functioning may cause reintroduction of contaminants accumulated in the sea bottom over last century. It is thus very important to check in which offshore region of the Polish coast the littlest consequences of the OWE construction may be expected. The area of 9000 km2 in the central part of the Polish economic zone was selected for sediments sampling. In total, sediments from 46 stations were collected by gravity twin corer or geo-vibro corer. Heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn) concentrations were measured by AAS and ICP-MS while 137 Cs activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometer. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210Pb geochronology at 7 stations to follow the history of contaminants accumulation. Study areas located between isobaths of 20 m and 40 m were characterized by the lowest concentration of heavy metals, often below natural environmental background (e.g. Pb = 6.7 - 11.4 μg·g-1, As = 0.3 - 8.4 μg·g-1). The largest contamination by heavy metals (e.g. Pb reached 86.1 μg·g-1 while As = 21.0 μg·g-1) was visible at the outer part of Bornholm Basin and in Słupsk Furrow, the deepest studied regions. Highest accumulation of heavy metals in this area is connected to large fraction of pelite sediments and large proportion of organic matter at those stations. It may be concluded that shallow sandy sediments of the Southern Baltic are unpolluted and appropriate for OWE construction. Deeper sea regions e.g Słupsk Furrow and Bornholm Basin may be regarded as moderately polluted and therefore not recommended for OWE acquisition.

  5. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  6. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  7. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars

    2010-12-01

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied

  8. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  9. Groundwater chemical changes at SFR in Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3DTerra (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    The examination of the groundwater sampled at the SFR tunnel system indicated that the groundwater consist mainly of a Na-Cl to Na-Ca-Cl type of water. Most of the samples fall within the Cl range of 2500-5500 mg/l having a neutral pH (6.6-7.7 units). The water is reducing and despite the fact that the tunnel acts like a hydraulic sink constantly withdrawing water out from the rock into the tunnel the groundwater changes are moderate with time. Most of the sampling points in the SFR tunnel system are located under the Sea and M3 calculations indicated that most of the sampling points have a change of water types from an older marine water type affected by glacial melt water to an more modern marine water type such as Baltic Sea water which has been modified by possibly microbial sulphate reduction and ion exchange. Mass balance calculations indicated that the waters seem to be in equilibrium with the fracture filling mineral such as calcite. The quality of the aluminium data made the modelling with the major rock forming aluminium silicates such as feldspars and clay minerals uncertain and was therefore not reported. The conclusion is that the groundwater evolution and patterns at SFR are a result of many factors such as: 1. the changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, 2. repeated Sea/lake water regressions/transgressions 3. the closeness to Baltic Sea resulting in relative small hydrogeological driving forces which could preserve old water types from being flushed out, 4. organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater caused by microbial processes or in situ water/rock interactions 5. tunnel construction which changed the flow system The modelled present-day groundwater conditions of the SFR site consist of a mixture in varying degrees of different water types. The data indicate that all the groundwater at SFR is strongly affected by Sea water of different origin and ages. The meteoric (0- 1000 B.P) portion is located close

  10. Bioturbation in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Lenoir, Lisette; Taylor, Astrid [Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University or Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) carries out extensive investigations on factors that can affect long-term storage of nuclear waste. Earthworms consume organic soil materials and when doing so they transport and mix mineral soil particles as well as litter and humus materials. Ants do not consume soil materials, but they collect and mix mineral soil particles and litter materials to construct their nests. This process of material displacement by earthworms and ants is called bioturbation and can be a mechanism for the redistribution (vertical and horizontal) of radionuclides within the soil profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the quantitative impact of earthworms and ants on bioturbation of soil in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Earthworms were sampled at four 20x20 cm{sup 2} sub-plots at each site and were determined, dried and weighed in the laboratory. Gut passage time and faeces production were determined in a laboratory experiment at constant temperature. Temperature dependence of earthworm growth was studied at 3, 6, 10 and 20 deg C, and it was assumed that defecation mirrored growth as regards temperature dependence. Ant species composition, ant nest density and nest volume were investigated in the field by using pitfall traps and a transect method to enumerate ant nests. Dry weights of ant nests were determined after weighing in the laboratory. Earthworm abundances and biomasses were high in moist/wet alder forests and deciduous woodlands and low in pine and pine/spruce forests at both Forsmark and Oskarshamn. In mesic spruce forests, high estimates of abundance/biomass of earthworms were found at Forsmark but low at Oskarshamn, whereas grazed pastures had high estimates at Oskarshamn and ungrazed abandoned fields had relatively low estimates at Forsmark. High pH at Forsmark and low pH at Oskarshamn as well as high groundwater tables at some of the Forsmark sites can explain the difference between

  11. Bioturbation in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tryggve; Lenoir, Lisette; Taylor, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) carries out extensive investigations on factors that can affect long-term storage of nuclear waste. Earthworms consume organic soil materials and when doing so they transport and mix mineral soil particles as well as litter and humus materials. Ants do not consume soil materials, but they collect and mix mineral soil particles and litter materials to construct their nests. This process of material displacement by earthworms and ants is called bioturbation and can be a mechanism for the redistribution (vertical and horizontal) of radionuclides within the soil profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the quantitative impact of earthworms and ants on bioturbation of soil in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Earthworms were sampled at four 20x20 cm 2 sub-plots at each site and were determined, dried and weighed in the laboratory. Gut passage time and faeces production were determined in a laboratory experiment at constant temperature. Temperature dependence of earthworm growth was studied at 3, 6, 10 and 20 deg C, and it was assumed that defecation mirrored growth as regards temperature dependence. Ant species composition, ant nest density and nest volume were investigated in the field by using pitfall traps and a transect method to enumerate ant nests. Dry weights of ant nests were determined after weighing in the laboratory. Earthworm abundances and biomasses were high in moist/wet alder forests and deciduous woodlands and low in pine and pine/spruce forests at both Forsmark and Oskarshamn. In mesic spruce forests, high estimates of abundance/biomass of earthworms were found at Forsmark but low at Oskarshamn, whereas grazed pastures had high estimates at Oskarshamn and ungrazed abandoned fields had relatively low estimates at Forsmark. High pH at Forsmark and low pH at Oskarshamn as well as high groundwater tables at some of the Forsmark sites can explain the difference between

  12. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stocholm (Sweden)); Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  13. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  14. SR-Site - hydrogeochemical evolution of the Forsmark site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Joaquin; Molinero, Jorge; Juarez, Iker (Amphos 21 (Spain)); Gimeno, Maria Jose; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    The present work has involved the development of a methodology in order to simulate the evolution of the groundwater composition within the candidate repository site of the Forsmark area. A series of climate periods is expected to be probable after the repository closure (temperate, periglacial and glacial) and, eventually, the area could be submerged under seawaters or under a lake of glacial melt waters. These environmental conditions will affect groundwater flow and composition around of the candidate repository volume. The present report summarizes the results obtained by the calculations which reproduce the hydrogeochemical evolution in the Forsmark area, and within the candidate repository volume. The hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters is one of the key factors affecting the chemical stability of the buffer and the canister. In this way, the main objective of the hydrogeochemical simulations is to assay the evolution of a series of safety assessment factors, such as salinity, redox potential, pH, and concentrations of iron, sulphide and potassium, among others. Using ConnectFlow, previous hydrological calculations have provided the transport of (1) the fractions of selected reference waters (Deep Saline, Old Meteoric, Glacial, Littorina and Altered Meteoric groundwaters), or (2) salinities, depending on the working team (Serco or Terrasolve). The results of the regional-scale groundwater flow modelling for each specific climate period are used as input of the geochemical models. Groundwater compositions have been modelled using PHREEQC, through mixing and chemical reactions between the waters obtained from the hydrogeological models and the reactive fracture-filling minerals. Both models (hydrological and geochemical) are not fully coupled, and it allows a description of the geochemical heterogeneity, which otherwise would be hard to attain. The stage of the open repository has been non-numerically analysed. Aspects as salinity, redox conditions

  15. Complementary modelling of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Grandia, Fidel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-10-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting a comprehensive geoscientific characterization of two alternative sites to allocate a deep geological repository of high level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Program also includes the near-surface systems, which are expected to constitute the last geological barrier between the repository system and the earth's surface. The evaluation of the retention capacity of the near surface systems is, therefore, very relevant for the site characterization program. From the geological point of view, near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits that overlay a granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the most abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit (approx75% of surface extension) and the remainder is made up of clayey materials (glacial and post-glacial clays). These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time scale considered in this work, is calcium carbonate (calcite). This mineral is found along with clay minerals (e.g. illite) and Fe(III) hydroxides. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with minor amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich levels (gyttja) which can promote reducing conditions in the system. The assessment of the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark was developed in an earlier work, that focused on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is an improvement of the geochemical conceptual and numerical model already presented, based on data available in the Site Descriptive Model v 1.2 (Forsmark). Regarding the geochemical variability of the Quaternary deposits present at Forsmark and its implications on radionuclide mobility through the near-surface systems, a

  16. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...

  17. The UNDP/GEF Baltic wind atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O.

    2003-11-01

    In the frame of the Regional Baltic Wind Energy Programme, sponsored by the Global Environment Facility through the UNDP, a publicly available wind resource database for the wind-energy relevant areas of the Baltic Countries has been established. A 2-year measurement campaign has been performed based on 7 stations in the coastal area: the 3 Lithuanian sites Kretinga, Vilkyciai and Taurage; the Latvian site Saernate; and the 3 Estonian sites Prangli, Virtsu and Uulu. In addition, private data measured at the Estonian site Tuerisalu was made available to the project. (au)

  18. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  19. The Forsmark biotest basin. An instrument for environmental research. Experiences of large cooling water discharges in Sweden (1969-1993) and research perspectives for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the Biotest basin at Forsmark (Sweden) as an instrument for experimental environmental research, and indicates possibilities for its future use. the basin consists of a 1 km 2 artificial enclosure in the Baltic Sea that receives cooling water discharge from the Forsmark nuclear power plant. Cooling water discharge was initiated in 1980, and since then the basin has been serving as the main Swedish instrument for field studies on the effects of enhanced temperature and low-dose radioactivity on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental effects of large cooling water discharges from power plants to the sea have been studied at other sites in Sweden too, and for the sake of completeness of background information this report provides a survey and an extensive bibliography of all previous research on cooling water discharges in Sweden during the last 25 years. The aim of scientific research in the Biotest basin is to provide an independent academically-based assessment of the effects of the discharges of heat to the aquatic environment and of the pathways of pollutants through the ecosystems. Until now the research has mainly been describing the ecological effects of the cooling water flow through the basin under normal operation of the power plant. In the future it will be possible to manipulate the basin for large field experiments. An important perspective for the future is that of climatic change; the Forsmark Biotest basin provides excellent conditions for field studies on possible biological effects. This includes e.g. temperature effects on basic biological processes (growth, metabolism, reproduction etc.), population genetics, and combination effects of heat and toxic substances. 60 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Plant description layout D - Forsmark; Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Anlaeggningsbeskrivning layout D - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    This document describes the final repository for spent nuclear fuel, SFK, which is located at Forsmark, in Oesthammar. The bedrock at the site is part of a so-called tectonic lens, in which the rock composition is relatively homogeneous and less deformed than outside the lens. The bedrock consists mainly of granite with high quartz content and good thermal conductivity. The central parts above ground are grouped in an operations area, located at the Soederviken on the south side of the intake duct for cooling water for nuclear power plant. Operating area is divided into an internal, secured portion, where the canisters of fuel are handled and there are links to the underground part, and a outer part, where the buffer, backfill and sealing used in the repository's barriers are produced. The above-ground part of the plant and also include storage of excavated rock, ventilation stations, and supplies of bentonite. The underground portion consists of a central area and a storage area. Caverns of the central area contain features for the underground operation. It communicates with the internal operating range above ground via a spiral ramp and several shafts. The ramp used to transport capsules of spent fuel and other heavy or bulky transport. The shafts are used to transport rock, buffer, backfill and staff, as well as for ventilation. The largest part of the space below ground is the repository where the canisters with the spent fuel are disposed. The capsules are deposited in vertical holes in the tunnels. When the deposit in a tunnel is complete, the tunnel is re-filled. The two main activities underground is rock work and disposal work, which are conducted separately from each other. Rock works covers all steps required to excavate tunnels and drill deposition holes, as well as to make temporary installations in the tunnels. To the landfill works count, besides the deposit of the capsule, the placement of the bentonite buffer in the deposition hole and

  1. Calibration and analysis of soil carbon efflux estimates with closed chambers at Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-08-01

    The Forsmark and the Laxemar investigation areas are examined by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. for a possible construction of a deep repository for nuclear waste. In the case of a future leakage of waste, the radioactive isotopes could end up in the ecosystems above the repository. The fate of the radionuclides and their possible radiological impacts are then highly determined by ecosystem carbon cycling. An important part of the carbon cycling is the soil carbon effluxes, and in the investigation areas soil carbon effluxes have been examined with the closed chamber technique. This paper is divided into two parts. Firstly, there were problems with the equipment measuring the soil carbon dioxide efflux, and the first part is a description of the problem, how it was corrected and its possible causes. The second part is a manual in how to analyse data and calculate annual estimates of soil carbon efflux. The field measurement by the EGM-4 is just an occasional estimate of the soil carbon efflux at a certain spot and at a certain point in time. To make an interpretation of the measurements, it is essential to analyse the data and to temporally extrapolate them. It is necessary to prepare the raw data for the analysis. The problems with the EGM-4 doing the measurements at the Forsmark and the Laxemar investigation area makes it necessary to correct the data taken up by this EGM-4. The data should also be separated into soil respiration and gross primary production (GPP). Soil carbon dioxide effluxes should be changed to soil carbon effluxes. Soil carbon effluxes are strongly controlled by abiotic factors; temperature is the main factor to influence soil respiration and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature are the main factors to influence GPP. Regression with soil respiration against temperature and with GPP against PAR or temperature can therefore be done. These equations can then be used on datasets with temperature and PAR

  2. Reactor safety study applied to the Forsmark 3 Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Tiren, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    A reactor safety study of the Forsmark 3 BWR power plant has been carried out for the purpose of calculating core melt probabilities using WASH-1400 methods. A sensitivity analysis shows that the calculated core melt probability is changed by approximately a factor of 10 depending on assumptions made with respect to the probability of human error. The importance of the availability of off-site power and the influence of common cause failure is also discussed. (author)

  3. Lessons from the Forsmark 1 event in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    A short circuit at a switchyard broke some of the safety chains in the reactor safety system and created a difficult situation in the control room at the Forsmark 1 power plant in Sweden. After a scram two of four diesel generators failed to deliver power but the reactor could safely be controlled through remaining two systems and power could be distributed from external grid after 22 minutes. Surveillance systems in the control room also failed and the situation at the reactor was unclear. Analysis shows that there was never a risk to the public and no damage on the core. The incident exposed unknown weakness in the power supply systems of the reactor. Also it was found that maintenance had failed and some components were not properly installed. The regulator identified the problem as a serious failure but did not at once realize the public impact. The licensee was late in its decision making and did only publish local press releases that did not fully expose the nature of the incident. After some days an independent expert claimed that a core melt was a close possibility. He was widely quoted and created a media impact many European countries. In the light of the incident problems with safety culture was identified at the plant and additional findings showed problems in the management system of Forsmark. Growing media interest culminated in January when a critical internal report from staff members in Forsmark was made public. Some lessons learnt: - Media activity followed well-known patterns. - The regulator was an important source for media. - Regulator not fired upon until January, after a long autumn filled with negative reporting on Forsmark. - The plant was not proactive in its communication which created a problem for the regulator. (author)

  4. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  5. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen......The Nordic-Baltic countries are not really a region, but a proto- region that perhaps is coming closer to being a proper region because of the changing geopolitical conditions outside the area. Russian actions in Ukraine have increased threat perception in the region and pose a fundamental...... and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  6. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  7. Palaeohydrological implications in the Baltic area and its relation to the groundwater at Aespoe, south-eastern Sweden - A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, B.

    1995-03-01

    A literature study of different groundwaters in the circum Baltic region is presented in this work. The study is mainly focused on the isotopic signatures observed in different groundwaters in Sweden and Finland. Several saline groundwaters in the Baltic region at depth of 150 to 500m depth show stable (δD, δ 13 C, δ 18 O) and radiogenic (δ 87 Sr) isotope assembly which is suggestive of a marine origin. However, a discrepancy is sometimes observed between the stable as well as radiogenic isotopes of the intermediate groundwater, which suggest a mixture of fossil marine water and a post-glacial runoff of melt water. In order to explain this phenomenon, the initial setting in δ 18 O may have been depleted due to large input of high latitude marine water or cold melt waters. A solution to the contradiction between the strontium (δ 87 Sr) and stable isotope (δD, δ 13 C, δ 18 O) signatures of the groundwater and of the calcite fracture fillings at Aespoe and other places is attained, if it is assumed that the strontium in Baltic Sea water has undergone a significant decrease in δ 87 Sr since the last glaciation. A scenario can be constructed to suggest that the Baltic Sea during the initial stage of the Litorina sea (8000 to 5000 Y B.P.) contained strontium with much larger δ 87 Sr values. Another explanation for the positive δ 87 Sr values may be due to water/rock interaction between the groundwater and the abundant fracture clay minerals, which are observed at Aespoe. Typically most of the saline groundwaters occur both in Sweden and Finland below the highest marine shore line during the Holocene. Almost all inland groundwaters show a totally different pattern which is typically non marine, meteoric in origin. This study also summarises the stable isotope (δ 13 C,δ 18 O) geochemistry dependence of the important global and regional environmental changes which may have influenced of the palaeohydrology as well as groundwater formation and in the Baltic

  8. The biotest basin of the Forsmark nuclear power plant, Sweden. An experiment on the ecosystem level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaas, U.

    1979-01-01

    Biotope models of various sizes and enclosed waters in connection with radionuclide release constitute important tools for radioecological experiments, representing an intermediate step between field and laboratory conditions. The biotest basin at Forsmark is especially constructed for investigations on the effects of radioactivity and heat on a brackish water ecosystem. The basin encloses a water area of 1km 2 in the outer archipelago of the region and is fed with cooling water and released radionuclides by a discharge tunnel. The quantities of the discharges into the basin are adjustable. The biotest experiment permits a quantification of the retention and transport of radionuclides at the various trophic levels. Of special value is the possibility to work with known populations of fish. The approach has the advantage of experimental ecology - the control of important parameters - under the impact of all environmental factors in a complete ecosystem. (author)

  9. Water-rock interaction modelling and uncertainties of mixing modelling. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno, Maria J.; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia (Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain))

    2008-08-15

    in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on 2.2 data and complementary 2.3 data, was carried out during September 2006 to December 2007. Several groups within ChemNet were involved and the evaluation was conducted independently using different approaches ranging from expert knowledge to geochemical and mathematical modelling including transport modelling. During regular ChemNet meetings the results have been presented and discussed. This report presents the modelling work performed by the University of Zaragoza group as part of the work planned for Forsmark during stages 2.2 and 2.3. The chemical characteristics of the groundwaters in the Forsmark and Laxemar areas are the result of a complex mixing process driven by the input of different recharge waters since the last glaciation. The successive penetration at different depths of dilute glacial melt-waters, Littorina Sea waters and dilute meteoric waters has triggered complex density and hydraulically driven flows that have mixed them with long residence time, highly saline waters present in the fractures and in the rock matrix. A general description of the main characteristics and processes controlling the hydrogeochemical evolution with depth in the Forsmark groundwater system is presented in this report: The hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of the Near surface waters (up to 20 m depth) is mainly determined by weathering reactions and especially affected by the presence of limestones. The biogenic CO{sub 2} input (derived from decay of organic matter and root respiration) and the associated weathering of carbonates control the pH and the concentrations of Ca and HCO{sub 3}- in the near-surface environment. Current seasonal variability of CO{sub 2} input produces variable but high calcium and bicarbonate contents in the Forsmark near-surface waters: up to 240 mg/L Ca and 150 to

  10. Water-rock interaction modelling and uncertainties of mixing modelling. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno, Maria J.; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on 2.2 data and complementary 2.3 data, was carried out during September 2006 to December 2007. Several groups within ChemNet were involved and the evaluation was conducted independently using different approaches ranging from expert knowledge to geochemical and mathematical modelling including transport modelling. During regular ChemNet meetings the results have been presented and discussed. This report presents the modelling work performed by the University of Zaragoza group as part of the work planned for Forsmark during stages 2.2 and 2.3. The chemical characteristics of the groundwaters in the Forsmark and Laxemar areas are the result of a complex mixing process driven by the input of different recharge waters since the last glaciation. The successive penetration at different depths of dilute glacial melt-waters, Littorina Sea waters and dilute meteoric waters has triggered complex density and hydraulically driven flows that have mixed them with long residence time, highly saline waters present in the fractures and in the rock matrix. A general description of the main characteristics and processes controlling the hydrogeochemical evolution with depth in the Forsmark groundwater system is presented in this report: The hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of the Near surface waters (up to 20 m depth) is mainly determined by weathering reactions and especially affected by the presence of limestones. The biogenic CO 2 input (derived from decay of organic matter and root respiration) and the associated weathering of carbonates control the pH and the concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - in the near-surface environment. Current seasonal variability of CO 2 input produces variable but high calcium and bicarbonate contents in the Forsmark near-surface waters: up to 240 mg/L Ca and 150 to 900 mg/L HCO 3 - . These

  11. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen

    2007-12-01

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  12. Baltic, Slavic, Germanic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western Indo-European vocabulary in Baltic and Slavic is the result of an Indo-European substratum which contained an older non-Indo-European layer and was part of the Corded Ware horizon. The numbers show that a considerable part of the vocabulary was borrowed after the split between Baltic and Slavic, which came about when their speakers moved westwards north and south of the Pripet marshes. Germanic and Balto-Slavic were never contiguous Indo-European dialects at any stage of their prehistory.

  13. The geology of the southeastern Baltic Sea: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ūsaitytė, Daiva

    2000-06-01

    The Baltic Sea, particularly its southeastern part, is discussed in the paper. Investigations of regional character as well as specialized studies in the area are reviewed. General historical works are mentioned briefly. Previous surveys since the 1950s are presented by the subject studied. The compilation of geological structure of the SE Baltic Sea bottom and adjacent land of Balticum (Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) is based on considerable amounts of summarized materials. The crystalline basement, sedimentary cover and Quaternary deposits are characterized in the comprehensive survey of geological structure. From a stratigraphical point of view, geological sequence of the platformal cover is comparatively complete: deposits of all geological systems (from the Archean to Cenozoic) are present in the Baltic Syneclise. Considering geotectonical cycles, the sedimentary cover of the syneclise is subdivided into four structural complexes. The thickness and distribution of Quaternary deposits are closely related to the recent bottom relief of the Baltic Sea that in turn is inherited from the Pre-Quaternary surface. Buried palaeo-valleys are characteristic of the Pre-Quaternary surface in the Baltic region and the Baltic Sea bottom. The Quaternary is characterized by layers of various geneses and by sharp changes of their thicknesses.

  14. The Baltic States in the EU: yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigas, Agnia; Kasekamp, Andres; Maslauskaite, Kristina; Buzek, Jerzy; Zorgenfreija, Liva

    2013-07-01

    2013 is a significant year for the Baltic states in their relations with European integration. On 1 July 2013, Lithuania became the first of the Baltic states to hold the rotating presidency of the EU Council of ministers. Its performance is closely watched by Latvia and Estonia, whose turns to hold the presidency come in 2015 and 2018, respectively. In addition, this year Latvia has been invited to join the Euro Area thus becoming the second Baltic state after Estonia to share the common currency. This Study aims to show that these developments are extremely important for the young and small Baltic states, which continue to aspire to secure their place in the European 'core'. Having emerged from the crisis as good students of internal devaluation, the Baltic states have a window of opportunity to voice their main concerns and priorities regarding the future of European integration. Lithuanian presidency puts an emphasis on more economic growth and credibility within the E(M)U as well as increased energy security, the challenges that have been daunting the Baltic states in the past years and decades. In order to better understand the origins and the significance of these priorities, this Study is divided into three distinct parts dealing with historical and political context of the three Baltic states (Part 1), the causes and consequences of the recent economic crisis (Part 2) and specific issues related to the energy policy in the region (Part 3)

  15. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  16. The occurrence of waterfowl in the biotest basin at the Forsmark nuclear power plant, Sweden, 1981-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, U.

    1985-01-01

    During the period Sep 1981 to Aug 1984 a monthly census was taken of waterfowl in the Biotest basin and its surroundings at Forsmark, as well as in a reference area in the region. During the same period the staff of the Biotest basin made weekly censuses of the basin. The aim of the censuses was to establish if there was any increase in the number of waterfowl in the Biotest basin and its surroundings caused by the discharge of cooling water from the two nuclear power reactors that are in operation in Forsmark. Seventeen waterfowl species were observed in the area during the period studied. Of these species five were regularly observed viz.: the Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), the Mallard (Anas plathyryncos), the Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula), the Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and the Goosander (Mergus merganser). The first four species were generally found in low numbers in the Biotest basin and its surroundings, as well as in the reference area. This implies that the Biotest basin and its surroundings has not become an area of importance during the winter for waterfowl, with one exception: the Goosander. The Goosander showed an increasing population growth in the Biotest basin and its surroundings during the studied period with a maximum average in in the basin during the last winter. As a result, the size of the Goosander population may affect the number of small fish in the Biotest basin. (author)

  17. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  18. The Baltic Inflow Event 2014 and its Biogeochemical Response in the Anoxic Central Baltic Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bull, D. E.; Naumann, M.; Mohrholz, V.; Nausch, G.; Prien, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea and the deeper anoxic basins in the central parts are occasionally ventilated by the intrusion of high saline and oxygen rich water from the North Atlantic entering the Baltic Sea. With a volume of 198 km3 containing 4 Gt salt, the inflow event in 2014 was the third largest ever observed. As a result the redox conditions in the anoxic parts of the Baltic Sea changed. In the Bornholm Basin and the Gotland Deep area the biogeochemical conditions for many elements and redox sensitive substances changed crucial by the inflow water. Oxidation of the hydrogen sulfide and consequent changes in the pH and the carbonate system were observed. Other chemicals such as the nitrogen nutrients, phosphate, trace metals and the dissolved organic matter react with the fresh inflow water ingredients. The chronological sequence of the biogeochemical reactions following the inflow event where monitored by autonomous stations and several ship expeditions in high spatial and temporal resolution.

  19. Inventory of vegetation and benthos in newly laid and natural ponds in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av vegetation och bottenfauna i nyanlagda och naturliga goelar i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvarfordt, Susanne; Wallin, Anders; Borgiel, Micke [Sveriges Vattenekologer AB, Vingaaker (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    SKB plans to build a repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The repository is planned to be built in Forsmark and constitutes installations above and below ground. The building and operation of the construction will involve activities that might affect the nature in the area. The impact means, among other things, that a small water body, which today is a reproduction site for the red listed pool frog (Rana lessonae), will disappear. The lost locality for the pool frog has been compensated by creating four new ponds in the Forsmark area. This study is part of the follow-up of these new habitats. The aim is to describe the plant and animal communities in the ponds, and follow the succession, i.e. the development of the habitats. The study also includes two natural ponds that will serve as reference objects. The survey of vegetation and invertebrate fauna in the ponds was conducted in October 2012. The results show that the new ponds had low coverage of submersed vegetation and the species composition in the plant communities differed between the ponds. The reference ponds also had different plant communities, both in terms of species composition and coverage. This indicates that the species composition of the plant communities in the new ponds will likely depend on physical factors specific to the respective pond, but that higher vegetation coverage can be expected over time in all new ponds. The reference ponds had similar animal communities that differed from the animal communities in the new ponds. The similar species composition in the reference ponds, despite the variety of plant communities, suggests that similar animal communities are likely to develop in the new ponds, even if the plant communities continues to be different. Water chemical sampling has also been conducted in the ponds during 2012. A comparison of the inorganic environment (with regard to analysed ions) showed that the reference ponds had relatively similar ion compositions with little

  20. ZZ BWRSB-FORSMARKS, Stability Benchmark Data from BWR FORSMARKS 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Palomo, M.J.; Escriva, A.; Ginestar, D.; Lansaker, Per

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The purpose of this benchmark is the intercomparison of the different time series analysis methods that can be applied to the study of BWR stability. This is a follow-up benchmark to the Ringhals 1 Stability Benchmark. While the Ringhals 1 Stability Benchmark included both time domain and frequency domain calculation models to predict stability parameters, the new benchmark is focused in the analysis of time series data by means of noise analysis techniques in the time domain. The first goal is to elucidate if it is possible to determine the main stability parameters from the neutronic signals time series with enough reliability and accuracy. Typically, the main stability parameters are assumed to be the decay ratio (DR) and the frequency of the oscillation. However, there are other parameters that provide valuable information, such as the Lyapunov exponents associated to the time series, or the Haussdorff dimension. In fact, the Lyapunov exponents are also a measure of the stability of the neutronic time series. The data given in this benchmark were obtained during several stability tests performed at the Swedish BWR reactors Forsmarks 1 and 2, in the period 1989 to 1997. The database is divided into six cases, the sampling rate of all the time series being 25 Hz, decimated to 12.5 Hz. The data are stored column wise in ASCII format. No filter to the signals and the DC-component has not been subtracted. Case 1: This case contains the neutron flux signals measured during several tests. The objective of the case is to study several signals ranging from stable to quasi-unstable conditions. The signals are standard measurements with no distortions. Data contains measured APRM (Average Power Range Monitor) signals from stability tests. The signals are measured at conditions with low Decay-Ratios up to high Decay-Ratios. Case 2: This case addresses the importance of the time duration of measured data. The objective of this case is

  1. BALTIC Coin: Using a Counterinsurgency Model to Counter Russian Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    issue reached critical mass.7 Using a foolish Georgian campaign to reconquer the ethnic minority in South Ossetia as an excuse to act, Russia began...the Baltics. Looking at this area of Estonia (and equally as strategically important and exploitable, the south -eastern provinces of Latvia with their

  2. Verification of accident management strategies at the Forsmark plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenhielm, G.; Engqvist, A.; Ingemarsson, K.F.; Andersson, T.

    1992-01-01

    Due to government requirements severe accident mitigating measures were implemented at the Swedish State Power Board nuclear power plants in 1988. These measures included protection against early containment impairment, highly redundant containment spray and filtered venting of the containment. We also developed accident management strategies and corresponding documents to counteract a severe accident situation. This paper describes the accident management strategies and documents at the Forsmark nuclear power plant, the verification process of the basic approach, and our ongoing program for further development and verification of the accident management program. In summary: From the beginning it was emphasized that it was not only mitigating measures implemented, it was an accident mitigation program, including new EOP's and education and training. This program was implemented, as required by the Swedish government in the end of 1988. Since that time the accident management strategy has been validated, verified and further developed. As a general conclusion, the implemented accident management program has reached a fair degree of completeness at the Forsmark plant. It is expected that in the case a hypothetical accident would occur the envisaged strategy would handle the accident in such a way that the radiological consequences would be insignificant and radiation exposure to the personnel would be within ICRP recommendations. To reach and keep this goal it is imperative that a mental preparedness is always present. This is achieved with a continuous education, training and analyses

  3. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  4. A coupled regolith-lake development model applied to the Forsmark site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars; Stroemgren, Maarten (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Quaternary geology at the Forsmark site has been characterized using both a map of Quaternary deposits and a regolith depth model (RDM) that show the stratigraphy and thickness of different deposits. Regolith refers to all the unconsolidated deposits overlying the bedrock. The surface geology and regolith depth are important parameters for hydrogeological and geochemical modelling and for the overall understanding of the area. The safety assessment analysis should focus on processes involved during a period of 120,000 years, which includes a full glacial cycle; however, the investigations within the site description model do not cover the temporal change of the regolith, a limitation that does not fulfil the requirements for the safety assessment. To this end, this study constructs a model that can predict the surface geology, stratigraphy, and thickness of different strata at any time during a glacial cycle and applies this model to the Forsmark site. The Weichselian ice sheet covered the study area until around 9500 BC. The deglaciation revealed a marine landscape with bedrock, till and glacial clay. For the safety assessment, the most important unconsolidated strata are clay or silt: these small grains can bind nuclear elements more easily than coarser sediment particles. Thick layers of clay can be found where post-glacial clay settled on top of glacial clay, especially where the middle-aged erosion of postglacial clay is missing and where there is an uninterrupted sequence of accumulation of finegrained particles. Such areas could be found in deep marine basins that later become lakes when raised into a supra-marine position. The coupled regolith-lake development model (RLDM) predicts the course of events described above during an interglacial, especially the dynamics of the clay and silt particles. The RLDM is divided into two modules: a marine module that predicts the sediment dynamics caused by wind waves and a lake module that predicts the lake infill

  5. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  6. Localisation of nursery areas based on comparative analyses of the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of juvenile Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of juvenile cod is essential for obtaining precise recruitment data to conduct sustainable management of the eastern and western Baltic cod stocks. In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution and density patterns of settled juvenile 0- and 1-group...... and acoustic research surveys. Horizontal distribution maps for the 2001–2010 cohorts of juvenile cod are further generated by applying a statistical log-Gaussian Cox process model to the standard trawl survey data. The analyses indicate size-dependent horizontal and distinct vertical and diurnal distribution...... (pycnocline). However, the analyses indicate that in the CBS, juvenile cod of all sizes do not appear to aggregate in dense schooling patterns, which differs from what has been reported from the North Sea...

  7. Alien freshwater polychaetes Hypania invalida (Grube 1860 and Laonome calida Capa 2007 in the Upper Odra River (Baltic Sea catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabis Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polychaete species, Hypania invalida and Laonome calida, were found in the Upper Odra River in 2016. Both species were recorded close to a natural river bank down to 1 m depths. They inhabited sandy-gravelly and sandy-muddy sediments. H. invalida is an alien invasive Ponto-Caspian species, previously known in Poland from the Odra River estuary only. Our results may indicate a further rapid dispersal of H. invalida upstream the Odra River or an accidental introduction. This study is the first record of L. calida in the Baltic Sea catchment. This Australian species has been recently introduced into Europe. Prior to this study, it had been reported from Dutch rivers only. The present data suggest accidental introduction of the species to European rivers; however, our findings show an urgent need for a close monitoring of the polychaete in Europe.

  8. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders [Ramboell Sweden AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben [Ramboell Denmark A/S, Virum (Denmark); Olsson, Tommy [IandT Olsson AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Syrjaenen, Pauli [Gridpoint Oy, Helsinki (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    This report comprises the design step D1 related to the underground design for a deep repository located at the Forsmark site. The design is based on the Site Descriptive Model Forsmark v1.2. All studies have been focussed at an area southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant, which has been considered to be the most promising area for hosting the repository. SKB has developed guidelines for the design of the repository, which further describes the methodology applied for the studies. From these guidelines the following basic objectives for the design step D1 are summarized: to determine whether the final repository can be accommodated within the studied site; to identify site-specific facility critical issues; to test and evaluate the design methodology; to provide feedback to: the design organisation regarding additional studies that needs to be done; the site investigation and modelling organization regarding further investigations required; and the safety assessment team. The possible locations for a tentative deep repository are analysed in Chapter 3 of the report. The most promising area for the repository (denoted 'priority site') has been defined by SKB to be located southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant and northwest of the gently dipping deformation zone ZFMNE00A2. Regarding the repository depth, present knowledge acquired from the site investigations indicates that it is possible to locate the repository at all stipulated depths according to SKB, that is between 400 m and 700 m depth. The preliminary assessment made in Chapter 3 clearly demonstrates that the repository can be accommodated within the 'priority site'. The potential to accommodate the repository is essentially the same for both 400 m and 500 m depths. The design of the deposition areas is reported in Chapter 4, which includes the design of layout features for all tunnels and deposition holes, orientation of tunnels, calculation of anticipated loss of deposition holes due

  9. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...... at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the longterm wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting...... for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation...

  10. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  11. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  12. Discrete-Feature Model Implementation of SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2010-03-01

    A discrete-feature model (DFM) was implemented for the Forsmark repository site based on the final site descriptive model from surface based investigations. The discrete-feature conceptual model represents deformation zones, individual fractures, and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which, in the present study, is treated as impermeable. This approximation is reasonable for sites in crystalline rock which has very low permeability, apart from that which results from macroscopic fracturing. Models are constructed based on the geological and hydrogeological description of the sites and engineering designs. Hydraulic heads and flows through the network of water-conducting features are calculated by the finite-element method, and are used in turn to simulate migration of non-reacting solute by a particle-tracking method, in order to estimate the properties of pathways by which radionuclides could be released to the biosphere. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate portions of the model that can only be characterized in statistical terms, since many water-conducting features within the model volume cannot be characterized deterministically. Chapter 2 describes the methodology by which discrete features are derived to represent water-conducting features around the hypothetical repository at Forsmark (including both natural features and features that result from the disturbance of excavation), and then assembled to produce a discrete-feature network model for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Chapter 3 describes how site-specific data and repository design are adapted to produce the discrete-feature model. Chapter 4 presents results of the calculations. These include utilization factors for deposition tunnels based on the emplacement criteria that have been set forth by the implementers, flow distributions to the deposition holes, and calculated properties of discharge paths as well as

  13. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  14. Hydrogeological conceptual model development and numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW, Forsmark modelling stage 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Three versions of a site descriptive model (SDM) have been completed for the Forsmark area. Version 0 established the state of knowledge prior to the start of the site investigation programme. Version 1.1 was essentially a training exercise and was completed during 2004. Version 1.2 was a preliminary site description and concluded the initial site investigation work (ISI) in June 2005. Three modelling stages are planned for the complete site investigation work (CSI). These are labelled stage 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. An important component of each of these stages is to address and continuously try to resolve discipline-specific uncertainties of importance for repository engineering and safety assessment. Stage 2.1 included an updated geological model for Forsmark and aimed to provide a feedback from the modelling working group to the site investigation team to enable completion of the site investigation work. Stage 2.2 described the conceptual understanding and the numerical modelling of the bedrock hydrogeology in the Forsmark area based on data freeze 2.2. The present report describes the modelling based on data freeze 2.3, which is the final data freeze in Forsmark. In comparison, data freeze 2.3 is considerably smaller than data freeze 2.2. Therefore, stage 2.3 deals primarily with model confirmation and uncertainty analysis, e.g. verification of important hypotheses made in stage 2.2 and the role of parameter uncertainty in the numerical modelling. On the whole, the work reported here constitutes an addendum to the work reported in stage 2.2. Two changes were made to the CONNECTFLOW code in stage 2.3. These serve to: 1) improve the representation of the hydraulic properties of the regolith, and 2) improve the conditioning of transmissivity of the deformation zones against single-hole hydraulic tests. The changes to the modelling of the regolith were made to improve the consistency with models made with the MIKE SHE code, which involved the introduction

  15. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  16. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  17. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF; Bruchert, V; Molinero, J

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured during

  18. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured

  19. Epilithic algal assemblages in the Forsmark Biotest basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1987-04-01

    The Forsmark Biotest Basin is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is led from the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station on the Swedish east coast. The Biotest Basin differs from the Bothnian Sea surrounding it by a temperature elevation of up to 10 degrees C, no ice cover in winter, and an artificial, fast current. At 11 sites in- and outside the basin, benthic algal assemblages on stones in the hydrolittoral belt were sampled every third week during one year. Cover abundances were estimated for all algae occurring on the stones, but for diatoms only when they formed blooms. The results of the vegetation analyses are given. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season and for the rest of the year. The algae included both unicellular and multicellular forms. In total 88 taxa were distinguished in the species lists: 29 Cyanophyta, 7 Rhodophyta, 1 Chrysophyceae, 9 Fucophyceae, 17 Diatomophyceae and 25 Chlorophyta. In terms of percentage cover-abundance, blue-green and green algae increased with temperature, while red and brown algae and diatoms decreased with temperature in the interval between the minimum (0 degrees C) and the maximum (25.7 degrees C) water temperatures that were measured during the investigation period. Melosira spp. and Nitzschia filiformis proved to be the diatoms most favoured by the cooling water discharge. Lower diversity and greater dominance of one or a few species over the other was caused by thermal discharge at sites with fast-flowing water, but the opposite occurred at sites with quiescent water, mainly due to a greater number and higher abundances of blue-green algal species and thread-like green algae at the latter sites. This report also gives some notes on taxonomy of the encountered species.

  20. Agricultural restructuring in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Mette Bech

    responded to the changes following independence. This is investigated by studying how farmers’ decision-making was influenced by different social, economic and institutional structures and how differences in individual qualifications and resource availability influenced farmers’ responses and strategies....... The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse the changes in the conditions for the agricultural sector during this period in the Baltic countries and to investigate how agricultural production at the local level adapted to the transition. The central research question concerns the way farmers....... The thesis consists of four papers and a synthesis. The first part of the synthesis (chapters 1 to 5) outlines the theoretical and methodical frameworks for the study. Furthermore, it introduces the historical setting for agriculture in the Baltic region and the case areas. The second part of the synthesis...

  1. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  2. Typology and fossil assemblage of Sandbian (Ordovician ‘baksteenkalk’: an erratic silicified limestone of Baltic origin from the northeastern Netherlands and adjacent areas of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy van Keulen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to describe ‘baksteenkalk’, an erratic silicified bioclastic carbonate of the Upper Sandbian from the eastern part of the Netherlands. To date, baksteenkalk has received little attention among palaeontologists. This is to be regretted on two grounds. First, baksteenkalk contains a varied fossil flora and fauna comprising many species, several of which are not or only rarely found in coeval rocks. Second, owing to a complicated silicification process, fossils, in particular algae, have preserved exceptional anatomical details. The primary aim of this study is to arouse the interest of professional, in particular, Estonian, palaeontologists in baksteenkalk. Based on lithology and fossil assemblage (most conspicuously, with regard to the algal flora, two basic types of baksteenkalk are distinguished. A list of species, differentiated for both types, is provided. It is argued that baksteenkalk reflects the ecology of a shallow, subtropical, epicontinental sea. The distribution of erratics, facies and fossil content point to an origin within the North Estonian Confacies Belt, probably west of Estonia. Baksteenkalk survived as an erratic because it was already silicified at its place of origin. A potential source of silica may have been Upper Ordovician bentonite layers. The causes and mechanisms of the silicifi­cation process which gave shape to baksteenkalk are not yet understood, however. The palaeontology of baksteenkalk is compared with that of two other erratic Sandbian silicified carbonates of Baltic origin: German Backsteinkalk and ‘Lavender-blue Hornstein’.

  3. Baltic Grid for e-Science Development in Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmars, S.; Olgerts, B.

    2007-01-01

    Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania as new members of European Union now are involved in e- Science projects. The Baltic Grid (BG) project is a first step to infrastructure development for e-Science grid computing. Together with the universities of Baltic States some universities and organisations of neighbouring countries are involved in BG project to disseminate their experience and management skills. This paper presents achievements and experiences of BG project in e-infrastructure development in Baltic States and in Latvia and Riga Technical University, in particular. (Author)

  4. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management unit...... can mask the relatively poor state of the western Baltic cod population. Second, the current fishing mortality estimates for the entire western Baltic management unit, used as basis for fisheries management, are difficult to interpret as these are highly influenced by mixing of biological populations...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...

  5. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Mediterranean and the Black Seas. Of these seas, the Baltic is the most heavily loaded with trace elements and organic pollutants. The overview identifies gaps in our environmental knowledge of the Baltic Sea, and sets out possible priorities, key areas or strategies for future research.

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    geological and ecological conditions in the area has largely been completed. In order to investigate the bedrock at depth, five deep (1,000 m) and two shallower cored boreholes have been drilled and documented. Drilling of a sixth deep cored borehole is under way. 19 percussion boreholes have been drilled, partly to supply core drilling with flushing water and partly to investigate the bedrock. A comprehensive, preliminary site description (version 1.1) has been published. The work of compiling all information from the initial site investigation is under way and will result in version 1.2 of the site description. The consultation process for a possible deep repository in Forsmark has been established in accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Code. An active information and communication programme has been established for ongoing dialogue with nearby residents, the public, Oesthammar Municipality, neighbouring municipalities and other local stakeholders

  7. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    of the geological and ecological conditions in the area has largely been completed. In order to investigate the bedrock at depth, five deep (1,000 m) and two shallower cored boreholes have been drilled and documented. Drilling of a sixth deep cored borehole is under way. 19 percussion boreholes have been drilled, partly to supply core drilling with flushing water and partly to investigate the bedrock. A comprehensive, preliminary site description (version 1.1) has been published. The work of compiling all information from the initial site investigation is under way and will result in version 1.2 of the site description. The consultation process for a possible deep repository in Forsmark has been established in accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Code. An active information and communication programme has been established for ongoing dialogue with nearby residents, the public, Oesthammar Municipality, neighbouring municipalities and other local stakeholders.

  8. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  9. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When extrapolated to the entire Baltic Proper (BP) denitrification in the water column was in the range of 132...

  10. Basis for applying for exemption according to species protection regulation. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Underlag till ansoekan om dispens enligt artskyddsfoerordningen. Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    and 11 Environmental Act, SKB intends to ensure that proposed actions will be planned and implemented well before the impact on protected species occur and thus ensure that the conservation status of species is not adversely affected by the planned activity. Applications for exemptions cover only those species in species protection regulation (as well as the habitats of these species when these are protected by regulation) that occur within the impact area of SKB's planned activity in Forsmark

  11. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, L.G.

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  12. ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE BALTIC STATES: A COMPARATIVE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA KIURIENÉ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses models of administrative supervision of local self-government in the Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these models. The research done in this article defines the theoretical concept of administrative supervision of local self-government; gives an overview of the legislative framework underpining the key administrative supervision bodies of local self-government in the Baltic States; discusses the issue of legal regulation and the present state of administrative supervision over local self-government units in the Baltic States; gives some theoretical and practical suggestions to develop this field in the Baltic States.The research methods employed in preparation of this article are theoretical methods of analysis of scientific literature and sources, legal acts and documents as well as comparative and logical analysis, induction and generalisation. Three Baltic States similar in their area, number of inhabitants, and governmental peculiarities have been chosen for the analysis.

  13. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S D; Gislason, H; Andersen, N G; Lewy, P; Nielsen, J R

    2016-05-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern North Sea. Estimates of prey abundance and food intake of M. merlangus are required to evaluate its predatory significance in the western Baltic Sea, but its diet suggests that it could be just as significant a fish predator here as in the southern North Sea. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Hydrogeological characterisation and modelling of deformation zones and fracture domains, Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (SE)); Leven, Jakob (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB))

    2007-09-15

    The work reported here collates the structural-hydraulic information gathered in 21 cored boreholes and 32 percussion-drilled boreholes belonging to Forsmark site description, modelling stage 2.2. The analyses carried out provide the hydrogeological input descriptions of the bedrock in Forsmark needed by the end users Repository Engineering, Safety Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment; that is, hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains. The same information is also needed for constructing 3D groundwater flow models of the Forsmark site and surrounding area. The analyses carried out render the following conceptual model regarding the observed heterogeneity in deformation zone transmissivity: We find the geological division of the deterministically modelled deformation zones into eight categories (sets) useful from a hydrogeological point of view. Seven of the eight categories are steeply dipping, WNW, NW, NNW, NNE, NE, ENE and EW, and on is gently dipping, G. All deformation zones, regardless of orientation (strike and dip), are subjected to a substantial decrease in transmissivity with depth. The data gathered suggest a contrast of c. 20,000 times for the uppermost one kilometre of bedrock, i.e. more than four orders of magnitude. The hydraulic properties below this depth are not investigated. The lateral heterogeneity is also substantial but more irregular in its appearance. For instance, for a given elevation and deformation zone category (orientation), the spatial variability in transmissivity within a particular deformation zone appears to be as large as the variability between all deformation zones. This suggests that the lateral correlation length is shorter than the shortest distance between two adjacent observation points and shorter than the category spacing. The observation that the mean transmissivity of the gently-dipping deformation zones is c. one to two orders of magnitude greater than the mean transmissivities of all

  15. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Compared to version 1.1, a much larger amount of data especially from boreholes is available. Both one-hole interpretation and Boremap indicate the presence of high and low fracture intensity intervals in the rock mass. The depth and width of these intervals varies from borehole to borehole but these constant fracture intensity intervals are contiguous and present quite sharp transitions. There is not a consistent pattern of intervals of high fracture intensity at or near to the surface. In many cases, the intervals of highest fracture intensity are considerably below the surface. While some fractures may have occurred or been reactivated in response to surficial stress relief, surficial stress relief does not appear to be a significant explanatory variable for the observed variations in fracture intensity. Data from the high fracture intensity intervals were extracted and statistical analyses were conducted in order to identify common geological factors. Stereoplots of fracture orientation versus depth for the different fracture intensity intervals were also produced for each borehole. Moreover percussion borehole data were analysed in order to identify the persistence of these intervals throughout the model volume. The main conclusions of these analyses are the following: The fracture intensity is conditioned by the rock domain, but inside a rock domain intervals of high and low fracture intensity are identified. The intervals of high fracture intensity almost always correspond to intervals with distinct fracture orientations (whether a set, most often the NW sub-vertical set, is highly dominant, or some orientation sets are missing). These high fracture intensity intervals are positively correlated to the presence of first and second generation minerals (epidote, calcite). No clear correlation for these fracture intensity intervals has been identified between holes. Based on these results the fracture frequency has been calculated in each rock domain for the different high and low fracture intensity intervals in order to capture the variation of this parameter in the model volume. The fracture intensity P32 has been derived by means of simulations for each rock domain and each fracture type, and is expressed as a mean value, and if possible standard deviation and span. The uncertainty in the model has been quantified: for the different geometrical parameters by providing ranges of variations and studying relevant distribution models, by conducting sensitivity analysis on some input data: the effect of truncation of lineaments at the border of the regional model volume and the impact of truncation in outcrop mapping. An alternative conceptual model is under study which is based on the identified deterministic deformation zones, and not on lineaments. An important issue using this model is the bias of information and the limited amount of structures. The current DFN model still contains significant uncertainties which need to be resolved in order to be able to produce a final site DFN model. Three main issues are listed below: The definition of the subhorizontal fracture set in terms of geological processes and tectonics. The size distribution is a critical issue for the hydrogeology of the site. The variation of the fracture intensity by rock domain has been identified but the variation pattern and the spatial distribution within an individual domain are still sufficiently unpredictable that the fracture network permeability structure within a rock domain is uncertain from a conceptual perspective, not just a data uncertainty perspective. Moreover, many rock domains have not yet been sampled by boreholes or outcrops, and thus their fracture properties remain highly uncertain. Validation of the DFN models will require resolution of these two issues, and may also require the drilling of highly inclined or horizontal boreholes. Near-vertical boreholes and the mapping protocol to only map fracture traces in outcrop greater than 0.5 m make validation with the current data difficult. The scan line mapping data with a trace length truncation of only 0.2 m may provide qualitative support to smaller scale structures, but have not been analysed in this model version. However, scan line data does not provide substantial information on the spatial distribution of fractures and does not sample subhorizontal fractures better than the outcrop data, neither does it invoke data from more rock domains

  16. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R. [Golder Associate Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Compared to version 1.1, a much larger amount of data especially from boreholes is available. Both one-hole interpretation and Boremap indicate the presence of high and low fracture intensity intervals in the rock mass. The depth and width of these intervals varies from borehole to borehole but these constant fracture intensity intervals are contiguous and present quite sharp transitions. There is not a consistent pattern of intervals of high fracture intensity at or near to the surface. In many cases, the intervals of highest fracture intensity are considerably below the surface. While some fractures may have occurred or been reactivated in response to surficial stress relief, surficial stress relief does not appear to be a significant explanatory variable for the observed variations in fracture intensity. Data from the high fracture intensity intervals were extracted and statistical analyses were conducted in order to identify common geological factors. Stereoplots of fracture orientation versus depth for the different fracture intensity intervals were also produced for each borehole. Moreover percussion borehole data were analysed in order to identify the persistence of these intervals throughout the model volume. The main conclusions of these analyses are the following: The fracture intensity is conditioned by the rock domain, but inside a rock domain intervals of high and low fracture intensity are identified. The intervals of high fracture intensity almost always correspond to intervals with distinct fracture orientations (whether a set, most often the NW sub-vertical set, is highly dominant, or some orientation sets are missing). These high fracture intensity intervals are positively correlated to the presence of first and second generation minerals (epidote, calcite). No clear correlation for these fracture intensity intervals has been identified between holes. Based on these results the fracture frequency has been calculated in each rock domain for the different high and low fracture intensity intervals in order to capture the variation of this parameter in the model volume. The fracture intensity P32 has been derived by means of simulations for each rock domain and each fracture type, and is expressed as a mean value, and if possible standard deviation and span. The uncertainty in the model has been quantified: for the different geometrical parameters by providing ranges of variations and studying relevant distribution models, by conducting sensitivity analysis on some input data: the effect of truncation of lineaments at the border of the regional model volume and the impact of truncation in outcrop mapping. An alternative conceptual model is under study which is based on the identified deterministic deformation zones, and not on lineaments. An important issue using this model is the bias of information and the limited amount of structures. The current DFN model still contains significant uncertainties which need to be resolved in order to be able to produce a final site DFN model. Three main issues are listed below: The definition of the subhorizontal fracture set in terms of geological processes and tectonics. The size distribution is a critical issue for the hydrogeology of the site. The variation of the fracture intensity by rock domain has been identified but the variation pattern and the spatial distribution within an individual domain are still sufficiently unpredictable that the fracture network permeability structure within a rock domain is uncertain from a conceptual perspective, not just a data uncertainty perspective. Moreover, many rock domains have not yet been sampled by boreholes or outcrops, and thus their fracture properties remain highly uncertain. Validation of the DFN models will require resolution of these two issues, and may also require the drilling of highly inclined or horizontal boreholes. Near-vertical boreholes and the mapping protocol to only map fracture traces in outcrop greater than 0.5 m make validation with the current data difficult. The scan line mapping data with a trace length truncation of only 0.2 m may provide qualitative support to smaller scale structures, but have not been analysed in this model version. However, scan line data does not provide substantial information on the spatial distribution of fractures and does not sample subhorizontal fractures better than the outcrop data, neither does it invoke data from more rock domains.

  17. Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov A. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organisation of economy in the globalisation conditions, which has become a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of the Baltic region. It requires a comprehensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. This article aims to identify structured international clusters in the Baltic region and map the corresponding regions. The results obtained will make it possible to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters existing and emerging in the region and put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article considers the processes of transboundary and transnational regionalisation in the countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the degree of involvement of a Russian region into the processes of international cluster cooperation in the macroregion.

  18. BALTIC STATES IN THE EUROZONE: THE ACCESSION PROCESS AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wołkonowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the process of the Baltic states’ accession to the eurozone and examines the consequences of their adoption of the euro currency. Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the eurozone in different years, they share a number of common features in terms of both their accession process and presence in the euro area. The article consists of three parts – the first surveys the Baltic states’ conformity with the convergence criteria and the second examines the effects that can be observed in the economies of the three Baltic countries after accession. The third part contains a comparative analysis of actual inflation versus perceived inflation index seen over the three years spanning the periods before, during and after the adoption of the euro. For this purpose, calculations of simplified perceived inflation indices in the Baltic States were compiled and compared against actual inflation. The differences across the Baltic states between the perceived inflation index and real inflation were similar to those in Austria and Germany during these countries’ accession to the euro zone.

  19. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E.

    2008-08-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  20. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  1. Public preferences regarding use and condition of the Baltic Sea – an international comparison informing marine policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Jane; Czajkowski, Mikolaj

    2013-01-01

    set obtained from a coordinated survey across all nine littoral countries, we examine the recreational use and perceptions towards the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the Baltic Sea is an important recreation area for residents of the littoral states, as the majority of people spend leisure time...... to improving the state of the Baltic Sea. For future research, we propose a similar large-scale, coordinated study across all nine littoral countries using state-of-the art valuation methods to assess the monetary benefits of improving the state of the Baltic Sea....

  2. Revising the security organisation at Forsmark NPP - A case study from the point of view of the operator and the regulatory and supervisory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeden, B.; Strandberg, L.; Isaksson, S.

    2001-01-01

    deviated after a couple of years. The security organisation has improved in performance regarding handling of technical malfunctions. There is a Supervisor for Security on duty 24 hours per day. The standard of the written operational procedures for use of the Security Organisation has improved significantly. Both SKI and the FKA Power Company identified problems with the implementation of the new organisation. This led to measures aiming at solving the problems some of which were successful and others that were not. Inspection of the security at Forsmark NPP At the end of 1999 it was clear to SKI that a major inspection had to be carried out in order to evaluate the function of the security at Forsmark NPP. The inspection was to focus on the physical protection of Forsmark NPP with a specific focus on the abilities of the security guards to act in accordance with the SKI regulations. Result of inspection and decisions taken by SKI The inspection in January 2000 resulted in severe criticism of the physical protection at Forsmark NPP in the following two areas: Protection of the perimeter, both technical shortcomings and the ability of the security guards to act promptly; Attitudes of Security Guards, Shift supervisors and operating personnel. This included also lack of repetitive training and exercises for involved personnel SKI decided in May 2000 that the FKA Power Company, as a condition for continued operation of the Forsmark NPP after the 30 June 2001, should take corrective actions in addition to immediate compensatory measures to ensure that the physical protection would be in compliance with national regulations. Dialog between FKA Power company and SKI Immediate actions and an ambitious and extensive plan of measures to improve the physical protection at Forsmark NPP followed the decision by SKI. Furthermore FKA Power Company has submitted a number of reports to SKI on the progress of the implementation of the measures to improve the physical protection. In

  3. Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Boerée, L.A.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Temming, A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the

  4. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2017-01-01

    and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...

  5. Chemistry data from surface ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site specific data used for estimation of CR and K{sub d} values in SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to compile information from the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites in order to select and provide relevant site data for parameter sed in the Radionuclide Dose Model. This report contains an overview of all available chemistry data from the surface ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, comprising hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater, porewater, lake water, stream water and sea water as well as the chemical composition of the regolith and biota of the terrestrial, limnic and marine ecosystems. Detailed references to data reports are tabulated and all sampling points are shown in a large number of maps in Chapter 2. An explorative analysis in Chapter 3 is the basis for the final selection of site data described in Chapter 4

  6. Updated model for radionuclide transport in the near-surface till at Forsmark - Implementation of decay chains and sensitivity analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pique, Angels; Pekala, Marek; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Trinchero, Paolo; Vries, Luis Manuel de [Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    The Forsmark area has been proposed for potential siting of a deep underground (geological) repository for radioactive waste in Sweden. Safety assessment of the repository requires radionuclide transport from the disposal depth to recipients at the surface to be studied quantitatively. The near-surface quaternary deposits at Forsmark are considered a pathway for potential discharge of radioactivity from the underground facility to the biosphere, thus radionuclide transport in this system has been extensively investigated over the last years. The most recent work of Pique and co-workers (reported in SKB report R-10-30) demonstrated that in case of release of radioactivity the near-surface sedimentary system at Forsmark would act as an important geochemical barrier, retarding the transport of reactive radionuclides through a combination of retention processes. In this report the conceptual model of radionuclide transport in the quaternary till at Forsmark has been updated, by considering recent revisions regarding the near-surface lithology. In addition, the impact of important conceptual assumptions made in the model has been evaluated through a series of deterministic and probabilistic (Monte Carlo) sensitivity calculations. The sensitivity study focused on the following effects: 1. Radioactive decay of {sup 135}Cs, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra and effects on their transport. 2. Variability in key geochemical parameters, such as the composition of the deep groundwater, availability of sorbing materials in the till, and mineral equilibria. 3. Variability in hydraulic parameters, such as the definition of hydraulic boundaries, and values of hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and the deep groundwater inflow rate. The overarching conclusion from this study is that the current implementation of the model is robust (the model is largely insensitive to variations in the parameters within the studied ranges) and conservative (the Base Case calculations have a

  7. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneljung, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2007-04-01

    The hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow, transport mechanisms and the contact between ground- and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the 1D modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. In spring 2007, a new data freeze will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model will start, based on the latest data set. Prior to this, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods and to define critical calibration parameters and areas within the model. In this project, an optimization of the numerical description and an initial calibration of the MIKE SHE model has been made, and an updated base case has been defined. Data from 5 surface water level monitoring stations, 4 surface water discharge monitoring stations and 32 groundwater level monitoring stations (SFM soil boreholes) has been used for model calibration and evaluation. The base case simulations generally show a good agreement between calculated and measured water levels and discharges, indicating that the total runoff from the area is well described by the model. Moreover, with two exceptions (SFM0012 and SFM0022) the base case results show very good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations for boreholes installed below lakes. The model also shows a reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations or depths to phreatic surfaces in many other points. The following major types of calculation-measurement differences can be noted: Differences in groundwater level amplitudes due to transpiration processes. Differences in absolute mean groundwater head, due to differences between borehole casing levels and the interpolated DEM. Differences in absolute mean head elevations, due to local errors in hydraulic conductivity values

  8. Vegetation in the Forsmark biotest basin, 1974-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renstroem, S.; Svensson, Roger; Wigren-Svensson, M.

    1990-05-01

    Since 1980, Forsmark Power Plants has discharged large amount of cooling water into the Biotest basin. In 1974, before the dam was constructed, and 1980 to 1986, the macrophytic algae and higher vegetation inside and around the basin has been investigated. The observed changes are mainly caused by the increased water temperature causing lack of ice cover during the winter, the embankment reducing the exposition, the heavy water stream through the basin and the reduced light transmission in the water. The macroscopic vegetation in the Biotest basin was originally distributed all over the lake, but is now mainly found in more shallow water. The deepest part, a passage from the input of the cooling water to the output, totally lack vegetation. The reason for this is a combination of the heavy stream, raised temperature and reduced light transmission. The total biomass of macroscopic vegetation in the basin has been reduced from c. 70 metric ton in 1980 to c. 27 ton in 1982 and 1986. Among the most important species, the production of Chara spp. and Potamogeton pectinatus have been strongly reduced, while Cladophora glomerata and Vaucheria sp. have increased. Especially for Vaucheria, the raised temperature has been of vital importance. Among other species, Tolypella nidifica first increased, but has now totally disappeared. Zannichellia palustris was the only phanerogam which increased all the time. It is Z. palustris var. major which stands for the increase, while Z. palustris var. repens has disappeared from the basin. The shore vegetation, mainly reeds, has expanded conspicuously. From 1974 to 1980, the shore vegetation was favoured by the reduced exposition caused by the embankment. Since then, the raised temperature and absence of ice cover have resulted in an accelerating expansion of mainly Phragmites communis. Scirpus tabernaemontani and S. maritimus were first increasing, but do not seem to be able to compete with Phragmites in the long run. (au)

  9. Evaluating hydrochemical data from shallow groundwater in Forsmark from a microbiological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta

    2008-03-01

    Oxygen is one of the chemical species that can corrode a copper canister in a KBS-3 repository. It is therefore important to determine whether oxygen dissolved in precipitation or groundwater could reach repository depth by groundwater transport. This matter can be determined by gaining an understanding of the oxygen-consuming microbial processes that take place in shallow groundwater in the area of interest. This report evaluates hydrogeochemical data from shallow groundwater in the Forsmark area from a microbiological perspective. Hydrogeochemical data were gathered from soil pipes at depths from 1.6 to 9.6 m and from percussion-drilled boreholes having mid-point depths of between c. 30 and c. 180 m. Only a few of the percussion-drilled boreholes had packers installed. The sampled sections were therefore very long, allowing groundwater from many different depths to mix. Oxygen and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were measured in groundwater in soil pipes but not in percussion-drilled boreholes. The poor quality of the oxygen data made it difficult to identify the depth of origin of completely oxygen-free groundwater. Parameters that indicated ongoing anaerobic microbial processes, such as nitrite, ferrous iron, dissolved manganese, and sulphide, were found in many soil pipes. The soil pipes displayed individual chemical profiles in terms of chemical species related to microbial activity. The microbial activity could not be linked to the classes of soil pipe, i.e. recharge, discharge, or intermittent. Existing soil pipes and percussion-drilled boreholes could be used for additional sampling of microbial parameters. Such sampling would benefit from careful hypothesis-driven description of the sampling parameters and experience-guided choice of sampling methods

  10. Assessing PCB pollution in the Baltic Sea - An equilibrium partitioning based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Mayer, Philipp; Hursthouse, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted...... in the Baltic Proper, with the highest levels observed in the western Baltic Sea. The SPME method has been demonstrated to be an appropriate and sensitive tool for area surveys presenting new opportunities to study the in-situ distribution and thermodynamics of hydrophobic organic chemicals at trace levels...

  11. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies...... North Sea. Estimates of prey abundance and food intake of M. merlangus are required to evaluate its predatory significance in the western Baltic Sea, but its diet suggests that it could be just as significant a fish predator here as in the southern North Sea...

  12. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  13. Impact assessment of the impact on nature values of the construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden av anlaeggande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Construction and operation of a repository at Soederviken in Forsmark, Oesthammar municipality means impact, effects and consequences for the environment. This report describes the natural conditions and natural values in Forsmark with particular focus on Soederviken. Furthermore, an assessment of consequences for the natural environment in the development and operation of a repository at Soederviken. Assessment of impacts from water activities are treated in a special report.

  14. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, T; Laitinen, V; Salmela, E; Andersen, P; Huoponen, K; Savontaus, M-L; Lahermo, P

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the population history of the Baltic Sea region, known to be affected by a variety of migrations and genetic barriers, was analyzed using both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data. Over 1200 samples from Finland, Sweden, Karelia, Estonia, Setoland, Latvia and Lithuania were genotyped for 18 Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms and 9 STRs, in addition to analyzing 17 coding region polymorphisms and the HVS1 region from the mtDNA. It was shown that the populations surrounding the Baltic Sea are genetically similar, which suggests that it has been an important route not only for cultural transmission but also for population migration. However, many of the migrations affecting the area from Central Europe, the Volga-Ural region and from Slavic populations have had a quantitatively different impact on the populations, and, furthermore, the effects of genetic drift have increased the differences between populations especially in the north. The possible explanations for the high frequencies of several haplogroups with an origin in the Iberian refugia (H1, U5b, I1a) are also discussed.

  15. Relationship between biomarker responses and contaminant concentration in selected tissues of flounder (Platichthys flesus from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Podolska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the Gulf of Gdańsk discussed the responses of selected enzymatic biomarkers to the contaminant gradient in fish and mussels. In the present study, flounder muscle and liver tissues were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs, HCB and DDTs, and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr. An attempt was made to identify the relationship between the measured enzymatic biomarker responses (cholinesterases, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase and contaminant concentrations in selected flounder tissues. The observed differences in enzymatic biomarker levels suggest that chronic exposure to low-concentration mixtures of contaminants may be occurring in the studied area. However, no conclusive evidence was found of a clear link between the biomarker responses and contaminant concentrations in flounder tissues.

  16. Importance of Using Multiple Sampling Methodologies for Estimating of Fish Community Composition in Offshore Wind Power Construction Areas of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mathias H.; Gullstroem, Martin; Oehman, Marcus C. (Dept. of Zoology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Asplund, Maria E. (Dept. of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg Univ., Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    In this study a visual SCUBA investigation was conducted in Utgrunden 2, an area where windmills had not yet been constructed, and where the bottom mainly consisted of mud or sand with no or a sparse number of algae or mussel beds. A wind farm at Utgrunden 2 would alter the local habitat from a predominantly sandy soft-bottom habitat to an area in which artificial reef structures that resemble hard-bottom habitats is introduced, i.e., the steel foundations and possibly boulders for scour protection. The fish community that will develop over time would be expected to change to resemble the assemblages observed at Utgrunden 1 and hence not visible using trawling and echosound sampling technique. As the goal of EIA is to assess changes, following human development visual techniques is recommended as a complement when examining the environmental effects of offshore windpower. Otherwise important ecological changes may go unnoticed. For a comprehensive understanding of the ecological effects of windfarm developments it is recommended that a combination of sampling methods is applied and that this should be defined before an investigation commences. Although it is well established in the scientific literature that different sampling methods will give different estimations of fish community composition, environmental impact assessments of offshore windpower have been incorrectly interpreted. In the interpretation of the results of such assessments it is common that the findings are extrapolated by stakeholders and media to include a larger extent of the fish populations than what was intended. Therefore, to fully understand how windpower influences fish the underwater visual census technique is here put forward as a necessary complement to more widescreening fish sampling methods (e.g., gill nets, echo-sounds, trawling)

  17. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  18. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  19. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  20. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... of the Baltic, causing it to become warmer and fresher. As an estuarine ecosystem with large horizontal and vertical salinity gradients, biodiversity will be particularly sensitive to changes in salinity which can be expected as a consequence of altered precipitation patterns. Marine-tolerant species...... the Baltic because of its low salinity. Fishing fleets which presently target marine species (e.g. cod, herring, sprat, plaice, sole) in the Baltic will likely have to relocate to more marine areas or switch to other species which tolerate decreasing salinities. Fishery management thresholds that trigger...

  1. Hatching success in brackish water of Perca fluviatilis eggs obtained from the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange

    2016-01-01

    Estuaries are important spawning areas for many freshwater and marine fishes. This is also the case for Baltic populations of European perch Perca fluviatilis, an important commercial species in the most of Europe. There is, however, inconsistency in the literature between the maximum salinity...... tolerance of the eggs in vivo, and the salinities at which some populations spawn in situ (7 vs. 9.6 ‰). In the present study, hatching success of perch was determined in vivo for a Danish, western Baltic, brackish water population at salinities of 4, 7, 10 and 12 ‰. Furthermore, in order to place...... of a mixture of haplotypes similar to the haplotypes, known to dominate in the Central and Western Europe and the Baltic Sea regions. Our results highlight the potential for recruitment of perch in coastal waters in the western Baltic Sea and have implications for both coastal management and the aquaculture...

  2. Baltic States in NATO: Results of the Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Vorotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Soviet period participation in NATO was one of the major goals of euro-atlantic integration for the Baltic states. Political leaders of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have considered participation in the alliance as an important element of euro-atlantic solidarity which allows small - from all viewpoints - states claim decision-making over global issues. This satisfies demands of the political elites and victimized public consciousness for more security, makes it possible for elites to consider their states as bulwark against Russia. Throughout the whole decade, such reasoning has been reflected in doctrines and speeches of Baltic politicians. After joining NATO, the Baltic states became the most active supporters of a deeper integration in the military area and "open door" policy. They have continued reforming their armed forces and renovating military infrastructure. They have acquired "specialization" within NATO by establishing centers of excellence. In terms of euro-atlantic solidarity, the participation in the International Security Assistance Force in Afganistan has become the most important international project for the Baltic states. However, only Estonia managed to mount their defence expenses to the level of 2% GDP. During the „Ukranian crisis" the issue of Baltic membership in NATO acquired special importance. Confrontational rhetoric and appeals to "Russian threat" in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, on the one hand, make it possible for their political leaders to constantly demonstrate their importance in the eyes of Western partners and demand more activity of the alliance and, on the other hand, make ground for the political elites to consolidate the electorate, by that ensuring that the right-wing conservative forces remain in power.

  3. Final disposal Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Inflow of ground water and influence on hydrogeologic and hydrologic conditions; Slutfoervar Forsmark, Simpevarp och Laxemar. Inlaeckage av grundvatten samt paaverkan paa hydrogeologiska och hydrologiska foerhaallanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This report summarizes the description of the natural (uninfluenced) hydrogeological and hydrological conditions at the possible final repository locations Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. For each site, the description is based on SKB's site descriptions version 1.2. The report provides assessments of the inflow and the effects on the surroundings (groundwater drawdown and the associated area of influence) due to construction, operation, and closing of a repository for spent nuclear fuel at the above locations. The assessment of the effects of the repository on its surroundings is primarily based on calculation results from two numerical flow models, DarcyTools and MOUSESHE (for Simpevarp, only DarcyTools has been used). The basis for the modelling is SKB's site descriptions version 1.2, which will be updated in the form of new versions. Moreover, the models are based on a preliminary layout of the repository at each location. Hence, the flow models will be developed further when the site descriptions are updated. The results may also be affected by changes of the repository layout. The modelling projects have been performed in the same order as they are presented in the report (Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar). Some aspects of the numerical models, and the coupling between them, have been developed and improved during the course of work. Examples on major differences between the models include the technique to simulate grouting in DarcyTools, and the possibility to visualize modelling results from this model, for instance on other types of background maps. The results show a small inflow and a small area of influence for a repository at Forsmark. The upper parts of the repository (c 100 m depth and upwards) give the largest contribution to the inflow and the area of influence. This indicates that the effects on the surroundings from the deep and the near surface parts of the repository can be analysed separately. For a repository at Simpevarp and

  4. Parimad suhtekorraldusteod konkursil Baltic PR Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Balti riikide suhtekorraldusliidud koostöös Rahvusvahelise Avalike Suhete Assotsiatsiooniga (IPRA) korraldavad 2001. aastast iga aasta kommunikatsioonijuhtimisalast auhinnakonkurssi Baltic PR Awards

  5. The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistonen, P; Virtaranta-Knowles, K; Denisova, R; Kucinskas, V; Ambrasiene, D; Beckman, L

    1999-06-01

    Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence.

  6. Two centuries of mean Baltic Sea level variability - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Madsen, Kristine S.; Johannson, Milla

    2015-04-01

    other atmospheric forcing factors is found to vary geographically. The annual cycle in Baltic sea-level displays, in general, higher values during winter and lower values during spring with an increase in the amplitude (winter-spring sea-level trend) 1800-2000. The magnitude of these increasing trends is found to be basin-wide uniform (except for the Skagerrak area). The precise mechanisms responsible for this have not been completely ascertained, but are very likely not exclusively of regional to local origin (e.g. due to wind-driven changes). Baltic absolute sea-level estimated from recent combined analysis of geodetic information (measurements and models) and tide gauge observations, show positive trends in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 mm/yr, depending on the spatial and temporal coverage of the considered datasets (1800-2000). These values lie within the range of recent estimates of global trends. Recent changes in linear (30yr) gliding trends of Baltic tide-gauge records (1800-2000) show generally increasing trends, but similar or even slightly higher than recent 30-year rates were observed around 1900 and 1950. All sites show a slight acceleration of the sea-level rate, but the large decadal variability around these positive trends hampers to establish its local statistical significance.

  7. Quality control of GPS deformation data from Forsmark and analysis of crustal deformation in the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, Lennart; Ekman, Mats

    2013-03-01

    A network comprising seven GPS stations was established at Forsmark, Sweden, within about 10 km radius from the centre of the investigation area for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel with the purpose of monitoring slow rock motion. During the period November 2005 to December 2009, GPS data were collected in eighteen intermittent measurement campaigns, each with a duration of between three and seven days. As shown in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), the data expose a considerable scatter, indicating a non-linear variability of the GPS baseline velocities. However, the commission narrated in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was restricted to account only for the field performance of the GPS measurement campaign and to present the resulting measurement data per se, merely supplemented with a linear regression solution for the baseline motions. The preliminary interpretation of GPS data in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was in the present report followed by a closer examination where the non-linear variability is modelled as sinusoidal. Evidence for sinusoidal variations were also found in resulting data from GPS measurements at the Aespoe/Laxemar area at Oskarshamn (Sjoeberg et al. 2004), as well as in GPS data from several sites in western, middle and north-eastern Finland (Ollikainen et al. 2004, Ahola et al. 2008, Poutanen et al. 2010). We here postulate that the baseline velocities are characterized by a long-term linear drift superposed by a non-linear sinusoidal motion. This was modelled in two steps. Initially an Auto Regressive (AR) model was applied and the linear trends between the GPS stations were estimated. In a second step, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model was estimated for (almost) all baselines. The residuals between the original data and the one-step predictor for the ARMA model were then used to estimate new linear trends for the baselines. Our analysis of the Forsmark GPS data indicates relative motions more than 10 times slower

  8. Quality control of GPS deformation data from Forsmark and analysis of crustal deformation in the local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, Lennart; Ekman, Mats [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    A network comprising seven GPS stations was established at Forsmark, Sweden, within about 10 km radius from the centre of the investigation area for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel with the purpose of monitoring slow rock motion. During the period November 2005 to December 2009, GPS data were collected in eighteen intermittent measurement campaigns, each with a duration of between three and seven days. As shown in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010), the data expose a considerable scatter, indicating a non-linear variability of the GPS baseline velocities. However, the commission narrated in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was restricted to account only for the field performance of the GPS measurement campaign and to present the resulting measurement data per se, merely supplemented with a linear regression solution for the baseline motions. The preliminary interpretation of GPS data in Gustafson and Ljungberg (2010) was in the present report followed by a closer examination where the non-linear variability is modelled as sinusoidal. Evidence for sinusoidal variations were also found in resulting data from GPS measurements at the Aespoe/Laxemar area at Oskarshamn (Sjoeberg et al. 2004), as well as in GPS data from several sites in western, middle and north-eastern Finland (Ollikainen et al. 2004, Ahola et al. 2008, Poutanen et al. 2010). We here postulate that the baseline velocities are characterized by a long-term linear drift superposed by a non-linear sinusoidal motion. This was modelled in two steps. Initially an Auto Regressive (AR) model was applied and the linear trends between the GPS stations were estimated. In a second step, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model was estimated for (almost) all baselines. The residuals between the original data and the one-step predictor for the ARMA model were then used to estimate new linear trends for the baselines. Our analysis of the Forsmark GPS data indicates relative motions more than 10 times slower

  9. Macrofauna on rocky substrates in the Forsmark biotest basin. March 1984 - March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeijs, P.; Mo, K.

    1987-09-01

    The Forsmark biotest basin, situated on the Swedish east coast, is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is channelled from the Forsmark nuclear power plant to the Bothnian Sea. The biotest basin is up to 10 0 C warmer than the sea surrounding it, and has no ice cover in winter. There is an artificial, fast current in a large part of the basin. Macrofauna on stones in the hydrolittoral belt was sampled at 11 sites in- and outside the basin every third week during one year. The numbers of individuals per m 2 for each taxon were counted. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season, and for the rest of the year. In total 66 taxa were distinguished in the species lists, of which 3 are sessile, the rest free-living. (orig./DG)

  10. Ecosystem modelling in the Forsmark area. Proceedings from two workshops modelling Eckarfjaerden and Bolundsfjaerden catchment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik (eds.)

    2004-11-01

    The siting program for a repository of spent fuel currently collects large set of data from the surface ecosystem, as well as from the geosphere. The data collected at the sites will be used for various purposes, mainly for the safety assessment for the repository and for environmental impact assessment. The safety assessment of the encapsulation plant also includes an assessment of the postclosure of the repository (SRCAN) at the two sites of current interest for a repository. To show important methods on how data from the sites should be used in a safety assessment, a report for methods concerning SRCAN will be produced. This report is a first step in showing how the site data will be used to understand the function and dynamics of the ecosystems and how it may be translated in various dose models. A more extensive report from The SurfaceNet taskforce is presented in SKB-R--05-01. This report is based on two workshops held in Grisslehamn, Uppland October 20-23, 2003 and in Marholmen, Uppland April 16-19, 2004. Participants from the site investigation program, the analysis group, safety assessment and research attended the workshops. The groups worked intensively for 3 full days respectively, and achieved the major findings in this report. The two workshops had approximately the same approach, although Marholmen was more focused on the terrestrial ecosystems and Grisslehamn on aquatic systems. Besides the major aim of the workshops, to examine function and dynamics of ecosystems translated into dose modelling, another purpose was to communicate the reasons for the sampling programmes, to train new resources and to get plenty of undisturbed time to generate a large amount of creative work. It also got the important role of increased understanding between different scientific disciplines. High quality data is important for validating the dose- and ecosystem models.

  11. Ecosystem modelling in the Forsmark area. Proceedings from two workshops modelling Eckarfjaerden and Bolundsfjaerden catchment areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2004-11-01

    The siting program for a repository of spent fuel currently collects large set of data from the surface ecosystem, as well as from the geosphere. The data collected at the sites will be used for various purposes, mainly for the safety assessment for the repository and for environmental impact assessment. The safety assessment of the encapsulation plant also includes an assessment of the postclosure of the repository (SRCAN) at the two sites of current interest for a repository. To show important methods on how data from the sites should be used in a safety assessment, a report for methods concerning SRCAN will be produced. This report is a first step in showing how the site data will be used to understand the function and dynamics of the ecosystems and how it may be translated in various dose models. A more extensive report from The SurfaceNet taskforce is presented in SKB-R--05-01. This report is based on two workshops held in Grisslehamn, Uppland October 20-23, 2003 and in Marholmen, Uppland April 16-19, 2004. Participants from the site investigation program, the analysis group, safety assessment and research attended the workshops. The groups worked intensively for 3 full days respectively, and achieved the major findings in this report. The two workshops had approximately the same approach, although Marholmen was more focused on the terrestrial ecosystems and Grisslehamn on aquatic systems. Besides the major aim of the workshops, to examine function and dynamics of ecosystems translated into dose modelling, another purpose was to communicate the reasons for the sampling programmes, to train new resources and to get plenty of undisturbed time to generate a large amount of creative work. It also got the important role of increased understanding between different scientific disciplines. High quality data is important for validating the dose- and ecosystem models

  12. Baltic Sea coccolithophores - an overview of insights into their taxonomy and ecology from the last 40 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge

    2016-01-01

    saturation of the Baltic Sea is the main controlling feature, and that in particular an undersaturation during wintertime remains the critical bottleneck for coccolithophores to prevail in the Baltic proper. While there is no reason to question these observations, it is still relevant to put on record......, the Sounds and the Kattegat of a contingent of coccolithophores that appear to be either persistently present within the area or episodically occurring as determined by larger scale hydrographical events within the North Sea/Baltic Sea confluence area....

  13. Report of comment to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate concerning the final waste repository at Forsmark (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The institute gives its support to the construction of the final depository of low and medium level radioactive waste at Forsmark. The main outline has been presented by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Company in their application. Prior to putting into operation necessary instructions have to be issued and prior to closing the depository its impact on the environment is to be examined. (G.B.)

  14. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  15. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated......ML source and once the O2 has been depleted denitrification will follow resulting in enormous rates per unit area. Even with an active denitrification layer of 3–6 m thickness the pelagic denitrification per unit area clearly exceeded sediment denitrification rates elsewhere in the Baltic Sea. When...

  16. Agricultural restructuring in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Mette Bech

    were often the most successful farmers. The importance of individual endowment of resources and qualifications is also evident in the study of Latvian rural entrepreneurship. Different types of rural businesses, including both agricultural and non-agricultural enterprises, were investigated....... In addition to individual resource endowment, it became clear that the local context plays an important role creating both opportunities and constraints for successful business development in rural areas. The thesis concludes that farmers in the Baltic countries could be divided into several groups. Due...... and poor segment of the rural population. An important challenge to policy makers was therefore be to design policies which could create a future for these groups and thereby ensure a viable countryside....

  17. The Laxemar and Forsmark repositories. An analysis of the water inflow distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban

    2006-12-01

    A numerical simulation model is used to estimate the water inflow distribution to the Laxemar and Forsmark repositories. In particular statistics for the inflow to individual deposition holes, i.e. inflow distribution expressed as litre/min, deposition hole, is requested. Different grouting efficiencies are evaluated, including no grouting. The simulations are based on the code DarcyTools version 3.0, which was also used in simulations of the impact of the Repositories in Forsmark and Laxemar. Both the code and the simulations include many novel features and all simulations should hence be regarded as tentative. For the Laxemar repository it is found that less than 2% of all deposition holes will have an inflow larger than 1.0 l/min. This number will increase to about 20% if the inflow limit is put to 0.1 l/min. For the Forsmark repository it is found that 99.9% of all deposition holes will have an inflow smaller than 0.01 l/min

  18. Vegetation mapping with satellite data of the Forsmark and Tierp regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boresjoe-Bronge, Laine; Wester, Kjell [SwedPower, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performs a siting program for deep repository of spent nuclear fuel that includes survey of three potential sites. The SKB siting process has now reached the site investigation phase. There are several fields of investigations performed in this phase. One of them is description of the surface ecosystems. The surface ecosystems are mapped both on a regional (50-100 km{sup 2} ) and a local level (1 km{sup 2} ). Two inventory methods are used, remote sensing (satellite data/aerial photographs) for the regional level, and field inventory for the detailed level. As a part of the surface ecosystem characterisation on the regional level vegetation mapping using satellite data has been performed over the three potential deep depository sites, Forsmark, Tierp and Oskarshamn. The user requirements for the vegetation mapping of the potential sites are the following: Dominated species in the tree layer, shrub layer, field layer and ground layer shall be described both on regional and local level; Dominated species in all layers shall be quantified regarding share and percentage of ground cover, or absence of cover (vegetation free ground); The regional and the local inventory shall have identical or comparable classification systems; The classification system and the method used shall make it possible to scale the results from local to regional level and vice versa; The produced layers shall be presented in digital form and make it possible to model biomass and turnover of organic matter (carbon, nutrients, water); The produced information shall in a first phase be of use for planning and for making nature and environmental considerations. Data sources used in the study include geo-referenced SPOT4 XI data (20 m ground resolution), geo-referenced Landsat TM data (30 m ground resolution), soil type data, topographic map data and colour infrared aerial photographs. The production of vegetation layers has been carried out in two

  19. Vegetation mapping with satellite data of the Forsmark and Tierp regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boresjoe-Bronge, Laine; Wester, Kjell

    2002-04-01

    SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performs a siting program for deep repository of spent nuclear fuel that includes survey of three potential sites. The SKB siting process has now reached the site investigation phase. There are several fields of investigations performed in this phase. One of them is description of the surface ecosystems. The surface ecosystems are mapped both on a regional (50-100 km 2 ) and a local level (1 km 2 ). Two inventory methods are used, remote sensing (satellite data/aerial photographs) for the regional level, and field inventory for the detailed level. As a part of the surface ecosystem characterisation on the regional level vegetation mapping using satellite data has been performed over the three potential deep depository sites, Forsmark, Tierp and Oskarshamn. The user requirements for the vegetation mapping of the potential sites are the following: Dominated species in the tree layer, shrub layer, field layer and ground layer shall be described both on regional and local level; Dominated species in all layers shall be quantified regarding share and percentage of ground cover, or absence of cover (vegetation free ground); The regional and the local inventory shall have identical or comparable classification systems; The classification system and the method used shall make it possible to scale the results from local to regional level and vice versa; The produced layers shall be presented in digital form and make it possible to model biomass and turnover of organic matter (carbon, nutrients, water); The produced information shall in a first phase be of use for planning and for making nature and environmental considerations. Data sources used in the study include geo-referenced SPOT4 XI data (20 m ground resolution), geo-referenced Landsat TM data (30 m ground resolution), soil type data, topographic map data and colour infrared aerial photographs. The production of vegetation layers has been carried out in two steps. In

  20. The Baltic Sea - from environmental monitoring data to paleoenvironmental reconstructions in a marine/brackish system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arz, Helge W.; Dellwig, Olaf; Häusler, Katharina; Kaiser, Jérôme; Leipe, Thomas; Moros, Matthias; Pollehne, Falk

    2017-04-01

    Instrumental observations in the Baltic Sea are reaching back into the 19th century, but a comprehensive ecosystem monitoring by means of coastal stations, research vessels, moorings, permanent stations, and satellites was developed stepwise after WWII and significantly intensified after founding of the HELCOM (Helsinki Commission) in 1975 for protecting the Baltic marine environment against anthropogenic influences. Such influences are well recorded in surface sediments of the different Baltic Sea sub-basins, where i.a. heavy metal and organic pollutants accumulated in the course of the last century with characteristic rates. However, despite of the vast amount of instrumental data, calibration of paleoenvironmental proxies is often complicated due to weakly constraint chronologies of these young sediments. In many cases sedimentation is not continuous and sediments are subject to erosion, re-suspension, lateral transport, and focusing due to intense wind driven waves and current activity. Therefore, a direct link of sedimentary proxies with instrumental water column observations is not always straightforward and generally not well established. Recently developed event stratigraphic and radionuclide based chronologies in some restricted Baltic Sea areas like the central Baltic deeps form now a solid base for the in depth proxy development and validation with instrumental time series. Promising results come from e.g. the solid-phase Mn and trace element signatures and organic biomarkers in recent/sub-recent sediments from the central Baltic Sea enhancing the potential of reconstructing the Littorina-Stage environmental development.

  1. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utili......Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas...... are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific...... roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly...

  2. Education in the Soviet Baltic Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Includes 11 articles about education in the Soviet Baltic Republics. The articles include historical studies of Estonian and Latvian schools and medieval Estonian folk games. The impact of Marxist educational theories and Soviet policies on educational research, teacher education, and teaching methods in the Baltic region from 1920-50 is…

  3. The maritime law of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Before the end of the 13th century, the Baltic seamen created a law system codi ed in Bjarkey and Söderköping and then Schleswig laws. The increasing Germanic domination of Baltic navigation resulted in the creation of speci c maritime laws for Lübeck and Hamburg before the introduction of the Laws...

  4. On the Baltic Sea Response to Climate Change: Model Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omstedt, Anders; Leppaeranta, Matti

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Baltic Sea to climate change is reviewed on the basis of recent model studies. In general, the presently available models indicate that the Baltic Sea is a most sensitive system to climate change, particularly in air temperature, wind, fresh water inflow and the barotropic forcing in the entrance area. Available scenarios for ice conditions and climate warming around year 2100 show 2-3 months' shortening of the ice season in the Bothnian Bay and about 0.4 m decrease in the maximum annual ice thickness. Corresponding scenarios for climate cooling show 1-2 months' longer ice season in the Bothnian Bay and 0.2 - 0.5 m increase in the maximum annual ice thickness

  5. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  6. Variability of lithospheric structure in the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Helle; Debayle, Eric; Maupin, Valérie

    2013-04-01

    We present the shear velocity structure down to 250km depth beneath the dense LAPNET array in northern Finland, located at the northern end of the Baltic Shield. We analysed phase velocity dispersion of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, using data from 46 seismic broadband stations and almost 200 magnitude >6 events. The inversion of the dispersion curve shows a well resolved low velocity zone starting at approximately 150km depth, while the shear velocities above are typical for cratonic lithosphere. The comparison to other parts of the Baltic Shield show strong variability of the lithospheric structure. Immediately south of LAPNET, in an area dominated by paleaproterozoic rocks at surface, the lithosphere is fast to a depth of 225-250km, while cratonic lithosphere seems to be absent beneath southern Norway, in spite of Proterozoic age tectonic ages. The low velocity zone beneath northern Finland indicates that the lithosphere in this area is either modified at depth, for example through metasomatism, or that it is thinner than the more internal part of the Baltic shield. We suggest that the modification of the cratonic lithosphere beneath northern Finland is not related to continental breakup at the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, as the continental shelf continues north, beneath the Barents Sea. We rather favour the hypothesis that subduction and/or collision could potentially modify (by fluid injection) or remove (by erosion/dripping) otherwise stable cratonic lithosphere.

  7. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  8. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark, stage 2.2. A fracture domain concept as a basis for the statistical modelling of fractures and minor deformation zones, and interdisciplinary coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Isabelle; Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Manageme nt Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), U ppsala (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [G eosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Roeshoff, Kennert; Lindberg, Ulrika; Lanaro, Flavio [Bergbygg konsult AB, Haesselby (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders; Persson, Lars [Golder Associat es AB (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar, with the objective of siting a final waste repository at depth for spent nuclear fuel. The programme is built upon the development of site descriptive models after each data freeze. This report describes the first attempt to define fracture domains for the Forsmark site modelling in stage 2.2. Already during model version 1.2 at Forsmark, significant spatial variability in the fracture pattern was observed. The variability appeared to be so significant that it provoked the need for a subdivision of the model volume for the treatment of geological and hydrogeological data into sub-volumes. Subsequent analyses of data collected up to data freeze 2.1 led to a better understanding of the site and a concept for the definition of fracture domains based on geological characteristics matured. The main objectives of this report are to identify and describe fracture domains at the site on the basis of geological data and to compile hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and rock mechanics data within each fracture domain and address the implications of this integration activity. On the basis of borehole data, six fracture domains (FFM01-FFM06) have been recognized inside and immediately around the candidate volume. Three of these domains (FFM01, FFM02 and FFM06) lie inside the target volume for a potential repository in the northwestern part of the candidate area, and need to be addressed in the geological DFN modelling work. The hydrogeological data support the subdivision of the bedrock into fracture domains FFM01, FFM02 and FFM03. Few or no data are available for the other three domains. The hydrogeochemical data also support the subdivision into fracture domains FFM01 and FFM02. Since few data are available from the bedrock between deformation zones inside FFM03, there is little information on the hydrogeochemical

  9. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...... results from a survey carried out during the 1995 spawning period in the Bornholm Basin, at present the main spawning area of this stock. Cod distribution, abundance and population structure were estimated from hydroacoustic and trawl data and related to hydrographic parameters as well as to bottom depth...

  10. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  11. The Baltic Sea - an example of how to protect marine coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietwart Nehring

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea covers an area of 415 000 km2. A typical brackish sea, it is very sensitive to anthropogenic activities. Inorganic nutrients, trace metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and crude oil products are contaminants studied in the Baltic Monitoring Programme of HELCOM. The data collected by the riparian countries forms the basis for the periodic assessments of the state of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea Area produced by HELCOM every five years. Since 1992 marine nature conservation has been part of the HELCOM convention. According to the third status report issued in 1996, it was the first time that HELCOM could strike a positive balance with regard to the decreasing environmental load. This is also reflected in lower concentrations of harmful substances in fish, marine mammals and seabirds in the Baltic Sea Area. The reasons for this progress are the protective actions initiated by HELCOM and the economic collapse in some of the former East Bloc countries, the latter resulting in an abrupt fall in industrial and agricultural production. Although the restoration of the Baltic ecosystem has only just begun, the protective measures introduced to achieve this aim can serve as an example of how to solve similar problems in other semi-enclosed basins and shelf seas.

  12. Survey of transportation of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posti, A.; Hakkinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    are handled at least hundred thousand tonnes or some of them even over 1 million tonnes per year, but since chemical-specific data from all the Baltic Sea countries is not available, the exact tonnages could not be calculated in this study. In addition to these above-mentioned chemicals, there are also other high volume chemicals handled in the Baltic Sea ports (e.g. ethylene, propane and butane) but exact tonnes are missing. Furthermore, high amounts of liquid fertilisers, such as solution of urea and ammonium nitrate in water, are transported in the Baltic Sea. The results of the study can be considered indicative. Updated information about transported chemicals in the Baltic Sea is the first step in the risk assessment of the chemicals. The chemical-specific transportation data help to target hazard or e.g. grounding/collision risk evaluations to chemicals that are handled most or have significant environmental hazard potential. Data gathered in this study will be used as background information in later stages of the Chembaltic project when the risks of the chemicals transported in the Baltic Sea are assessed to highlight the chemicals that require special attention from an environmental point of view in potential marine accident situations in the Baltic Sea area. (orig.)

  13. Combining hydrodynamic modelling with genetics: can passive larval drift shape the genetic structure of Baltic Mytilus populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckas, Heiko; Knöbel, Loreen; Schade, Hanna; Breusing, Corinna; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Bartel, Manuela; Langguth, Klaudia; Melzner, Frank

    2017-05-01

    While secondary contact between Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus in North America results in mosaic hybrid zone formation, both species form a hybrid swarm in the Baltic. Despite pervasive gene flow, Baltic Mytilus species maintain substantial genetic and phenotypic differentiation. Exploring mechanisms underlying the contrasting genetic composition in Baltic Mytilus species will allow insights into processes such as speciation or adaptation to extremely low salinity. Previous studies in the Baltic indicated that only weak interspecific reproductive barriers exist and discussed the putative role of adaptation to environmental conditions. Using a combination of hydrodynamic modelling and multilocus genotyping, we investigate how oceanographic conditions influence passive larval dispersal and hybrid swarm formation in the Baltic. By combining our analyses with previous knowledge, we show a genetic transition of Baltic Mytilus species along longitude 12°-13°E, that is a virtual line between Malmö (Sweden) and Stralsund (Germany). Although larval transport only occurs over short distances (10-30 km), limited larval dispersal could not explain the position of this genetic transition zone. Instead, the genetic transition zone is located at the area of maximum salinity change (15-10 psu). Thus, we argue that selection results in weak reproductive barriers and local adaptation. This scenario could maintain genetic and phenotypic differences between Baltic Mytilus species despite pervasive introgressive hybridization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesonen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  15. Modelling of temperature in deep boreholes and evaluation of geothermal heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders

    2009-05-01

    This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m 2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with air

  16. Review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar; Myndigheternas granskning av SKB:s preliminaera saekerhetsbedoemningar foer Forsmark och Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Maria; Wallberg, Petra; Wiebert, Anders; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Shulan Xu (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Toverud, Oeivind; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Simic, Eva (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-01-15

    This report presents SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar. The purpose of the review is to assess if the extent of SKB's initial site investigations are sufficient and if they are performed with adequate quality and also if they comprise the data that is needed for future safety analysis. To meet the request from the municipalities where site investigations are performed the authorities have also attempted to elucidate if a site has such obvious weakness that it probably will not comply with authority regulations. The target groups for the review are the municipalities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, and SKB

  17. Water Activities in Forsmark (Part I). Removal of groundwater from final repository for spent fuel; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del I). Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark are associated with a number of measures that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code. This report is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and describes water operations in the form of groundwater diversion from the repository (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). The main objective of the report is to describe hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the consequences that may arise in the surroundings of the repository due to the groundwater diversion. Moreover, the report presents prevention measures to reduce the effects of the groundwater diversion and mitigation measures that aim at its consequences

  18. Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbikowski, Radoslaw; Szefer, Piotr; Latala, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gdansk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. - Enteromorpha sp. can be used as efficient biomonitor for chemical elements in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

  19. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  20. Distribution of 129I in the Baltic Sea using a model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Anthropogenic input of 129 I has provided a number of applications in the marine and terrestrial environments. The discharged quantities into the atmosphere and the oceans have not been of particular health concern for regions at considerable distance from the discharge sources, as the Baltic Sea. Marine currents and wind patterns affect the migration and distribution of 129 I to and in the Baltic Sea, but there are no sufficient measured data to predict present day and future distribution of the isotope. Modeling may, in some cases, become an excellent alternative of prediction and later comparison with measured data, when they become available, can improve and correct the model results. Here we present a mass-balance model (SPM) originally established for phosphorus by Haekanson (2007), but slightly modified in this work to accommodate to calculation of 129 I concentration the Baltic Sea from different depths. The model is based on conventional equations and the processes governing elemental dynamic in the Baltic Sea such as mixing and diffusion. The calculated values were assessed with the average empirical data and reasonably matched in most areas of Baltic Sea. Moreover, 129 I fluxes corresponding to different parts of Baltic Sea are estimated which are, to our best knowledge, never done before but are the indispensable task for further research. Due to the semi-close characteristics of Baltic Sea, 129 I has a relatively long residence time and model prediction failed to run as they largely rely on meteorological data (temperature, precipitation and winds) which are difficult to prognoses and thus doubtful on a long time span. Despite this difficulty, the model presented here seems successful for prediction on a long timescale as all derived variables are accessed from GIS maps. (author)

  1. Sedimentation rate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Mattila, J.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Niemisto, L. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research (Finland)

    2001-04-01

    Varying redox conditions may affect the occurrence and concentrations of certain radionuclides in the surface layers of sediments and in near-bottom waters by causing remobilization of radionuclides from surface sediments to the overlying water and their settling back into the sediment. In recent decades about 70.000 km{sup 2} of the sea bottom in the deepest part of the Baltic Sea (about 19% of its total area) have withstood almost continuous anoxic conditions; thus, it is important to know to what extent depletion of oxygen can affect the behaviour of these radionuclides in near-bottom waters. The aim of the project was to resolve the above question in a coastal basin periodically undergoing anoxic conditions. Radioecological processes in sediments and in near-bottom water under varying redoxconditions were studied in the deep area of the Haestholmsfjaerden Bay in Loviisa (eastern Gulf of Finland) in 1995-1996. The Haestholmsfjaerden Bay is a semienclosed basin between the mainland and the archipelago and is connected with the open Gulf of Finland only through narrow, shallow sounds: In 1995, total depletion of oxygen occurred in the hypolimnion of Haestholmsfjaerden Bay during 2 periods in late summer and autumn. In 1996, oxygen conditions were the worst ever observed in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. During early autumn anoxic conditions prevailed for more than 1 month in the near-bottom water. The highest total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in the near-bottom water during these periods were 20- and 4- fold compared with the corresponding values in surface water. According to the results obtained in this project, remobilization of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu from sediments to near-bottom water is negligible or non-existent in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep. If it does occur, however, it may be so slight that it is not possible to observe with the methods used in this study. Although the anoxic periods are quite short in the Haestholmsfjaerden deep

  2. A basis for modelling of radionuclide flow in the Forsmark biotest basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notter, M.; Snoeijs, P.; Argaerde, L.; Elert, M.

    1987-01-01

    Certain radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water of Forsmark power station. Of these, Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65 and Ag-110 m are easily detectable in the environment. This report gives a conceptual five-compartment model for the flows of radionuclides within the basin ecosystem. The available data from biological and radio-ecological investigations in the biotest basin were used to quantify the amounts of radionuclides in each of the reservoirs. The subsystem water-sediment-primary producers was pointed out to be the most interesting part of the ecosystem for studying radionuclides with mathematical modelling in the future. (orig./DG)

  3. Groundwater flow and hydraulic gradients in fractures and fracture zones at Forsmark and Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordqvist, Rune; Gustafsson, Erik; Andersson, Peter; Thur, Pernilla

    2008-10-01

    Groundwater flow measurements with the point dilution method have been carried out within various SKB field investigations in Swedish bedrock since the beginning of the 1980's. Knowledge of groundwater flow under natural conditions is an important part of the overall understanding of hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions at investigated sites and for the function of engineered barriers. Flow measurements have also been made during pumping tests to provide indications of hydraulic connections between various bedrock features. Another frequent use of groundwater flow data from dilution measurements is for identifying suitable injection sections for cross-hole tracer experiments. This report presents an overview of groundwater flow measurements made in boreholes during various SKB investigation programmes. The main purpose is to provide a summary of dilution measurements intended to characterise natural flow conditions within the SKB site investigations at Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and to analyse data on a site basis. In addition, general overviews of earlier investigations at Finnsjoen, Aevroe and Aespoe are presented as well as more recent measurements in connection with cross-hole experiments in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The measured groundwater flow rates in Forsmark and Oskarshamn are approximately log-normally distributed with a median of about 10 -8 m 3 /s. Flow rates show no systematic depth-dependence, high or low flow rates may occur at any depth. The only exception to this is that there appears to be a tendency for high flow rates in shallow borehole sections at Forsmark. Another main variable that is analysed is the hydraulic gradient, derived from borehole flow rates, a transmissivity estimate and assumptions about the flow convergence due to the borehole. This data shows very large variation from extremely low gradients to in several cases seemingly unrealistically high gradients. Most of the calculated gradients are within the interval of 0

  4. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  5. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del II). Slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle: Vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden)); Ridderstolpe, Peter (WRS Uppsala AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  6. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  7. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present 137 Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of 137 Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The 137 Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by 210 Pb geochronology to follow the history of 137 Cs accumulation. The 137 Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated 137 Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m −2 . The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by 137 Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m −2 . This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of 137 Cs inventories. The 137 Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m −2 and 527 Bq m −2 ) due to large Chernobyl 137 Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of 137 Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m −2 . The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. -- Highlights: • 137 Cs contamination in the Baltic Sea was studied before the new NPP is put into operation. • Bothnian Sea sediments are severely contaminated by 137 Cs (inventories up to 95,191 Bq m

  8. Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular

  9. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....... of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental...

  10. Dioxin concentrations in sediments of the Baltic Sea. A preliminary survey of existing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verta, M.; Salo, S.; Korhonen, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Koistinen, J.; Ruokojaervi, P.; Isosaari, P. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most contaminated areas with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins). The high load of dioxins in Baltic fish has lead to restrictions of the use of contaminated fish for human consumption. Uncertainties about sources, geographical distribution of these contaminants, the pathways of bioaccumulation and possible ecotoxicological and human health effects are of concern. POPs may enter the Baltic Sea from atmospheric deposition, riverine input and point sources along the coast. The ultimate sink for the majority of the compounds is the open sea and coastal sediments, although some fraction enters the food chain. Analysis of sediment has been widely used to study regional and temporal trends of dioxin pollution in freshwater and oceans and the Baltic Sea has been one of the most studied sea areas for dioxin-like compounds as well. Only a fraction (unknown) of the analytical results have been published in scientific papers, however. Here we present regional distribution of certain congeners of dioxins in surface sediments and in six sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. New data is compared with data on earlier Finnish sediment surveys. Some data from published papers and unpublished data from the Kattegat Sound is also given for reference. The purpose of this paper is to: 1. get an ''draft'' picture of regional distribution (possible hot spots, major regional differences) along the Finnish-Swedish-Danish-German coastal and open sea sites in the Baltic 2. study differences in congener distributions (source identification) 3. study temporal changes in sediment profiles 4. identify major areas with gap of data 5. call for more data (both published and grey literature as well as new sediment surveys)

  11. Monitoring of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Ikaeheimonen, T.; Saxen, R.; Klemola, S.

    1993-02-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. Samples of sea water, bottom sediment and fish were collected for radionuclide analyses. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and some also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. The general levelling of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs and 134 Cs in the water mass of the Baltic Sea, which had started soon after the fallout situation, continued in 1989. The activity concentration of 137 Cs was about the same level (120-160 Bq/m 3 ) in surface water throughout the Baltic Sea area except in some coastal areas. The cesium concentrations had levelled vertically as well as horizontally. In 1990, the cesium concentrations of surface water decreased further in other sea areas, but not in the Bothnian Sea, where somewhat higher values were detected once more. In bottom sediments the total amounts of 137 Cs had clearly increased between 1988 and 1990 which indicates that fresh fallout was still settling on the bottom. No increase was found in the total amounts of 239 , 240 Pu. Small amounts of 60 Co were detected in the surface sediment of our sampling station in the Northern Baltic proper. 137 Cs concentrations in Baltic herring ranged from 17 to 32 Bq/kg fresh weight and pike from 22 to 290 Bq/kg fresh weight, the maximum values being in the samples supplied from the Vaasa archipelago. The internal radiation dose received by Finns from eating Baltic Sea fish was 0.01mSv both in 1989 and in 1990. (orig.)

  12. Review of possible correlations between in situ stress and PFL fracture transmissivity data at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Derek (University of Alberta (United States)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    In laboratory samples, the fracture transmissivity decreases significantly as the confining stress increases. While these experimental relationships are widely accepted and validated on laboratory samples, it is unknown if such relationships exist in situ or if these relationships can be scaled from the centimetre-scale laboratory tests to the metre-scale of in situ fractures. The purpose of this work is to assess the relationship between the structural-hydraulic data gathered in deep, cored boreholes at Forsmark and the in situ stress state acting on the these fractures. In conclusion, there does not appear to be sufficient evidence from these analyses to support the notion that the magnitude of the flow along the fractures at Forsmark is solely controlled by the in situ stress acting on the fracture. This should not be surprising because the majority of the fractures formed more than 1 billion years ago and the current in situ stress state has only been active for the past 12 million years. It is more likely that the transmissivity values are controlled by fracture roughness, open channels within the fracture, fracture stiffness and fracture infilling material

  13. Rock-block characterization on regional to local scales for two SKB sites in Forsmark - Uppland and Laxemar - eastern Smaaland, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-11-01

    Digital elevation data in 500m, 50m and 10m grids were used for rock-block interpretations at regional, semi-regional and local scales of areas around the two SKB sites, Forsmark and Laxemar, objects for the site-investigation programme. Both areas are interpreted to be close to the surface of the sub- Cambrian peneplain and varying altitude and attitude may testify to blockfaulting in the distorted peneplain. Topographic breaks and changes in the gradient also reveal possible zones of weakness that may conduct water. Rock blocks were constructed for Uppland at 1:750 000, northern Uppland at 1:450 000 and the local Forsmark area at 1:150 000, three sets were constructed for eastern Smaaland at 1:500 000, and one for the semi-regional area at 1:250 000 and one for the local Laxemar area at 1:75 000. The orientation of rock-block boundaries and the size of the rock blocks were treated statistically. The rock blocks/polygons were analysed for their mean, minimum and maximum elevation and the range. The values were displayed by maps. The topography in especially eastern Smaaland is dominated by a clear gradient, the land rising from the sea in the east. Efforts were therefore made to remove an estimated gradient to assess the residual features and the same analyses were then made for mean, maximum, minimum and range values. In many cases the results were enhanced and the two types of presentations are complementary to each other. The rock-block interpretations were compared to bedrock and general correlation between major structures where identified. However, the distribution of rocks on a regional map often demonstrates the plastic deformation in a wider zone. Earthquake epicentres were combined with the rock-block maps and assuming that interpreted rock-block boundaries are fairly steep, there is good agreement between the location of epicentres and rock-block boundaries. In some cases it can be seen how seismic disturbance migrated along a structure. Many

  14. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-11-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  15. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  16. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock–recruitment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    , the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index, and the reproductive volume in the Gotland Basin in May. All the models including extrinsic factors significantly improved prediction ability as compared to traditional models, which account for impacts of the spawning stock biomass alone. Based on the final......A wide range of possible recruitment drivers were tested for key exploited fish species in the Baltic Sea Regional Advisory Council (RAC) area: Eastern Baltic Cod, Central Baltic Herring, Gulf of Riga Herring, and sprat. For each of the stocks, two hypotheses were tested: (i) recruitment...... is significantly related to spawning stock biomass, climatic forcing, and feeding conditions and (ii) by acknowledging these drivers, management decisions can be improved. Climate impact expressed by climatic indices or changes in water temperature was included in all the final models. Recruitment of the herring...

  17. Transport interests and environmental regimes. The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Olav F.

    2010-01-01

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests. (author)

  18. Operational SAR-based sea ice drift monitoring over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginning of 2011, using Radarsat-1 ScanSAR wide mode and Envisat ASAR wide swath mode data. The resulting ice drift fields are publicly available as part of the MyOcean EC project. The SAR-based ice drift vectors have been compared to the drift vectors from drifter buoys in the Baltic Sea during the first operational season, and also these validation results are shown in this paper. Also some navigationally useful sea ice quantities, which can be derived from ice drift vector fields, are presented.

  19. 18O/16O ratios of the pore water of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Two cores of Baltic Sea sediment were collected in 1975. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water enclosed in the sediment (pore water) was measured after the separation of the liquid from the solid phase. The results may support the discussion about the history of the Baltic Sea. At the top of the core the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of the water represents the oxygen isotope composition of the sea water above. Towards the deeper parts of the sediment, independently of the salt content, the 18 O/ 16 O ratio decreases towards values observed in the precipitation of the surrounding land areas. (author)

  20. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 marine environment. Additionally, concentration of bacteria and fungi were measured in size segregated and PM10 aerosol fraction. We were able to relate aerosol source δ13C end members with the abundance of bacteria and fungi over Baltic Sea combining air mass trajectories, stable isotope data, fungi and bacteria concentrations. Ceburnis, D., Garbaras, A., Szidat, S., Rinaldi, M., Fahrni, S., Perron, N., Wacker, L., Leinert, S., Remeikis, V., and Facchini, M.: Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13 C and 14 C isotope analysis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  1. The earthquakes of the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1990-06-01

    More than 200 earthquakes in the Baltic Shield area in the size range ML 0.6-4.5 have been studied by dense regional seismic networks. The analysis includes focal depths, dynamic source parameters, and fault plane solutions. In southern Sweden a long part of the Protogene zone marks a change in the seismic activity. The focal depths indicate three crustal layers: Upper crust (0-18 km in southern Sweden, 0-13 km in northern Sweden), middle crust down to 35 km, and the quiet lower crust. The fault plane solutions show that strike-slip is dominating. Along the Tornquist line significant normal faulting occurs. The stresses released by the earthquakes show a remarkable consistency with a regional principle compression N60W. This indicates that plate-tectonic processes are more important than the land uplift. The spatial distribution is consistent with a model where the earthquakes are breakdowns of asperities on normally stably sliding faults. The aseismic sliding is estimated to be 2000 times more extensive than the seismic sliding. Southern Sweden is estimated to deform horizontally at a rate of 1 mm/year or more. (orig.)

  2. BALCOFISH - a BONUS+ project in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    The project BALCOFISH, acronym for "Integration of pollutant gene responses and fish ecology in Baltic coastal fisheries and management" is a newly started 3-years BONUS+-project funded by Baltic Organisations Network for Funding Science EEIG (www.bonusportal.org) with focus on contaminants...... and biological responses in coastal fish in the Baltic Sea....

  3. Forsmark site characterisation - Borehole KFM22 and KFM23: Derivation of porewater data by diffusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H. N. [Rock Water Interaction, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A. T. [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Within the Detum Project (Detailed Investigations in Forsmark) a 'Methodology comparison for porewater extraction and characterisation techniques' was initiated. This has centred on two shallow boreholes drilled at Soederviken within the northern part of the Forsmark characterisation site. The comparison includes different methodologies to characterise the chemical and isotopic composition of porewater residing in the connected pore space of the rock matrix. The present report describes the chemical and isotopic information of the porewater obtained by out-diffusion experiments and the diffusive isotope equilibration technique applied to originally water saturated drillcore samples. In addition, petrophysical data and solute transport properties of the rock matrix, all necessary for porewater characterisation, have also been elaborated. Specially conditioned drillcore samples were obtained from depths of less than 100 m from boreholes KFM22 and KFM23. Porewater has been extracted successfully from seven samples by laboratory out-diffusion and diffusive isotope exchange methods. The methodology to extract and analyse the porewater is outlined and the analytical data are tabulated. The data are critically reviewed for potential experimental artefacts and their significance with respect to in situ conditions. The connected pore space in the core material representing borehole KFM22 and KFM23 was measured on different types of originally saturated drillcore samples using gravimetric and isotope mass balance methods. Out-diffusion experiments were performed on kg-sized drillcore samples to derive the in situ concentration of the chemically conservative compounds chloride and bromide. The attainment of equilibrium conditions in the out-diffusion experiments was monitored by the concentration change of chloride and bromide as a function of time. The water isotope composition of porewater was determined by the diffusive isotope equilibration technique and by

  4. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  6. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  7. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  8. Energy Policy in the Baltics: A Study of Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jessica Annette

    Regionalism, especially in the form of macro-regions, has emerged as a force of cooperation and integration within the European Union. The Baltic states, who have cooperated more closely since acceding to the EU, provide an effective case study for testing the unifying power of regionalism. As small states that have shared a damaging dependence on Russian energy imports, the three Baltic states share the incentive to cooperate as a region and develop their internal gas, oil, and electricity capacities. The Baltic states have displayed uneven tendencies of cooperation when it comes to energy, however. After presenting an overview of regionalism in the EU, this paper examines EU policy regarding energy in the Baltics, energy ties between the Baltics and other countries, and specific energy projects in the Baltics to show that while the Baltics do not yet have a strong tradition of cooperation in the energy sector, they have laid the groundwork to strengthen future ties.

  9. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  10. Anti-crisis Measures. Baltic Economies’ Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor Ionescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to find a solution and to implement good practices connected to theeconomic recovery under the present global crisis. The objectives of the paper are to analyse theeconomic trend in the Baltic economies and to realise a forecasts for 2012-2013. The economicanalysis is focused on the main macroeconomic indicators during 2010-2011. The forecast covers2012 and 2013 and is based on the latest official statistic data.The analysis is supported by pertinentdiagrams. The main conclusion of the paper is that the solutions to pass the crisis have to be findindividually and the Baltic economies can be an example of good practices.

  11. 36 year trends in dissolved organic carbon export from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räike, Antti; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Thomas, David N

    2012-10-01

    Increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in lakes, rivers and streams in northern mid latitudes have been widely reported during the last two decades, but relatively few studies have dealt with trends in DOC export. We studied the export of DOC from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea between 1975 and 2010, and estimated trends in DOC fluxes (both flow normalised and non-normalised). The study encompassed the whole Finnish Baltic Sea catchment area (301,000 km(2)) covering major land use patterns in the boreal zone. Finnish rivers exported annually over 900,000 t DOC to the Baltic Sea, and the mean area specific export was 3.5 t km(-2). The highest export (7.3t km(-2)) was measured in peat dominated catchments, whereas catchments rich in lakes had the lowest export (2.2 t km(-2)). Inter-annual variation in DOC export was high and controlled mainly by hydrology. There was no overall trend in the annual water flow, although winter flow increased in northern Finland over 36 years. Despite the numerous studies showing increases in DOC concentrations in streams and rivers in the northern hemisphere, we could not find any evidence of increases in DOC export to the northern Baltic Sea from Finnish catchments since 1975. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  13. Removal of groundwater from final repository in Forsmark. Description of consequences for nature values and forest production; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och skogsproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has chosen Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values and forestry due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface

  14. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  15. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  16. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  17. Seeds of Failure in Colbert's Baltic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Richard William

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of French mercantilist initiatives and policies in the seventeenth century focuses on the attempts of Colbert, the controller general of finance to Louis XIV, to stimulate French trade with the Baltic by establishing a Company of the North. (RM)

  18. Saints and Sainthood around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Selch; Petersen, Nils Holger; Jensen, Kurt Villads

    This collection of articles covers most of the Baltic Region with a special focus on the cult of saints in Russia, Prussia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Latvia (more commonly referred to in the Middle Ages as Livonia). The articles cover a wide range of topics, for example the introduction...

  19. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  20. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-03-01

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  1. Toxic substances and reproductive disorders in Baltic fish and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, M; Hill, C; Bengtsson, B E

    2001-08-01

    In the Baltic Sea ecosystem reproductive disorders have occurred in top consumers such as seals and some fish-eating birds, due to biomagnification of toxic substances, e.g. DDT and PCBs. Reproductive disturbances have also affected fish during the last 25 years. However, there is no strong evidence that toxic substances have caused these problems. Rather, the disorders seem to result from a combination of two or more biotic or abiotic factors. The M74 syndrome, which kills fry of salmon and sea trout, is characterized by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). Several factors may contribute to the thiamine deficiency, including the diet of salmon in the sea and halogenated organic compounds. Cod do not develop M74, and poor cod recruitment is mainly due to poor oxygen conditions in the spawning areas in combination with overfishing. Toxic compounds in pulp-mill effluents retard gonadal development in perch, but the mechanisms and the active substances have not been identified. Recruitment problems in perch in the coastal waters outside some pulp mills may also be explained by a lack of food items for juvenile fish, rather than reproductive failure. There are very limited data on reproductive disorders in crustaceans from the Baltic Sea. Most data come from studies of the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis, which has been used in monitoring programs. Several signs of reproductive disorder have been reported in this amphipod, e.g. malformation and death of embryos, and asynchronous maturation of males and females.

  2. Climate change can cause complex responses in Baltic Sea macroalgae: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takolander, Antti; Cabeza, Mar; Leskinen, Elina

    2017-05-01

    Estuarine macroalgae are important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, and often foundation species providing structurally complex habitat. Climate change alters many abiotic factors that affect their long-term persistence and distribution. Here, we review the existing scientific literature on the tolerance of key macroalgal species in the Baltic Sea, the world's largest brackish water body. Elevated temperature is expected to intensify coastal eutrophication, further promoting growth of opportunistic, filamentous species, especially green algae, which are often species associated with intensive filamentous algal blooms. Declining salinities will push the distributions of marine species towards south, which may alter the Baltic Sea community compositions towards a more limnic state. Together with increasing eutrophication trends this may cause losses in marine-originating foundation species such as Fucus, causing severe biodiversity impacts. Experimental results on ocean acidification effects on macroalgae are mixed, with only few studies conducted in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that climate change can alter the structure and functioning of macroalgal ecosystems especially in the northern Baltic coastal areas, and can potentially act synergistically with eutrophication. We briefly discuss potential adaptation measures.

  3. The impact of the Baltic Germans' emigration on the pharmaceutical sector in Latvia (1939-1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauze, S; Maurina, B; Sidlovska, V

    2018-03-05

    For several hundred years, the Baltic German families of pharmacists have been the decisive creator of traditions in Latvian pharmacy. A large amount of the oldest pharmacies in Latvia, especially in Riga, were owned by pharmacists of Baltic German origin. Many of these ancient pharmacies ceased to exist in 1939, as a result of the emigration of the Baltic Germans. The agreement on the outward migration of German nationality citizens between Latvia and Germany was signed October 30, 1939. According to the information of the Pharmacy Board of Latvia, the number of employees in the pharmaceutical sector, registered in 1939, was 2068 persons. During the first wave of emigration, at the end of the year 1939, 306 persons, related to pharmacy, renounced the Latvian citizenship and emigrated. During the second wave of emigration, in spring of 1941, when Latvia had already lost its political independence, another 49 pharmaceutic employees left Latvia. In total 355 employees emigrated to Germany. As a result of the Baltic German emigration there was a decreased number of pharmacies in Latvia and the lack of pharmacists became a local issue. In rural areas quite often the only one pharmacy, which had been owned by a German origin pharmacist was liquidated or stayed closed for several months.

  4. Trophodynamic control on recruitment success in Baltic cod : the influence of cannibalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    in the Western Baltic. On average, 19% of the 0-group and 9% of the 1-group are consumed per year, i.e. 24% of the initial cohort is eaten before reaching age 2. Predation was most intense in 1978-1984, a period with high juvenile abundance and large adult stock sizes in both areas. Subsequently, stock......Cod is the top piscivore predator in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Based on stomach content data from 62427 cod collected during 1977-1994 and food consumption rates, cannibalism in the Eastern and Western Baltic cod stocks has been quantified using multispecies virtual population analysis....... In the Eastern Baltic stock, depending on model assumptions, an average of 25-38% of the 0-group and 11-17% of the 1-group were removed by predation by adults. Thus, between age 0 and age 2 a year class may lose on average about 31% and 44% of the initial number as a result of cannibalism. Cannibalism is lower...

  5. Valuing the commons: An international study on the recreational benefits of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Budziński, Wiktor; Hasler, Berit; Hasselström, Linus; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Nõmmann, Tea; Semeniene, Daiva; Söderqvist, Tore; Tuhkanen, Heidi; Lankia, Tuija; Vanags, Alf; Zandersen, Marianne; Żylicz, Tomasz; Hanley, Nick

    2015-06-01

    The Baltic Sea provides benefits to all of the nine nations along its coastline, with some 85 million people living within the catchment area. Achieving improvements in water quality requires international cooperation. The likelihood of effective cooperation is known to depend on the distribution across countries of the benefits and costs of actions needed to improve water quality. In this paper, we estimate the benefits associated with recreational use of the Baltic Sea in current environmental conditions using a travel cost approach, based on data from a large, standardized survey of households in each of the 9 Baltic Sea states. Both the probability of engaging in recreation (participation) and the number of visits people make are modeled. A large variation in the number of trips and the extent of participation is found, along with large differences in current annual economic benefits from Baltic Sea recreation. The total annual recreation benefits are close to 15 billion EUR. Under a water quality improvement scenario, the proportional increases in benefits range from 7 to 18% of the current annual benefits across countries. Depending on how the costs of actions are distributed, this could imply difficulties in achieving more international cooperation to achieve such improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrate source identification in the Baltic Sea using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-09-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3- inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 47 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (33-100%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e. the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (34-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 49-65% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  7. Nitrate source identification using its isotopic ratios in combination with a Bayesian isotope mixing model in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, F.; Deutsch, B.; Frey, C.; Moros, C.; Voss, M.

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3-inputs have increased four-fold over the last decades and now remain constantly high. NO3- source identification is therefore an important consideration in environmental management strategies. In this study focusing on the Baltic Sea, we used a method to estimate the proportional contributions of NO3- from atmospheric deposition, N2 fixation, and runoff from pristine soils as well as from agricultural land. Our approach combines data on the dual isotopes of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) in winter surface waters with a Bayesian isotope mixing model (Stable Isotope Analysis in R, SIAR). Based on data gathered from 46 sampling locations over the entire Baltic Sea, the majority of the NO3- in the southern Baltic was shown to derive from runoff from agricultural land (30-70%), whereas in the northern Baltic, i.e., the Gulf of Bothnia, NO3- originates from nitrification in pristine soils (47-100%). Atmospheric deposition accounts for only a small percentage of NO3- levels in the Baltic Sea, except for contributions from northern rivers, where the levels of atmospheric NO3- are higher. An additional important source in the central Baltic Sea is N2 fixation by diazotrophs, which contributes 31-62% of the overall NO3- pool at this site. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with source estimates based upon δ15N values in sediments and a three-dimensional ecosystem model, ERGOM. We suggest that this approach can be easily modified to determine NO3- sources in other marginal seas or larger near-coastal areas where NO3- is abundant in winter surface waters when fractionation processes are minor.

  8. Mechanisms of variability in decadal sea-level trends in the Baltic Sea over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabil, Sitar; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit

    2017-11-01

    Coastal sea-level trends in the Baltic Sea display decadal-scale variations around a long-term centennial trend. In this study, we analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of the decadal trend variations and investigate the links between coastal sea-level trends and atmospheric forcing on a decadal timescale. For this analysis, we use monthly means of sea-level and climatic data sets. The sea-level data set is composed of long tide gauge records and gridded sea surface height (SSH) reconstructions. Climatic data sets are composed of sea-level pressure, air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and climatic variability indices. The analysis indicates that atmospheric forcing is a driving factor of decadal sea-level trends. However, its effect is geographically heterogeneous. This impact is large in the northern and eastern regions of the Baltic Sea. In the southern Baltic Sea area, the impacts of atmospheric circulation on decadal sea-level trends are smaller. To identify the influence of the large-scale factors other than the effect of atmospheric circulation in the same season on Baltic Sea sea-level trends, we filter out the direct signature of atmospheric circulation for each season separately on the Baltic Sea level through a multivariate linear regression model and analyse the residuals of this regression model. These residuals hint at a common underlying factor that coherently drives the decadal sea-level trends in the whole Baltic Sea. We found that this underlying effect is partly a consequence of decadal precipitation trends in the Baltic Sea basin in the previous season. The investigation of the relation between the AMO index and sea-level trends implies that this detected underlying factor is not connected to oceanic forcing driven from the North Atlantic region.

  9. Composition and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seidel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area is 1.6–1.9 Tg C per year which is 43–51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area toward the North Sea is 1.8–2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years, seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur

  10. Composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Manecki, Marcus; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Deutsch, Barbara; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Jürgens, Klaus; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE) DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area) is 1.6 - 1.9 Tg C per year which is 43 to 51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area towards the North Sea is 1.8 - 2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years), seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur-containing organic molecules

  11. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Håkan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with

  12. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Zhang, Qiong; Hartikainen, Juha

    2013-05-01

    This report presents results of a study devoted to extend the current knowledge of the climate in Sweden in the next ∼60,000 years (60 ka). Specifically, the potential of cold climate and permafrost development in south-central Sweden, and in the Forsmark region, over this time horizon was investigated. The climate system is an interactive system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryo sphere, the land surface and the biosphere, forced or influenced by various external forcing mechanisms, of which the most important is the Sun. Also the direct effect of human activities on the climate system is considered an external forcing. The latitudinal and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies on millennial time scales due to variations in the Earth's orbit and axial tilt. These variations, together with variations in the atmospheric CO 2 concentration, are viewed as two main factors in determining the climate variation between interglacial (warmer) and glacial (colder) climates. Summer insolation at high northern latitudes is at a minimum 17 ka and 54 ka after present (AP). These periods were therefore identified as potential future periods of cold climate conditions in high northern latitudes in general and in south-central Sweden in particular. Due to human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere, the atmospheric CO 2 concentration is currently 392 ppmv (2011 AD), a substantial increase as compared to the range of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations of 180-295 ppmv found in ice cores for the last 400 ka. The future atmospheric CO 2 concentration is determined by i) future human carbon emissions to the atmosphere, ii) possible emissions due to feedbacks in the climate system, and iii) by the global carbon cycle. To investigate the potential of cold climate conditions in south-central Sweden in the next 60 ka the future air temperature in Forsmark was estimated based on simulations with an Earth system model

  13. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Qiong [Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Hartikainen, Juha [School of Engineering, Aalto Univ., Aalto (Finland)

    2013-05-15

    This report presents results of a study devoted to extend the current knowledge of the climate in Sweden in the next {approx}60,000 years (60 ka). Specifically, the potential of cold climate and permafrost development in south-central Sweden, and in the Forsmark region, over this time horizon was investigated. The climate system is an interactive system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryo sphere, the land surface and the biosphere, forced or influenced by various external forcing mechanisms, of which the most important is the Sun. Also the direct effect of human activities on the climate system is considered an external forcing. The latitudinal and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies on millennial time scales due to variations in the Earth's orbit and axial tilt. These variations, together with variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, are viewed as two main factors in determining the climate variation between interglacial (warmer) and glacial (colder) climates. Summer insolation at high northern latitudes is at a minimum 17 ka and 54 ka after present (AP). These periods were therefore identified as potential future periods of cold climate conditions in high northern latitudes in general and in south-central Sweden in particular. Due to human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is currently 392 ppmv (2011 AD), a substantial increase as compared to the range of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 180-295 ppmv found in ice cores for the last 400 ka. The future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by i) future human carbon emissions to the atmosphere, ii) possible emissions due to feedbacks in the climate system, and iii) by the global carbon cycle. To investigate the potential of cold climate conditions in south-central Sweden in the next 60 ka the future air temperature in Forsmark was estimated based on

  14. Organic carbon sequestration in coastal sediments across the Baltic Sea over the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryves, David; Lewis, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Peter; Weckström, Kaarina; Andrén, Elinor; Clarke, Annemarie; Andersen, Thorbjørn; Yang, Handong; Hietanen, Susanah; Jilbert, Tom; Aigars, Juris; Anderson, N. John

    2017-04-01

    Coastal areas are extremely vulnerable to impacts from changing marine conditions, which are increasingly being driven by human activity (e.g. nutrient cycling, salinity, hydrography, sea level, climate change). Recent research into the complex and dynamic cycling of carbon in many increasingly nutrient-enriched coastal systems has suggested that they have switched from being net C sources to net C sinks over the last 150 years. This study seeks to explore carbon sequestration rates over the last 150 years from several key regions across the coastal Baltic Sea by synthesising organic carbon (OC) inventories from multiple well-dated sedimentary records from Baltic coasts. Such data will provide insight into long-term coastal change and how terrestrial human impact is influencing the ecology and biogeochemistry of the Baltic Sea. To examine past and present rates of carbon burial in key coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, a synthesis of 30-40 sediment cores from across the Baltic Sea is presented here from Baltic Denmark, Germany, Latvia, western Sweden and southern Finland, and are primarily from near-shore and shallow fjord/estuarine sites. The majority of sites span the last 100-150 years and the majority (>75%) are independently dated using 210Pb. Unsupported 210Pb inventories also allow raw sedimentation rates to be corrected for sediment focussing, permitting regionally reliable estimates of OC accumulation rates to be calculated and provide a plausible basis for upscaling OC accumulation rates within these key regions of the Baltic. Preliminary data analyses suggest a major step-change in system behaviour during the 20th century following low, stable ( 10 g OC m-2 yr-1 focussing corrected, OCFC) rates pre-1900. The initial rise in burial rates occurs early in the 1900s though is punctuated by a slight fall during the 1930s/1940s. After 1950, burial rates dramatically rise (consistently up to 45 g OCFC m-2 yr-1; 4 x pre-1900 rates), a pattern which is repeated

  15. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Waber, Niklaus; Gimeno, Maria; Gascoyne, Mel

    2008-09-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  16. Study of the possibility of localising a channel instability in Forsmark-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, J.K-H.; Pazsit, I.

    1998-01-01

    A special type of instability occurred in the Swedish BWR Forsmark 1 in 1996. In contrast to the better known global or regional instabilities, the decay ratio appeared to be very high in one half of the core and quite low in the other half. A more detailed analysis showed that the most likely reason for the observed behaviour is a local perturbation of thermohydraulic character induced by the incorrect positioning of a fuel assembly. In such a case it is of importance to determine the position of the unseated assembly already during operation so that it can be easily found during reloading. The subject of this paper is to report on development and application of a method by which the position of such a local perturbation can be determined. The method can be separated into two parts that support and complement each other. First a visualisation technique was elaborated which displays the space-time behaviour of the neutron flux oscillations in the core. This visualisation expedites a very good qualitative comprehension of the situation and can be useful for the operators. It also gives a basis for the application of the localisation algorithm. Second, a quantitative localisation method, based on reactor physical models of the perturbation and of the transfer function between the perturbation and the flux oscillations, was elaborated. This latter takes noise spectra from selected detectors as input and yields the perturbation position as output. The strength of the method lies in its potentially high spatial resolution, which is smaller than the typical distance between two adjacent LPRM detectors. The method was tested on simulated data, and then applied to the Forsmark measurements. The location of the disturbance, found by the algorithm, is in accordance with independent judgements for the case, and close to a position where an unseated assembly was found during refuelling. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the localisation method. To apply the

  17. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John (Conterra AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Waber, Niklaus (Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Gascoyne, Mel (GGP Inc. (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  18. Modelling Potential Consequences of Different Geo-Engineering Treatments for the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.

    2017-12-01

    From 1950 onwards, the Baltic Sea ecosystem suffered increasingly from eutrophication. The most obvious reason for the eutrophication is the huge amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) reaching the Baltic Sea from human activities. However, although nutrient loads have been decreasing since 1980, the hypoxic areas have not decreased accordingly. Thus, geo-engineering projects were discussed and evaluated to artificially ventilate the Baltic Sea deep water and suppress nutrient release from the sediments. Here, we aim at understanding the consequences of proposed geo-engineering projects in the Baltic Sea using long-term scenario modelling. For that purpose, we utilize a 3d coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO E2E, a novel NPZD-Fish model approach that resolves hydrodynamics, biogeochemical cycling and lower and higher trophic level dynamics. We performed scenario modelling that consider proposed geo-engineering projects such as artificial ventilation of Baltic Sea deep waters and phosphorus binding in sediments with polyaluminium chlorides. The model indicates that deep-water ventilation indeed suppresses phosphorus release in the first 1-4 years of treatment. Thereafter macrobenthos repopulates the formerly anoxic bottom regions and nutrients are increasingly recycled in the food web. Consequently, overall system productivity and fish biomass increases and toxic algae blooms decrease. However, deep-water ventilation has no long-lasting effect on the ecosystem: soon after completion of the ventilation process, the system turns back into its original state. Artificial phosphorus binding in sediments in contrast decreases overall ecosystem productivity through permanent removal of phosphorus. As expected it decreases bacterial production and toxic algae blooms, but it also decreases fish production substantially. Contrastingly to deep water ventilation, artificial phosphorus binding show a long-lasting effect over decades after termination of the treatment.

  19. Characterization of the bacterioplankton community and its antibiotic resistance genes in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiirik, Kertu; Nõlvak, Hiie; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Heinaru, Ain; Truu, Jaak

    2014-01-01

    The residues from human environments often contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that can contaminate natural environments; the clearest consequence of that is the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The Baltic Sea is the second largest isolated brackish water reservoir on Earth, serving as a drainage area for people in 14 countries, which differ from one another in antibiotic use and sewage treatment policies. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterioplankton structure and quantify ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, sul1, blaSHV, and ampC) within the bacterioplankton community of the Baltic Sea. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to quantify ARGs from four different sampling sites of the Baltic Sea over 2 years, and the bacterial communities were profiled sequencing the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene on Illumina HiSeq2000. The results revealed that all the resistance genes targeted in the study were detectable from the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton. The percentage of tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, and sul1 genes in the sea bacterial community varied between 0.0077% and 0.1089%, 0.0003% and 0.0019%, 0.0001% and 0.0105%, 0% and 0.0136%, and 0.0001% and 0.0438%, respectively. The most numerous ARG detected was the tetA gene and this gene also had the highest proportion in the whole microbial community. A strong association between bacterioplankton ARGs' abundance data and community phylogenetic composition was found, implying that the abundance of most of the studied ARGs in the Baltic Sea is determined by fluctuations in its bacterial community structure. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H E; Omstedt, Anders; Von Storch, Hans; Hünicke, Birgit; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993–2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003–12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  1. THM-issues in repository rock. Thermal, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and hydro-mechanical evolution of the rock at the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Loennqvist, Margareta; Faelth, Billy

    2010-05-01

    The present report addresses aspects of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) evolution of the repository host rock that are of potential importance to the SR-Site safety assessment of a KBS-3 type spent nuclear fuel repository. The report covers the evolution of rock temperatures, rock stresses, pore pressures and fracture transmissivities during the excavation and operational phase, the temperate phase and a glacial cycle on different scales. The glacial cycle is assumed to include a period of pre-glacial permafrost with lowered temperatures and with increased pore pressures in the rock beneath the impermeable permafrost layer. The report also addresses the question of the peak temperature reached during the early temperate phase in the bentonite buffer surrounding the spent fuel canisters. The main text is devoted exclusively to the projected THM evolution of the rock at the Forsmark site in central Sweden. The focus is on the potential for stress-induced failures, i.e. spalling, in the walls of the deposition holes and on changes in the transmissivity of fractures and deformation zones. All analyses are conducted by a combination of numerical tools (3DEC) and analytical solutions. All phases are treated separately and independently of each other, although in reality construction will overlap with heat generation because of the step-by-step excavation/deposition approach with some 50 years between deposition of the first and last canisters. It is demonstrated here that the thermal and thermo-mechanical evolution of the near-field will be independent of heat generated by canisters that were deposited in the past, provided that deposition is made in an orderly fashion, deposition area by deposition area. Peak temperatures and near-field stresses can, consequently, be calculated as if all canisters were deposited simultaneously. The canister and tunnel spacing is specified such that the peak buffer temperature will not exceed 100 deg C in any deposition hole, i.e. not

  2. Modeling nutrient transports and exchanges of nutrients between shallow regions and the open Baltic sea in present and future climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilola, Kari; Rosell, Elin Almroth; Dieterich, Christian; Fransner, Filippa; Höglund, Anders; Meier, H E Markus

    2012-09-01

    We quantified horizontal transport patterns and the net exchange of nutrients between shallow regions and the open sea in the Baltic proper. A coupled biogeochemical-physical circulation model was used for transient simulations 1961-2100. The model was driven by regional downscaling of the IPCC climate change scenario A1B from two global General Circulation Models in combination with two nutrient load scenarios. Modeled nutrient transports followed mainly the large-scale internal water circulation and showed only small circulation changes in the future projections. The internal nutrient cycling and exchanges between shallow and deeper waters became intensified, and the internal removal of phosphorus became weaker in the warmer future climate. These effects counteracted the impact from nutrient load reductions according to the Baltic Sea Action Plan. The net effect of climate change and nutrient reductions was an increased net import of dissolved inorganic phosphorus to shallow areas in the Baltic proper.

  3. Peculiarities of distribution of oil polution in the Southeastern Baltic by satellite data and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulycheva, E. V.; Krek, A. V.; Kostianoy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface and field measurements of the concentration of oil products in the water column and bottom sediments for the first time allowed the establishment of a relation between the surface pollution from ships and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with increased concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined in the southeastern Baltic Sea. The basic directions of pollution spread, which are consistent with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin, are determined.

  4. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  5. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren S; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a multifaceted disease associated with several risk factors and a complex clinical presentation. We established the Scandinavian Baltic Pancreatic Club (SBPC) Database to characterise and study the natural history of CP in a Northern European cohort. Here......, we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report......: The study cohort comprised of 910 patients (608 men: 302 women; median age 58 (IQR: 48-67) years with definite 848 (93%) or probable CP 62 (7%). Nicotine (70%) and alcohol (59%) were the most frequent aetiologies and seen in combination in 44% of patients. A history of recurrent acute pancreatitis was seen...

  6. Outcrop samples from Forsmark. Determination of thermal properties by the TPS-Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boras (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    Porosity, density and thermal properties were measured for five different outcrop samples from Forsmark namely: two samples of Metatonalit, Metadiorit, Metagranit and Metagranodiorit. Measurements were performed according to SKB's method descriptions SKB MD 191.001 (Determination of thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat, by using TPS-method) and SKB MD 160.002 ( Determination of density and porosity of the intact rocks). In addition to material properties, the influence of orientation on thermal properties was investigated. The amount of material delivered was too small to produce all needed samples for measurement of thermal properties and determination of the influence of orientation. Thus the influence of orientation on thermal properties was not made in accordance with SKB MD 191.001. The influence of orientation is determined by using a single sided method, which gives the relative relation between two major orientations of the rock. Results obtained by these measurements were in the expected normal variation range. The results indicated that the samples of Metatonalit (MBS020002b) and Metagranit behaved as an anisotropic material (the difference between orientations was about 20-24%) and the samples made of Metatonalit (MBS020002b) and Metagranodiorit could be assumed as an isotropic material (the difference between orientations was about 0.5-2%). The difference in thermal properties of different orientation in sample Metadiorit is about 13%.

  7. Review of the conclusions of the 1996 workshop on safety culture, in Forsmark, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckered, T.

    1997-01-01

    The IAEA/SiP Senior Managers Workshop on International Promotion of Safety Culture for the NPPs with RBMK reactors was organized by IAEA and the Swedish International Project Nuclear Safety (SiP). It took place at the Forsmark NPP, Sweden, from 1 to 4 October 1996. The objective of the workshop were to provide a forum managers to exchange national and international experience on factors influencing safety culture, to better understand these factors and to further enhance promotion of safety culture. The Workshop participants started work by agreeing to seek the answers to the following three questions: 1. What constitutes a good Safety Culture? 2. What is good and bad in our own countries and plants from a Safety Culture point of view? 3. Where can we find advice and help from our colleagues to improve our own Safety Culture? This was the first workshop specifically addressing Safety Culture in RBMK countries. The aim was therefore not to produce good practices, but to lay a foundation for further work and development. A follow-up workshop should deepen the understanding of the SC concept and address specific SC matters identified at this Workshop

  8. Outcrop samples from Forsmark. Determination of thermal properties by the TPS-Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan

    2003-04-01

    Porosity, density and thermal properties were measured for five different outcrop samples from Forsmark namely: two samples of Metatonalit, Metadiorit, Metagranit and Metagranodiorit. Measurements were performed according to SKB's method descriptions SKB MD 191.001 (Determination of thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat, by using TPS-method) and SKB MD 160.002 ( Determination of density and porosity of the intact rocks). In addition to material properties, the influence of orientation on thermal properties was investigated. The amount of material delivered was too small to produce all needed samples for measurement of thermal properties and determination of the influence of orientation. Thus the influence of orientation on thermal properties was not made in accordance with SKB MD 191.001. The influence of orientation is determined by using a single sided method, which gives the relative relation between two major orientations of the rock. Results obtained by these measurements were in the expected normal variation range. The results indicated that the samples of Metatonalit (MBS020002b) and Metagranit behaved as an anisotropic material (the difference between orientations was about 20-24%) and the samples made of Metatonalit (MBS020002b) and Metagranodiorit could be assumed as an isotropic material (the difference between orientations was about 0.5-2%). The difference in thermal properties of different orientation in sample Metadiorit is about 13%

  9. Reconstruction of surface waves using super virtual interferometry: an example from the Forsmark site, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhuo; Juhlin, Christopher; Han, Liguo; Zhang, Fengjiao

    2017-10-01

    Seismic interferometry is a technique that enables the extraction of the seismic impulse response (Green's function) between two receivers. The retrieved response is generally dominated by surface waves when sources are located at or near the surface of the Earth. In onshore seismic exploration, dealing with complex near-surface conditions is one of the main challenges for seismic data processing. In some cases, seismic interferometry can be used for suppressing surface waves without the use of a priori near-surface velocity model. Aside from being an effective tool for surface wave attenuation, the reconstructed surface waves generated by seismic interferometry contain useful information about near-surface heterogeneities and can be used to characterize the near-surface velocity field. In this study, we apply super virtual interferometry (SVI) to a real onshore data set from the Forsmark site, central Sweden, with the primary aim of characterizing shallow-subsurface structure. This is accomplished by improving the dispersion characteristics of the surface waves. We also show that SVI performs better than conventional correlation-type and convolution-type interferometry when reconstructing surface waves, both in synthetic and real data. We use the dispersive behaviour of the reconstructed surface waves to infer the geological structure of the shallow subsurface.

  10. The Physical Mechanism of Core-Wide and Local Instabilities at the Forsmark-1 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G. Th.

    1998-10-01

    During the last 15 years, the problem of BWR instabilities has attracted the attention of a number of researchers. From the theoretical point of view, one would be interested in physically understanding the mechanisms responsible for the in- and out-of-phase core wide power oscillations observed at certain operating points of the power-flow map in different BWRs. From the practical point of view, one must try to avoid these 'incidents' since either locally, or globally, the power may substantially exceed the prescribed levels. In this work, we shall use RAMONA3-12 and analyse a rather unusual instability incident at Forsmark-1 in which in addition to the core-wide fundamental spatial mode oscillation, there were local large amplitude power oscillations at different radial positions in the core. We were able to reproduce these unusual experimental findings by assuming that there are large amplitude Density Wave Oscillations (DWOs) in different bundles, induced by the fact that these bundles were not seated properly into the lower fuel support plate. (author)

  11. THM-issues in repository rock. Thermal, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and hydro-mechanical evolution of the rock at the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekmark, Harald; Loennqvist, Margareta; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The present report addresses aspects of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) evolution of the repository host rock that are of potential importance to the SR-Site safety assessment of a KBS-3 type spent nuclear fuel repository. The report covers the evolution of rock temperatures, rock stresses, pore pressures and fracture transmissivities during the excavation and operational phase, the temperate phase and a glacial cycle on different scales. The glacial cycle is assumed to include a period of pre-glacial permafrost with lowered temperatures and with increased pore pressures in the rock beneath the impermeable permafrost layer. The report also addresses the question of the peak temperature reached during the early temperate phase in the bentonite buffer surrounding the spent fuel canisters. The main text is devoted exclusively to the projected THM evolution of the rock at the Forsmark site in central Sweden. The focus is on the potential for stress-induced failures, i.e. spalling, in the walls of the deposition holes and on changes in the transmissivity of fractures and deformation zones. All analyses are conducted by a combination of numerical tools (3DEC) and analytical solutions. All phases are treated separately and independently of each other, although in reality construction will overlap with heat generation because of the step-by-step excavation/deposition approach with some 50 years between deposition of the first and last canisters. It is demonstrated here that the thermal and thermo-mechanical evolution of the near-field will be independent of heat generated by canisters that were deposited in the past, provided that deposition is made in an orderly fashion, deposition area by deposition area. Peak temperatures and near-field stresses can, consequently, be calculated as if all canisters were deposited simultaneously. The canister and tunnel spacing is specified such that the peak buffer temperature will not exceed 100 deg C in any deposition hole, i.e. not

  12. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the Department of Defense, or Air University. In accordance with Air Force Instruction...Thompson, “Why the Baltic States Are Where Nuclear War Is Most Likely to Begin,” The National Interest, 20 July 2016, http://nationalinterest.org/ blog /the...Philip Breedlove, “US Depends on European Allies and Partners to ‘Fully Defend Our National Security Interests’,” Atlantic Council ( blog ) 25

  13. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  14. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Single and multispecies models are used to examine the effect of species interaction on biological reference points for cod, herring, and sprat in the Baltic. The results demonstrate that reference points are different in single and multispecies contexts. Reference points for fishing mortality...... based on single-species yield and SSB calculations are difficult to use when natural mortality depends on the absolute abundance of the predators and their alternative prey. Reference points based on maximizing total yield from the system may lead to impractical results when species interact...... reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area...

  15. Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Andersson, Helén C; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2016-01-01

    and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period......Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads...... of the nutrient increase, combined with nutrient concentrations from a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model. The results suggest that nutrient enrichment enhanced the biomass level of forage fish by up to 50 % in some years and areas due to increased body weight of fish. However, the trends...

  16. Internal structure and geochemical properties of spheroidal ferromanganese concretions of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wasiljeff, Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Ferromanganese concretions or nodules are recent biogeochemical sedimentary formations present in abundant amounts at the fringes of deep basins in the area of the Baltic Sea. The concretions have a distinctive concentric structure, consisting of alternating iron and manganese-rich layers. The iron layers typically host phosphorus, and the concretions also work as traps for many other compounds such as heavy metals and REEs. In general, their dissolution occurs in anoxic conditions whereas pr...

  17. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835714; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  18. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra-specific...... competition for food. resources may affect the recruitment success of Baltic cod....

  19. Beyond 3G Research: Can the nordic and baltic countries (re)emerge among the world leaders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    The development of Beyond 3G systems requires a multidisciplinary and user-driven approach. On the basis of its established research traditions and institutions, the Nordic and Baltic area could be a driver in advanced mobile and wireless systems. This role is likely to be very different from...

  20. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coa...

  1. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  2. Scope, delimitations and inquiries for environmental impact statements for an encapsulation plant and a repository for spent nuclear fuels. Forsmark; Omfattning, avgraensningar och utredningar foer miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) foer inkapslingsanlaeggning och slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    SKB has studied different alternatives for locating a plant for encapsulating spent fuel element for later disposal in an underground repository. SKB aims to apply for a license to build this plant close to the Central interim storage for spent fuels (Clab), at Oskarshamn. An alternative localization can be Forsmark, should the repository be localized there. This report gives a review of the work and inquiries that will form the basis for the EIS documents. A similar report is published for the Oskarshamn localization.

  3. Variational data assimilation problem for the Baltic Sea thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Parmuzin, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. In such problems not only the development and justification of algorithms for numerical solution of variational data assimilation problems but the properties of the optimal solution play an important role. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area were formulated and studied. Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables amounted to 0.0625x0.03125 degree. The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 13-01-00753, project 14-01-31195) and project 14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: 1 E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 2 Zakharova N.B., Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., The new method of ARGO buoys system observation data interpolation. Russian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Mathematical Modelling. Vol. 28, Issue 1, 2013. 3 Zalesny V.B., Gusev A.V., Chernobay S.Yu., Aps R., Tamsalu R., Kujala P., Rytkönen J. The Bal-tic Sea circulation modelling and assessment of marine pollution, Russ. J. Numer. Analysis and Math. Modelling, 2014, V 29

  4. To what extent does the salinity flux influence phytoplankton blooms? - Baltic Sea modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical modeling of biological-physical interactions and their influence on phytoplankton production and vertical distribution of biomass and its variability in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea. The area of interest is an inland sea with water salinity much smaller than observed in the global ocean (about one fifth of the open ocean value). Vertical distribution of the salinity has a significant influence on water column density stratification, and therefore influences intensity of mixing and the depth of mixed layer. This, in turn, defines environmental conditions for phytoplankton growth. Vertical distribution of water salinity in the basin is controlled by processes such as evaporation/precipitation, freezing/melting of sea ice and runoff of freshwater from land. There are a lot of different phytoplankton species in the area of the Baltic Sea. Every single one has its own characteristics and is sensitive to distinct complex environmental conditions. Biological-physical interactions controlling these microorganisms' life cycles are multiplicitous and because of their complexity difficult to quantify. The best and probably only way to study presented issue is the usage of numerical modeling tool. The results presented here are based on 1D numerical simulations carried out with Princeton Ocean Model (POM, http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/POMWEB/) merged with the Ecological Regional Ecosystem Model (ERGOM, http://ergom.net/) developed for the Baltic Sea research by German scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research in Warnemünde. In model simulations surface salinity flux was determined from the difference between the precipitation and evaporation rate at the air-sea interface. Data for parameterization of atmospheric forcing were defined based on data sets from National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP). We carried out systematic calculations using different values of surface fluxes encompassing the range of

  5. Microearthquakes in the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1990-11-01

    Microearthquake observations are used to study the local seismicity and seismotectonics in the Precambrian rapakivi granite, in the Loviisa area, SE Finland. The study area, around the nuclear power plant in Loviisa, is limited within a radius of 100 km. The results from local microearthquake network in the Loviisa area are presented. During six years of measuring, there were 29 micro- and ultra-microearthquakes (ML = 0.1 - 1.2) in the area. The events identify active faults in the area. The results are discussed with the framework of local seismotectonic interpretation. The estimated value of the peak slip is an important parameter connecting microearthquakes to geodynamical processes. The peak slip gives approximation to the size of seismic and aseismic movement in a certain fault and thus also an indication of ongoing tectonic processes. The movements in the active fault may continue for thousands of years. (orig.)

  6. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...

  7. Deterring Russia’s Revanchist Ambitions in the Baltic Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Baltic republics. Such tactics included employing (undeclared) special and conventional Russian forces alongside local separatists, using oil and gas...U.S. diplomacy is most critical are: Russia, the Baltics, and NATO. First, Russia, as the predominant threat, must receive the thrust of diplomatic

  8. The Baltic Region in U.S. Western Civilization Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates six U.S. western civilization textbooks' treatment of the Baltic region. Reports that the books devote little or no attention to the region, emphasize larger nations, and ignore Baltic social history. Suggests that social histories may continue to neglect small countries, whereas reaction against "Eurocentrism" may result in…

  9. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  10. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    For two consecutive days during spring 1997, the wind field over the Baltic Sea has been studied. The strength of the geostrophic wind speed is the major difference in synoptic conditions between these two days. During both days, the mesoscale wind field over most of the Baltic Sea is quite heter...

  11. Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ozolins, Uldis; Ramoniene, Meilute; Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in the three Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It examines the recent change in language regimes that the Baltic States have deliberately brought about since the restitution of their independence, the nature of these changes, the opposition they have engendered and the…

  12. Hydrogeological flux scenarios at Forsmark. Generic numerical flow simulations and compilation of climatic information for use in the safety analysis SFR1 SAR-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Hartikainen, Juha; Svensson, Urban

    2007-11-01

    In the earlier modelling for SFR-SAFE it was concluded that the groundwater flow would increase with time along with the shoreline displacement. Even though the numerical results are different the same conclusion is drawn after this study. General conclusions from the present study are that: The upper boundary conditions have a significant impact on the groundwater flow in the geosphere. The characteristic of the surface in regards of being a recharge or discharge area affects the results. In general, a discharge area will experience an increase in groundwater flow under changed conditions. The presence of caging fracture zones affects the results, and, for the tested un-frozen SFR situation, the resulting effect is an increase in groundwater flow. Specific conclusions regarding the relative change of groundwater flow due to different surface conditions are that: The permafrost scenarios, along with the development from sporadic permafrost to continuous permafrost, yield increased groundwater flows in unfrozen parts of the domain. The increase is one order of magnitude or less. In the permafrost, the flow is negligible. The ice sheet scenarios yield situations with significantly increased groundwater flow. The results indicate an increase by two to three orders of magnitude. These increased values, however, apply only for short duration intervals. It is possible that such intervals may be only a couple of years. In the selected climate Base variant, repeating the conditions for the last glacial cycle, permafrost conditions occur after 8,000 years. In the climate variant affected by increased greenhouse warming, permafrost conditions do not occur until after more than 50,000 years. In the chosen climate variants, ice sheets reach the Forsmark area and cause significantly increased groundwater flow, after ∼60,000 years or more

  13. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Research; Gustafsson, Bo [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden); Omstedt, Anders [SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times.

  14. Salinity change in the Baltic Sea during the last 8,500 years: evidence, causes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westman, Per; Wastegaard, Stefan; Schoning, Kristian; Omstedt, Anders

    1999-12-01

    The salinity influences which ecosystems will dominate in the coastal area and what property radionuclides have. Salinity is also an important boundary condition for the transport models in the geosphere. Knowledge about the past salinity is important background to evaluate the hydrology and geochemistry in the rock and further to assess the radiological consequences of possible releases from a radioactive repository. This report concerns the salinity in the Baltic Sea during the last 8500 calendar years BP. Shore-level data for the inlet areas and proxy (indirect) data for the palaeo-salinity and the climate are reviewed. These data is further used in a steady-state model for the salt exchange between the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. This will then be extended to a model of the future development of the salinity in the Baltic Sea. We conclude that the changes in the inlet cross-section areas together with a 15% to 60% lower net freshwater input compared to the present input can explain the higher salinity in the Baltic Sea during earlier times

  15. Forsmark site investigation. Assessment of the validity of the rock domain model, version 1.2, based on the modelling of gravity and petrophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Uppsala (SE)); Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (SE))

    2007-11-15

    This document reports the results gained by the geophysical modelling of rock domains based on gravity and petrophysical data, which is one of the activities performed within the site investigation work at Forsmark. The main objective with this activity is to assess the validity of the geological rock domain model version 1.2, and to identify discrepancies in the model that may indicate a need for revision of the model or a need for additional investigations. The verification is carried out by comparing the calculated gravity model response, which takes account of the geological model, with a local gravity anomaly that represents the measured data. The model response is obtained from the three-dimensional geometry and the petrophysical data provided for each rock domain in the geological model. Due to model boundary conditions, the study is carried out in a smaller area within the regional model area. Gravity model responses are calculated in three stages; an initial model, a base model and a refined base model. The refined base model is preferred and is used for comparison purposes. In general, there is a good agreement between the refined base model that makes use of the rock domain model, version 1.2 and the measured gravity data, not least where it concerns the depth extension of the critical rock domain RFM029. The most significant discrepancy occurs in the area extending from the SFR office to the SFR underground facility and further to the northwest. It is speculated that this discrepancy is caused by a combination of an overestimation of the volume of gabbro (RFM016) that plunges towards the southeast in the rock domain model, and an underestimation of the volume of occurrence of pegmatite and pegmatitic granite that are known to be present and occur as larger bodies around SFR. Other discrepancies are noted in rock domain RFM022, which is considered to be overestimated in the rock domain