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Sample records for formosa carassius auratus

  1. PARASITES INFECTIONS OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus L.

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    Emil Gjurčević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing fish from their natural environment, and placing them in aquariums, where large number is concentrated on small space, causes not only stress but increases the possibility of disease. In these unnatural conditions but often adequate for parasite reproduction, parasites can cause diseases leading to death. In our work we investigated parasites presence in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. kept in aquarium, from three different pet shops. The study showed presence of: Trypanoplasma sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Myxoboulus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. Considering the number of parasites found in examined fish, it can be possible that parasites can cause mortality in goldfish. Therefore, special caution has to be on quarantine and healthcare while importing especially exotic aquarium fish that may be infected with exotic parasites. In case of disease, proper treatment in due time has to be conducted.

  2. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

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    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  3. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

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    Fang, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G. [Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels.

  4. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio.

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    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio in this study. The genome sequence was 16,576 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is 31.61% A, 25.81% T, 26.62% G, 15.96% C, with an A+T bias of 57.42%. The complete mitogenome data provides useful genetic markers for the studies on the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  5. Ocular glioneuroma with medulloepitheliomatous differentiation in a goldfish (Carassius auratus).

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    Mandrioli, Luciana; Sirri, Rubina; Gustinelli, Andrea; Quaglio, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Chiocchetti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    An intraocular mass in the left eye causing chronic severe exophthalmia in an adult female goldfish (Carassius auratus) is described. The fish shared an aquarium with another goldfish found dead with gross and microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis. Histological examination of the left eye, histochemical (periodic acid-Schiff [PAS], Alcian blue, Ziehl-Neelsen) and immunohistochemical tests (glial fibrillary acidic protein, human neuronal protein, vimentin, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3) were carried out on the intraocular mass. Neoplastic cells forming an unencapsulated highly cellular proliferation partially covered by an intact corneal epithelium were stained with Alcian blue, which demonstrated an abundant hyaluronic acid-rich extracellular matrix. Multifocally, there were cyst-like dilatations bordered by neuroepithelial cells, which were PAS-positive. The complex neoplastic proliferation was composed of glial-like cells, neuronal-like cells (immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein and human neuronal protein, respectively) and neuroepithelium, which suggested a retinal origin.

  6. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

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    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  7. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

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    Fengjin CAI; Zhengjun WU; Nan HE; Zhenxing WANG; Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana) and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. Clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. Auratus recognizes P. Clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus recognize P. Clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. Auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. Clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. Clarkii previously fed with C. Auratus (C. Auratus diet cues) and water from a tub containing unfed P. Clarkii (P. Clarkii cues). In the visual experiment, experienced C. Auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. Auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. Auratus responded to P. Clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. Auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. Auratus appears to recognize P. Clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. Auratus may recognize P. Clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. Clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. Clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. Auratus can recognize P. Clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. Clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. Auratus cannot.

  8. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

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    Fengjin CAI, Zhengjun WU, Nan HE, Zhenxing WANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. auratus recognizes P. clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. auratus recognize P. clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. clarkii previously fed with C. auratus (C. auratus diet cues and water from a tub containing unfed P. clarkii (P. clarkii cues. In the visual experiment, experienced C. auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. auratus responded to P. clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. auratus appears to recognize P. clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. auratus may recognize P. clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. auratus can recognize P. clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. auratus cannot [Current Zoology 57 (3: 330–339, 2011].

  9. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  10. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

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    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting goldfish Carassius auratus auratus.

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    Lewisch, Eva; Soliman, Hatem; Schmidt, Peter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus 1758). The fish had been imported from China by an Austrian retailer. Nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. In valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. In sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. The polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a polar filament with 8 to 9 coils. Histological sections showed plasmodia of 0.2 to 4.0 mm diameter with the earlier developmental stages of the parasite in the periphery and the mature spores closer to the center. In the transmission electron microscope examination, the different developmental stages could be observed. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA identify this parasite as a new species of Thelohanellus, which we have named Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov.

  12. [A new pathogen of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio-Shewanella putrefaciens].

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    Qin, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Bi, Keran

    2012-05-04

    We studied a novel disease occurred among cultured Carassius auratus gibelio at a farm located in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province. The dominant bacteria were isolated from diseased fish. The pure culture of the isolated strain was analyzed using conventional physiological and biochemical tests, together with 16S rDNA gene sequencing. An experimental infection of Carassius auratus gibelio with the isolated strain was performed to fulfill the Koch postulates. K-B method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. The causal agent of the disease was finally proved to be one species of bacteria that was identified as Shewanella putrefaciens. Experimental infection with S. putrefaciens resulted in the same gross signs as naturally infected fish and the same bacteria were recovered in a pure culture from freshly dead fish. The LD50 of S. putrefacien was calculated as 2.1 x 10(3) cfu/g. The result of drug sensitivity test showed that S. putrefaciens was sensitive to Pipemidic acid, Nalidixic acid, Fluperacid, Enoxacin, Florfenicol, Rifampicin, Minocycline, Fleroxacin, Enrofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefalexin, Ceftazidine, Roxithromycin and Levofloxacin. This is the first report on a new pathogen of Carassius auratus gibelio, revealing that S. putrefaciens as a potential new pathogen may pose a threat to the culture of Carassius auratus gibelio.

  13. Identification of Triploid Individuals and Clonal Lines in Carassius Auratus Complex Using Microsatellites

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    Zhiyi Bai, Feng Liu, Jiale Li, Gen Hua Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carassius auratus complex in natural populations includes diploid triploid and polyploidy individuals. Diploid individuals belong to the species Carassius auratus whereas triploid and polyploidy individuals are from the subspecies Carassius auratus gibelio. Triploid individuals are all female and reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. Therefore the Carassius auratus complex is an ideal system for studying evolution of unisexual reproduction. Identification of triploid individuals and clonal lines is the first step towards understanding of the evolution of unisexual clonal lines. We examined the ability of 10 microsatellites in identifying triploid individuals in 94 individuals from Japan and China. In 40 confirmed triploid individuals and eight confirmed diploid individuals, all triploid and diploid individuals can be identified by genotyping 10 microsatellite, and four triploid clonal lines were identified. Using the 10 microsatellites we genotyped 46 adult individuals (40 females and six males from a natural population in China and found that all six males were diploid whereas the majority of females (36 of 40 were triploid and three triploid clonal lines were detected. In 18 diploid individuals from China, all individuals showed different genotypes, suggesting there is no diploid clonal line in diploid crucian carp. A phylogenetic analysis of 94 individuals from China and Japan showed that triploid individuals and clonal lines have originated recurrently.

  14. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  15. Immunotoxicity of bisphenol A to Carassius auratus lymphocytes and macrophages following in vitro exposure

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    YIN Da-qiang; HU Shuang-qing; GU Ying; WEI Li; LIU Shu-shen; ZHANG Ai-qian

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC).The reproductive toxicity of BPA has been extensively studied in mammals; however, relatively little information is available on the immunotoxic responses of fish to BPA. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA on the immune functions of lymphocytes and macrophages in Carassius auratus. The effects of BPA were compared with those of two natural steroid hormones, estradiol and hydrocortisone. Proliferation of the two types of cells in response to PHA was measured using colorimetric MTT assay. Macrophage respiratory burst stimulated by Con A was measured using chemiluminescence assay. Results showed that BPA (0.054-5.4 mg/L),estradiol (0.0002-2.0 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (5-50 mg/L) significantly induced Carassius auratus lymphocyte proliferation while higher doses of hydrocortisone (500-5000 mg/L) appeared to be inhibitory. BPA (0.005-50 mg/L), estradiol (0.005-800 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (0.005-500 mg/L) markedly enhanced macrophage proliferation, whereas higher doses of BPA (500-1000 mg/L)appeared to inhibit cell proliferation. Furthermore, higher dosage of BPA (50 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (50 and 500 mg/L) suppressed the macrophages respiratory burst while estradiol is stimulative all the doses tested (0.05-500 mg/L). In conclusion, BPA could have immunotoxicity to Carassius auratus and functional changes of lymphocyte and macrophage in Carassius auratus may be different between low and high dosages.

  16. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

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    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  17. Genetic variation and population history of three Carassius auratus populations in Huaihe River, China.

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    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yuanjun; Yang, Chengzhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the relationships of drainage history of Huaihe River with the genetic history of Carassius auratus along the river, we examined the genetic variations and population histories of three wild C. auratus populations in Huaihe River based on the D-loop gene. The results showed that their nucleotide and haplotype diversities were ranged from 0.00268 to 0.00651 and from 0.863 to 0.902, respectively, and their genetic distance was quite small. The analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that a frequent inter-population connection and large historic gene flows occurred among the three populations. Demographic analysis indicated that expansions had been happened in three populations. After investigating the historic process of the Huaihe River, we presumed that both nature and artificial factors may play important roles in shaping the genetic structure of the three populations. The present study also provided genetic information of C. auratus for further conservation of its germplasm resources.

  18. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  19. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

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    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  20. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldifsh (Carassius auratus)

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    Reza Tarkhani; Mohammad Reza Imanpoor; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Sayede Amene Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Methods:To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight usingANOVA. Results:Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of this hormone on growth factors ofCarassius auratus.

  1. Numerical and structural chromosome polimorphism in fish species: Carassius auratus gibelio b. and alburnus alburnus L.

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    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cytogenetic investigations of the fish species Carassius auratus gibelio, B. and Alburnus alburnus, L. Karyotype definitions are given for fish caught at different localities in Serbia. Within the bisexual population of the silver carp Carassius auratus gibelio B., we observed variability in the number of the last, smallest akrocentrics (2n=100_ 22-4. These variating accessory chromosomes were called Banalogues. We established the number of chromosomes (3n=150+8 and 3n=150+10 and gave the karyotype characteristics for gynogenetic lines of triploid females. We pointed out that the existing clones differ in the number of chromosomes, i.e. in the number of Banalogues, which are also probably the cause of the occurence of - gynogenetic karyoclones. In the species Alburnus alburnus, L., we established the existence of modified karyotipes with a large metacentric - Robertson's fusion, translocation probably formed by the two biggest akrocentrics. We examined the possibility of maintaining variability in populations of this specie. The results are discussed in comparison to disorders which result from these changes in reproduction, and the possible consequences that can be expected in the offispring.

  2. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  3. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  4. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  5. Hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in Carassius auratus liver, exposed to pyrene.

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    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the hydroxy radical generation and oxidative stress in the liver of goldfish Carassius auratus under the effect of pyrene. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) of pyrene for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. Based on the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, the free radical which was generated in fish liver was identified as hydroxyl radical ((*)OH). The (*)OH signal intensity showed a significant increase compared with the control. The changes of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were detected. The reduced glutathione (GSH) level decreased significantly while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level was increased at higher concentration (0.005-0.1 mg/L), resulting in a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly at 0.005-0.1 mg/L pyrene. The results clearly showed that C. auratus was subjected to oxidative stress and damage when exposed to pyrene.

  6. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  7. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  8. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  10. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  11. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  12. In vivo anthelmintic activity of chelidonine from Chelidonium majus L. against Dactylogyrus intermedius in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Pan, Xiao-yi; Hao, Gui-jie; Li, Xi-Lian; Xu, Yang; Shen, Jin-Yu; Ru, Hong-shun; Yin, Wen-lin

    2011-11-01

    Dactylogyrus intermedius is one of the most common and serious cause of parasitic diseases of freshwater fish in aquaculture, and can cause morbidity and high mortality in most species of freshwater fish worldwide. To attempt controlling this parasite and explore novel potential antiparasitic agents, the present study was designed to ascertain the anthelmintic activity of Chelidonium majus L. whole plant and to isolate and characterize the active constituents against D. intermedius. The ethanol extract from C. majus whole plant showed significant anthelmintic activity against D. intermedius [EC(50) (median effective concentration) value = 71.5 mg L(-1)] and therefore subjected to further isolation and purification using various chromatographic techniques. A quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius was obtained and identified as chelidonine. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy tests exhibited that chelidonine was 100% effective against D. intermedius at a concentration of 0.9 mg L(-1), with EC(50) value of 0.48 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure, which is more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value = 1.3 mg L(-1)). In addition, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for chelidonine against the host (Carassius auratus) was 4.54 mg L(-1). The resulting therapeutic index for chelidonine was 9.46. These results provided evidence that chelidonine might be potential sources of new antiparasitic drugs for the control of Dactylogyrus.

  13. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  14. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  15. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.

  16. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  17. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  18. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  19. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  20. In vivo Pharm acodynam ic Effect of Thiam phenicol in Serum of Carassius auratus on Aerom onas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Hongbo; Wang; Di; LU; Tongyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the in vitro pharmacodynamic effect of thiamphenicol( TAP) in serum of Carassius auratus on Aeromonas hydrophila. By combining the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro pharmacodynamics,the pharmacodynamic effect of TAP on Aeromonas hydrophila was studied,and the data were processed and analyzed by software Excel 2007,Kinetica3P97 and Kinetica4. 4. The results showed that oral administration of singly 30 mg /kg TAP assumed a rapid assimilation-quickly peaking-slowly dispelling trend in Carassius auratus. The related parameters were measured as follows: time of peaked plasma concentration of TAP( Tpeak) of 1.5 h,peak concentration( Cmax) of 37.172 μg/mL and absorption rate( ka) of 1.523 h,half-life period T1/2( ka) of 0.455 h,lag time( TL)of 0. 02 h,elimination half life T1/2( ke) of 16.712 h. The half maximal effective concentration( EC50) was 14.28 h. The PK-PD parameters were 32.41 h in AUC0- 24/ MICserumand 23. 23 in Cmax/MICserum. Employing an inhibitory Sigmoid Emax model,the administration dosage of TAP for preventing Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia was 8. 61- 46. 20 mg /kg in clinical application. Based on these,we proposed the optimal administration route for preventing and controlling the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia: delivering TAP at the ratio of 46. 20 mg /kg on diseased Carassius auratus by mixing with baits or oral administration,followed by delivering with baits at ratio of 8. 61 mg /kg for preventing the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia. The results provided references for applying thiamphenicol for preventing and controlling the bacterial septicemia in aquatic livestock.

  1. Effect of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids supplementation on sperm quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Zeinab Hanaee Kashani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA supplementation onsperm quality was studied in goldfish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758, for one year. Fish fedexperimental diets had no significant differences in sperm concentration, spermatocrit, motility durationand percent motility of each sperm (P>0.05. Fish fed with E100+HUFA had the highest spermconcentration and highest spermatocrit. Motility duration and percent motility of each sperm were notsignificantly different (P>0.05 although the control group had the lowest value.

  2. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  3. Behavioral and biochemical responses in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Sheng; Nie, Yang; Ma, Binni; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Sertraline is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. However, knowledge regarding relationships among molecular or biochemical endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of sertraline and ecologically important behavioral responses of fish is insufficient. The present study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration and possible adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of sertraline (4.36, 21.3 and 116 μg L(-1)) for 7 d. Bioconcentration factor values were in the range of 19.5-626 in liver, 6.94-285 in brain, 4.01-146 in gill and 0.625-43.1 in muscle during the entire period of exposure. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were selected as biochemical endpoints associated with MOAs. Swimming activity, shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were determined to assess behavioral responses. Fish plasma levels of sertraline exceeding human therapeutic doses were also predicted from external exposure concentrations. Significant enhancements in CAT, GPx, AChE and swimming activities and decreases in shoaling tendency, feeding rate and food consumption were observed when fish plasma levels exceeded human therapeutic thresholds. Shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were correlated with the activities of SOD, CAT and GST. A significant positive correlation between swimming activity and AChE activity was also observed. As such, our study provides important AOPs linking biochemical responses with ultimate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints.

  4. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  5. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral DNA vaccines in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nana; Xu, Kun; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yuwan; Bai, Yichun; Zhang, Xiaohan; Han, Baoquan; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Oral delivery of DNA vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. Recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and DNAs to some species in vivo. However, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional DNAs for vaccination to fish is still unknown. In this study, red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring CMV-EGFP expression cassette. On day 5 post the first vaccination, EGFP expression in the hindgut was detected under fluorescence microscope. To further study whether the delivered gene could induce specific immune responses, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used as immunogen, and oral administrations were conducted with recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring pCMV-OVA mammalian gene expression cassette as gene delivery or pADH1-OVA yeast gene expression cassette as protein delivery. Each administration was performed with three different doses, and the OVA-specific serum antibody was detected in all the experimental groups by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA assay also revealed that pCMV-OVA group with lower dose (pCMV-OVA-L) and pADH1-OVA group with moderate dose (pADH1-OVA-M) triggered relatively stronger antibody response than the other two doses. Moreover, the antibody level induced by pCMV-OVA-L group was significantly higher than pADH1-OVA-M group at the same serum dilutions. All the results suggested that recombinant yeast can be used as a potential carrier for oral DNA vaccines and would help to develop more practical strategies to control infectious diseases in aquaculture.

  6. Efecto del anabólico acetato de trembolona sobre el crecimiento de Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae Anabolic effect induced by trenbolone acetate steroid on the Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae growth

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    Samuel Marañón Herrera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia anabólica del esteroide acetato de trembolona en juveniles de Carassius auratus de 60 días de edad, expuestos durante 120 días a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento. Cada dos semanas se registraron las siguientes biometrías: longitud total, longitud patrón, altura y peso. El beneficio del esteroide se caracterizó con un modelo que relacionó el peso en función del tiempo, acoplado a otros dos modelos: uno en donde se relaciona la talla con el tiempo y otro alométrico, que relacionó el peso con la talla. Los modelos estimados mostraron que el crecimiento de los peces tratados con el anabólico fue superior al de los peces del testigo y difieren significativamente (p0.05. El análisis de la variabilidad de los tres modelos demostró que las estimaciones describieron en forma adecuada el crecimiento, así lo confirma el coeficiente de determinación (r² que fluctúa entre el 72.9 y 93.5% y el análisis de la distribución de la talla y el peso con diagramas de caja. Se concluye que la aplicación del acetato de trembolona en Carassius auratus fue exitosa, al registrarse una sobrevivencia del 100% y funcionar como un eficiente agente anabólico, ya que se obtuvo una ganancia de biomasa del 48.0% y de talla del 41.3%, con respecto al testigo.The anabolic efficiency of steroid trenbolone acetate was evaluated in 60 days old juveniles of Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed during 120 days to steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg food. Total length, standard length, height and weight were registered every two weeks. The benefit of the steroid was characterized with a model that relates the weight as a function of time, coupled to other two models: one where size is related with time and an alometric one which correlates weight with size. The models showed that growth of steroid treated fish was superior to that of untreated (control fish, differing significantly (p 0.05. Analysis of the variability of the three models

  7. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  8. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.

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    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp. in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubules and tubulardilation. Liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and focal areasof necrosis, haemorrhagia and hepatitis. In intestine, atrophy of epithelial cells and enteritis on thelamina propria and submucosal layer were seen. It was concluded that unfavourable environmentalcontamination of aquarium may induced several histopathological alterations in the tissues of goldfishand angelfishes.

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  10. A multi-biomarker assessment of single and combined effects of norfloxacin and sulfamethoxazole on male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Wu, Donghai; Yan, Zhenhua

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the sublethal effects of norfloxacin alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were investigated, the biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxides dismutase (SOD) activities in liver, vitellogenin (Vtg) in serum and DNA damage in gonad were determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 days of exposure. Brain AChE activity was significantly inhibited by norfloxacin (≥0.4 mg/L) after 4 and 7 days and the mixtures with sulfamethoxazole (≥0.24 mg/L) after 4 days of exposure, and significant concentration-response relationships were obtained. Liver EROD, GST and SOD activities were significantly increased by the individual and mixed pharmaceuticals in most cases and exhibited analogously bell-shaped concentration-response curves. Serum Vtg was increased by the highest concentration of norfloxacin and two higher concentrations of the mixtures. Higher concentrations of the test antibiotics induced significant DNA damage in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicated that selected antibiotics possesses cytotoxic and genotoxic potential against the non-target organism C. auratus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  12. Assessing the anti-estrogenic activity of sodium pentachlorophenol in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing; LIU Zheng-tao; XU Zhang-fa

    2006-01-01

    Both pentachlorophenol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) had been studied widely because of their probable anti-estrogenic activity. Sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na), as a industrial product used in many fields, usually contains a trace of TCDD. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-estrogenic effect of PCP-Na in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (VTG) as the biomarker. The ID50 of PCP-Na was investigated and then a series of concentrations (0.001-0.5 μg/ml) of PCP-Na were evaluated to estimate the anti-estrogenic activity. Results showed that PCP-Na was cytotoxic for hepatocytes even at very low concentration <1.21 μg/ml, and it could not induce VTG at any concentrations tested.Since it failed to stimulate VTG production, the possibility of its anti-estrogenic effect was tested, and a well-known anti-estrogenic compound-tamoxifen was used as positive control. PCP-Na caused a reduction in VTG synthesis in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes at concentrations >0.1 μg/ml when co-exposure with 1 μg/ml 17β-estradiol (E2), making its anti-estrogenic activity approximately as potent as tamoxifen. Our results indicate that PCP-Na can act as negative modulators of estrogenic function in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes.

  13. 普安银鲫的生物学特性及养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of PUAN Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先中; 冉光鑫; 黄仕洪

    2015-01-01

    普安银鲫(PUAN Carassius auratus)是贵州省特有的天然雌核发育鱼类种质资源;它具有肉质好、生长快、杂食性、抗病力强、营养与药用价值高等特点。该文对普安银鲫形态特征、生活习性、摄食习性、繁殖习性等生物学特征进行了综述。并对普安银鲫养殖过程中池塘准备、放养密度、饲料投喂、水质管理,疾病防治等进行了简单介绍。%PUAN Carassius auratus was indigenous unique natural fish germplasm resources in Guizhou prov⁃ince;it has good meat,fast growth,omnivorous,disease resistance,high nutritional and medicinal value. In this paper,biological characteristics of PUAN Carassius auratus were reviewed,including morphological char⁃acteristics,living habits,feeding habits and breeding habits. Cultivation technology of PUAN Carassius aura⁃tus was introduced briefly,including breeding ponds during the preparation,stocking density,feed,feeding,wa⁃ter quality management and disease prevention.

  14. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  15. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  16. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

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    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  17. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  19. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  20. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and β-carotene on the semen quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, B; Kazemi, R; Alipour, A; Seidavi, A; Naseralavi, G; Ponce-Palafox, J T

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two carotenoids (astaxanthin and β-carotene) on the sperm quality of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758). For this purpose, six diets containing concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin and β-carotene were added to a basic carp diet. One group of fish was also fed with a control diet (no added carotenoids). Osmolality, spermatocrit value, and sperm concentration significantly increased in the treatment supplemented with 150 mg/kg of astaxanthin (296.6 ± 1.1 mOsm/kg; 29.2 ± 0.6%; 17.2 ± 0.4 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively) and β-carotene (295.2 ± 2.1 mOsm/kg; 32.5 ± 1.6%; 17.9 ± 0.5 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively). The highest concentration of astaxanthin (10.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg) was recorded in the treatment of A150 (P astaxanthin improves osmolality, motility, fertilization rate, and sperm concentration.

  2. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment.

  3. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  4. PROPOFOL AS AN IMMERSION ANESTHETIC AND IN A MINIMUM ANESTHETIC CONCENTRATION (MAC) REDUCTION MODEL IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, Julie A; Wilson, Sarah K; Lewbart, Gregory A; Gaines, Brian R; Posner, Lysa P

    2017-03-01

    Propofol is a novel immersion anesthetic in goldfish ( Carassius auratus ). Objectives were to characterize propofol as an anesthetic and assess its suitability in a minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) reduction model. Using a crossover design, eight goldfish were submerged in 1, 5, or 10 mg/L propofol. Data included induction time, recovery time, heart rate, opercular rate, and response to supramaximal stimulation. Baseline MAC (Dixon's up-and-down method) was determined, and 15 fish were anesthetized with propofol on 4 consecutive days with MAC determination on the fifth day, weekly, for 1 mo. Using a crossover design, MAC of propofol (n = 15) was determined 1 hr following administration of i.m. butorphanol 0.05, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/kg, ketoprofen 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, morphine 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, or saline 1 ml/kg. Comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P MAC following daily exposure was 8.4 and 9.0, 8.1, 8.1, and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. MAC reduction was no more than 8% following any drug or dosage. Propofol at 5 and 10 mg/L produced anesthesia, and anesthetic needs were similar following repeated exposure. Propofol was not suitable to test MAC reduction in goldfish in this study.

  5. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish. PMID:28338019

  6. Toral lateral line units of goldfish, Carassius auratus, are sensitive to the position and vibration direction of a vibrating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gunnar; Klein, Adrian; Mogdans, Joachim; Bleckmann, Horst

    2012-09-01

    We recorded the responses of lateral line units in the midbrain torus semicircularis of goldfish, Carassius auratus, to a 50-Hz vibrating sphere and determined the unit's spatial receptive fields for various distances between fish and sphere and for different directions of sphere vibration. All but one unit responded to the vibrating sphere with an increase in discharge rate. Only a proportion (25%) of the units exhibited phase-locked responses. Receptive fields were narrow or broad and contained one, two or more areas of increased discharge rate. The data show that the receptive fields of toral lateral line units are in many respects similar to those of brainstem units but differ from those of afferent nerve fibres. The responses of primary afferents represent the pressure gradient pattern generated by a vibrating sphere and provide information about sphere location and vibration direction. Across the array of lateral line neuromasts, the fish brain in principle can derive this information. Nevertheless, toral units tuned to a distinct sphere location or sensitive to a distinct sphere vibration direction were not found. Therefore, it is conceivable that the torus semicircularis uses a population code to determine spatial location and vibration direction of a vibrating sphere.

  7. Study on Carassius Auratus Fresh-keeping with Microwave%鲫鱼微波保鲜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣

    2013-01-01

    采用微波处理鲫鱼,然后将处理好的鲫鱼冷藏在3℃和10℃,以其细菌菌落数、pH、感官值、TVBN值、TBA值变化,研究微波的保鲜效果。结果表明:经超声波处理,对鱼的保鲜期有所延长,3℃时功率为300 W、时间为30 s微波处理鲫鱼,可保藏16 d。10℃时功率为300 W、时间为45 s微波处理鲫鱼可保藏9 d。%Carassius auratus was treated with microwave,then stored under 3℃and 10℃.Germs,pH,sensory index, TVBN index, TBA index was measured to evaluated the fresh-keeping effect. It was proved that Fish was treated with microwave,the fish can be preserved longer . At the temperature of 3℃,the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 16 days under Power 300 W, Time:30 s;At the temperature of 10℃, the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 9 days under Power 300 W , Time:45 s.

  8. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiuping; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+), the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn(2+) exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn(2+), while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+) were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

    2015-06-01

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 μg/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·μg/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 μg/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·μg/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Nicola; Troskie, Brigitte E.; Nahorniak, Carol S.; Janet P Hapgood; Peter, Richard E.; Millar, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    In the goldfish (Carassius auratus) the two endogenous forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely chicken GnRH II ([His5,Trp7,Tyr8]GnRH) and salmon GnRH ([Trp7,Leu8]GnRH), stimulate the release of both gonadotropins and growth hormone from the pituitary. This control is thought to occur by means of the stimulation of distinct GnRH receptors. These receptors can be distinguished on the basis of differential gonadotropin and growth hormone releasing activities of naturally occurring...

  11. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare from freshwater ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dev Kumar; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, Pravata Kumar; Sood, Neeraj; Punia, Peyush

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous bacteria overlaying ulcerated area on the body surface were observed in the wet-mout preparation from a moribund goldfish with saddle back appearance. The causative agent was identified as Flavobacterium columnrae, on the basis of biochemical test, species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene with the universal bacterial primers. Furthermore, the strain (ING-1) attributed to genomovar II in 16S rDNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis. In phylogenetic analysis, the strain ING-1, produced typical columnaris disease symptoms in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings within 10 days. This is a new record about molecular detection and identification of Flavobacterium columnare, occurring naturally on a new host Carassius auratusin India.

  12. Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigang Xia; Shijian Fu; Zhendong Cao; Jianglan Peng; Jing Peng; Tingting Dai; Lili Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern.Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish.However,the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown.We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0,0.5,2,8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr.The spontaneous swimming activity,fast-start swimming performance,critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS.PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity.Motion distance was reduced,and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS.However,no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters,such as latency time,maximum linear velocity,maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus,were observed after PFOS exposure.Unexpectedly,although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish,the Ucrit of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS.This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport.The overall results indicate that,in contrast to spontaneous activity,underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS,but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated.

  13. Oxidative stress responses in blood and gills of Carassius auratus exposed to the mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Drohomyretska, Ivanna Z; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-11-01

    Intensive use of pesticides, particularly dithiocarbamates, in agriculture often leads to contamination of freshwater ecosystems. To our knowledge, the mechanisms of toxicity to fish by the carbamate fungicide Tattoo that contains mancozeb [ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)] have not been studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Tattoo on goldfish gills and blood, tissues that would have close early contact with the pollutant. Exposure of goldfish Carassius auratus to 3, 5 or 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo for 96h resulted in moderate lymphopenia (by 8 percent) with a concomitant increase in both stab (by 66-88 percent) and segmented (by 166 percent) neutrophils. An increase in the content of protein carbonyl groups in blood (by 137-184 percent) together with decreased levels of protein thiols (by 23 percent) and an enhancement of lipid peroxide concentrations (by 29 percent) in gills after exposure to 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo demonstrated the induction of mild oxidative stress in response to Tattoo exposure. At the same time, the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes were enhanced in gills: superoxide dismutase by 18-25 percent and catalase by 27 percent. A 34 percent increment in low molecular mass thiol concentrations (mainly represented by glutathione) also occurred in gills and could be related to increased activity (by 13-30 percent) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that Tattoo exposure perturbs free radical processes, i.e. induces mild oxidative stress and enhances the activity of certain antioxidant and associated enzymes in goldfish gills. It is clear that goldfish respond to the presence of waterborne pesticide by adjusting antioxidant defenses through upregulation of activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish.

  15. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  16. A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus from East Asia using Maxent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi’ao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and goldfish (Carassius auratus, two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

  17. Protection of Carassius auratus Gibelio against infection by Aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-liang; SHUAI Jiang-bing; FANG Wei-huan

    2006-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgY) from egg yolk against Aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of White Leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of A. hydrophila. ELISA test using A. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (P/N=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (P/N=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (P/N=7.03). The antibody was purified by saturated ammonium sulphate with a recovery rate of 63.5%. The specific IgY inhibited the growth ofA. hydrophila at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml during the 18 h incubation. Pre-treatment of polyploid gibel carps Carassius auratus Gibelio with specific IgY had a protection rate of 60% (6/10) against challenge with A. hydrophila, while none of the fishes in the control groups receiving sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or non-specific IgY survived the challenge. Treatment of fishes with the specific IgY 4 h after the challenge also had lower mortality (70%, 7/10), a 30% reduction against the control PBS or non-specific IgY groups (10/10).These results indicate that specific IgY antibodies could be obtained easily from hens immunized with an inactivated A. hydrophila and could provide a novel alternative approach to control of diseases in fishes caused by this organism.

  18. Reproductive and stress hormone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, A; Nero, V; Farwell, A; Dixon, D G; Van Der Kraak, G

    2008-05-01

    Athabasca oil sands mining in northern Alberta produces process-affected waters that are characterized by the presence of naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high salinity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of these process-affected waters on reproductive and stress related endpoints in mature goldfish, Carassius auratus. In two separate studies, testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels in the plasma were significantly reduced in both male and female goldfish caged for 19 days in process-affected waters relative to controls. This effect was most pronounced in goldfish caged at a site containing mature fine tailing and tailings pond water (P5). Ovarian and testicular tissues from fish in the caging studies were incubated in vitro to evaluate potential differences in basal steroid production levels and responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Basal levels of testosterone were reduced significantly in males and females from P5 compared with the control pond (P1) demonstrating that the gonads from exposed fish had a diminished steroidogenic capacity. Gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds responded similarly to hCG suggesting that the steroid biosynthetic pathway remained functionally intact. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in male goldfish caged in a pond containing mature fine tailings and capped with uncontaminated water (P3) and in P5 compared with P1. Collectively, these studies suggest that waste products of oil sands mining have the potential to disrupt the normal endocrine functioning in exposed fish through alterations to both reproductive and glucocorticoid hormone biosynthesis. In additional laboratory studies, exposure of goldfish to a naphthenic acid extract for 7 days failed to replicate the effects of processes-affected waters on plasma steroid levels and the causative agent(s) responsible for the effects on steroid biosynthesis remains to be identified.

  19. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  20. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  1. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  2. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and l-thyroxine (T4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. To elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (Carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3) and free T4 levels, and the mRNA expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) were examined following 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00mg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide. The results showed that MCP exposure induced the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelium and led to decreased plasma TT3 levels and TT3-to-TT4 ratios, without effect on plasma TT4 levels. Profiles of the changes in the relative abundance of deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3) transcripts were observed in the liver, brain and kidneys, during MCP exposure. An increase in the metabolism of T3, expressed as highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels, might be associated with the reduction in plasma TT3 levels in both the 0.01 and 0.10mg/L groups, while in the 1.00mg/L MCP group, inhibited hepatic d2 transcripts might have also resulted in decreased TT3 levels by preventing the activation of T4 to T3. As a compensatory response to decreased T3 levels, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit mRNA transcription was up-regulated by the MCP pesticide. Decreases in plasma FT3 levels were also correlated with the modulation of hepatic transthyretin mRNA expression. Overall, the MCP pesticide exhibited thyroid-disrupting effects via interference with the HPT axis at multiple potential sites, resulting in disturbance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC, triploid (abbreviated 3nCC and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  4. 对鲫鱼的急性毒性试验四种中药%Acute Toxicity Test of Four Chinese Herbs on Carassius Auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗喜东; 陈鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    Biological toxicity method was adopted to investigate the acute toxicity effect of four Chinese herbs(Cyrtomium fortune,Sophora,Toosendan and Elecampane) on carassius auratus by ob-serving and recording the death and toxic reaction of carassius auratus within 96 h. The results indi-cated that toxicities of the four Chinese herbs decreased in the following sequence:Cyrtomium for-tune>Toosendan>Sophora>Elecampane. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of these four Chinese herbs were 2.254, 10.239, 36.363 g/L and 47.539 g/L, respectively, and their corresponding safe concentration (SC) were 0.294,1.539,8.575 g/L and 10.076 g/L,respectively. Therefore,once these four Chinese herbs were used in culture of carassius auratus,their dosages must be controlled within each safety concentration range.%为研究贯众、苦参、川楝子、土木香等4种中药对鲫鱼的急性毒性作用,我们采用生物毒性方法,观察和记录了投药96 h内鲫鱼的死亡情况和毒性反应. 结果显示:4种中药的毒性大小依次为贯众>川楝子>苦参>土木香,24 h的半致死质量浓度(LC50)分别为2.254、10.239、36.363、47.539 g/L,安全质量浓度(SC)分别为0.294、1.539、8.575、10.076 g/L. 结论:在鲫鱼养殖中使用上述中药时应在其安全质量浓度范围内进行.

  5. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  6. Effects of light-emitting diode spectra on the vertebrate ancient long opsin and gonadotropin hormone in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-08-05

    We determined the molecular mechanism underlying the environmental (photoperiodic) regulation of sexual maturation in fish, we examined the expression of sexual maturation-related hormones and vertebrate ancient long opsin (VAL-opsin) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to different light spectra (red and green light-emitting diodes). We further evaluated the effect of exogenous gonadotropin hormone (GTH) on the expression of VAL-opsin under different light conditions. Our results demonstrated that the expression of GTHs was higher in the fish exposed to green light, and VAL-opsin levels were increased in the fish receiving GTH injection. Therefore, we have uncovered a molecular mechanism underlying the environmental (light)-induced trigger for sexual maturation: VAL-opsin is activated by green light and GTH, which promotes the expression of sexual maturation genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discovery of a male-biased mutant family and identification of a male-specific SCAR marker in gynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Wang; Huiling Mao; Jinxia Peng; Xiyin Li; Li Zhou; Jianfang Gui

    2009-01-01

    Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a uniquely gynogenetic species with a minor ratio of males in natural habitats, but its male origin and sex determination mechanisms have been unknown. In this study, a male-biased mutant family was discovered from the gynogenetic gibel carp, and a male-specific SCAR marker was identified from the mutant family. Normal spermatogenesis was observed in the male testes by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Nearly identical AFLP profiles were observed between males and females, but a male-specific 86 bp AFLP fragment was screened by sex-pool bulked segregant analysis and individual screening. Based on the male-specific AFLP frag-ment, a total of 579 bp sequences were cloned by genome walking. Subsequently, a male-specific SCAR marker was designed, and the male-specific DNA fragment was confirmed to be steadily transmitted to the next generation and consistently detected only in males.

  8. Effects of La(III) and Ca(II) on isolated Carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man; Gao, Jia-Ling; Sun, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    The effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from Carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (Δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. La(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (IC50) being 71.2 μmol L(-1). Similarly, Ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the IC50 of Ca(2+) was much higher than that of La(3+). In the spectroscopic experiments, La(3+) and Ca(2+) induced fish liver mitochondrial swelling and decreased membrane potential (Δψ), and the induction ability of La(3+) was stronger than that of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the effects of La(3+) and Ca(2+) on fish liver mitochondria differ, and La represents toxic action rather than Ca analogy.

  9. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  10. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.

  11. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  12. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  14. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  15. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  16. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  17. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in gynogenetic offspring of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, QinBo; Wang, Juan; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-03-13

    The offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as GRCC) have been obtained in the first generation of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. Chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in GRCC which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific centromere probes directly proves that GRCC possess two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes. Sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (abbreviated as NTS) reveals that three types of 5S rDNA class (class I; class II and class III) in GRCC are completely inherited from their female parent (RCC), and show obvious base variations and insertions-deletions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the entire 5S rDNA probe reveals obvious chromosomal loci (class I and class II) variation in GRCC. This paper provides directly genetic evidence that GRCC is gynogenesis origin. In addition, our result is also reveals that distant hybridization inducing gynogenesis can lead to sequence and partial chromosomal loci of 5S rDNA gene obvious variation.

  18. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance.

  19. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  1. Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesci, Alessio; Salvo, Andrea; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Gervasi, Teresa; Palombieri, Deborah; Bruno, Maurizio; Pergolizzi, Simona; Cicero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.

  2. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  3. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.

  4. 四溴双酚A的鲫鱼血清蛋白生物标志物研究%Biomarkers of Serum Protein to Tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰超; 杨苏文; 徐范范; 丁志山; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Carassius auratus as test subject, acute toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), potential biomarkers of serum protein and toxicity target organ histopathology were studied.Results showed that 96 h-LC50 of Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA was 3.13 mg/L, and serum proteins of Carassius auratus can be divided into 11 components exposure to different concentrations TBBPA at different times.There were differences within protein components with time and concentration existed.Component 11 with clear bands and the largest amplitude first decreased then increased, and reached the highest value at low concentration on the 16th day, while it reached the highest value on the 2nd day at high concentration.The molecular weight of Component 11 was 24 kDa, may be the solution of polymer of calcitonin factor in coriouscles of stannius of Carassius auratus.The histopathological results indicated that Carassius auratus liver and kidney showed time-dose-dependent of pathological damage synchronously.The protein component 11 which responds sensitively on the concentration and time of TBBPPA inducing as well as easier to be recognized and identified can be used as the potential biomarkers in Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA.%以鲫鱼为供试生物,对四溴双酚A(TBBPA)的急性毒性、血清蛋白潜在生物标志物以及相应的毒性靶器官组织病理进行了研究,结果表明TBBPA对鲫鱼96h的半致死浓度LC50是3.13 mg/L,TBBPA诱导下鲫鱼血清蛋白可区分为11个组分,各组分随时间和浓度的变化规律存在差异.组分11条带清晰,表达量变化幅度最大,在低浓度TBBPA暴露下表达量先降低后升高,第16天达到最高;高浓度时表达量在第2天达到最高.组分11的分子量为24 kDa,可能为鲫鱼斯坦尼小体(CS)中降血钙因子的解聚物.组织病理切片结果显示,鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏均表现出时间-剂量依赖性,且与组分11的诱导差异性表达呈现相应的病理损伤.

  5. Distribution and bioaccumulation of tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus tissues and its pathological effect%四溴双酚A在鲫鱼不同器官中的分布、富集及病理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苏文; 徐范范; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and bioaccumulation of TBBPA in different Carassius auratus tissues exposed to varied TBBPA concentrations were measured and analyzed. The corresponding pathological effects were also assessed. Results indicated that the concentrations of TBBPA increased firstly, then decreased in Carassius auratus liver and kidney at high as well as low dose group. Indicating that both the fish liver and kidney had a strong capacity of bioaccumulation. Nevertheless, the concentrations of TBBPA showed a similarity only at high dose in gill and muscle. The bioaccumulation capacity of the gill and muscle was comparatively lower. Pathological observations revealed that the pathological damage was time-dose-dependent in the liver, kidney and gill. Under the same TBBPA concentration, the gonad damage caused by TBBPA to the male was more serious than that to the female.%研究了将鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)长期暴露于不同浓度的四溴双酚A(TBBPA)后的器官组织分布和浓缩富集系数,同时对不同暴露时间的鲫鱼不同器官病理切片进行了观察.结果显示,各浓度组鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏的TBBPA含量都表现出先升高后下降的趋势,鳃和肌肉中TBBPA含量只有在高浓度时呈现相同的趋势.病理切片显示鲫鱼肝脏、肾脏和鳃等器官组织均表现出时间-剂量依赖性的病理损伤,在相同暴露浓度下,雄鱼的性腺损伤程度高于雌鱼.

  6. 纳米和微米ZnO对鲫鱼的毒性效应研究%Toxicity of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正雪; 刘林; 郭红岩; 尹颖

    2014-01-01

    Nano ZnO has attracted increasing concerns because of its widespread use and unique toxic potential.While,so far most researches focused on the concentration effects but not the size effects of Nano ZnO.The purpose of this study was to compare the toxic effects of Nano ZnO and Micro ZnO to Carassiusauratus.Fourteen days after the intraperitoneal injection of Nano ZnO(1,12.5,50 mg ZnO/kg)and Micro ZnO(12.5 mg ZnO/kg),the distribution and toxic effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassiusauratus liver and brain were studied.The particle size of both Nano and Micro ZnO was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).And the free radicals (·OH )generation was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).Several antioxidant biomarkers such as superoxide dysmutase (SOD),glutathione S-transferases(GST),glutathione(GSH)and malondialdehyde(MDA)were measured,and the effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Zn content in liver and brain of C.auratus were also detected.We found that both Nano and Micro ZnO could induce the production of·OH.As compared to Micro ZnO,exposure to 12.5 mg ZnO/kg Nano ZnO caused more accumulation of ·OH in the liver of C.auratus.Accordingly,Nano ZnO induced the synthesis of MDA and suppressed the SOD activities in the liver and brain of C.auratus.Further,Nano ZnO effects on GSH were much higher than those of Micro ZnO,suggesting more severe oxidative stress caused by Nano ZnO under the same concentration.The contents of Zn in both liver and brain of C.auratus exposed to Nano ZnO were also much higher than those exposed to Micro ZnO.However,there was no linear relationship between the increased concentrations of Nano ZnO and the induction of ·OH and MDA and the inhibition of SOD activities.Overall,the results indicated that Nano ZnO could be more effectively taken into the brain and liver of Carassius auratus than Micro ZnO,resulting in more toxic effects,but the toxic effects of Nano ZnO didn’t have a linear relationship with the

  7. Analysis on the Muscle Nutrition Component of Carassius auratus (A form)%普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉的营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 安苗; 范兴刚; 刘贵林; 黄仕洪; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reference for developing animal industry or other basic researches of Carassius auratus. In this paper, the nutritive composition in muscle of C. auratus (A form) was quantitatively analyzed by biochemical method. The results showed that water content was (78. 28 + 0.15)%, crude protein content was (16. 79±0. 30)%, crude fat content was (0. 74 + 0. 02) %, crude ash content was (0. 98 + 0. 05)%. The muscle of C. auratus (A form) consisted of 17 kinds of amino acids, the gross amount was 20. 08% , and the gross amount of essential amino acids was 8. 21%. The ratio of the essential amino acids to the total amino acids was 40. 89%. The ratio of the content of the essential amino acids to that of the non-essential amino acids was 69. 19%. The proportion of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the standards of FAO/WHO. The'contents of EPA and DHA in fatty acids were 0. 48% and 2. 15% respectively. This research indicated that C. auratus(A form) was a kind of cultured fishes, which had high protein, low fat, abundant amino acids, delicious taste and high nutritive value.%为普安银鲫的推广养殖或其他基础研究提供参考依据,应用生化分析方法对普安银鲫A型鱼的肌肉营养成分进行了定量分析.结果表明:普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中水分为(78.28±0.15)%,粗蛋白含量为(16.79±0.30)%,粗脂肪含量为(0.74±0.02)%,粗灰分含量为(0.98±0.05)%.普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中含有17种氨基酸,总量为20.08%,必需氨基酸总量为8.21%,必需氨基酸与总氨基酸比值为40.89%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸比值为69.19%,其必需氨基酸的构成比例符合FAO/WHO标准;脂肪酸中的EPA与DHA含量分别为0.48%和2.15%.普安银鲫A型鱼是一种高蛋白、低脂肪、氨基酸含量丰富、味道鲜美、营养价值高的养殖鱼类.

  8. Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs.

  9. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  10. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  11. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (Carassius auratus) vitellogenin and its application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bing, Xin; Yu, Kun; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) represents a good model to detect the estrogenic effects of chemicals, and vitellogenin (Vtg) is a vital indicator of estrogenic activity. The heterologous anti-carp Vtg antibody has previously been used for goldfish Vtg detection. Here, we report the preparation of an anti-goldfish Vtg antibody to improve the sensitivity and specificity of goldfish Vtg immunoassays. Vtg was purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced goldfish by gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. It was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of ~460 kDa and separated into three major polypeptides corresponding to ~130, ~106, and ~81 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A polyclonal antibody against goldfish Vtg was raised in rabbits and found to be specific for goldfish Vtg through immunoelectrophoresis and Western blot. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of plasma Vtg, with a detection limit of 3.6 ng/mL and a detection range from 7.8 to 250 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were 2.4-6.8% and 6.7-10.8%, respectively. Additionally, we qualitatively and quantitatively detected the induction of Vtg in male fish exposed to 0.01, 0.01, and 1.00 mg/L monocrotophos pesticide by Western blot and ELISA. The homologous sandwich ELISA based on the anti-goldfish Vtg antibody could provide a valuable tool for the study of estrogenic effects of exogenous chemicals on goldfish.

  13. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  14. Biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitsberg, Randel; Baršienė, Janina; Freiberg, Rene; Andreikėnaitė, Laura; Tammaru, Toomas; Rumvolt, Kateriina; Tuvikene, Arvo

    2013-12-01

    In North-East Estonia, considerable amounts of toxicants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, heavy metals) leach into water bodies through discharges from the oil-shale industry. In addition, natural and anthropogenic hypoxic events in water bodies affect the health of aquatic organisms. Here we report a study on the combined effects of contaminated sediment and hypoxia on the physiology of gibel carp (Carssius auratus gibelio). We conducted a laboratory exposure study that involved exposure to polluted sediments from oil-shale industries (River Purtse) and sediments from a relatively clean environment (River Selja), together with sediments spiked with PAHs. The oxygen content (saturation vs. hypoxia (oil-shale industry on fish health parameters was clear under different oxygen levels. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 饲料中鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响%Influence of Additive Amount of Fish Oil on Growth and Body Color of Carassius auratus red variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李明云; 贾福怀

    2015-01-01

    为研究鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响,在喂养红鲫鱼的饲料中分别添加质量分数0%、2.5%、5%、10%的鱼油,投喂49 d,并将其与空白组分别进行对照.结果表明:添加2.5%的鱼油喂养红鲫鱼对红鲫鱼的生长最佳.随着鱼油喂养量的不断增加,红鲫鱼体重和体长的增加率呈一定的下降趋势.以观赏鱼的红度、白度、黄度作为重要的评判标准,5%鱼油添加量更有助于提高红鲫鱼的红度值,降低白度值和黄度值.%In order to investigate the impact of fish oil on growth and body color of Carassius auratus red variety, the diet of Carassius auratus red variety is added with fish oil of different concentration level (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and fed for 49 days. The results show that 2.5%additional fish oil is the best diet for the growth of Carassius auratus red variety. The more the fish oil feeding is given, the more slowly the weight and length of Carassius auratus red variety increase. Body color is an important factor for ornamental fish, which is standardized with the degree of red, white, yellow. It is found that 5%fish oil helps increase the red color index of Carassius auratus red variety, while reduce that of white and yellow.

  16. Effects of Cardiac Glycosides from Nerium indicum on Juvenile Carassius auratus%夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)皂甙对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)幼鱼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 戴灵鹏; 郑祥河; 席启斐; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of cardiac glycosides of N. Indicum on non-target organism, the effects of different concentration of cardiac glycosides(0, 5.89, 20.12 mg·L-1 and 80.76 mg·L-1) on mortality, specific growth rate, glycogen and protein content, SOD activity as well as micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus were investigated during exposure for 14 d and its recovery response after 7 d by using semi-static test method. The results showed that fish did not die when the concentration of cardiac glycosides ≤20.12 mg·L-1 during 14 d exposure periods. However, with 80.76 mg·L-1, 100% of the fish died within 5 d. When cardiac glycosides concentration reach to 20.12 mg·L-1, the specific growth rate, glycogen and protein contents decreased gradually while the SOD activity increased first and then decreased during the whole experiment. After a recovery period of 7 d, the inhibition of specific growth rate and SOD activity were weakened gradually and the glycogen and protein content were no significant difference between control and treatment group. In addition, the result of micronucleus test showed that cardiac glycosides did not significantly affect the micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus. These results suggested that cardiac glycosides was low toxicity and no genotoxicity found, which supports that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. However, higher concentration of cardiac glucosides seriously impaired the normal physiological metabolism, resulting in the growth inhibition of C. Auratus, even caused fish death in the end.%为了评价夹竹桃皂甙对非靶标生物的潜在危害,采用半静态法研究了不同浓度(0、5.89、20.12 mg·L-1和80.76 mg·L4)的夹竹桃皂甙对鲫鱼幼苗的死亡情况、特定生长率、糖原、蛋白质含量、SOD酶活性和微核率的影响.结果表明,当夹竹桃皂甙处理浓度≤20.12 mg·L-1时,处

  17. The interactive effects of ammonia exposure, nutritional status and exercise on metabolic and physiological responses in gold fish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and starvation (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling) in gold fish (Carassius auratus). Both groups of fish were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days. Measurements of weight gain (%), oxygen consumption (MO2), ammonia excretion rate, ammonia quotient (AQ), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit), plasma and muscle ammonia accumulation, plasma lactate, liver and muscle glycogen, lipid and protein content were done at various time intervals during the experimental periods. Overall, ammonia excretion rates, plasma ammonia accumulation and AQ were significantly affected by food regime in ammonia free water. HEA, the additional challenge in the present study, significantly altered all the studied parameters among fed and starved groups in days-dependent manner. Results show that weight gain (%), MO2, Ucrit, protein content in liver and muscle, and glycogen content in muscle among starved fish under HEA were considerably reduced compared to control and fed fish. Additionally a remarkable increase in plasma ammonia level, muscle ammonia, lactate accumulation and AQ was seen. However in fed fish, MO2, ammonia excretion rate, AQ and lactate level augmented after exposure to HEA. These results indicate that starved fish appeared more sensitive to HEA than fed fish. Furthermore, as expected, the toxic effect of ammonia exposure in both feeding treatments was exacerbated when imposed to exhaustive swimming (swum at 3/4th Ucrit). Such effects were more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that starvation can instigate fish more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise. Therefore, it was evident from our study that feeding ameliorates ammonia handling and reduces its toxicity during both routine and exhaustive swimming. Moreover, recovery was

  18. Thelohanellus wangi n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea), a new gill parasite of allogynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) in China, causing severe gill myxosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S; Xi, B W; Wang, J G; Xie, J; Zhang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a new myxozoan, Thelohanellus wangi n. sp., infecting the allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), in a fry nursery farm in Jiangsu Province, China. Polysporous gray white round or ovoid plasmodia, 500-1,500 μm in size, were found exclusively in the gill filaments. The diagnostic characteristics of the myxospores are as follows: spore melon seed shaped in frontal view with smooth surface and asymmetrical valves; convex-shaped in sutural view with straight or slightly bent and thick sutural line, averaging 20.2 (16.5-22.3) × 9.9 (9.1-10.8) × 9.3 μm (8.2-10.4) in size; and one elliptical polar capsules with subulate anterior end and round posterior end, averaging 10.1 (8.4-11.2) × 6.5 μm (6.1-7.0) in size. Polar filaments coil six to seven turns and are slightly oblique to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsule. An elongate melon seed-shaped mucus envelope surrounds almost completely the spore, but with largest distance in posterior end between spore valve and mucus envelope. Granular sporoplasm contains two slightly oval nuclei, and no iodinophilous vacuole is observed. Histopathological analysis showed that the plasmodia embedded in the gill filaments and occasionally extended into the connective tissue of the gill arch. No significant inflammatory responses were provoked by the infection. The development of parasite is asynchronous, with mature spores centrally locating and trophozoites and pre-sporogonic stages peripherally locating within the plasmodia. Overall prevalence was 74% (37/50). Infection intensity was usually high, with about 10-30 cysts per fish. Phylogenetical analysis shows that T. wangi n. sp. is most closely related to several Thelohanellus species infecting cyprinid fish and formed a Thelohanellus clade based on the ribosomal DNA data. The cysts of this myxosporean were only found from fry seed with body length below 7 cm, generally from late April to early June when the fry fish of

  19. 伊维菌素在鲫体内的药代动力学%The pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    以0.4 mg/kg的给药剂量进行口灌和肌肉注射给药,研究伊维菌素(IVM)在鲫体内的药代动力学.两种给药方式下,鲫组织中的IVM药-时曲线大都呈现多峰现象.肌肉注射给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.445 mg/L、Tmax=48h、t1/2z=524.2 h、MRT(0-∞)=788h、AUC(0-∞)=289.2(mg/L)·h;口灌给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.264 mg/L、Tmax=8h、t1/2z=15,3.9 h、MRT(0-∞)=269.78 h、AUC(0-∞)=83.77(mg/L)·h.两种给药方式相比,口灌组鲫对药物的吸收和清除均较快,而肌肉注射组鲫各组织中的药物浓度高,AUC值也较大.两种给药方式下,IVM在鲫各组织中AUC(0-600)值呈现相同的排列顺序,由大到小分别为性腺、血液、肾脏、肝胰脏、肌肉.IVM在鲫性腺和肾脏中均具有一定的蓄积作用,其主要表现为药物浓度高,MRT值大,且清除率低于血药的清除率,其中卵巢的积蓄作用最为明显.25℃的水温条件下,肌肉注射给药后,鲫休药期应不低于25 d;口灌给药后,鲫的休药期应不低于15 d.休药期与水温条件和给药剂量有关,因此在养殖生产过程中的休药期要根据实际情况适当调整.%Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus was studied following a single oral or intramuscular administration at dose of 0.4 mg/kg. After following these two different administration routes, IVM concentration-time cruves in most tissues of C. Auratus exhibited multi-peak phenomenon. After intramuscular administration, non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows :Cmaxi =0.445 mg/L,Tmax=48 h, =524.2 h, MRT(0.., = 788 h and AUC(0-x\\, =289. 2(mg/L) · h. After oral administration,non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows:Cmax =0.264 mg/L,Tmax = 8 h,tl/2z =153. 9 h.MRT(0-)., =269. 78 h,and AUC(0.., =83. 77(mg/L) · h. Comparing parameters of these two administration routes, we found that the rate of absorption and elimination following the oral

  20. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素%Determination of Trace Microcystins in Meat of Carassius Auratus by SPC-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房祥军; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 穆宏磊; 毛金林

    2011-01-01

    建立固相萃取-高效液相色谱法(SPE-HPLC)测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素的方法.鲫鱼肉经90%甲醇水溶液提取,反相硅胶萃取柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱法进行测定.以乙腈-水-三氟乙酸(体积比35:65:0.05)为流动相,经Zorbax Eclipse C18柱(4.6mm×250mm i.d.5μm)分离,外标法定性、定量分析,结果表明微囊藻毒素LR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0μg/mL,鲫鱼肉中检出限25 ng/g.微囊藻毒素RR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0 μg/mL,在鲫鱼肉中的检出限20ng/g.此方法准确,灵敏度高,专属性好,可作为监测淡水水产品微囊藻毒素污染的分析方法.%Objective:An analytical method for the analysis of trace microcystins(MCYST) in meat of Carassius auratus was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE)for enrichment and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)for detection. Methods:Meat of Carassius auratus were extracted by 90% methanol aqueous solution. The microcystins were determined by the method of HPLC after SPE purification。 The mobile phase is consist of 35% acetonitrile,65%water contained 0.05% TFA。 The microcystins were separated and determined on a Zorbax Eclipse C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) by the method of external standard method. Results: the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-LR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-LR in meat of Carassius auratus was 25 ng·g-1; the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-RR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-RR in meat of Carassius auratus was 20 ng·g-1. This method is precision sensitive and specific and can be used for food satety hazard evaluation and microcystin pollution supervision in fresh water aquatic products.

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) FROM YILI RIVER OF SINKIANG DISTRICT%新疆伊犁河鲫鱼遗传多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋白; 郑宇; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    为了解我国西北地区野生鲫鱼的遗传多样性,鲫鱼样品从新疆伊犁河中采用小型拖网捕获.通过解剖观察性腺鉴定性别;采用碘化丙啶(PI)染色,经流式细胞仪测定血细胞核DNA含量;采用非变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,考马斯亮蓝染色分析血清转铁蛋白多态性.结果表明:新疆伊犁河鲫鱼群体为具雌、雄的两性个体的群体;伊犁河鲫鱼血细胞核DNA平均含量为(5.315±0.215)pg/个细胞核,血细胞核DNA含量约为二倍体彩鲫DNA含量的1.53倍,与银鲫血细胞核DNA含量相当;在所采集的鲫鱼样品中共发现9种转铁蛋白表现型,由7个等位基因调控,等位基因频率依次为Tfa0.063、Tfb0.063、Tff0.095、Tfg0.169、Tfc0.174、Tfe0.175和Tfd0.270.基因型频率分别为Tfcd0.043、Tfcdf0.043、Tfabdg0.043、Tfdef0.087、Tfee0.13、Tfde0.13、Tfdf0.13、Tfabeg0.13和Tfcdg0.26.综合分析,伊犁河现存野生鲫鱼为银鲫,且具有两性融合生殖能力.伊犁河鲫鱼表现出的遗传特性可能与该特定水环境有关.%Studies about genetic diversity of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) have been executed for many years. However, the samples usually come from the area of Heilong River in northeast, Yangtze River and Yellow River in the middle part of China, rarely from the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. This study aim at accumulating evidences for realizing genetic diversity and finding some characteristic marks of genetic diversity of crucian carp in the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. The sampled crucian carps (Carassius auratus) captured with townet from Yili River of Sinkiang district. Their sex was identified according to the gland at the anatomical level. DNA content of blood corpuscle was mensurated with Phoenix Flow Systems after blood corpuscle was dyed with propidium iodide (PI) solution. Transferrin (Tf) in blood serum was measured with non-denatualization polyacrylamide gel

  2. Toxicity and accumulation of zinc pyrithione in the liver and kidneys of Carassius auratus gibelio: association with P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Fu, Gui-Hong; Liu, Teng-Fei; Hu, Kun; Li, Hao-Ran; Fang, Wen-Hong; Yang, Xian-Le

    2017-02-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent; therefore, it is widely used in industry and civilian life. It is discharged into the aquatic environment with industrial and civilian waste water. Carassius sp. is one of the most widely distributed and farmed fish in China. The effects of aquatic ZPT on Carassius sp. remain unknown. In this study, we determined the acute toxicity of ZPT on Carassius sp. The results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50 96 h) of ZPT on Carassius sp. cultivated in freshwater or water with 1.5 or 3 ‰ salinity was 0.163, 0.126, and 0.113 mg/L, respectively. ZPT has a higher affinity to the liver than the kidney, with a prolonged tissue residual time. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette transporter, was found to be induced in the liver and kidney tissues of these Carassius spp. after ZPT treatment, based on the determination of its mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The ZPT accumulation and magnitude of P-gp induction were also affected by the salinity of the cultivation water. These results suggest that aquatic ZPT is potentially toxic to Carassius sp. We speculate that P-gp induction may play a protective role for Carassius sp. Our findings provide a basis for assessing the potential risk of ZPT to aquatic animals including Carassius sp.

  3. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  4. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 Dokularında Bor Akümülasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, model bir balık türü olabilen Japon balığının (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 karaciğer ve kas dokusundaki, yem ve su kaynaklı bor birikiminin dağılımı incelenmiştir. Her bir uygulama için her bir akvaryuma 12 adet birey. Uygulamalarda, akvaryum gruplarının suyuna belirli oranlarda (1 mg/L, 10 mg/L ve 20 mg/L borik asit ve borik asit emdirilmesi ile elde edilen yemlerden (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg ve 10 mg/kg verilmiştir. Dokulardaki bor birikimi mikrodalga yaş yakma ile çözündürme işleminin ardından indüktif olarak eşleştirilmiş kütle spektroskopisi (ICP-MS tekniği ile belirlenmiştir. Japon balıklarının farklı dokularında belirlenen maksimum bor konsantrasyonu 20mg/L sulandırılmış borik asit uygulamasında karaciğer dokusunda (1.78±0.02 mg/kg tespit edilmiştir. Ancak 1 mg/kg yem uygulamasında kas dokusunda birikim olmadığı gözlemlenmiştir. Borlu su grupların için Transfer faktör (TF en düşük dozda en yüksek oranda iken doz miktarı arttıkça TF azalmış ve neredeyse 0.1’e yakın bir sabitlik göstermiştir. Bor ilaveli yem kullanılan deney gruplarında TF en düşük dozda (1 mg/kg 0 iken yemde kullanılan borun doz miktarı arttıkça (5 mg/kg TF değerinin yaklaşık 0.06’ya kadar çıktığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada önemli iki tespit ortaya konulmuştur; bor birikiminde hedef organlardan biri karaciğer iken kas dokusunun birikim açısından hedef olmadığı ve yem ile alınan borun dokularda birikiminin düşük olmasıdır.

  5. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF KAISO IN GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS%鲫Kaiso 基因cDNA 的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海炎; 黄万旭; 罗琛

    2013-01-01

    -tional repressor, plays an important role in timing the expression of methylated genes during early embryogenesis in amphibian and zebrafish. To investigate the reproductive and developmental functions of DNA methylation in goldfish (Carassius auratus), an important cultural fish, we cloned its full-length Kaiso cDNA by reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The spatiotemporal expression pattern of goldfish Kaiso was examined by whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The entire Kaiso cDNA was 3145 bp long, including a 132 bp long 5'-UTR, a 1117 bp long 3'-UTR and a 1896 bp long open read frame, which encoded a protein with 631 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment of Kaisos of Carassius auratus, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed that the structure of goldfish Kaiso protein also consisted a highly-conserved BTB/POZ domain at the N-terminal and zinc finger domains at the C-terminal. Whole-mount in situ hybridization examination showed that Kaiso was ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis but tissue-specifically expressed from bud stage onward. qRT-PCR examination revealed that high abundance maternal Kaiso mRNA existed in the eggs. During embryogenesis, the level of Kaiso mRNA gradually decreased during cleavage and remained low from late blastula stage to early gastrula stage, and then gradually increased from late gastrula stage and reached to the highest level at bud stage. These results suggested that the Kaiso transcripts detected in cleavage stage might be the maternal mRNA and the transcription of zygotic Kaiso might start at late blastula stage. qRT-PCR analysis of different adult tissues revealed that the transcriptional levels of Kaiso in the muscle, retina, heart and brain were much higher than those in the kidney, pancreas and liver. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Kaiso suggested that

  6. 丁酸钠对鲫鱼生长和肠细胞增殖的影响%Effects of sodium butyrate on growth and intestinal cell proliferation of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      以初始体质量(6.02±0.16) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为研究对象,在鲫鱼基础饲料中分别添加0.0 g/kg、1.0 g/kg、2.5 g/kg、5.0 g/kg、7.5 g/kg的包膜丁酸钠,配制5种等氮等能的实验饲料,研究不同浓度包膜丁酸钠通过促进鲫鱼肠细胞增殖对其生长作用的影响。实验在室内养殖系统中进行,每水族缸饲喂30尾,每处理组3个重复,以鱼体质量3%~5%投喂量,日投喂3次,试验持续7周。实验结果表明:在饲料中添加丁酸钠对鲫鱼有明显的促生长作用,显著提高了鲫鱼前肠绒毛高度/隐窝深度的比值以及肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达。当丁酸钠添加量为2.5 g/kg 时,鲫鱼增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和肥满度最高,显著高于对照组(P<0.05),比对照组分别提高了25.76%、16.46%、28.91%和8.37%;与对照组相比,丁酸钠添加量达到2.5 g/kg时,鲫鱼干物质与蛋白质表观消化率、前肠绒毛高度、肠道 CREB 基因和 CDX2基因的相对表达量显著升高,分别比对照组提高8.36%、6.21%、34.22%、51.11%和42.13%(P<0.05)。上述研究表明饲料中添加适量的丁酸钠可能通过显著提高鲫鱼肠绒毛高度和肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达量,从而促进其生长,适宜添加量为2.5 g/kg。%A 7-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and expression of intestinal development related genes in Carassius auratus. The grade levels of sodium butyrate at 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg were added to the basic diets respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to a group of 30 fishes per tank in triplicates. The fish were fed three times daily by hand at a rate of 3% –5% of body weight for seven weeks. The results showed that dietary sodium butyrate significantly affected growth, foregut villus height and crypt depth, and the expression

  7. Preliminary study on the influence of ivermectin on blood component of Carassius auratus%伊维菌素对鲫血液成分影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ivermectin on Carassius auratus blood component was studied after oral administration at ivermectin doses of 3. 0, 1.0 and 0. 4 mg/kg. The results showed that RBC, WBC, HCT and HGB in Carassius auratus blood had no obvious difference among control group and treatment groups. The contents of PLT in treated fish were obviously higher than those in untreated fish. The contents of PLT increased quickly at 8 ~ 16 h after administration, and began to decrease at 24 h, and the fluctuation was greater than that in control group. The contents of Ca2+ , Tbil, ALP, ALT and ALB didn' t be affected by ivermectin. While the contents of TP in blood of fish administrated with 3. 0 or 1. 0 mg/kg ivermectin were lower than untreated fish, and with the increase of dose, the greater the influence was, while 0. 4 mg/kg ivermectin didn' t affect the content of TP obviously. Some adverse reactions were observed including darkened color, loss of appetite, and balance in treated fishes with the increasing dose. There was external hemorrhage in kidneys when the fish in group of 3. 0 mg/kg was dissected.%采用三种给药剂量(3.0、1.0、0.4 mg/kg)研究伊维菌素对鲫(Carassius auratus)血液指标的影响,结果显示:各实验组鲫血液中红细胞(RBC)、白细胞(WBC)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血红蛋白(HGB)与对照组间均无显著性差异;但血小板(PLT)指标则显著高于对照组,且在给药后8~16h快速上升、24 h后开始下降,波动幅度亦显著高于对照组.三种口灌剂量对鲫血液中钙离子(Ca2+)、总胆红素(Tbil)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和白蛋白(ALB)含量均无明显影响;而3.0、1.0 mg/kg的口灌剂量组鲫血液中总血清蛋白(TP)含量较对照组有下降,且剂量越大影响越大,而0.4 mg/kg组TP含量变化不大.随着剂量的增大,鲫体色逐渐变深,食欲减退、身体失衡,3.0 mg/kg组的鲫解剖后显示肾脏出血迹象.

  8. Safety Evaluation of Fishery Povidonum-iodum on Carassius auratus gibelio%水产用聚维酮碘对异育银鲫养殖的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓华; 曹海鹏; 侯三玲; 胡鲲; 杨先乐

    2013-01-01

    评价水产用聚维酮碘对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)养殖的安全性,为其在异育银鲫养殖中的安全应用提供了重要的科学依据,本研究参照国家标准及相关法规,在观察了聚维酮碘对小球藻(Chlorella sp.)生长抑制作用、对水产益生菌抑菌效果以及对大型蚤(Daphnia magna straus)、斑马鱼(Brachydanio rerio)和异育银鲫的急性毒性的基础上,分析其对异育银鲫及其养殖水体主要有害理化因子的影响.实验结果表明,聚维酮碘在终浓度为6.00 ~ 14.00 mg/L时对小球藻生长具有促进作用,对小球藻的半数抑制浓度大于14.00 mg/L,对水产益生菌的最小抑菌浓度为128~512 mg/L,对大型蚤、斑马鱼的半数致死浓度分别为13.44 mg/L、17.63 mg/L.此外,聚维酮碘对异育银鲫的半数致死浓度为74.77 mg/L,而且在养殖水体中加入聚维酮碘至终浓度为0.20 ~ 1.40 mg/L后14 d内,随着聚维酮碘浓度的增加,各浓度组异育银鲫养殖水体的氨氮含量、亚硝酸盐含量均缓慢下降.本研究证实聚维酮碘低毒,但考虑到其可能对异育银鲫养殖水体中大型蚤等浮游动物存在潜在影响,建议其在异育银鲫养殖中的安全应用浓度应不高于1.34 mg/L,在该安全应用浓度内不会引起养殖水中氨氮、亚硝酸盐等有害因子含量的增加.%In order to provide important scientific basis on the safe use of PVP-I in Carassius auratus gibelio farming, we evaluate the safety of fishery povidonum-iodum(PVP-I)on C. auratus gibelio farming according to the national standards and related regulations. Based on observation on growth inhibition of the PVP-I on Chlorella sp. , aquatic probiotic bacteria, we analyzed the acute toxicity of PVP-I to Daphnia magna Straus, Brachydanio rerio, and C. auratus gibelio, as well as the influence on main harmful physicochemical factors of the farming water. The results showed that the growth of Chlorella sp. was promoted with

  9. Solution structure of the Z-DNA binding domain of PKR-like protein kinase from Carassius auratus and quantitative analyses of the intermediate complex during B-Z transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Ree; Park, Chin-Ju; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Jin-Wan; Kwon, Mun-Young; Lee, Janghyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Choi, Byong-Seok; Lee, Joon-Hwa

    2016-04-07

    Z-DNA binding proteins (ZBPs) play important roles in RNA editing, innate immune response and viral infection. Structural and biophysical studies show that ZBPs initially form an intermediate complex with B-DNA for B-Z conversion. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of Z-DNA binding and B-Z transition is still lacking, due to the absence of structural information on the intermediate complex. Here, we report the solution structure of the Zα domain of the ZBP-containing protein kinase from Carassius auratus(caZαPKZ). We quantitatively determined the binding affinity of caZαPKZ for both B-DNA and Z-DNA and characterized its B-Z transition activity, which is modulated by varying the salt concentration. Our results suggest that the intermediate complex formed by caZαPKZ and B-DNA can be used as molecular ruler, to measure the degree to which DNA transitions to the Z isoform.

  10. 鲫幼鱼(Carassius auratus)标准代谢个体差异与力竭后代谢特征及行为的关联%Correlations between standard metabolic rate and metabolic characteristics after exhaustive exercise, and behavior in the juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令清; 付世建; 曹振东

    2016-01-01

    为考察鲫(Carassius auratus)幼鱼标准代谢的个体差异与运动力竭后代谢特征和行为的关系,在(25.0±0.5)℃条件下测定80尾鲫幼鱼标准代谢率(SMR),筛选出40尾实验鱼[体重(13.54±0.20)g,体长(8.05±0.07) cm],其中包括20尾高SMR个体和20尾低SMR个体,测定运动至力竭实验鱼的最大代谢率(MMR),并计算代谢空间(AS=MMR-SMR)、相对代谢空间(FAS)和过量耗氧(EPOC)总量,随后测定单尾鱼的快速启动行为[反应时间(RT)、最大线速度(Umax)、最大线加速度(Amax)和120ms移动距离(S120)]以及个性行为(勇敢性和活跃性).结果显示鲫幼鱼的SMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈负相关,而与MMR不相关;MMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈正相关;协方差分析显示高SMR个体组的代谢恢复速率与低SMR个体组无显著差异.鲫幼鱼的SMR与快速启动行为的RT呈正相关,与Amax呈负相关,而与Umax和S120均不相关.在快速启动行为中,鲫幼鱼的RT与Umax、Am120和S120均呈负相关,而Amax与S120和S120呈正相关.鲫幼鱼的SMR与其勇敢性指标如潜伏期(L)、曝露时间(ET)和探头频率(AF)以及活跃性指标如运动时间比(PTM)、撞墙频率(FHW)均不相关,但鲫幼鱼的PTM与FHW和ET呈正相关.研究表明在实验室条件下鲫幼鱼的能量代谢特征、快速启动和个性行为存在明显的个体差异现象,并且部分表型特征之间存在权衡,提示这些权衡可能是鲫幼鱼的生理、行为与栖息环境相互作用的综合结果.

  11. The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lümanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus%“绿满园”对柑桔红蜘蛛的田间防治效果及对金鱼的毒性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔虎平; 王金亮; 江庆红; 云月利; 王维; 彭宇

    2013-01-01

    测定“绿满园”水剂对柑桔红蜘蛛Panonychus citri的田间防治效果及对非靶标生物金鱼Carassius auratus 的急性毒性.结果表明,64%“绿满园”水剂800倍和1 000倍稀释液在施药后7d和15d对柑桔红蜘蛛的防治效果均极显著地高于对照杀螨剂:15%扫螨净和57%炔螨特,其中以800倍稀释液防治效果最好,15d的防效达97.21%,800倍和1 000倍稀释液的防治效果差异不明显.金鱼的死亡率随“绿满园”浓度的升高和染毒时间的延长逐渐增加.“绿满园”水剂对金鱼的急性毒性小于阿维菌素.%The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lumanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus were carried out. The results showed that, 15 days after spraying, the controlling roles of 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of 64% "Lumanyuan" to P. citri was obviously higher than 15% pyridaben and 57% propargite. 800 fold dilution of "Lumanyuan" had the best controlling role to P. citri and the controlling effect was 97. 21%. There was no significant difference on controlling effects between 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of "Lumanyuan" to P. citri. The mortalities of C. auratus increased with the rise of the concentration and treatment time of "Lumanyuan" and "Lumanyuan" has lower acute toxicity to C. auratus than avermectin.

  12. 饲料中添加螺旋藻对改良鲫生长和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of Spirulina platensis on muscle nutritive components and growth of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少林; 陈平原; 吕子君; 蓝宗坚; 邹记兴

    2015-01-01

    The control group used tilapia feed for based diet, the test group fed with based diet supple-mented with 1%Spirulina platensis is for 100 days, The growth of Carassius auratus and quality of flesh were determined.The results showed that ingestion of 1%S.platensis increased growth gain rates and the flesh quality.Compared with the control group, the growth gain rates of test group was increased 20.15%, and the total delicious amino acid and essential amino acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid, amino acid score was also higher than control group.It was concluded that 1%S.platensis could increase fish growth, and be good for its flesh quality.%以改良鲫( Carassius auratus)为试验对象,以罗非鱼料为基础日粮对照,以在基础日粮中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻为试验处理,进行了100 d的养殖试验.并就螺旋藻对改良鲫的生长性能和鲫鱼肌肉营养成分的影响进行了研究.结果表明,与对照组相比,质量分数1%的螺旋藻处理组鱼平均每天内禀增质量率提高20.15%,鲜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸质量分数、亚麻酸和棕榈酸质量分数、氨基酸各项评分均显著提高.由此认为,饲料中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻对促进改良鲫生长和改善肌肉营养成分有一定的效果.

  13. THE GROWTH-PROMOTING EFFECT AND MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE MICROBIAL PEPTIDE SOYBEAN ON CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS%活性菌肽豆蛋白对鲫(Carassius auratus)促生长的作用效果及机理分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臻; 谢帝芝; 周毅; 赵琼; 王赏初; 孙浪; 鲁双庆

    2013-01-01

    Using different feeding formulas, the effects of common soybean, fermented soybean and active microbial peptide soybean meals on growth appearance of crucian carp Carassius auratus were studied. The results indicat that the relative body weight growth rate was higher in active microbial peptide soybean group (41.87%) than control and fer-mented soybean group (19.11%higher);the serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) levels of active microbial peptide soybean group were the highest with following fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group. Realtime-PCR indicated that IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) gene expressions were the highest in active microbial peptide soybean group, lower in fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group; GHR showed no significant difference between fermented soybean group and active microbial peptide soybean group, but both two groups were higher than control group. Thus, active microbial peptide soybean may regulate GH, IGF-I, T3 and T4 in serum as well as GHR and IGFs gene expression in liver to affect growth in C. auratus.%  采用不同饲料配方投喂,研究了普通豆粕(对照组)、发酵豆粕和活性菌肽豆蛋白配合饲料对鲫(Carassius auratus)生长性状影响的研究。结果表明,活性菌肽豆蛋白组的相对体重生长率高于对照组41.87%(P<0.01)和发酵豆粕组19.11%;血清中的三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)、胰岛素样生长因子-I(IGF-I)和生长激素(GH)含量活性菌肽豆蛋白组最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,而对照组最低;实时定量 PCR检测显示: IGFs(IGF-I和 IGF-II)基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组中最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,对照组的表达量最低。GHR基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组和发酵豆粕组间无显著性差异,但明显高于对照组。因此,活性菌肽豆蛋白可能通

  14. 异育银鲫幼鱼对饲料中维生素K需求的研究%DIETARY VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元慧; 朱晓鸣; 韩冬; 杨云霞; 金俊琰; 解绶启

    2013-01-01

    以不同维生素K水平(0.13、2.15、3.25、6.40、12、17.20和23.20 mg/kg饲料)的7种精制饲料喂养初始体重约为(2.17±0.01) g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)10周,每个处理3个重复,研究异育银鲫对维生素K的需求量.结果显示:饲料中维生素K的添加可以明显降低摄食率,饲料中维生素K含量为2.15 mg/kg时,摄食率出现最大值,之后显著下降(P0.05).饲料中维生素K的含量从0.13 mg/kg升至3.25 mg/kg时,饲料效率显著升高(P0.05),在12 mg/kg时达到最大值,并且与特定生长率呈正相关关系(SGR = 0.01 FE + 0.95,R2 = 0.95).血液红细胞数目随着饲料维生素K含量的增加先显著升高(P0.05).血红蛋白含量、血球容积比、血清钙含量与血液中红细胞数目表现出相似的趋势,均在不添加维生素K组出现最低值,但是差异不显著(P>0.05).肝体比、肥满度及鱼体生化组成均不受饲料维生素K水平的影响(P>0.05).分别对饲料效率、红细胞数目进行折线回归得出异育银鲫幼鱼对维生素K的最适需求量为3.73-6.72 mg/kg饲料.%A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine vitamin K requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Purified diets with seven levels (0.13, 2.15, 3.25, 6.40, 12, 17.20 and 23.20 mg/kg diet) of supplemental vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB) were fed to C. gibelio (mean weight 2.17±0.01 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish. The results showed that fish fed with the diet supplemented with 2.15 mg vitamin K/kg had significantly higher feeding rate (FR) than fish fed with diets supplemented with 12 mg vitamin K/kg (PO.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary vitamin K levels and reached the highest value when dietary vitamin K content was 12 mg/kg (P>0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) was the highest in fish fed with diet supplemented with ≥3.25 mg vitamin K/kg, intermediate with 2.15 mg vitamin K

  15. Effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus%Cd和Pb对鲫鱼超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 段辉国; 唐正义

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to present our findings on the effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in the hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus, which is a kind of enzyme that tends to catalyze the destruction of the O2-free radical to form oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As is known, SOD is a kind of chemical compound widely existing in nature to prevent cellular damage by excessive oxygen free radicals generated in the process of metabolism . As a matter of fact, the activity of SOD can be affected by the metal ions, especially, the heavy metal ones, e.g. Cd and Pb. In our research, we have discovered that the concentrative effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD from hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus through our toxicity tests. Statistically speaking, after 24 h, 48 h or 96 h of post-exposure treatments in the presence of Cd2+ (0.5 mg/L, 2.0 mg/L, 6.0mg/L) , Pb2+ (10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L) or both of them, the activity of SOD would have changed . The results have thus shown that within the experimental doae range, the activities of SOD were found to have accelerated by 0.5 mg/L of Cd2+ . However, high concentrations of Cd2+ , Pb2+ and the mixture tend to obviously suppress the activities of SOD. What is more, synergetic effect of the toxicity can be detected in the presence of both Cd2+ and Pb2+ . Such results prove to be useful for the evaluation of the risk of Cd2+ and Pb2+ , in monitoring the environmental pollution .%为了解不同浓度Cd2+、Pb2+及其联合胁迫对超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响,以鲫鱼为材料,采用急性毒性试验研究了质量浓度为0.5 mg/L、2.0 mg/L、6.0 mg/L的Cd2+溶液和10 mg/L、20 mg/L、40 mg/L的Pb2+溶液及其混合液作用下,24 h、48 h、96 h后鲫鱼肝胰脏SOD活性的变化.结果表明,0.5 mg/L的Cd2+对鲫鱼肝胰脏的SOD活性有促进作用,其余各浓度组的Cd2+和Pb2+对SOD有抑制作用;Cd2+和Pb2+的联合作用比单独作用对SOD的影响大.

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  17. Effect of echinacea purpurea extract on growth and anti-oxidant responses in carassius auratus var.pengze%紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫生长和抗氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京花; 李志华; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.pengze)生长和抗氧化反应的影响.选取体重为(7.50±0.15)g的彭泽鲫作为试验动物,在其饲料中分别按0.1%、0.2%、0.4%、0.8%的不同比例添加紫锥菊提取物,经过60 d的饲养,测定其生长及血清中抗氧化酶活力等的变化.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物显著增加彭泽鲫的相对增重率(P<0.05);显著降低鲫鱼血清中的羟自由基(·OH)(P<0.05),降低丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高其血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活力,同时降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力.该研究阐明了紫锥菊提取物对鲫鱼生长及抗氧化反应的影响,为紫锥菊在水产养殖中的研究与应用提供基础数据.

  18. 异育银鲫鳃出血病流行病学调查和研究%Epidemiological Investigation and Survey of Gill Hemorrhagic Disease in Silver Prussian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霆; 丁正峰; 朱春艳; 薛中仪; 顾伟; 孟庆国; 王文

    2014-01-01

    2011-2013年,江苏省局部地区发生新型异育银鲫鳃出血病,给养殖业造成较大经济损失。为查明病因,了解发病历史、发病季节、发病症状及危害对象,通过在江苏省宝应县开展水产流行病学调查,结合组织病理学、回归感染试验、分子生物学诊断等研究方法,证实异育银鲫鳃出血病病原为鲤科疱疹病毒-Ⅱ型,由于该病害会导致异育银鲫养殖重大损失,因此需要引起国内相关养殖业主、科研工作者更多关注。%Gill hemorrhagic disease as a new type disease in silver prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) caused by Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV‐2) makes harmful in silver prussian carp aquaculture .In present paper ,we make an epidemiological investigation on this new disease in Baoying county ,an important aquaculture area in Jiangsu province .The past records of disease ,epidemic seasons ,hosts suffered from the disease ,symptoms and pathological changes ,molecular biological detection ,and challenged infection are described ,therefore ,some valuable information are provided to the fishers and related researchers for understanding of the disease .

  19. 饲料中组合色素对红草金鱼体色的影响%Effects of combinated dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云生; 陈世金; 李静; 陈龙胜; 卢文轩; 邵祖勇; 何吉祥

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus, a series of feeding experi-ments were conducted from July to October 2014 (90 days). For the first 45 days, larva fish (averaged 18. 5 ± 1. 2 g) were fed with diets supplemented with red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal at different levels (5%, 8%, 11%, 13%, 16%) respectively. For each treatment group, 30 fish were fed at the same feeding level (4%), and 2 of the 30 fish were randomly sampled every 15 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. For each sampled fish, squama and tail fin were collected and mixed. Results from the total carotenoids absorbance analysis of the well mixed organs showed a proper level of red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal, which was 8%, 5%, and 16%, respectively. For the next 45 days, another series of feeding experiments were conducted with the same feeding environment. Treatments of dieta-ry pigment included 8% of red pepper meal, 5% of spirulina, 16% of corn gluten meal, and the combination of them (one third for 8% of red pepper meal, one third for 5% of spirulina, and one third for 16% of corn gluten meal). Each treatment group contained 30 fish, and the sampling method was the same as above experiments. At the end of the experi-ment, the collected organs were scanned under UV light (470 nm). Scanned maps indicated a better staining result of fish fed with combination of pigments than that of the other groups, suggesting that combinated dietary pigments, were more ef-ficiently in improving the body color of red Carassius auratus than the single dietary pigment.%为研究组合色素对红草金鱼( red Carassius auratus)的增色效果, 在基础饲料中分别添加红辣椒粉、 螺旋藻、 玉米蛋白粉3种着色剂, 制成粗蛋白质含量均为33. 6%饲料, 投喂初始均重( 18. 5 ± 1. 2 ) g的红草金鱼. 每种着色剂设5个水平(5%、 8%、 11%、 13%、 16%), 每水平30尾鱼× 3重复,

  20. 萍乡肉红鲫的性腺发育研究%GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL WILDNESS TRIPLOID MUTANT PINGXIANG RED-TRANSPARENT CRUCIAN CARP, CARASSIUS AURATUS L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 盛军庆; 洪一江; 王军花; 刘田欣; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    萍乡肉红鲫(Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp,Carassius auratus L.)是在江西省萍乡地区分布的天然三倍体鲫突变体经人工选育后获得的遗传性状基本稳定的后代,具有两性生殖和雌核生殖两种生殖方式.研究以F5代萍乡肉红鲫为材料,自孵化后每满1个月开始取性腺,观察了其卵巢1周年性成熟和精巢的发育过程,结果表明萍乡肉红鲫的性腺为1年成熟类型.卵巢发育进程町以分为6个时期,卵母细胞发育相应可分为6个时相.统计了卵巢成熟系数周年变化,体重为95 g左右的雌性萍乡肉红鲫,其成熟卵巢的成熟系数约为(11.73±2.8)%,成熟的卵母细胞内充满卵黄,相对怀卵量为(3018±310)粒/g.萍乡肉红鲫精巢属于小叶型,在精小叶中可观察到不同发育阶段的生殖细胞.由精原细胞分裂而来的仞级精母细胞经分裂增殖,产生次级精母细胞并最终发育成为精子.萍乡肉红鲫的精巢发育程序与普通鲫鱼和鲤鱼相似,卵巢和精巢的发育过程基本同步,孵化后50日龄内性腺分化不明显,到70日龄左右开始出现雌雄分化,3月龄发育为第1期,4-5月龄发育为第2期,6-7月龄发育至第3期,7-10月龄可见第4期卵巢,1年即可成熟产卵,精巢可排出精液.结果表明,该鲫鱼突变体的性腺发育与普通二倍体鲤(鲫)鱼的性腺发育方式类似.%The Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp, Carassius auratus ( L. ) , which was approved for a new kind of breed by the National Fisheries thoroughbred Examining Committee in January 2008, is a wildness natural triplod crucian carp mutant distributed in the area of Pingxiang in Jiangxi Province. It takes bi-sexual and gynogenetic reproduction mode which is similar to the Silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). In response to this particular genetic traits of the species, this study aimed to master its gonadal development process and understand its gonadal development rules

  1. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  2. 浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属污染水平与金属硫蛋白基因表达%Heavy Metal Levels and Metallothionein mRNA Expressions in Wild Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus auratus) from Hun River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳强; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 林进; 陈浩; 赵兴茹

    2012-01-01

    为揭示浑河重金属污染的潜在生态风险,分析测定了浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属的残留水平以及肝和鳃组织中金属硫蛋白基因表达.对鱼体各组织中Cr、Cd、Pb、Cu和Zn含量的分析结果显示,各组织重金属含量的排序为肠>肝>鳃>肌肉,且Zn含量最高(17.49~ 176.01 mg·kg-1,以湿体质量计算),Cd含量最低(N.D.~0.57 mg· kg 1,以湿体质量计算).均值综合污染指数评价结果显示,浑河野生鲫鱼受到重金属的轻微污染,且从上游至下游呈现逐渐升高的趋势,其中,Cr、Pb和Zn对均值综合污染指数贡献较大.利用实时定量PCR方法分析鲫鱼肝组织金属硫蛋白基因表达发现,中、下游鲫鱼肝组织的金属硫蛋白基因表达水平较上游有所升高,且与肌肉组织综合污染指数具有较好相关性(R2=0.71),这表明金属硫蛋白基因可作为监测环境重金属污染的敏感标志物.%the metallothionein gene can be used as a promising biomarker for monitoring the heavy metal contamination. Hun River; heavy metal; crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus); average pollution index; metallothionein

  3. 盾叶薯蓣提取物对鱼类指环虫的杀灭效果%Ethanol extract of plant Dioscorea zingiberensis against dactylogyrid Dactylogyrus intermedius found in goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 李军; 赵良炜; 周状; 申烨华; 田渭花

    2009-01-01

    The parasiticidal effect of ethanol extracts from a plant Dioscorea zingiberensis on dactylogyrid Dactylogy-rus intermedius found in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied to search for parasiticidal substances by standard laboratory procedures compared with the other four drugs mebendazole,abamectin,ivermectin and praziquantel. The bioassay -oriented procedure showed that the active compounds concentrated in the alcoholic extract,with LC_(50), val-ue of 53.47 mg/L(24 h) ,34.05 mg/L(48 h) , and 19. 34 mg/L(96 h). The anthelmintic efficacy of the alcoholic extract was found to be 99.55% with the concentration of 17.0 mg/L (48 h). For mebendazole,99.01% of the dactylogyrid were killed with 3.4 mg/L (48 h) drugs, and 95. 39% killed by praziquantel at a rate of 6.2 mg/L. It is suggested that the ethanol extracts of Dioscorea zingiberensis be a promising and effective Chinese herbal medi-cine to control dactylogyrids.%以寄生在金鱼Carassius auratus鳃部的中型指环虫Dactylogyrus intermedius为指示寄生虫,采用活体感染、活体杀虫的方法,研究了用不同溶剂(石油醚(沸程60~90 ℃)、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、乙醇和水)分别对盾叶薯蓣Dioscorea zingiberensis进行提取,其5种提取物的杀虫活性.结果表明,盾叶薯蓣的杀虫活性部位是乙醇提取物.将乙醇提取物与甲苯咪唑、伊维菌素、阿维菌素和吡喹酮4种原料药的杀虫效果进行比较,结果表明:盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物的最高杀虫浓度为17.0 mg/L,平均最高杀虫率为99.37%;其次是甲苯咪唑和吡喹酮,最高杀虫浓度分别为3.4、6.2 mg/L时,平均最高杀虫率分别为99.01%和95.39%;而伊维菌素、阿维菌素对中型指环虫无明显的杀灭作用.盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物对斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio 的24、48、96 h的半致死浓度(LC_(50))分别为53.47、34.05、19.34 mg/L.

  4. The molecular characterizations of Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD and its responses of mRNA expression and enzyme activity to Aeromonas hydrophila or lipopolysaccharide challenge in Qihe crucian carp Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianghui; Qiao, Dan; Zhao, Xianliang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-08-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the prime antioxidant enzymes, present the first line of defense against oxidative stress caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in organism. In the study, two distinct members of SOD family were cloned and analyzed in Qihe crucian carp Carassius auratus (designated as CaCu/ZnSOD and CaMnSOD, respectively). The full-length cDNA of CaCu/ZnSOD is 759 bp, containing a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 39 bp, a ORF (including stop codon, TAG) of 465 bp and a 3'-UTR of 255 bp. The ORF of CaCu/ZnSOD encodes a protein of 154 amino acids (aa), in which, two Cu/ZnSOD signature ((45)GFHVHAFGDNT(55) and (139)GNAGGRLACGVI(150)) and four conserved amino acids for Cu/Zn(2+)-binding sites (H64, H72, H81 and D84) were observed. The full-length CaMnSOD cDNA (960 bp) consists of a 5'-UTR of 114 bp, a ORF of 675 bp and a 3'-UTR of 231 bp, the ORF of CaMnSOD encodes a 224 aa protein with a 26 aa mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS) in the N-terminus, and four conserved amino acids for manganese binding (H52, H100, D185 and H189) were observed. Multiple alignment and the structural analysis revealed two Cu/ZnSOD signature motifs and a MnSOD signature motif as well as the invariant binding sites for Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) in CaCu/ZnSOD and Mn(2+) in CaMnSOD. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaCu/ZnSOD was homologous to cytosolic Cu/ZnSODs, and CaMnSOD was high similarity with mitochondrial MnSODs from other fish. The tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that CaCu/ZnSOD and CaMnSOD were highly expressed in liver, heart and muscle. The dynamic expressions of CaCu/ZnSOD and CaMnSOD were observed after the challenges with Aeromonas hydrophila or LPS, which generally increased in liver, gill, kidney and spleen, while, the mRNA expressions were down-regulated at some time points in head kidney. The enzyme activities increased after A. hydrophila or LPS challenge, compared to the control. In this study, the molecular structures and functional

  5. 微囊藻毒素在银鲫肠道中的累积及其病理学影响%Intestinal Accumulation and Pathological Effects of Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 雷和花; 侯杰; 龙萌; 苏玉晶; 吴宁

    2014-01-01

    银鲫(Carassius auratus),杂食性鱼类,是我国淡水主养品种之一.在富营养化湖泊中,它能以有毒微囊藻为主要食物,导致微囊藻毒素(MCs)在其组织中大量累积.为研究MCs在肠道内累积和代谢特征及其对肠道的毒性影响,分别以50和200 μg MC-LReq·kg-1剂量的MCs粗提液(主要含MC-RR和MC-LR)对银鲫进行腹腔注射,并在注射后1、3、12、24、48和168 h后取样.MCs的含量用LC-MS和HPLC进行定性和定量测定,结果发现,高低两剂量组银鲫肠中MCs的含量均在注射后1h达最大值(分别为2.8和181.4 ng·g-1 DW),然后随暴露时间的延长迅速下降.相对于毒素的累积,MCs诱导的银鲫肠组织损伤具滞后性,注射后48 h内,高低两剂量组肠道的病理变化呈时间-剂量依赖性的增长,病理特征表现为肠上皮细胞排列紊乱,甚至出现坏死、溶解和脱落,杯状细胞数目显著增多,微绒毛结构破坏并伴随淋巴细胞浸润.实验结果表明,单次染毒后MCs在鲫肠道中迅速累积后降解,并造成时间-剂量依赖性组织损伤,且低剂量组的损伤是可逆的.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Myxobolus pronini n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the abdominal cavity and visceral serous membranes of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in Russia and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Batueva, Marina-D; Zhao, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Tong-Tong; Li, Ai-Hua

    2016-10-25

    Myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to Cnidaria. High diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in Russia and China; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. Here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the Russian and Chinese isolates of this new myxosporean. Myxobolus pronini n. sp. was found free in the abdominal cavity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in Lake Baikal watershed, Russia, and embedded in the visceral serous membranes of the same fish species in Lake Taibai, Hubei province, China. The morphometric data of the plasmodia and mature spores exhibited some differences between the Russian and Chinese isolates, but SSU rDNA sequences indicated that these two geographical isolates are conspecific. The mature spores from the two locations are obovate in frontal view, with wider anterior than posterior end and lemon-shaped in sutural view. Spores of the Russian isolate were 14.3-16.2 (mean 15.1 ± 0.2) μm long, 9.6-10.8 (10.1 ± 0.1) μm wide and 6.4-7.4 (6.7 ± 0.15) μm thick; those of the Chinese isolate were 13.8-15.6 (14.7 ± 0.24) μm long, 9.6-13.3 (9.6 ± 0.65) μm wide and 6.2-7.2 (6.6 ± 0.16) μm thick. The newly-generated rDNA sequences (including SSU rDNA, ITS and LSU rDNA) from the two isolates represented some variations within the intraspecific range. Homology search by BLAST showed that the newly obtained rDNA sequences do not match any sequences available on GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on the aligned partial SSU rDNA sequences indicated that this novel species clustered with several gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus spp. with round anterior end of spores. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on all obtained ITS sequences showed that distinct genetic geographical differentiation occurred for this new parasite. Myxobolus

  7. Hematologic Studies of Three Types of Carassius auratus%3种类型普安鲫鱼的血液学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤君; 安苗; 黄良; 胡飞; 邵娅

    2012-01-01

    By extracting blood from the tail vein, the blood corpuscle kind and number of C. auratus A, B and C were determined, also the hemoglobin and plasma glucose contents were determined to figure out red blood cell and part of physiological and biochemical indexes of blood. The results showed that the blood corpuscle was composed of red blood cell, hrombosis cell and white blood cell, the white cell included neutrophil, small lymphocyte, large lymphocyte and monocyte. Compared to the three kinds of fish each other, the red blood cell of type A was the biggest and type B was the smallest. The number of red blood cell was maximum in type C and minimum in type B. The plasma glucose content of Type A was the highest value, the second was type B, and the lowest was type C. Hemoglobin content of type C was the highest, and the second was the type A, type B was the minimum.%为弄清3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞及血液的部分生理生化指标,丰富普安鲫的基础生物学资料,采用尾静脉取血法,对A型、B型和C型普安鲫鱼的血细胞数量、大小、分类及血红蛋白和血浆葡萄糖含量进行了测定.结果表明:3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞均包含红细胞、白细胞和血栓细胞,其中,白细胞又包含淋巴细胞(大淋巴细胞和小淋巴细胞)、嗜中性粒细胞(未发现嗜酸性粒细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞)和单核细胞.红细胞大小,A型普安鲫鱼最大,C型次之,B型最小;红细胞数,C型普安鲫鱼最多,A型次之,B型最少;血浆葡萄糖含量,A型最高,B型次之,C型最低;血红蛋白含量,C型最高,A型次之,B型最低.

  8. 氟甲喹对异育银鲫细胞色素CYP450主要药酶的影响%Effects of flumequine on cytochrome P450 enzymes in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 房文红; 汪开毓; 孙贝贝; 胡琳琳; 周帅; 周俊芳

    2011-01-01

    在分析了氟甲喹腹腔注射后对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)主要药酶活性影响的基础上,从蛋白表达和mRNA转录水平探究了氟甲喹对CYP1A(EROD)的诱导机制.以氟甲喹剂量35 mg/kg一次性腹腔注射异育银鲫24 h后,肝微粒体的7-乙氧基异吩唑酮-O-脱乙基酶(EROD)活性为54.33 pmol/(mg·min).显著高于对照组的34.00pmol/(mg·min)(P<0.01),而红霉索-N-脱甲基酶(ERND)[177.98 pmol/(mg·min)]、氨基比林-N-脱甲基酶(APD)[934.40 pmol/(mg·min)]及7-乙氧基香豆素-O-脱乙基酶(ECOD)[9.84 pmol/(mg·min)]与对照组[分别为140.90pmol/(mg·min)]、850.71 pmol/(mg·min)和8.93 pmol/(mg·min)]相比无显著性差异;除肾组织中ERND活性高于肝脏外,其他CYP亚型药酶活性(APD、EROD和ECOD)均以肝组织中最高.Western-blotting印迹表明,实验组肝脏中CYP1A蛋白含量明显高于对照组,与酶活(EROD)相符合;而肾、肠中没有检测到特异性条带.半定量RT-PCR结果显示,CYPiAmRNA在肝、肾和肠均有表达,但实验组与对照组并无明显差异.体外实验中,不同浓度的氟甲喹与微粒体共孵育,未见EROD活性与浓度、时间的依赖关系.综上推测,氟甲喹对鲫鱼肝CYP1A的诱导是在翻译后水平,可能是加强蛋白的稳定性.本研究旨在为氟甲喹在鱼类中的合理应用提供科学依据.%The effects of flumequine on activities of several microsomal P450 monooxygenases of allogynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were determined and the induction of fluemquine on CYP1A was further explored at the level of protein expression and mRNA transcription. After 24 h following a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 35 mg/kg, the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver of the Crucian carp was 54.33 pmol/(mg.min), which was significantly higher than that of the control carps [34.00 pmol/(mg.min)](P<0.01). It was revealed that flumequine could significantly induce EROD

  9. Effect of Water Pollution onActivitiy of CAT and LDH of Carassius auratus in Yongcheng Coal Collapse Area%永煤塌陷区水污染对鲫鱼过氧化氢酶和乳酸脱氢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 郑娜; 李壹

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution in Yongcheng coal collapse area towards the activitiy of blood catalase (CAT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Carassius auratus of Yongcheng coal collapse area was selected as the research object and that from a relatively pollution-free Tianmu lake of Shangqiu was used as the control. The results showed that compared to Tianmu lake,the activity of blood CAT and LDH of Yongcheng coal collapse area decreased significantly (P<0.01). The result suggested that the normal physiological process was inhibited by low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution.%2010年5月,选择永城煤矿塌陷区天然鱼塘的野生鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为对象,以相对无煤矿污染的商丘市天沐湖为对照,研究了永城煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼血液过氧化氢酶(CAT)和血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性的影响.结果表明,永城煤矿塌陷区鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.600)极显著高于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.411)(P<0.01),塌陷区鲤鱼血清中LDH的OD值(0.310)极显著低于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.421)(P<0.01),说明煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼的正常生理过程有明显的抑制.

  10. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Crucian Carp (Car-assius auratus) of Luan River%滦河流域鲫鱼体内重金属分布及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霖; 孙然好; 武大勇

    2015-01-01

    The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and river sediment samples were collected from the Luan River in this study. The concentration of heavy metals in fish and sediment was measured for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As by ICP-MS. The concentration of heavy metals decreased in the order of Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd. Moreover, the heavy metal concentration differed among different parts of the fish body. Specifically, the concentrations of Cu and Cr were high in liver whereas those of Zn, Pb and Cd were high in gill. As concentration depended on the sample sites. Generally, the heavy metal concentration in downstream was high than that in upstream. The results indicated that the concentration of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the muscle of crucian carp excessed lots of food safety limits, including the national limited quantity of poisonous and harmful contents of the national pollution-free aquatic products (NY 5073—2006), limited quantity of contaminants in foods (GB 2762—2012), and tolerance limit of zinc in foods (GB 13106—1991). The excess value of heavy metal concentration is Cr(3.34)>Pb(2.24)>Cd(1.15). Finally, the con-sumption risk was assessed based on US EPA’ s target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The results indicated that As had the highest health risk whereas Cr showed the least risk. All THQ values of 6 heavy metals were less than 1. However, the fish consumption in downstream might have risks with the evidence of high TTHQ values of com-bined heavy metals in Suhe River (TTHQ=1.263) and Douhe River (TTHQ=1.381). This study indicated that the high risk of As, Pb, and Zn should be paid more attention in the regular fish consumption.%采集滦河流域鲫鱼样本并分析重金属元素(Cu、Zn、Cr、Pb、As、Cd)在其体内的分布特征及食用风险。实验结果表明鲫鱼体内重金属含量由高到低顺序为Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>As>Cd,蓄积器官主要为肝脏和鳃部,Cu和Cr主要蓄积在肝脏,Zn、Pb、Cd主要富集在鳃部,As的蓄积器官随地域

  11. THE CONTRAST BETWEEN TWO SUSTAINED-RELEASE HORMONES CARRIERS IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)%鱼类两种缓释催产激素载体临床性能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹相菡; 温海深; 倪蒙; 步艳; 迟美丽; 钱煜; 张冬茜; 丁玉霞

    2013-01-01

    采用组织切片技术和RT-PCR技术研究了海藻酸钠微球和壳聚糖微球作为缓释激素载体在临床上对金鱼基础生物学指标以及CYP19A、GH基因mRNA表达的影响,以检测两种缓释激素载体对鱼类生殖和生长的影响.研究结果表明:缓释材料埋植0、7、14、30、48d后,雌性和雄性金鱼处理组与对照组(埋植0.7%生理盐水组)比较,海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组在基础生物学方面没有出现显著性差异;不同处理组中实验鱼性腺组织切片卵巢和精巢的发育均处于同一时期(按照Мейен分期原则);海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组中,各次采样组的CYP19A基因表达均没有出现明显性差异;海藻酸钠微球埋植组GH基因各次取样时间均未出现显著性差异,雌性金鱼壳聚糖微粒埋植组GH基因的表达在0、7、14、30采样后显著上升(P<0.05),埋植48d差异消失,雄性金鱼壳聚糖埋植组未出现明显差异.综合显示:作为缓释载体,海藻酸钠微球在临床上的性能较壳聚糖微球更为稳定,而壳聚糖微球对雌性金鱼的GH基因mRNA表达的促进作用更为明显.%CYP19A and GH gene expression and basic biological indicators were studied after implantation Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres by RT-RCR technique and tissue section technique in male and female goldfish (Carassius auratus , variation). These indicators were used to detect the effects caused by these two sustained-release hormones carriers in both the reproductive and growth of goldfish. The study result show that there was no significant difference in basic biological indicators between control group and experimental group in the 0, 7, 14, 30, 48 days after implantation both Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres separately. The goand appearance of the fish in different groups are in the same period, and the germ cells were in the same phase

  12. 不同营养状况对鲫鱼偏好游泳速度的影响%Preferred swimming behavior in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) at different nutrition status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青怡; 曾令清; 付世建

    2016-01-01

    为考察不同营养状况对鲤科鱼类偏好游泳速度的影响,本研究以鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为实验对象,(25±1.0)℃条件下设置3个不同营养状况实验组:对照组(禁食48 h)、饱食组(饱食)和饥饿组(饥饿14 d),将单尾实验鱼置于梯度流速选择仪(流速范围为11.86~65.45 cm/s,等距离划分为5个流速区域,从第一到第五流速区域流速连续增加)中拍摄1 h,采用Ethovision XT9软件分析视频资料并计算实验鱼在不同流速区域平均进入频次(F,次)、单次进入停留时间(T, s/次)和平均停留时间百分比(Pt,%)等流速选择行为指标。结果显示,对照组和饱食组的F值随水流速度上升而增加,对照组的T值不同流速区域间无差异(P>0.05),而饱食组第三和第四流速区域T值均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),因此两实验组第三和第四流速区域的 Pt 均显著大于其他流速区域,其偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。饥饿组流速偏好行为出现表型分化, I型实验鱼在第一流速区域Pt和T值显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),各流速区域的F值均显著小于其他实验组(P<0.05),故I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为11.86~15.18 cm/s。而II型实验鱼则与对照组相似,在第三和第四流速区域Pt均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),故II型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。结果表明,饱食不影响鲫鱼的偏好游泳速度,可能是饱食不影响鲫鱼的游泳能力所致,但饱食组在各流速区域间的出入频次减少而停留时间有所增加。饥饿后鲫鱼偏好游泳速度出现表型分化, I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度降低,而II型实验鱼则无明显变化, I型和II型实验鱼偏好游泳速度的差异可能是由于在饥饿条件下二者能量节约和游泳功能维持的策略不同。%Fish usually alter their swimming behavior to adapt to changes in food resources in their natural habitats. In this study, we investigated

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aquilegia formosa [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia_formosa_L.png Aquilegia_formosa_NL.png Aquilegia..._formosa_S.png Aquilegia_formosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia...+formosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NS ...

  14. Effect of Starvation and Re-feeding on Blood Physiological and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Carassius auratus gibelio%饥饿后再投喂对异育银鲫血液生理和非特异性免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董学兴; 吕林兰; 黄金田; 王爱民; 於叶兵

    2011-01-01

    The effect of starvation periods and re-feeding on blood physiological and non-specific immune parameters in Carassius auratus gibelio (15.6 ±0.84) were studied. Compared to the control, the content of blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased during starvation (P<0.01). The starvation led an initial significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity followed by increased. The phosphatase (ACP) activity was not effected in short-term starvation, however prolong the starvation, ACP activity increased, but then sharp declined (P<0.01). The content of blood glucose and MDA, the activity of SOD and ACP were significantly increased in short-term starvation group after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and Hb, ACP activity also increased, however, SOD activity and content of MDA were significantly declined in middle-term starvation (P<0.05) after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and MDA were remarkable declined compared to control, but ACP activity was gradually restored to the control level in long-term starvation after re-feeding. The results showed that short-term hunger and then re-feeding could enhance metabolism and non-specific immune function of Carassius auratus gibelio.%对体重(15.6±0.84)g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)进行了不同时间的饥饿处理和再投喂恢复生长试验.研究饥饿和再投喂后对其血液生理指标和非特异性免疫指标的影响.研究发现,饥饿使血糖和MDA含量极显著降低(P<0.01),随饥饿时间的延长,SOD活性显著下降后逐渐升高,短期饥饿对ACP活性无显著影响,进一步延长饥饿时间则先升高后显著下降(P<0.01);恢复投喂后,短期饥饿组血糖浓度、SOD和ACP活性均显著上升,中期饥饿组血糖、血红蛋白含量和ACP活性逐渐上升,SOD活性和MDA含量显著下降(P<0.05),长期饥饿组血糖和MDA含量显著低于对照组(P<0.01),ACP活性逐渐恢复到对照水平.结果表

  15. Clning, Identification and Characterization of Interferon System Genes in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)%鱼类干扰素系统基因的克隆鉴定及其特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义兵; 桂建芳

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) system is the first line ofdefense against virus invasion in vertebrate. So far relative little was known concerning IFN system genes other than in mammals.In fish, nearly 40-year evidence available for existence of IFN system mainly lies in the observation that fish and fish cells are much earlier known to produce molecules with IFN-like activity as measured by a cell protection test, and that IFN-inducible gene, Mx homologue,has been identified in a limited number of fish species in the latest years. Previously we reported that UV-inactivated GCHV was able to induce high level of IFN-like molecule for establishment of antiviral state in cyprinid fish cell lines, such as crucian carp (Carassius auratus L. ) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells. In the current study, in order to better understand innate immune mechanisms of fish cells responsive to virus infection, an ideal cell model system for identifying fish antiviral-relevant genes was firstly established, and on the basis of induction and characterization of CAB IFN, a subtractive cDNA library accumulating an enhanced mRNA level of fish antiviral-relevant genes was also constructed. Secondly, a subset of fish IFN system genes and some unidentified ESTs that were found no similarity by BLASTX were retrieved by screening of the library, and expression analysis demonstrated that they were IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well. Thirdly, according to the latest research of mammals, 19 full-length cDNAs of fish IFN system genes were cloned, including crucian carp IFN, IFN signal transduction factor STAT1, IFN regulatory factor IRF7, putative IFN antiviral effectors Mx1, Mx2, PKR, Viperin, IFI56, and some ISGs with function unknown, including IFI58, ISG15-1, ISG15-2, Gigl, Gig2 and so on. Finally, further studies on the characterization of structure, expression, induction and evolution of some important relevant genes reveal that several mechanisms in fish innate immune following virus infection, including

  16. Effect of fish-scale protein hydrolysates-based films on preservation of crucian carp(Carassius auratus)%鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的涂膜剂对鲫的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯风; 罗永康; 冯启超; 姚磊

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的复合涂膜剂对鲫4 ℃贮藏过程中其鲜度指标变化和保鲜效果的影响.实验将去鳞、去内脏并洗净后的鲫分别于4℃的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液和添加了迷迭香的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液中浸泡1.5min,沥干后用保鲜膜包好于4℃条件下贮藏.通过测定鱼体贮藏过程中细菌总数、TBA值、TVB-N值、K值、重量损失、感官评分等鲜度指标的变化规律,评价了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物对鲫在4℃贮藏条件下保鲜作用效果.结果表明,涂有鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的细菌总数、TVB-N值、K值、TBA值、重量损失在10 d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,在4℃条件下能延长鲫贮藏期8d左右;涂有添加了迷迭香提取物的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的TVB-N值、K值、重量损失在4-6d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,但不能有效延长鱼体的贮藏期.鱼鳞蛋白经过胃蛋白酶在一定条件下酶解后,其产物对鱼体具有较好的保鲜效果,是一种良好的鱼体生物保鲜涂膜材料,但不适宜与迷迭香提取物联合使用.%Crucian carpi Carassius auratus)is a main freshwater fish species and has been widely used as a raw material for food productions. The output of crucian carp reached 1 955 500 tons in 2009 in China,but a considerable number of them spoiled because of lacking good preservation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method of preservation of fish. During the last decade, there has been a developing interest in edible or biodegradable films based on biopolymers, which can be used to cover the body of fish to prolong the shelf life of fish products. Fish scale is easier to obtain compared to other materials and is always abandoned. It is economical to make a kind of fish-scale film obtained from fish scales by hydrolysis and the film itself can be antibacterial and antioxidant

  17. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  18. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  19. 额尔齐斯河银鲫寄生指环虫18SrDNA序列测定及系统发育研究%18 s rDNA Sequence Determination and Phylogenetic Study of Parasitic Dactylogyrus in Carassius auratus gibelio in Ergis River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温卫栋; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 郝翠兰; 王新; 岳城

    2015-01-01

    Dactylogyrus is the dominant population of monogenean parasites in Cyprinidae fishes .Identification and research on the phylogenetic relationship of parasitic Platyhelminthes in fish have long been dependent on morpho -logical features.With the development of molecular biological techniques , molecular phylogenetics has solved the problems with which traditional morphological identification and phylogenetic relationship research have been con -fronted and the 18S rDNA gene has been widely applied to classification of animal fauna and phylogenetic analysis . Research on parasitic Dactylogyrus in fish in Ergis River has been concerned primarily with population dynamics and adding new records and only a few studies have been reported on molecular identification and phylogenetic a -nalysis.The objectives of this study were as follows:1) To determine the 18S rDNA sequence of Dactylogyrus spe-cies infecting Carassius auratus gibelio in the Ergis River and to confirm morphological identification of Dactylogyrus species.2) To carry out phylogenetic analysis of 19 Dactylogyrus species based on their 18S rDNA sequences.Par-asite samples were collected from the gills of Carassius auratus gibelio captured in Ergis River from 2009 to 2014 and identified as Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus extensus by morphological identification .DNA extraction, amplification of the 18S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR products were conducted .A comparison of the 18S rDNA sequence for D.vastator obtained in our study with the 18S rDNA sequence in GenBank revealed a DNA se-quence homology of 99.36%(457/460) and a base conversion rate of 0.65%(3/460).The same comparison for D.extensus revealed a DNA sequence homology of 100% (472/472).The genetic distances of 18S rDNA se-quences for the 19 Monogenean species from 3 families and 8 genera were calculated and analyzed by MEGA 4.1 software.Results indicate the following genetic distances:0.006-0.238 among the 3 families;0.097-0.182 be

  20. 饲料中补充番茄红素对鲫鱼抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of lycopene supplement on the antioxidant capacity of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妤; 杨鸢劼; 王建美; 单志萍

    2011-01-01

    Effects of lycopene supplements on antioxidant capacity were studied in Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus, with average length 22.4±1.13 cm and weight 180.60 ± 37.23 g. Fish were fed a commercial diet supplemented with Lycopene at levels of 0.50%,0.75%, 1.00%, and with 1.5% fish oil as the control in cages for 50 days. That is, four diets contained Lycopene at 0, 75, 112.5, and 150 mg.kg-1 for a control diet and other three diets containing Lycopene. Twenty fish was randomly taken from each. cage. As biomarkers, T-SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, NO, and OH were measured in blood serum. The experimental data were presented in mean ± standard deviation (SD). Duncan test was performed for the multiple comparisons among four diets using SPSS 11.5 version. The study shows: The levels ofT-SOD in fish blood serum were 8.49, 43.33, and 48.57 U.mL-1 higher in fish fed with three diets added lycopene than that of the control. The levels of T-SOD were significantly higher (P<0.05) in fish fed with diet added 112.5 and 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene than that of the control. The levels of MDA in the blood serum of fish fed with diets were 3.75, 4.55, and 2.70 nmol·mL-1 lower than that of control. But, no significant difference was found in levels of MDA in fish fed diets added 75.0, 112.5, 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene oil and the control. The levels of GSH-Px activity in the blood serum of fish fed with three lycopene diets were 99.32, 138.77,122.61 U higher compared to the control. The GSH-Px activity in blood serum of fish fed diets added lycopene was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The levels of NO in fish fed diets adding lycopene were 12.83, 8.30, and 13.02 μmol·mL-1 higher than that of control. The levels of NO in fish fed 75 and 150 mg·kg-1 lycopene were significantly different (P<0.05) than that of control fish. The activities of .OH in fish fed lycopene were 318.50, 290.91, and 277.99 U·mL-1 lower than that of control. The activity of.OH was

  1. Protective effects of schisandrins extracts on injuried primary cultured hepatocytes induced by t-BHP in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel%五味子提取物对用t-BHP损伤的异育银鲫原代肝细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍; 贾睿; 丁炜东; 殷国俊

    2011-01-01

    The activities of inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), malondisldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) in cell culture supernatants and the survival rate of the injuried hepatocytes in vitro induced by t-BHP and then exposed to various concentrations of Schisandrins extracts (0.1,0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL) before (defense), after (treatment) and both before and after (defense-treatment)the culture were determined in the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel to study on the protective and antioxidant effects of the Schisandrins extract. The model of acute hepatopancreatic damage was found to be established by exposure to 1 mmoL/L t-BHP for 2 h. The extracts were found to reduce the injury of hepatopancrease by increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), restraining the lipid peroxidation production-malondisldehyde (MDA), inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), to release and to remarkably improve the survival of the hepatocytes (P<0.05, or P<0.01 ) in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes injured by t-BHP induction. It is concluded that the Schisandrins extracts possess direct protective effect on primary hepatocyte injury induced by t-BHP, which is primarily involved in the scavenging oxygen free radicals and anti-oxidative activity of CMPS. The biochemical indicators showed that the protection of the extracts were significantly better in the defense-treatment group (DT) than that in the defense group (D) and treatment group (T) .%以叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)诱导异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibel原代培养肝细胞损伤模型,采用不同的给药顺序,通过检测肝细胞培养上清液中谷丙转氨酶(ALT/GPT)、微量丙二醛(MDA)、谷光甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量以及肝细胞的增殖活性,研究了五味子提取物对急性肝细胞损伤的保护作用.结果表明:以浓度为1 mmoL/L的t-BHP作用肝细胞2

  2. Identification and biological characteristics of a pathogenic Saprolegnia sp.from the egg of Pengze crucian carp(Carassius auratus pengzesis)%彭泽鲫卵源致病性水霉的鉴定及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文伟; 曹海鹏; 王浩; 张世奇; 杨先乐

    2011-01-01

    Three filamentous fungal strains were isolated form Carassius auratus eggs with Saprolegniasis, and strain JL1 was proved to be pathogenic to Carassius auratus eggs by artificial infection.Therefore, morphology and growth characteristics of strain JL1 were studied, and the phylogenetic analysis based on its ITS rDNA sequence was further conducted. The experimental results showed that the hyphae of strain JL1 was aseptate, transparent and seldom branched. Its zoosporangia were often clavate and renewed internally. Primary zoospore was multi-row arrangement in zoosporangia and discharged in Saprolegnia fashion. Spherical oogonia was attached by monoclinous or diclinous antheridium hyphae. The ITS rDNA sequences of strain JL1 was naturally clustered with ITS rDNA sequences of Saprolegnia sp. submitted to GenBank with 99% of homology, and had closest relationship with Saprolegnia sp. H (accession number: EF460351). Combined morphological characterization with phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequence, strain JL1 was identified as Saprolegnia sp.. In addition, strain JL1 could grow at 5℃-30℃ and pH 4-11, its optimum growing temperature and pH were 25 ℃-30℃ and 6-9, respectively. Strain JL1 was sensitive to sodium chloride, its growth could be completely inhibited by 2% NaCI, which could serve as a foundation for the Saprolegniasis control.%从患病的彭泽鲫卵上分离3 株丝状真菌,经人工感染试验证实其中1 株丝状真菌JL1 对彭泽鲫卵具有致病性,并进一步研究了其形态与生长特性,开展了ITS rDNA 序列分析.实验结果表明,菌株JL1 菌丝为透明管状结构,中间无横隔,分枝较少; 游动孢子囊多数呈棒状,游动孢子呈多排排列,发育成熟后从孢子囊中释放出来,并迅速游离; 藏卵器呈球形,与雄器同枝或异枝.菌株JL1 的ITS rDNA 序列与GenBank 基因库中水霉属菌株自然聚类,同源性高达99%,与Saprolegnia sp.H (登录号:EF460351)的亲缘关系

  3. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Full-length cDNA Encoding Glucokinase from Pengze Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus var.Pengze)%彭泽鲫葡萄糖激酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程汉良; 姬南京; 彭永兴; 申欣; 吴陈晨; 许建和; 董志国

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA coding glucokinase (GK) was cloned from Pengze crucian carp ( Carassius au-ratus var. Pengze) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA sequence obtained is of 2 050 bp length with a 1 431 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 476 amino acids. The GK protein has a calculated molecular weight of 53. 78 ku and isolectric point of 5.14. The main domains of GK, such as ATP-binding domain, glucose-binding amino acids, hexokinases signature, N-linked glycosy-lation sites, cell attachment sequence and glycosaminoglycan attachment site for the Pengze crucian carp are basically conservative compared with other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence has a high similarity to GK of other species, and the percent identity compared with common carp, human and rat are 98.1% , 79. 8% and 79.1% , respectively. Tissue distribution of GK mRNA in brain, white muscle, spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue arid liver of Pengze crucian carp was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method using β-actin gene as internal control. The result showed that the expression level of GK mRNA in liver was significantly higher than that in spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue and brain (P <0. 05). GK mRNA did not be detected in white muscle.%本试验采用RT-PCR和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)方法克隆获得了彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.Pengze)葡萄糖激酶(GK)基因全长cDNA序列.结果表明,该cDNA全长2 050 bp,含1个1 43l bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码476个氨基酸,GK蛋白计算分子量为53.78 ku,等电点为5.14.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列的ATP结合位点、葡萄糖结合位点、己糖激酶标签序列、N-连接糖基化位点、细胞黏附序列和糖胺聚糖黏附位点等主要功能位点与其他脊椎动物相比基本保守.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列与建鲤、人和鼠GK氨基酸序列相似百分比分别为98.1%、79.8%和79.1%.以β-actin为内标,采用半定量RT-PCR方法对GK基因在彭泽鲫大脑、白

  4. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、内源酶活性和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Lipid Sources on Body Lipid Deposition, Endogenous Enzyme Activities and Fatty Acid Composition of Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 王爱民; 刘文斌; 於叶兵; 封功能; 杨文平; 齐志涛

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲料中不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、脂类代谢酶活性、消化酶活性和鱼体组织中脂肪酸组成的影响.选择尾均重(6.04±0.05)g的健康异育银鲫鱼种525尾,驯养1周后,随机分为5组,每组3个重复,每个重复35尾鱼.在基础饲料中分别添加4%的鱼油、豆油、猪油、花生油和混合油(鱼油:豆油:猪油=3:4:3),制成5种等氮等能试验饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明,鱼油组肝胰脏中粗脂肪含量显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),各组间腹脂率以及肌肉中脂肪含量没有显著差异(P>0.05).鱼油组肝胰脏脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶活性显著高于猪油组和花生油组(P<0.05),鱼油组和豆油组肠道和肝胰脏中蛋白酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),但与花生油组和混合油组无显著差异(P>0.05).豆油组和混合油组肝胰脏脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),且混合油组肠道脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),其他各组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05).各组间肝胰脏和肠道中淀粉酶活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),但肠道淀粉酶活性普遍高于肝胰脏淀粉酶活性.鱼油组肌肉和肝胰脏中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05).异育银鲫肌肉和肝胰脏中亚油酸(C18:2n-6)含量均以豆油组最高,鱼油组最低,且上述2组间差异显著(P<0.05).结果显示,鱼油能提高肝胰脏中脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶的活性,从而降低鱼体脂肪沉积,而猪油的作用相反;饲料中脂肪酸组成影响异育银鲫鱼体组织中脂肪酸的组成.%This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on body lipid deposition, fatty acid composition, and activities of lipid metabolism enzymes and digestive enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. Five hundred and twenty-five healthy Carassius auratus gibelio with an average initial weight of

  5. Effects of Spermatozoa of Different Species on Survival and Growth of Offsprings in Fangzheng Silver Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus gibelio)%同源与异源精子对方正银鲫子代存活、生长及性别的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹顶臣; 贾智英; 鲁翠云; 徐伟; 常玉梅; 梁利群; 吴学农

    2012-01-01

    5月中下旬繁殖季节,用方正银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)的卵子分别与麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)(方正银鲫♀×麦穗鱼♂,简称FM)、方正银鲫(方正银鲫♀×方正银鲫♂,FF)和荷包红鲤(Cyprinus carpio)(方正银鲫♀×荷包红鲤♂,FH)的精子进行人工授精,孵出的仔鱼在网箱中饲养,测定和统计各组子代的存活率、绝对增重率和性比等。结果表明:FF子代的成活率(91.15±1.78%)极显著地高于FM(87.50±2.13%)和FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01),FM和FH之间差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(20.17±4.33 g)、FH(23.13±3.58 g)子代的出池体质量显著高于FF(18.90±3.82 g)(P〈0.05),无论雌性还是雄性子代,组间差异均极显著(P〈0.01),而组内、性别间生长差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(99%)、FF(73%)和FH(99%)子代的雌性百分比明显偏向雌性(P〈0.01),且组间差异极显著,异源精子受精后子代中雌鱼比例明显增高(P〈0.01)。本研究结果证明:银鲫生长性状中存在"异精效应",异源精子对子代的存活率和性别比例有显著影响,对生产中积极利用异源精子提供了数据支持。%The eggs of Fangzheng silver crucian carp(Carassius auratus auratus) as gynogenetic crucian carp were activated by homogenous and by heterogeneous(common carp Cyprinus carpio and topmouth gudgeon Pseudoroashora parva) sperm,forming three offsprings Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× Fangzheng silver crucian carp♂(FF),Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× common carp ♂(FH) and Fangzheng silver crucian carp♀× topmouth gudgeon♂(FM).The fry of the three offsprings were reared in net cages disposed in a pond,and the survival,growth and sexual ratio were compared.The survival of FF((91.15±1.78)%) fry was shown to be very significantly higher than that in FM(87.50±2.13%)and FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01).The juveniles in FM(20.17±4.33 g) and FH(23.13

  6. 诃子抗嗜水气单胞菌活性组分分离及其对鲫鱼的毒性试验%Isolation of Active Component from Terminalia chebula Against Ameromonas hydrophila and Acute Toxicity Experiment on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丰; 陈军; 王扬; 朱凝瑜; 孟庆辉

    2011-01-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and pure compound from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The ethyl acetate extract shows a promising antibacterial activity against Ameromonas hydrophila (when the concentrations is set for 4 mg.L^-1, diameter of inhibition zone is 18 mm). Based on these findings, the ethyl acetate extract is fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation which produces an active compound (white crystal) showing potent activity. The active compound exhibit significant activity against Ameromonas hydrophila with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in the process afore are regulated for 2.8 mg.L^-1 and 5.6 mg.L^-1, respectively. The acute toxicities (LCs0) of the active compound for Carassius auratus is found to be 220.7 mg-L^-1, the safety concentration 85.2 mg·L^-1. The structure is not fully explored at this point and the research on it will be further embarked on.%研究以抑菌圈直径大小作为评价指标,利用提取分离技术对诃子进行抗嗜水气单胞茵活性成分分离追踪,并对诃子的抗菌活性单体进行安全评价.结果显示,诃子的抗嗜水气单胞茵的活性部位为乙酸乙酯萃取部位,其浓度为4mg·L^-1时,抑茵圈直径为18mm.活性部位经多次柱层析分离,得到一白色针状晶体.抑菌试验结果显示,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC)分别为2.8mg-L^-1和5.6mg·L^-1.急性毒性实验结果显示,活性单体对鲫鱼的96h半致死浓度为220.7mg·L^-1,其安全浓度为85.2mg·L^-1,但其化学结构还有待于进一步研究.

  7. Screening and homology analysis of EST-SSRs makers related to body weight and body width in Carassius auratus%鲫体重和体厚相关的EST-SSRs标记筛选及同源基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭薇; 郑先虎; 匡友谊; 崔晓亮; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    300 EST-SSRs markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 181 progenies from a normal Carassius auratus F2 family, and two growth traits ( body weight and body width) were conducted single marker regression analysis. 38 EST-SSRs markers were found to be closely related to growth traits, 26 of them were significantly associated with growth traits (P<0. 05) , the other 12 markers had a highly significant correlation with growth traits (P<0. 01) ; In these 38 markers, 27 markers were related with body weight, 25 markers were related with body width, and 14 markers were related with both body weight and width. Meanwhile, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. Furthermore, by using BLAST online in NCBI, the homology identity of these 38 EST-SSRs markers was determined. Results showed that, 10 markers had significant similarity with the sequences in GenBank ( E < e-20). JE594 was highly homologous (95%) to the gene encoding membrane-associated ring finger protein of Danio rerio; JE3165 was highly homologous (78% ) to the gene encoding muscleblind-like protein of D. rerio; JE6996 was highly correlated (98% ) with the gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase of D. rerio; JE4984 was highly correlated (84% ) with the gene encoding protein phosphatase 1 of D. rerio. These loci may be used for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement.%利用300个EST-SSRs标记对普通二倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)自交F2代的181个个体进行基因型检测,并对其体重、体厚两种经济性状进行单标记回归分析.Permutation检验(10 000次)结果显示,38个标记与所检测的经济性状相关,其中26个标记达到显著性相关(P<0.05),12个标记达到极显著性相关(P<0.01).在38个相关标记中,有27个标记与体重相关,25个标记与体厚相关,14个标记与体重、体厚均相关.对同一标记的不同基因型之间进行多重比较,找到了与两种经济性状相关的

  8. EFFECTS OF pH STRESS ON CORTISOL AND NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO%水体pH胁迫对异育银鲫皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文祥; 谢骏; 宋锐; 邹红; 吴山功; 王桂堂

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pH stress on cortisol and non-specific immunity of Carassius auratus gibelio were investigated.Acidity and Alkalinity of the aquaculture water were maintained at pH 6.0, 7.4, 8.5 and 9.5, where pH 7.4 was used as control. pH value of the aquaculture water was adjusted by HCl (1 N) or NaOH (1 N). Fish blood was sampled at 0, 14 and 30 days during the experiment. Leucocytes isolated by 55% percoli were used for determination of phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity by flow cytometry, and the plasma was used to survey the cortisol concentration and lysozyme activity. Fish weight was measured when pH stress protocol finished. The fish was then challenged by the bacteria Flavobacterium columnare, and dead fish was recorded after 7 days of the challenge. Under the stress of pH 6.0, phagocytosis of leucocytes decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day, but no significant differences were found in respiratory burst activity and cortisol level. There were significant differences in lysozyme activity and growth between pH 6.0 and control group. No fish died from the bacteria challenge. Under pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, the cortisol concentration increased significantly, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day. The challenge of bacteria resulted in fish death. The results suggested that non-specific immunity and growth of the carp was heavily affected by the pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of fish leucocytes determined by flow cytometry could assess the influence of stress on fish health.%实验比较了不同pH胁迫对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响.3个实验组水质的pH分别为6.0、8.5、9.5,对照组是pH为7.4的曝气自来水.分别在实验的第0、14和30天采血,血浆用于测定皮质醇含量和溶菌酶活性;分离的白细胞,采用流式细胞术测定吞噬活性

  9. Medication regimen for prevention of drug resistance using enroflox-acin against Aeromonas hydrophilain crucian carp Carassius auratus%恩诺沙星控制嗜水气单胞菌性鲫败血症的防耐药用药方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娟; 权可艳; 王浩; 胡鲲; 杨先乐; 吕利群

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to increasing problems caused by bacterial re-sistance. Given this, there is an urgent need to develop a medication regimen that prevents the formation of drug resistant bacteria. We estimated a number of pharmacodynamic (including mutant prevent concentration and mu-tant selection window) and pharmacokinetic parameters for the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin. Our objective was to develop a medication regimen against hemorrhagic septicemia in crucian carp(Carassius auratus), a disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.125 μg/mL, the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of enrofloxacin on the pathogenic bacterial strains was observed up to (1.67±0.42) h, (2.03±0.17) h, and (2.38±0.06) h at 2MIC, 4MIC, and 8MIC, respectively, the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) was 1.125 μg/mL, and the mutant selection window was between 0.125 and 1.125 μg/mL. We developed integrated enrofloxacin concentration-time curves for the serum of crucian carp following administration of a range of doses. Enrofloxacin persisted in the serum at concentrations above the MPC for 5 h at a dose of 5 mg/kg;9.5 h at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 23 h at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The serum PK/PD parameters AUC24/MIC and Cmax/MIC were 137.22 and 15.05, respectively, at a dose of 5 mg/kg, 285.25 and 41.43, respectively, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 426.25 and 52.32, respectively, at a dose of 20 mg/kg.The drug remained in the plasma with a concentration>MPC for (24-PAE) h and AUC24/MIC≥100 or Cmax/MIC>8. Our results suggest that hemorrhagic septicemia can be controlled using a dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg enrofloxacin, at intervals of 24 h.The proposed withdrawal time in crucian carp should not be less than 25 d. The methods described in this study also can be used for developing dose guidelines for other anti-bacterial drugs to prevent selection for drug-resistance.%  为了合理地使用抗生素,制定

  10. 异育银鲫各组织器官中细胞色素P450药酶活性的比较%Comparative Activity of microsomal cytochrome P450 in various tissues and organs in allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娴; 胡琳琳; 房文红; 汪开毓; 胡晓

    2011-01-01

    The activities and tissue distribution of cytochrome P450 drug - metabolizing enzyme were studied in liver, kidney, gill and muscle of allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Microsomal P450 and b5 contents were determined by the method of CO differential spectroscopy in liver,kidney,gill,intestine and muscle microsomes. Both cytochrome P450 and cytocorome b5 contents were found to be the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome. The activities of CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP2E were evaluated by microsomal N - demethylation of aminopyrine ( APD), erythromycin (ERND) and 4 - aniline - hydroxylation (AH) as probe specific reactions. The activities of APD ( 1. 668 ± 0. 104) and ERND (0.941 ± 0. 061 ) nmol/( min · mg)were the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome [ (0.245 ± 0.011 ), and (0. 078 ± 0.019) nmol/( min · mg)]. The maximal AH activity (0. 052 ± 0. 009)nmol/( min · mg) was observed in liver microsome, but not be detected in muscle microsome, indicating that the above -mentioned cytochrome P450 isoenzymes were available in main tissue microsoms in the crucian carp, and the APD, ERND and AH activities were different in different tissues, the maximal activities being observed in liver microsome.%对异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibelio肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠和肌肉等组织器官中细胞色素P450(CYP450)主要药酶活性进行检测,研究其在异育银鲫各组织中的分布.结果显示:以CO还原差示光谱法测得异育银鲫肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠、肌肉微拉体的细胞色素P450及b5含量均以肝胰脏微粒体中最高,其次为肾、鳃、肠微粒体,肌肉中最低.以氨基比林N-脱甲基、红霉素N-脱甲基、苯胺-4-羟化反应分别作为CYP2B、CYP3A和CYP2E的探针反应,测得氨基比林N-脱甲基酶(APD)及红霉素N-脱甲基酶(ERND)活性在上述组织中分布差异性类似,均表现为肝胰脏微粒体中最高,分别为(1.668±0

  11. Analysis of different gene expression profiles of sex differentiation-related genes between male and female pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze) under different culture modes%不同养殖模式下雌核发育彭泽鲫雌雄鱼性别分化相关基因的表达差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑尧; 陈家长; 邴旭文; 王在照

    2015-01-01

    将同一批经雌核发育产生的F1彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var. pengze)仔鱼(Pcc)分别置于实验室和池塘进行养殖,结果发现,与池塘养殖雄鱼比例极少相比,实验室养殖中出现了高比例的雄鱼。实验室养殖 PccF1雄雌比例为(43.6±3.0)%,而池塘养殖PccF1雌雄比为(4.7±1.2)%。本研究比较了不同养殖模式下雌雄鱼性腺分化相关基因的表达,结果发现除Pcc-vasa、Pcc-esr1和Pcc-esr2b外,实验室养殖PccF1精巢中性腺分化、受体、类固醇合成酶类基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量。对于池塘养殖的 PccF1,除 Pcc-amh、Pcc-dmrt1b、Pcc-dmrt1c、Pcc-foxl2、Pcc-vasa 和 Pcc-esr2b 外,精巢中性腺分化和受体基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量;但精巢中绝大部分类固醇合成酶类基因的表达量极显著低于卵巢(P<0.01)。实验室和池塘养殖 PccF1雌雄出现差异表达的基因主要是类固醇合成酶类及调控芳香化酶的转录因子,这些基因的差异表达可能与雌雄激素的合成或调控相关,从而导致不同养殖模式出现不同比例的雄鱼。%Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze, Pcc) is naturally gynogenic, and gynogenic Pcc pro-duced by artificial breeding can theoretically produce solely female offspring. In laboratory culture, a higher proportion of male fish occurred in F1 progenies compared with pond culture conditions. A higher proportion of males was found in the F1 progeny under laboratory culture (43.6%) compared with pond (4.7%) conditions. To determine the cause of this variant sex ratio, ovarian gene expression profiles were detected and compared between the male and female F1 progenies for different culture conditions. Results showed that expressions of most testicular sex differentiation-related, steroid receptor, and steroidogenic genes in PccF1 offspring were significantly higher than those

  12. Effects of Glucose and Vitamin C Inhabitation on Activities of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase,Fatty Acid Synthase and Carnitine Palmitoyltransferases Ⅰduring Embryo Development of Carassius auratus gibelio%葡萄糖、维生素 C浸泡对普安银鲫胚胎发育中乙酰辅酶 A羧化酶、脂肪酸合成酶及肉毒碱棕榈酰转移酶Ⅰ活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋左玉; 姚俊杰; 安苗; 熊铧龙; 朱忠胜

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the changes of activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACC ) , fatty acid synthase ( FAS) , and carnitine palmitoyltransferaseⅠ ( CPTⅠ) , and the effects of glucose and vitamin C inhabitation on them during embryo development of Carassius auratus gibelio ( C. auratus) , glucose solution and vitamin C solutions with different concentrations were used for hatching. The concentrations of glucose were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L, respectively, and the concentrations of vitamin C were 0, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/L, respec-tively. Membrane break time and hatching rate were recorded to decide the optimal concentrations of glucose and vitamin C. Solutions without addition ( control group) and with optimal concentrations of glucose ( glucose group) or vitamin C ( vitamin C group) were used for hatching, and the characteristics of changes of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠactivities were analyzed during embryo development. The results showed as follows:1) mem-brane break time was the shortest, and hatching rate was the highest when the concentrations of glucose and vi-tamin C were 15 g/d and 30 mg/L, respectively. 2) The specific activity and total activity of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ showed increasing tends during embryo development of C. auratus. 3) The specific activities and total activities of ACC and FAS in glucose group were significantly higher than those in control group at mid-gas-trul, crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) , and the specific activity an total activity of CPTⅠ was significantly higher than that in control group at crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) . 4) The total activities of ASS and FAS in vitamin C group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, the inhabitation in solutions with appropriate concentrations of glucose ( 15 g/L) and vitamin C ( 30 mg/L) can promote synthesis and secretion of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ during embryo development of C. auratus, and form new metabolic levels to

  13. 4种添加剂对异育银鲫生长、消化酶活性及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of four additives on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant ability of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉祥; 李海洋; 胡王; 潘庭双; 蒋业林; 吴明林

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred allogynogenetic crucian carp with initial weight 31g were divided into five groups and each group with triplicates randomly. The control group was fed with basal diet, the treated-groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 1% Chinese herbal medicines (group I), the compound of 1% Chinese herbal medicines plus 0.1% synbiotics (group II), 0.1% synbiotics (group III) , 2% small peptide (group IV), respec tively. After 60 d feeding, the growth, digestive enzymes activities, and antioxidant ability of the carp were inves tigated, and the results showed as follows. (1) GroupIII and group IV significantly increased WGR(weight gain rate) but decreased FCR(feed conversion rate) (P0.05). (2) Group III and group Ivsignificantly increased the intestinal protease and amylase activities (P0.05); only group II significantly increased the protease activities (P0.05), except the group II significantly increased the activities of SOD(P0.05). In this study, group III increased the growth and antioxidant ability of the carps all together; group I and group II were benificial to the increase of antioxidant ability, and the group IV was priority to the growth of the carp.%以基础饲料为对照,分别在基础饲料中添加1%绿康源(试验Ⅰ组)、1%绿康源+0.1%合生素(试验Ⅱ组)、0.1%合生素(试验Ⅲ组)、2%小肽(试验Ⅳ组),连续投喂300尾初始体重31g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio) 60 d后,测定试验鱼生长,肠消化酶活性及血清、肝胰脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明:(1)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组增重率(WGR)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数(FCR)显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).(2)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组的肠蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),脂肪酶活性与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组中仅后者肠蛋白酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(3)除试验

  14. Determination of the Cd in the Tissues of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water%煤矸石污染水域和天然水域Cd元素在鲫鱼组织中的沉积规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 张辽; 闫明

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue is the solid waste emissions in the process of coal mining and coal washing, which contains a lot of heavy metal: Cadmium (Cd), pose a serious threat to food security and human health. Study on the rule of the deposition of Cd in the tissues of fish from gangue pollution water of Yongcheng, Shangqiu. which can lay foundation for further study on harm to fish from Cd pollution and on food safety assessment of fish from the coal gangue polluted water. Methods:Cd was determined by using the flame atomic absorption method. Results: (1) The concentration of Cd in the gills, heart, muscle of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) from the coal mining subsidence area, were 1.0630±0.2784μg·g-1, 8.6389±3.2301μg·g-1, 1.1461±0.2046μg·g-1, which were higher than the tissues of crucian carp in natural pollution-free waters. The concentration of Cd in the gills, muscle were significantly higher than the control group (Pheart>muscle>gills. However, there was no significant difference between each tissues. In polluted water, the sedimentary rule of Cd in the crucian carp was: heart>muscle>liver>gills. Heart was much higher than in the other tissues. (3) An adult can be safe to eat the fish meat weekly from the two waters were respectively 823 g, 365 g; if more than these content, there would be a potential health threat. Conclusion: The concentration of Cd in gills, muscle of crucian carp in polluted waters was much higher than not polluted waters, Cd are more likely to deposited in the heart of crucian carp. If the consumption of fish meat from coal gangue pollution water is more than 365 g weekly, there will be a health threat.%煤矸石是采煤和洗煤过程中排放的固体废物,其中含有大量的重金属元素 Cd,煤矸石的无序排放不仅对环境造成了污染,而且也对人体健康和食品安全构成了严重的威胁。研究商丘永城采煤塌陷区煤矸石污染水域Cd在鱼体中的沉积规律,可为进

  15. Protein to energy ratios in goldfish (Carassius auratus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristielle Nunes Souto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dietary digestible protein to energy ratio is critical for the success of fish farming. Considering that it provides the proper development of the animals, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for goldfish fingerlings. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg. The growth parameters evaluated were daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, protein productive value (PPV and energy retention ratio (ERR and specific growth rate (SGR. Regardless FI, all the parameters were affected by protein and energy levels and interaction between both factors was observed. The second-order polynomial equation best fitted to the DWG, SGR, FCR, PER and ERR with estimated requirement values of 38.81, 38.85, 41.05, 41.80 and 39.39% DP, respectively, at the 3,200 kcal/kg. A second-order polynomial model was significant only for the ERR data at the 3,600 kcal/kg with an estimated requirement value of 36.45% DP. Generally, fish fed diets containing 3,200 kcal/kg had better growth performance than fish fed 3,600 kcal/kg (P<0.01, indicating a higher feed efficiency. A 3,200 kcal/kg diet seems to be the proper DE level for meeting goldfish requirement for highest weight gain. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of DP levels between 38.0-40.0% in diets for goldfish with 3,200 kcal/kg or a dietary protein to energy ratio between 119-125 mg/kcal DE.

  16. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of sily-marin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in crucian carp Carassius auratus%水飞蓟素对四氯化碳致鲫肝(细胞)损伤的保护和抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾睿; 曹丽萍; 杜金梁; 徐跑; 殷国俊

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of silymarin (SM) against carbon tetrachlo-ride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in crucian carp (carassius auratus) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 100, 300, and 600 μg/mL silymarin were added to carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), or both before and after(pre- and post-treatment) incubation of the hepatocytes with 8 mmol/L CCl4 in culture medium. We then measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In vivo, crucian carp were fed a diet containing one of three concentrations of silymarin [0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg (diet)] for 60 d. Each fish was then given a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30%in arachis oil), and 72 h after the injection, we collected blood and liver samples from each fish. We measured the serum biochemical indices and liver tissue indices described above. Silymarin improved cell viability and decreased GPT, GOT, LDH, MDA, and SOD activ-ity. Administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly decreased GPT, GOT, and LDH activity, increased levels of total protein and albumin in the serum, and increased SOD, glu-tathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and MDA formation in liver tissue. However, these parameters, except for LDH, were not significantly altered in fish fed 0.1 g silymarin per kg diet. Our data suggest that silymarin exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish, which is likely re-lated to its antioxidant activity. We suggest that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent against fish liver diseases.%  为了评价水飞蓟素(Silymarin, SM)对鲫(Cyprinus carpio)肝(细胞)的保护和抗氧化作用,分别从体外和体内两个方面探讨其作用效果。在体外,利用8

  17. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫的生长、体组成和肌肉脂肪酸的影响%DIETARY LIPID SOURCES FOR GIBEL CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO:GROWTH PERFORMANCE, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE FATTY ACID PROFILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家林; 韩冬; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 解绶启

    2011-01-01

    A 12-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) to evaluate their ability by utilize different dietary lipids. Ten diets were supplemented with 8% of either fish oil (FO), coconut oil (CNO), corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), 1 : 1 fish oil-coconut oil (FCNO), 1 : 1 fish oil-corn oil (FCO), 1 '. 1 fish oil-linseed oil (FLO) or 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 fish-coconut-corn-linseed oil mixture (MIX). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 3.53 g, 30 ini.) in a recirculation system at (24±1)℃ .Weight gain were the highest in SO and CNO group, followed RO and the lowest in FO, CO and LO group, when used as a single lipid source. Compared to total replacement of fish oil, coconut oil, corn oil or linseed oil substitute 50% fish oil led to a higher weight gain, respectively. Neither the plasma biochemistry nor the lipid and moisture contents in different tissues of gibel carp showed significant difference between groups (P>0.05). Fatty acid composition of muscle in fish generally reflected the composition of the diet. Fish fed CO and SO had higher 20:4n-6, while relative higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was detected in fish fed LO. These results suggested that gibel carp had ability to desaturate and elongate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to highly unsaturated fatty acid. In conclusion, soybean oil, coconut oil and rapeseed oil were good alternative lipid sources for gibel carp.%配制了十种等氮等能的饲料饲喂3.53 g 的异育银鲫幼鱼12 周,探讨异育银鲫对不同脂肪源的利用效果.十种饲料中分别添加8%的鱼油(FO)、椰子油(CNO)、玉米油(CO)、亚麻油(LO)、大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、1∶1 鱼油-椰子油(FCNO)、1∶1 鱼油-玉米油(FCO)、1∶1 鱼油-亚麻油(FLO)和1∶1∶1∶1 鱼油-椰子油-玉米油-亚麻油混合油(MIX).每组饲料三个平行,每个平行30 尾.实验在循环水养殖系统中进行,水温控制在(24±1)℃.结果

  18. 鲫血髓过氧化物酶的表达及其与血药浓度的关联性%Correlation of the relative expression of myeloperoxidase and prazi-quantel concentration in blood of the crucian carp,Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾飞; 马荣荣; 肖艳翼; 朱凤娇; 杨先乐; 胡鲲

    2016-01-01

    为了研究在吡喹酮代谢过程中,鲫血髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase, MPO) mRNA表达与血药浓度的相关性,以体重为(80±10.5) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为试验动物,单剂量(10 mg/kg)口灌吡喹酮(praziquantel, PZQ)后,在鲫血液中选取β-actin为内参基因,通过设计特异性引物,利用荧光定量PCR,分析了不同时间点鲫血MPO mRNA水平的相对表达量的变化;利用高效液相色谱法(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)测定了吡喹酮在鲫鱼体内的血药浓度,分析两者之间的相关性。结果显示,吡喹酮能够迅速进入血液,并被快速消除,药时数据符合二室开放模型。在1 h时,血液中吡喹酮的浓度达到最大值,为2.85mg/mL,96 h后血液中检测不到吡喹酮;灌药后,MPO基因表达量随时间呈先升后降趋势,在1 h时髓过氧化物酶表达量最高。此外,0.25 h、0.5 h、1 h、3 h与6 h组与对照组差异性极显著(P0.05)。相关性分析发现, MPO mRNA相对表达量与血液中吡喹酮的浓度之间相关系数r=0.96,为高度相关,并且推测MPO可能参与吡喹酮的氧化代谢。结论认为:(1) MPO mRNA相对表达量的升高与外源性药物吡喹酮的摄入有关。(2)血液中吡喹酮的残留量与MPO mRNA相对表达量线性相关。本研究旨在提供一种从分子水平评价水产动物体内药物残留的新思路。%The leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is widely present in animals, and is involved in various physiological responses in vivo. When the body is stimulated and the stress reaction is produced, MPO content increases rapidly, showing strong oxidation activity and destruction of invading microorganisms, and enhancing immunity. The strong oxidizing property of MPO has an immense influence on the oxidative metabolism of drugs. Praziquantel (PZQ) is a quinoline pyrazine derivative, and widely used in aquaculture as an anti-parasite drug. In this experiment, PZQ was used as a model drug

  19. Effect of dietary oil sources on growth performance, body composition,the serum biochemical indices, fatty acids composition and lipid metabolism of Carassius auratus gibelio%不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长性能、机体成分、血清生化指标、体组织脂肪酸组成及脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘波; 戈贤平; 刘文斌; 谢骏; 高启平; 顾夕章

    2012-01-01

    试验以异育银鲫为研究对象,分别以日粮中添加5.4%鱼油、5.4%豆油、5.4%菜籽油、5.4%亚麻油为脂肪源,选择健康、规格、体质量基本一致的异育银鲫336尾,随机分为4组,每组3个重复、在可控温循环流水圆形蓄养槽内进行为期64 d的投喂试验,探讨不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长、体成分及血清生化指标的影响.试验结果表明:豆油组及菜籽油组增重率、特定生长率显著高于鱼油组,豆油组肥满度显著低于鱼油组及亚麻油组,各试验组末均体质量、饲料系数、肝体比及脏体比均没有显著差异(P>0.05);各组间肌肉水分、粗脂肪、粗蛋白及粗灰分均无显著差异(P>0.05);不同饲料脂肪源对鱼体肌肉脂肪酸组成有显著影响,并且鱼体脂肪酸的组成与饲料脂肪酸的组成有很大相关性,其中鱼油组与菜籽油组有极显著相关性(P<0.01),豆油组显著相关(P<0.05);鱼油组的血清谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶及碱性磷酸酶活性显著高于其它组(P<0.05);各试验组间胰岛素、皮质醇、总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、白球比、血糖、胆固醇及甘油三酯均无显著差异(P>0.05);各组肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅰ (CPT-Ⅰ)、肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅱ(CPT-Ⅱ)、脂肪酶、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)及脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)均无显著差异(P>0.05).因此,日粮中添加一定量的豆油、菜籽油或亚麻油同样能取得良好的生长效果,为以后生产中以菜籽油或亚麻油替代豆油或鱼油提供了理论依据,节约了生产成本.%This study focused on evaluating the effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth, body composition, serum biochemical indices, and activities of lipometabolism enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. The growth experiment was conducted to test four dietary lipids (soybean oil, rapeseed oil, linseed oil, and fish oil) on C. auratus gibelio. The fish with initial body weight

  20. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  2. Optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaluei, F; Imanpoor, M R; Shabani, A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-04-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0 °C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8 °C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8 °C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, viability of chilled embryos in GFACF medium was slightly, but non-significantly, higher than in Dettlaff's solution. Supplementation of the GFACF medium with antibiotics, Hepes or BSA increased the viability of chilled embryos, but the tested vitamin E analogue Trolox, vitamin C or Tris concentration had no effect on embryo viability. The outcome of this series of experiments shows that heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos could be chilled for 60 h in GFACF supplemented with 25 mm Hepes, 100 U/ml penicillin, 10 μg/l streptomycin and 1 g/l BSA in such a way that embryonic development does not proceed, and viability is not lost.

  3. Comparison of the Toxicokinetics and Bioaccumulation Potential of Mercury and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Drouillard, Ken G; Branfireun, Brian; Haffner, G Douglas

    2015-09-15

    Both mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) demonstrate food web biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems, yet their toxicokinetics have not been simultaneously contrasted within a common fish species. This study quantifies uptake and elimination rates of Hg and PCBs in goldfish. Fish were exposed to contaminated food containing PCBs and Hg to determine dietary chemical assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and elimination coefficients (ktot). To test first-order kinetics, three exposure regimes were established by varying the proportion of contaminated fish incorporated into the food. Dietary AEs were 98 ± 10, 75 ± 12, and 40 ± 9% for MeHg, THg, and PCBs, respectively. The ktot values were 0.010 ± 0.003 and 0.010 ± 0.002 day(-1) for THg and MeHg, respectively. No significant differences were found in ktot among the dosing levels for either THg or MeHg, confirming that Hg elimination is a first-order process. For PCB, ktot ranged from 0.007 to 0.022 day(-1) and decreased with an increase in hydrophobicity. This study revealed that Hg had an AE higher than that of PCBs, while the ktot of Hg was similar to those measured for the most hydrophobic PCBs. We conclude that Hg has a bioaccumulation potential in goldfish 118% higher than the highest PCB BMF observed for congeners with a log KOW of >7.

  4. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  5. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  6. Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, E A; Couper, G S; Huprikar, S V; Mellow, A M; Moody, R R

    1976-11-15

    The pharmacological action of mescaline on goldfish was studied with the Bitterman-Agranoff shock-avoidance test. In short term experiments with high mescaline doses an increase in learning rates was observed. Similar results were obtained with apomorphine and L-dopa. However, when the fish were exposed to smaller mescaline doses (or to fluphenazine) for 3 days, their ability to avoid electric shock was reduced. Apparently, mescaline induced a release of dopamine which stimulated central dopaminergic systems. Subsequently, MAO destroys the liberated dopamine. Thus, the ensuing dopamine deficit appears to be responsible for the marked changes in behavior in the chronic experiment.

  7. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Dactylogyrus vastator and D. intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2016-05-01

    Goldfish is known to be parasitized by at least seven species of Dactylogyrus and considered as one of the most common hosts. Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus intermedius are the dominant species living on the gills of goldfish. However, little information on morphometric characterization is available, which easily causes misidentification. The purpose of this study is to provide comprehensive morphometric and molecular characterization of D. vastator and D. intermedius collected form a fish farm in Henan, China. The characterization was presented based on the high-resolution images and standard molecular markers (18S ribosomal DNA subunit and the internal transcribed spacer region), as well as a total of 10 point-to-point morphometrics characters. In addition, a detailed comparison of morphometric and phylogenetic characterization in D. vastator versus D. intermedius was performed. The results demonstrated that all parameters measured differed significantly between these two species of Dactylogyrus, whereas molecular comparison showed subtle differences between them in nucleotide divergence and genetic distances. These findings suggested that these two species of Dactylogyrus can be distinguished more easily based on morphometric measurements than molecular data for 18S ribosomal DNA + internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1).

  8. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  9. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... INTRODUCTION. Growth is controlled by environmental factors such as .... more feed to energy and uses less energy for standard metabolic rate, .... low (from 39 ppt to 15 ppt) in sole, it causes stress and fish decreases in ...

  10. Polyploid induction of Lespedeza formosa by colchicine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Hu Dong-nan; Li Hui; Chen Xiao-yang

    2007-01-01

    Polyploid induction has been conducted by different colchicines concentrations with seed. hypocotyl and apices of Lespedeza formosa. Morphological variation and amounts of chromosome about the polyploidy have also been analyzed. Results show that the best material for polyploid induction of L. formosa is the new apices from seed germination, with an induction rate of 44. 4% at 0. 1% colchicines concentration and 36 hours of treatment time. Compared with normal diploid plants. the polyploidy plants of L. formosa inducted in our experiments have short stature and stems with thick and wide leaves. Cytological studies show that the changed seedlings,whose morphology has changed dramatically, are tetraploid, with 44 (2n=4x=44)chromosomes in the somatic cells.

  11. Monitoreo de DDI en la provincia de Formosa (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Atencia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 691 alumnos de escolaridad primaria, de ambos sexos, fue estudiado en este monitoreo de bocio endémico en dos localidades de la provincia de Formosa: ciudad de Formosa (299 niños y Clorinda (392 niños. La edad de los escolares osciló entre 5 y 16 años. La palpación tiroidea fue hecha por el conjunto de los médicos participantes. Sin embargo, con la finalidad de aunar criterios con lo realizado previamente (1-15, se tomó como única referencia la palpación de H.N., que se llevó a cabo en la totalidad de los niños estudiados. La definición del grado de bocio fue similar a la utilizada en los otros relevamientos (1. Se determinó la yoduria en muestras casuales de orina emitidas por los niños una vez que fueron palpados (152 de la ciudad de Formosa y 154 de Clorinda. Se recogieron 139 muestras de sal de consumo hogareño de Formosa y 371 de Clorinda. El examen palpatorio de los niños reveló la existencia de bocio grado 1, con excepción de un niño de Clorinda que tuvo un nódulo único en una glándula cuyo resto era palpatoriamente normal. La prevalencia de bocio encontrada fue de 17,7 % en la ciudad de Formosa y de 13 % en Clorinda. Los niveles de yoduria alcanzaron, en la ciudad de Formosa, una media de 128±13,2 (DS µg/L y una mediana de 92 µg/L, al tiempo que en Clorinda la media fue de 193±14,7 µg/L y la mediana de 155 µg/L. El contenido de yodo de las sales que aportaron los alumnos, si bien varió según la marca de sal utilizada, tuvieron un nivel adecuado de yodo en aquellas de consumo masivo. De esta manera, observamos que en la ciudad de Formosa el promedio de yodo en la sal, tomada en conjunto, fue de 25,2±9,1mg/Kg, mientras que para Clorinda fue de 27,89±10,1mg/Kg. Al analizar las concentraciones de yodo <15mg/Kg, observamos que fue del 15,6 % en Formosa y del 10,9 % en Clorinda. Teniendo en cuenta la línea de corte del 10 % que fija el ICCIDD (16 como valor óptimo, podemos observar que la cifra

  12. Processamento mínimo de mamão 'formosa' Fresh cut of 'formosa' papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique de Almeida TEIXEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para verificar o efeito do tamanho do corte, 2,5 x 2,5cm (corte 1 e 2,5 x 5,0cm (corte 2, e da temperatura de armazenamento (3, 6 e 9ºC, na velocidade da modificação da atmosfera ambiente e nas características químicas de mamões do grupo `Formosa' minimamente processados e embalados em copos plásticos (500ml. A concentração de CO2 no interior destes copos aumentou 2 a 3 vezes, durante as primeiras 6 horas após o corte, para depois diminuir e se estabilizar. Esta concentração aumentou com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento. A umidade dos pedaços diminuiu consideravelmente nos dois primeiros dias, e a temperatura que melhor conservou a umidade foi a de 6ºC. A acidez total titulável foi menor no corte 2, com as maiores reduções a 6 e 9oC. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais não variaram entre os tratamentos, e os cuidados higiênicos adotados durante o processamento permitiram a obtenção de produtos com baixa contagem microbiana, 10³UFC.g-1 nos pedaços armazenados a 9ºC após sete dias, e com boa manutenção da qualidade sensorial das mesmas. Estes resultados permitem indicar o mamão `Formosa' para a produção de produtos minimamente processados, na forma de pedaços, com conservação refrigerada (3 e 6ºC por um período de 7 dias.This work was undertaken to verify the effect of cutting size, 2.5 x 2.5cm (chunk 1, 2.5 x 5.0cm (chunk 2, and storage temperatures (3, 6 and 9ºC, on atmosphere modification rate and chemical characteristics of `Formosa' fresh-cut papaya packed in plastic cups (500 ml. The CO2 concentration into theses cups increased fron two to three fold during first 6 hours after cutting, then it decreased and stabilized. This concentration increased with the storage temperature increasing. The chunks's moisture remarkably decreased in the first 2 days, and the temperature which best sustained the moisture was 6ºC. The titratable total acidity was lower in chunk 2

  13. The colonial 'civilizing process' in Dutch Formosa 1624-1662

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, Hsin-hui

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of the colonial ‘civilizing process’ in Dutch Formosa (Present-day Taiwan) between 1624 and 1662. Drawing inspiration from Norbert Elias, this study stresses on ‘the colonial “civilizing process” ’ which is applied to the inexorable process of retreat from the era of ‘Aboriginal

  14. The colonial 'civilizing process' in Dutch Formosa 1624-1662

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, Hsin-hui

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of the colonial ‘civilizing process’ in Dutch Formosa (Present-day Taiwan) between 1624 and 1662. Drawing inspiration from Norbert Elias, this study stresses on ‘the colonial “civilizing process” ’ which is applied to the inexorable process of retreat from the era of ‘Aboriginal Taiw

  15. Clethra formosa (Clethraceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, Juan Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Clethra formosa (Clethraceae, a new species endemic to high elevations of the Central and Talamanca cordilleras in Costa Rica is described. Photographs of the proposed species are included as well as a discussion of its taxonomic affinities, mainly with Clethra pyrogena Sleumer, which appears to be its nearest relative.Se describe Clethra formosa (Clehtraceae, una nueva especie endémica de las zonas altas de las Cordilleras Central y de Talamanca en Costa Rica. Se incluyen fotografías de la especie propuesta, así como una discusión de sus afinidades taxonómicas, principalmente con Clethra pyrogena Sleumer, el taxon más cercanamente relacionado.

  16. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m(2)). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H2O2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H2O2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  19. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  20. Orexins and receptor OX2R in the gastroenteric apparatus of two teleostean species: Dicentrarchus labrax and Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Livia; Castaldo, Luciana; de Girolamo, Paolo; Lucini, Carla; Paolucci, Marina; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Varricchio, Ettore; Arcamone, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Orexin A and B peptides and the receptor OX2R were studied in sea bass and goldfish gastroenteric tract by immunoblotting combined with densitometric analysis using NIH Image J software and immunohistochemical techniques. These teleost species present a different gut organization and diverse feeding habits. Immunoblotting experiments showed one band of 16 kDa corresponding to prepro-orexin, and one band of 38 kDa corresponding to the OX2R receptor. Immunohistochemical localization of OXA and OXB was observed in the enteric nervous system throughout the gastroenteric tract of both species. OXA and OXB immunoreactive cells were found in the gastric and intestinal regions of sea bass, and were mainly found in the basal region of folds in intestinal bulb, and in the midgut and hindgut of goldfish. The distribution of OX2R was mainly detected in the mucosa of the gastroenteric tract of sea bass and goldfish. This distribution suggests an endocrine action of OXA and OXB in the gastrointestinal tract as well as involvement in the peripheral control of food intake and digestive processes in both species. This study might also serve to determine the productive factors in breeding and as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Anat Rec, 299:1121-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF ROYAL INSECTICIDE ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEXES AT CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the royal insecticide influences the energetic metabolism, the breathing rhythm, the blood sugar and the number of red blood cells at the Prussian carp individuals. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 0.00125, 0.0025 and 0.005 ml/l royal insecticide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 0.005 ml/l grew by 50.81% in 168 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 216.66 ml oxygen/kilo/hour compared to 143.66 oxygen ml/kilo/hour. The blood sugar was the single physiological biomarker which decreased, so that the lowest value was 48 mg/dl, 29.62% approximately lower compared to the witness value (68.2 mg/dl at a concentration of 0.00125 ml/l.

  2. Effect of different concentrations of permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants on the hatching rate of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fardin Shaluei; Mohamad Reza Imanpoor; Ali Shabani; Mohamad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxicity of various cryoprotective agents(CPAs) to goldfish embryos. Methods: Heart-beat embryos were immersed in: five permeable CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol (MeOH), 1,2- propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (Gly), ethylene glycol (EG), and two non-permeable CPAs: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sucrose in concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% for 5, 15, or 30 min. The viability of the embryos after the treatments was estimated from hatching rates. Results: The results showed that the toxicity to goldfish embryos of the five permeable CPAs were in the following sequence: PG 0.05). In this experiment none of the concentrations tested for sucrose reduced the hatching rate, but embryos exposed to PVP did not tolerate concentration 20%, at 30 min exposure. Conclusion: These finding will be advantageous for designing optimized Cryo-media for cryopreservation of goldfish embryos.

  3. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offiine HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; WANG Yan-hong; WU Ren-an; WANG Shi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offiine combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  4. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  5. Effects of enrofloxacin on cytochromes P4501A and P4503A in Carassius auratus gibelio (crucian carp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Li, X-C; Sun, B-B; Fang, W-H; Zhou, S; Hu, L-L; Zhou, J-F

    2012-06-01

    Currently, although enrofloxacin (EF) as a widely used veterinary medicine has begun to apply to treating fish bacterial infections, the researches on the effects of EF on their main drug metabolic enzymes are limited. To investigate the effects of EF on fish cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A and 3A, the enzymatic activities and expressions (mRNA and protein) of crucian carp CYP1A and CYP3A after EF administration were examined. For CYP1A, in the in vivo experiments, EF exhibited potent inhibition on the CYP1A-related ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as CYP1A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels, at 24 h after administration with different EF dosages (3, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg); Furthermore, CYP1A enzymatic activity and expressions at both protein and mRNA levels decreased more with increasing EF dosages. Additionally, the in vitro experimental results showed that, after incubated with microsomes, EF did not change the EROD activity through interacting directly with CYP1A. For CYP3A, the in vitro and in vivo experimental results demonstrated that EF could inhibit the CYP3A-related erythromycin N-demethylase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while it did not suppress CYP3A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels after administration with EF for a short period (no more than 24 h); however, after injection with EF at a high dose (10 mg/kg) for a long period, the CYP3A protein and mRNA reached their lowest levels at 96 and 48 h, respectively. These results indicate that EF can suppress CYP1A expressions in a dose-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting further its catalytic activity; meanwhile, both the interactions of EF with CYP3A and the expressions decrease (protein and mRNA) caused by EF contribute to the CYP3A inhibition.

  6. Nickel induces hyperglycemia and glycogenolysis and affects the antioxidant system in liver and white muscle of goldfish Carassius auratus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-06-01

    The toxicity of nickel to mammals is well studied, whereas information on nickel effects on fish is scant. Goldfish exposure to 10-50 mg L(-1) of waterborne Ni(2+) for 96 h showed reduced glycogen levels by 27-33% and 37-40% in liver and white muscle, respectively, accompanied by substantial increases in blood glucose levels (by 15-99%). However, indices of oxidative damage to proteins (carbonyl proteins) and lipids (lipid peroxides) were largely unaffected by nickel exposure. In liver, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were not affected by Ni(2+) treatment, while catalase activity was elevated by 26%. In white muscle, however, substantial increases in SOD (by 38-147%) and GPx (by 2.5-5.5-fold) activities appeared to compensate for decreased catalase activity (by 59-69%) in order to resist Ni-induced oxidative perturbations. Both hepatic and muscular glutathione reductase activities were suppressed by 10-30% and 12-21%, respectively, after goldfish exposure to all Ni(2+) concentrations used. However, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was remarkably enhanced (by 1.6-5.4-fold) in white muscle of Ni-exposed fish, indicating a strong potential increase in NADPH production under Ni exposure. Thus, the exposure of goldfish to 10-50 mg L(-1) of Ni(2+) for 96 h induces glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia, showing some similarities with a hypoxia response, and leads to a substantial activation of defense systems against reactive oxygen species in liver and white muscle in tissue-specific and concentration-dependent manner.

  7. Recombinant glycoprotein 63 (Gp63) of Trypanosoma carassii suppresses antimicrobial responses of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladiran, Ayoola; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that proteins secreted by Trypanosoma carassii play a role in evasion of fish host immune responses. To further understand how these parasites survive in the host, we cloned and expressed T. carassii glycoprotein 63 (Tcagp63), and generated a rabbit polyclonal antibody to the recombinant protein (rTcagp63). Tcagp63 was similar to gp63 of other trypanosomes and grouped with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei gp63 in phylogenetic analysis. We showed that rTcagp63 down-regulated Aeromonas salmonicida and recombinant goldfish TNFα2-induced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Macrophages treated with rTcagp63 also exhibited significant reduction in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-A, TNFα-1 and TNFα-2. Recombinant Tcagp63 bound to and was internalised by goldfish macrophages. The Tcagp63 may act by altering the signalling events important in downstream monocyte/macrophage antimicrobial and other cytokine-induced functions. We believe that this is the first report on downregulation of antimicrobial responses by trypanosome gp63.

  8. Light-dark cycle and feeding time differentially entrains the gut molecular clock of the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisembaum, Laura G; Velarde, Elena; Tinoco, Ana B; Azpeleta, Clara; de Pedro, Nuria; Alonso-Gómez, Angel L; Delgado, María J; Isorna, Esther

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how photocycle and feeding-time cues regulate the daily expression of Per1a, Per2a, Per3, and Cry3 in the goldfish hindgut. For this purpose, we studied the daily rhythmicity of these genes in fish maintained under different lighting conditions and under different feeding regimes (scheduled or not). We also studied whether the timing of just one meal is able to reset the hindgut molecular clock. In a first experiment, randomly fed fish were divided into four groups and kept under different light conditions for 30 d: 12 h light and 12 h dark (12L:12D), an inverted photoperiod (12D:12L), constant darkness (24D), and constant light (24L). In a second study, fish maintained under 24L were divided into four groups fed at different time points for 35 d: (1) fish scheduled-fed once a day (at 10:00 h); (2) fish fed with a 12-h shifted schedule (at 22:00 h), (3) fish fed at 10:00 h throughout the experiment, except the last day when fed at 22:00 h; and (4) a randomly fed group of fish. Fish were sacrificed every 6 h throughout a 24-h cycle. In both experiments, gPer1a, gPer2a, gPer3, and gCry3 transcripts were quantified using Real Time-qPCR in the hindgut. Results show the clock genes gPer1a, gPer2a, and gCry3 are synchronized by both zeitgebers, the photocycle and feeding regime, in goldfish hindgut. Moreover, such clock genes anticipate light-on and food delivery, when these cues appear in a cyclic manner. In the absence of both zeitgebers, gCry3 and gPer2a rhythmicity disappeared. In contrast, the gPer1 rhythm was maintained under 24L and random feeding conditions, but not always, suggesting that food when randomly supplied is able to reset the clock depending on other factors, such as the energetic and metabolic conditions of the fish. The expression of gPer2a was not activated during the light phase of the cycle, suggesting the hindgut of goldfish is a non-direct photosensitive organ. In contrast to the other three genes, gPer3 expression in the goldfish hindgut seemed to be dependent on the timing of the last food delivery, even in the presence of a photocycle. This gene was the only one that maintained daily rhythms under both constant lighting conditions (24D and 24L), although with lower amplitude than when a photocycle was present. This indicates that, although the acrophase (peak time) of the gPer3 expression rhythm seems to be driven by feeding time, there is an interaction of both zeitgebers, food and light, to regulate its expression. In conclusion, present data indicate: (1) the hindgut of goldfish can be synchronized in vivo by both the photocycle and feeding time; (2) food is a potent signal that entrains this peripheral oscillator; and (3) both environmental cues seems to target different elements of the molecular clock.

  9. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  10. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno;

    2014-01-01

    nitric oxide (NO) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cardiac performance was examined both under basal (constant preload and afterload) and loading conditions, i.e. preload-induced increases in stroke volume (SV) and hence cardiac output at constant afterload (the Frank–Starling response). Hypoxic...... to filling pressure increases; the maximum SV = 1.08 ± 0.09 mL/kg body mass was obtained at 0.4 kPa. Acute hypoxia increased this sensitivity, SV reaching the maximum value (1.45 ± 0.12 mL/kg body mass) at 0.25 kPa. NOS inhibition by L-NMMA reduced the Frank–Starling response under normoxia......, but was ineffective under acute hypoxia, where NO may come from nitrite reduction. In both conditions, sGC inhibition induced a reduction of the cardiac response to preload. Moreover, under acute hypoxia, NO scavenging significantly reduced the Frank–Starling response. The hypoxia-induced hemodynamic patterns were...

  11. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  12. The occurrence of spermatozoa in the ovary of the gynogenetic viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (POECILIIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; De la Rosa-Cruz, Gabino; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    The reproductive mode of the female viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (Poeciliidae) represents the phenomenon known as gynogenesis; that is, parthenogenetic development is initiated by spermatozoa which are needed for physiological activation of the egg and the initiation of gestation, but spermatozoa are prevented from contributing to the genome of the embryo. For the reason that no previous histological analyses of the ovary of this species during the reproductive cycle has been published the present study has been conducted. This study examined the histology of the ovary of P. formosa during nongestation and gestation phases and identified the presence of spermatozoa inside the ovary. Spermatozoa were observed in folds of the ovarian epithelium of P. formosa during both the nongestation and gestation phases. Sperm storage as documented in this study is a very important trait for the gynogenetic viviparous fish P. formosa contributing to the understanding of this species reproduction.

  13. Kin Recognition in a Clonal Fish, Poecilia formosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowicz, Amber M.; Tiedemann, Ralph; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Relatedness strongly influences social behaviors in a wide variety of species. For most species, the highest typical degree of relatedness is between full siblings with 50% shared genes. However, this is poorly understood in species with unusually high relatedness between individuals: clonal organisms. Although there has been some investigation into clonal invertebrates and yeast, nothing is known about kin selection in clonal vertebrates. We show that a clonal fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa), can distinguish between different clonal lineages, associating with genetically identical, sister clones, and use multiple sensory modalities. Also, they scale their aggressive behaviors according to the relatedness to other females: they are more aggressive to non-related clones. Our results demonstrate that even in species with very small genetic differences between individuals, kin recognition can be adaptive. Their discriminatory abilities and regulation of costly behaviors provides a powerful example of natural selection in species with limited genetic diversity. PMID:27483372

  14. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphology, testes development and behaviour of unusual triploid males in microchromosome-carrying clones of Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamatsch, D K; Stöck, M; Fuchs, R; Döbler, M; Wacker, R; Parzefall, J; Schlupp, I; Schartl, M

    2010-11-01

    In a microchromosome-carrying laboratory stock of the normally all-female Amazon molly Poecilia formosa triploid individuals were obtained, all of which spontaneously developed into males. A comparison of morphology of the external and internal insemination apparatus and the gonads, sperm ploidy and behaviour, to laboratory-bred F(1) hybrids revealed that the triploid P. formosa males, though producing mostly aneuploid sperm, are partly functional males that differ mainly in sperm maturation and sexual motivation from gonochoristic P. formosa males.

  16. Feeding rates in the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna and its coexisting sexual parasite, the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Schlupp, I

    2010-07-01

    Feeding rates of the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and one of its sexual hosts, the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna, were measured under winter and summer temperature conditions. Food consumption of the unisexual P. formosa in winter conditions was significantly higher than that of P. latipinna, and it is hypothesized that the resulting food stress might have an important influence on the population composition of these closely related fishes via higher winter mortality in P. formosa.

  17. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post‐mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen...... anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...... by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed...

  18. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  19. Effects of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-02-01

    The parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) has been used successfully for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The development of UV-blocking plastic films has added a new component to future integrated pest management systems by disrupting insect pest infestation when UV light is excluded. Because both T. vaporariorum and E. formosa are reported to have similar spectral efficiency, there was a need to identify the impact of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of both the pest and the natural enemy. In field studies, using choice-chamber experiments, E. formosa showed some preference to disperse into compartments where less UV light was blocked. However, further studies indicated that the effect was primarily attributable to the different light diffusion properties of the films tested. Thus, unlike its whitefly host, when the UV-absorbing properties of the films were similar, but the light diffusion properties differed, E. formosa adults preferred to disperse into compartments clad with films that had high light diffusion properties. When the plastic films differed most in their UV-absorbing capacity and had no light-diffusion capability, the initial dispersal of E. formosa between treatments was similar, although a small preference toward the environment with UV light was observed over time. When parasitoid dispersal was measured 3 h after release, more parasitoids were found on plants, suggesting that the parasitoids would search plants for whitefly hosts, even in a UV-blocked light environment. The potential for the integration of UV-blocking films with E. formosa in an advanced whitefly management system is discussed.

  20. Compatibility of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae with Commercial Products Under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Barrera Mojica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum one of the major pests of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions, but, Its mainly controlled with chemical insecticides. However, there are alternative control strategies as entomopathogens fungi and parasitoids (Encarsia formosa. In this study we evaluated the compatibility of commercial product with adults and pupae of E. formosa under laboratory conditions. Eight treatments were evaluated for adults and pupae of the parasitoid, including two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 and 5 x 109 conidia/ml, commercial doses of four chemical products commonly used to control pests on tomato crops and two controls. These treatments were applied directly on parasitoids, and their mortality rate on adults and pupae were recorded daily. There was no difference in E. formosa pupae among relative with the Bacillus thuringiensis products (p > 0.05, indicating that its compatible with the parasitoid pupae under laboratory conditions. Finally, it was found that products with active ingredients of Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato and B. thuringiensis are incompatibles with E. formosa adults under laboratory conditions.COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria

  1. A description of the mitogenome of the Endangered Taiwanese angelshark, Squatina formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Cosmann, Paul J; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    Squatinid sharks are among the most threatened of cartilaginous fishes. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence (16,690 bp) of the Endangered Taiwanese angelshark, Squatina formosa. It has 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region in the typical vertebrate arrangement.

  2. Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongying; Su, Jianwei; Wei, Jianing; Hu, Yongjian; Ge, Feng

    2014-06-18

    We experimentally examined the effects of elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory on tomato volatiles, feeding and oviposition preferences of whiteflies and behavioural responses of Encarsia formosa to these emissions on two tomato genotypes, a wild-type (Wt) and a jasmonic acid (JA) defence-enhanced genotype (JA-OE, 35S). The O₃ level and whitefly herbivory significantly increased the total amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), monoterpenes, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), and aldehyde volatiles produced by tomato plants. The 35S plants released higher amount of total VOCs and monoterpene volatiles than Wt plants under O₃+herbivory treatments. The feeding and oviposition bioassays showed that control plants were preferred by adult whiteflies whereas the 35S plants were not preferred by whiteflies. In the Y-tube tests, O₃+herbivory treatment genotypes were preferred by adult E. Formosa. The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O₃, herbivory and O₃+herbivory treatments. Our results demonstrated that elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory significantly increased tomato volatiles, which attracted E. formosa and reduced whitefly feeding. The 35S plants had a higher resistance to B. tabaci than Wt plant. Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O₃ concentration increases.

  3. [The effect of magnetic fields on the activity of proteinases and glycosidases in the intestine of the crucian carp Carassius carassius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V; Krylov, V V

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated by the example of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) that a 1-hour stay of fish in a combined magnetic field with resonance parameters for calcium ions decreases the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of their intestinal enzymes. It has been found that a 1-hour exposure to a combined magnetic field with resonance parameters for potassium ions has almost no effect on the activity of proteinases, but it decreases the amylolytic activity. It has been noted that the activity of proteases and glycosidases is lower under hypomagnetic conditions. Upon the inversion of the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, the proteolytic activity of the intestinal mucosa in C. carassius decreases, while the amylolytic activity becomes higher compared to the control. Possible effects of magnetic fields on the activity of digestive hydrolases in fish are discussed.

  4. Intraguild predation by the generalist predator Orius majusculus on the parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabi, Fariba; Enkegaard, Annie; Shishehbor, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation of Orius majusculus (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) on Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), both natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied under laboratory conditions. The experiments quantified prey consumption b...... instars of O. majusculus with early 4th instar whiteflies and E. formosa pupae. The results indicate that intraguild interactions between O. majusculus and E. formosa may have negative effects on biological control of B. tabaci....

  5. The high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poléo, Antonio B S; Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5.8; 960 μg Al/l), acidic Al-poor water (pH 5.8; 50 μg Al/l) or untreated control water (pH 6.5; 50 μg Al/l). Blood, muscle and gill samples were collected from exposed fish, and closed respirometry was performed to measure critical O2-tension an normoxic O2-consumption. The results show an increased gill surface area in Al-exposed fish, while the critical O2-tension did not change. The normoxic O2-consumption was lower in Al-exposed fish and might be due to a reduced metabolic rate. The results suggest that crucian carp exposed to aluminium do not become hypoxic, since haematocrit, plasma lactate and blood ethanol did not differ from that of control fish after 14 days of exposure. We also observed an initial loss of plasma chloride and sodium, followed by a stabilisation of these ions at a lower level than in control fish. The decrease in plasma ions caused a transient increase in haematocrit and water content in muscle tissue, returning to control levels when the ion concentrations stabilised, suggesting that the water balance was restored. We conclude that the high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia as well as an ability to counteract a continuous loss of plasma ions.

  6. Applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network for mapping erosive status in the Ria Formosa catchment (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja Martins, F. M.; Neto Paixão, H. M.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Bellinfante, N.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the soil erosion risk is the starting point for development and sustainable land management. The intensity of soil erosion risk is conditioned by soil erodibility, slope, land use and vegetation cover. The objective of this work is mapping the erosive status of the Ria Formosa catchment using "Fuzzy ARTMAP" neural network. The study area is the catchment of Ria Formosa, which includes a shallow coastal lagoon with an area of about 16000 ha located in Algarve (southern Portugal). It is protected by EU and national laws, and is classified as a wetland of international importance under the RAMSAR convention. Previously to the construction of the artificial neuronal network model, it was necessary to establish the training areas (proposed by the Priority Action Plan/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC, 1997). The differences between both methods were about 1% of the total area. Both maps were validated with field observations and analysis of aerial photographs.

  7. Photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from thyroid cells of the teleost, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achey, P.M.; Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed and used a simple technique to estimate the quantity of pyrimidine dimers in unlabeled cellular DNA. DNA is extracted from cells, treated with an endonuclease specific for dimers, and its molecular weight estimated by its electrophoretic mobility on alkaline agarose slab gels. The technique is used to show that cells from thyroid tissue of the fish Poecilia formosa have photoreactivating activity towards dimmers in the cellular DNA.

  8. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R; Nice, Chris C

    2013-08-20

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids.

  9. COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER BARRERA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de labo- ratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 y 5 x 109 conidios/ml, dosis comerciales de cuatro productos comúnmente usados para el control de plagas en cultivos de tomate y dos controles. Estos tratamientos fueron aplicados directamente sobre los parasitoides y se registraron a diario mortalidades de pupas y adultos. No se presentaron diferencias significativas entre el control relativo con el producto con ingrediente activo Bacillus thuringiensis (p > 0,05, indicando que este es compatible con pupas del parasitoide bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Finalmente, se encontró que los productos con ingredientes activos de Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato y B. thuringiensis son incompatibles con adultos de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio.

  10. Vitellogenin mRNA Expression in Wild Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus auratus)from Hun River%浑河流域野生鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋双双; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 赵艳民; 李子成; 陈浩; 赵兴茹; 刘代成

    2013-01-01

    为揭示浑河流域水环境内分泌干扰物对水生态的潜在风险,利用兼并引物扩增获得鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原(Vtg)和核糖体蛋白L-7(RPL-7)基因部分碱基序列(分别为825和450 bp),建立以RPL-7为内参基因、定量鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的实时定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)方法,并将该方法用于定量浑河野生鲫鱼肝组织Vtg基因表达分析.结果显示:与上游对照点(S1)相比,7月下游各点(S4~S8)雄鱼、S4和S6点雌鱼肝组织的Vtg mRNA表达水平皆显著升高(P <0.05);11月在雄鱼中未检出Vtg mRNA的有效表达,雌鱼也仅在S2和S3点的表达水平升高(P<0.05).研究表明,浑河流域野生鲫鱼尤其是在7月明显受到了环境雌激素类物质的影响.另外,qRT-PCR方法能够灵敏检测出鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的时空差异.

  11. [Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalikova, O V; Eliseĭkina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them.

  12. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  13. THE INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEUS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ACETAMIPIRID INSECTICIDE ON THE GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS AFTER THE TIME TREATMENT OF 24 AND 72 HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajl Rizani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of environmental, pollution by mutagen substances are created micronucleus, which are genetically defects, which may cause mutation and cancerous diseases. Based in this fact, we have attempted to do a research, which will prove that genetically damages are as result of environment pollution. Our research is based in Micronucleus-test method, according to Schmid. This method is used to be observed micronucleus, as mentioned above are created as result of environment pollution in blood of living organism. As we expected, during the research with this method, we have faced in genetically damage as aftermath of our environment pollution for research. For the research we have decided fish (goldfish, whereas environment pollution is created referring to our needs about research. The result is astonishing. As higher is level of pollution the higher will be the number of micronucleus, more precisely number of genetically damages. We have used 50 fish for our research diffused in five aquariums, distinguished by dose and day of treatment with insecticide. As our environmental pollutant for research we used acetamipirid insecticide in goldfish. The research has resulted what has proved by Schmid with Micronucleus-Test method, which proved the presence of genetic damages harmonized with the amount of pollution. Our research opens the way for safe research in environment polluting to see real situation on the ground and the ability to make managerial policies to prevent pollution, moreover to prevent many diseases caused by such pollution.

  14. Combined effects of high environmental ammonia, starvation and exercise on hormonal and ion-regulatory response in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Kumar, Vikas; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-06-15

    Due to eutrophication, high environmental ammonia (HEA) has become a frequent problem in aquatic environments, especially in agricultural or densely populated areas. During certain periods, e.g. winter, feed deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural waters. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by genes expression. Therefore, in the present study, ammonia toxicity was tested in function of nutrient status (fed versus starved) and swimming performance activity (routine versus exhaustive). Goldfish, a relatively tolerant cyprinid, were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) for a period of 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days and were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (kept unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Results showed that the activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in the gills was stimulated by HEA and disturbance in ion balance was obvious with increases in plasma [Na⁺], [Cl⁻] and [Ca²⁺] after prolonged exposure. Additionally, osmoregulation and metabolism controlling hormones like cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were investigated to understand adaptive responses. The expression kinetics of growth, stress and osmo-regulatory representative genes such as Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ), prolactin receptor (PRLR), cortisol receptor (CR) and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α(3) were examined. Overall effect of HEA was evident since Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity, plasma cortisol, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentration, expression level of CR and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α₃ mRNA in fed and starved fish were increased. On the contrary, transcript level of PRLR was reduced after 4 days of HEA; additionally T3 level and expression of GHR, IGF-I and THRβ genes were decreased following 10-21 days of HEA. Starvation, the additional challenge in the present study, significantly increased plasma cortisol level and CR transcript level under HEA compared to the fed exposed and control fish. Furthermore, a remarkable reduction in T3 and mRNA levels of THRβ, IGF-I and GHR genes was observed under starvation. The toxic effects in both feeding treatments were exacerbated when imposed to exhaustive swimming with more pronounced effects in starved fish. This confirms that starvation makes fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially during exercise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal precision and reliability in the velocity regime of a hair-cell sensory system: the mechanosensory lateral line of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Julie; van Hemmen, J Leo; Jung, Sarah N; Chagnaud, Boris P; Scholze, Björn; Engelmann, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Fish and aquatic frogs detect minute water motion by means of a specialized mechanosensory system, the lateral line. Ubiquitous in fish, the lateral-line system is characterized by hair-cell based sensory structures across the fish's surface called neuromasts. These neuromasts occur free-standing on the skin as superficial neuromasts (SN) or are recessed into canals as canal neuromasts. SNs respond to rapid changes of water velocity in a small layer of fluid around the fish, including the so-called boundary layer. Although omnipresent, the boundary layer's impact on the SN response is still a matter of debate. For the first time using an information-theoretic approach to this sensory system, we have investigated the SN afferents encoding capabilities. Combining covariance analysis, phase analysis, and modeling of recorded neuronal responses of primary lateral line afferents, we show that encoding by the SNs is adequately described as a linear, velocity-responsive mechanism. Afferent responses display a bimodal distribution of opposite Wiener kernels that likely reflected the two hair-cell populations within a given neuromast. Using frozen noise stimuli, we further demonstrate that SN afferents respond in an extremely precise manner and with high reproducibility across a broad frequency band (10-150 Hz), revealing that an optimal decoder would need to rely extensively on a temporal code. This was further substantiated by means of signal reconstruction of spike trains that were time shifted with respect to their original. On average, a time shift of 3.5 ms was enough to diminish the encoding capabilities of primary afferents by 70%. Our results further demonstrate that the SNs' encoding capability is linearly related to the stimulus outside the boundary layer, and that the boundary layer can, therefore, be neglected while interpreting lateral line response of SN afferents to hydrodynamic stimuli.

  16. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  17. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus sheyangensis n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) with intralamellar sporulation in allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X H; Yuan, S; Zhao, Y L; Fang, P; Chen, H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-09-01

    Allogynogenetic gibel carp is one of the most important freshwater cultured species in China. However, myxosporidiosis represents a severe threat to prevent the sustainable development of aquaculture of this species. During the investigation of myxosporean diversity of reared allogynogenetic gibel carp in East China, a new myxosporean with typical characteristics of Myxobolus was found from 169 out of 210 (80.4 %) examined samples, designated as Myxobolus sheyangensis n. sp. by combing comparative analysis of morphological and molecular data. The diagnostic features of this species are reminiscent with Myxobolus pyramidis Chen, 1958 as follows: round or ellipsoidal, grayish white, cyst-like polysporous plasmodia, averaging 219.3 ± 11.9 (98.7-421.7) × 158.4 ± 9.7 μm (79.9-191.8) in size; spores flat-pear shaped in frontal view with tapering anterior and rounded posterior ends and lemon-shaped in sutural view, averaging 11.0 ± 0.31 (10.5-11.9) × 10.2 ± 0.25 (9.2-10.7) × 6.3 ± 0.23 μm (5.9-6.9) in size; and two equal pyriform polar capsules averaging 5.5 ± 0.3 (4.5-6.1) × 3.4 ± 0.26 μm (2.9-4.0) in size with convergent longitudinal axes and polar filaments wounded in seven to eight coils, perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Spore surface was smooth and two spore valves were symmetrical, with a thin and straight sutural ridge. Occasionally, abnormal spores with typical Henneguya-like caudal appendage and atypical papillary caudal appendage could be observed. The sporogenesis is asynchronous. Histopathological investigation showed that the plasmodia developed inside the capillary network of gill lamellae, belonging to the intralamellar vascular type, and no significant inflammatory responses were provoked by the infection. Homology search by BLAST showed that the newly obtained sequence did not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned sequences indicated that M. sheyangensis n. sp. positioned in a clade composed of Myxobolus species infecting the gill of several freshwater cyprinid fish.

  19. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene on modulating vitellogenin expression in primary culture of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yong; C. K. C. Wong; XU Ying; M. H. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the precursor of yolk protein. Its expression and secretion are estrogen-regulated and are crucial for oocyte maturation. An in vitro xenoestrogen screening model was established by measuring Vtg induction in cultured primary hepatocytes from crucian carp. Vtg production was detected by biotin-avidin sandwich ELISA method while Vtg and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA induction were measured by semi- quantitative PCR-primer dropping technique. Vtg and Vtg mRNA were dose-dependently induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.2-200 ng/mL) in hepatocytes of crucian carp. Co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with either 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD, 0.1-4 pg/mL) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5-1000 ng/mL) resulted in a reduction of Vtg production and an increment of CYP1A1 mRNA expression both in a dose dependent manner, indicating the anti-estro-genic effects of the compounds. However, at lower tested concentrations, TCDD (0.1, 0.2 pg/mL), B[a]P (5 ng/mL) seemed to have a potentiating effect on Vtg expression and secretion, although by their own these compounds had no observable estrogenic effect on Vtg induction. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulators, 1 nmol/L-1 μmol/L), and β-naphtho-flavone (β-NF, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducing compounds, 2.5-1000 ng/mL) also were employed to study the possible interactions in DES-induced Vtg expression. In co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with β-NF or tamoxifen, the decrease in Vtg production did parallel induction of CYP1A1 for β-NF, but tamoxifen inhibited Vtg induction did not parallel induced CYP1A1 expression in all test concentrations. On the contrary, it was found that in co-treatment of the TCDD-induced hepatocytes with DES, TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA production was inhibited by DES also. These results implicated a possible cross talk between estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways in the hepatocytes.

  20. Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptable concentrations for growth of the fish. Growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian carp were closely related to water quality of their living environment. The RAS had improved the growth performance and quality of Allogynogenetic crucian carp.

  1. Comprobación in vivo de la capacidad antibacterial de Oedogonium capillare contra Vibrio fluvialis en pez Dorado Carassius auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana López Simeón; Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero

    2007-01-01

    El uso de antibióticos de forma indiscriminada para el control de infecciones de origen bacteriano en cultivos de organismos acuáticos, administrados de forma sistemática, ha provocado la presencia de plásmidos-R en cepas bacterianas de alto riesgo para la acuicultura, por lo que es importante estudiar nuevas alternativas naturales no solamente para prevenir las infecciones bacterianas, también para evitar el uso de antibióticos. El alga Oedogonium capillare presentó, en estudios previos in v...

  2. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the early previtellogenic oocyte without zona radiata. In these oocytes, mercury accumulates into an ooplasmic region that seems to correspond to the Balbiani body (32-65 microm oocyte diameter), throughout the cytoplasm (84-116 microm oocyte diameter) and in the cortical cytoplasm (approximately 180 microm oocyte diameter). The second mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the late previtellogenic oocyte with cortical alveoli (229-330 microm oocyte diameter). Ultrastructural observations have shown grains of silver-enhanced mercury inside coated vesicles, the cortical lysosome-like bodies or multivesicular bodies and cortical alveoli. Immunohistochemistry reaction for caspase-3 was positive in nuclei of the early previtellogenic oocyte and Balbiani body.

  3. Freshness Variation of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) during Chilled Storage%鲫鱼在冷藏过程中的鲜度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖枫; 康怀彬; 辛利

    2007-01-01

    本实验利用感官评价、化学(TVBN值和pH值)和微生物(细菌总数)指标的分析,研究了鲫鱼在真空包装和非真空包装两种条件下贮藏于3±1℃时新鲜度的变化.实验结果表明贮藏在真空包装条件下能够延缓鲫鱼的腐败变质,贮藏过程中感官评分呈下降趋势,表明在两种贮藏条件下鲫鱼的新鲜度随时间延长而降低.贮藏过程中TVBN值都有升高,而非真空包装组样品中细菌生长的速度要高于真空包装组.%The quality changes of crucian carp stored in two different conditions: vacuum packing and non-vacuum packing,both at temperature of 3 ±1 ℃, were evaluated by sensory assessment, chemical(total volatile basic nitrogen and pH) and microbial (total viable counts) analysis. Storage in vacuum packing was more effective than non-vacuum packing, in delaying spoilage of the crucian carp. It was observed that the appearance score decreased with storage time, indicating the progressive loss of freshness in both vacuum packing and non-vacuum packing storage conditions. There was an increase in total viable counts over the period of storage. Bacteria grew more quickly in non-vacuum packing samples than in vacuum packing ones.

  4. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-11-21

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure.

  5. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-CYPERMETHRIN ON GLUTAMIC- PYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE (GPT) AND GLUTAMIC-OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE (GOT) ACTIVITIES FROM CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) SERUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are considered as possible sub-stitutesfor some organophosphate carbamates or organochlo-rine insecticides,and have been used extensivelyfor morethantwo decades[1].Pyrethroids are preferred over otherinsecticides because of their easy degradation into non-toxic or less toxic metabolites under natural conditions.Consequently,there has recently beena dramatic increaseinthe use of pyrethroid pesticides to control insect pests.However,synthetic pyrethroids were also reported to bemore toxi...

  7. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  8. Monophyletic origin of multiple clonal lineages in an asexual fish (Poecilia formosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Lampert, Kathrin P; Möller, Dirk; Schlupp, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    Despite the advantage of avoiding the costs of sexual reproduction, asexual vertebrates are very rare and often considered evolutionarily disadvantaged when compared to sexual species. Asexual species, however, may have advantages when colonizing (new) habitats or competing with sexual counterparts. They are also evolutionary older than expected, leaving the question whether asexual vertebrates are not only rare because of their 'inferior' mode of reproduction but also because of other reasons. A paradigmatic model system is the unisexual Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, that arose by hybridization of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana, as the maternal ancestor, and the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna, as the paternal ancestor. Our extensive crossing experiments failed to resynthesize asexually reproducing (gynogenetic) hybrids confirming results of previous studies. However, by producing diploid eggs, female F(1) -hybrids showed apparent preadaptation to gynogenesis. In a range-wide analysis of mitochondrial sequences, we examined the origin of P. formosa. Our analyses point to very few or even a single origin(s) of its lineage, which is estimated to be approximately 120,000 years old. A monophyletic origin was supported from nuclear microsatellite data. Furthermore, a considerable degree of genetic variation, apparent by high levels of clonal microsatellite diversity, was found. Our molecular phylogenetic evidence and the failure to resynthesize the gynogenetic P. formosa together with the old age of the species indicate that some unisexual vertebrates might be rare not because they suffer the long-term consequences of clonal reproduction but because they are only very rarely formed as a result of complex genetic preconditions necessary to produce viable and fertile clonal genomes and phenotypes ('rare formation hypothesis').

  9. Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

    2005-02-01

    Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

  10. Intraguild predation by the generalist predator Orius majusculus on the parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabi, Fariba; Enkegaard, Annie; Shishehbor, Parviz;

    2013-01-01

    by 5th instar nymphs and adults of O. majusculus offered unparasitised 3rd, early 4th or 4th instar B. tabaci nymphs or parasitised nymphs containing 2nd or 3rd larval instar or pupal parasitoids. In addition, prey preference of the two stages of O. majusculus for parasitised or unparasitised whitefly...... instar B. tabaci and 2nd instar parasitoids. Predation of predator stages was lowest on 4th instar B. tabaci and E. formosa pupae. In all prey combinations, both stages of O. majusculus showed a significant preference for parasitised over unparasitised whitefly nymphs except for the combination of 5th...

  11. Biological control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum by Encarsia formosa on tomato in unheated greenhouses in the high altitude tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, de R.M.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Biological control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) by Encarsia formosa Gahan was tested during three consecutive production cycles (16-28 weeks) on a beef tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop in a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse on the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. During the course of th

  12. Understanding biological control of greenhouse whitefly with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. From individual behaviour to population dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van H.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae), is a very common, highly polyphagous pest insect all over the world. Biological control of whiteflies with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was already applied in the 1920s in Engl

  13. Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amid, C.; Olstedt, M.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Lan, Le H.; Tran Thi Minh, H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Hellström, M.; Tedengren, M.

    2017-01-01

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the

  14. Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amid, C.; Olstedt, M.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Lan, Le H.; Tran Thi Minh, H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Hellström, M.; Tedengren, M.

    2017-01-01

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the

  15. Understanding biological control of greenhouse whitefly with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa : from individual behaviour to population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van H.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae), is a very common, highly polyphagous pest insect all over the world. Biological control of whiteflies with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera,

  16. Effects of rearing host species on the host-feeding capacity and parasitism of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou

    2014-01-01

    Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) 'Q', and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently

  17. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  18. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae; a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing, with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high. Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days. The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  19. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  20. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  1. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  2. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  3. The study of genetic diversity within Carassius genera, based on sequencing some mitochondrial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Liliana IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the genetic diversity within Carassius genera, studying individuals from isolated aquatic populations in Romania, by analysing the sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome b (Cyt b, mitochondrial control region (D-loop and cytochrome c oxidase I (COX I. The nucleotide sequence variation of the three genes were used to study the mtDNA divergence for Carassius genera individuals and to examine the phylogenetic relationships within analyzed populations.Based on the alignment of cytochrome b gene sequences from individuals belonging to Carassius genera from analyzed populations, 21 haplotypes have been identified: two of them were found in four of the six analyzed populations and one in two of studied populations. Regarding the D-loop sequences there were identified 20 haplotypes: four of them were found in two or more populations. Following COX I sequence alignment, from individuals of the Carassius genera, in the six populations were identified 22 haplotypes, but only one was found in four of the analyzed populations. Phylogeographic aspects of the D-loop showed that there are common haplotypes between Buzău (Buzău River, Buzău County, Romania, Sofroneşti (Sofroneşti Lake, Vaslui County, Romania Delta (Fortuna Lake, Danube Delta, Romania and Băile Felix (Bihor County, Romania populations, and for COX I between Buzău (Buzău River, Buzău County, Romania, Tăuteşti (Tăuteşti Lake, Iaşi County, Romania, Delta (Fortuna Lake, Danube Delta, Romania and Băile Felix (Bihor County, Romania populations. From the analysis of all sequences, it was found that the rate of occurrence of transitions is greater than the occurrence of transversions.

  4. First Report of the Mantid Shrimp Faughnia formosae (Stomatopoda: Parasquillidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-seung Hwang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The stomatopods are aggressive predatory marine crustaceans, which are mainly found in tropical and subtropical regions. Among these, a parasquillid stomatopod, Faughnia formosae Manning and Chan, 1997, collected from Jeju Island, is reported for the first time in Korea. The family is easily distinguished from other families by the presence of an asymmetrically bilobed cornea, stout propodus on the raptorial claw, and three primary spines of the uropodal protopod. In the paper, detailed descriptions and illustrations of this species are provided alongside a photograph. A key to the species of Korean mantis shrimp is also presented. As a result of this study, four species of stomatopods including this species are now recorded in Korean fauna.

  5. Achievements in research on vavilovia (Vavilovia formosa (Stev. Fed., a legume crop wild relative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vavilovia (Vavilovia formosa (Stev. Fed. belongs to the tribe Fabeae along with peas, vetchlings, vetches and lentils. It prefers high mountain areas in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Russia, Syria and Turkey. A true success in the ex situ conservation has recently been achieved, within the display plot Flora and Vegetation of Armenia in the Yerevan Botanic Garden. The hybridization between vavilovia and other Fabeae was done in the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry with F1 seeds and F1 plants that did not produce the next generation. The recent molecular research showed that vavilovia belongs to a Lathyrus-Pisum-Vavilovia clade with a clearly distinct status.

  6. Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by labdane diterpenes from the fruiting bodies of Ramaria formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Kwan-Chul; Yoo, Ick-Dong; Ha, Byung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Two new labdane diterpenes (1 and 2) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ramaria formosa. The structures of these compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic studies and chemical evidence. The inhibitory activity of compounds 1 and 2 against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) was evaluated in vitro. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HNE activity moderately. The IC50 values for compounds 1 and 2 were 36.4 ± 1.2 and 40.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively; the IC50 value for the positive control, EGCG, was 12.5 ± 0.8 μM. In addition, the mechanism by which 2 inhibited HNE was a mixed-type noncompetitive inhibition, with a Ki of 41.5 ± 1.8 μM.

  7. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae in Formosa, Argentina, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae y Platygastridae de Taosa (Cuernavaca longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Este dictiofárido se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach, y fue colectado en Formosa, Argentina, donde algunos de sus huevos estaban parasitados. Se describen dos especies nuevas: Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus taosae Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae y Telenomus formosanus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Telenominae. La última especie, que pertenece al grupo crassiclava de especies de Telenomus Haliday, también ataca los huevos de Taosa sp. sobre Pontederia subovata (Seubert Lowden. Estos son los primeros parasitoides oófagos registrados para el género Taosa Distant.

  8. Environmental and molecular analysis of the floral transition in the lower eudicot Aquilegia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballerini Evangeline S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flowering is a critical transition in plant development, the timing of which can have considerable fitness consequences. Until recently, research into the genetic control of flowering time and its associated developmental changes was focused on core eudicots (for example, Arabidopsis or monocots (for example, Oryza. Here we examine the flowering response of Aquilegia formosa, a member of the eudicot order Ranunculales that is emerging as an important model for the investigation of plant ecology and evolution. Results We have determined that A. formosa has a strong vernalization requirement but little or no photoperiod response, making it a day neutral (DN plant. Consistent with this, the Aquilegia homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (AqFT is expressed in both long and short days but surprisingly, the locus is expressed before the transition to flowering. In situ hybridizations with homologs of several Arabidopsis Floral Pathway Integrators (FPIs do not suggest conserved functions relative to Arabidopsis, the potential exceptions being AqLFY and AqAGL24.2. Conclusions In Aquilegia, vernalization is critical to flowering but this signal is not strictly required for the transcriptional activation of AqFT. The expression patterns of AqLFY and AqAGL24.2 suggest a hypothesis for the development of Aquilegia's determinate inflorescence whereby their differential expression controls the progression of each meristem from inflorescence to floral identity. Interestingly, none of the Aquilegia expression patterns are consistent with a function in floral repression which, combined with the lack of a FLC homolog, means that new candidate genes must be identified for the control of vernalization response in Aquilegia.

  9. Monitoring of oxygen condition in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Oliveira, Pedro S; Icely, John D; Foster, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important environmental variables of water quality, especially for marine life. Consequently, oxygen is one of the Chemical Quality Elements required for the implementation of European Union Water Framework Directive. This study uses the example of the Ria Formosa, a meso-tidal lagoon on the south coast of Portugal to demonstrate how monitoring of water quality for coastal waters must be well designed to identify symptoms of episodic hypoxia. New data from the western end of the Ria Formosa were compared to values in a database of historical data and in the published literature to identify long-term trends. The dissolved oxygen concentration values in the database and in the literature were generally higher than those found in this study, where episodic hypoxia was observed during the summer. Analysis of the database showed that the discrepancy was probably related with the time and the sites where the samples had been collected, rather than a long-term trend. The most problematic situations were within the inner lagoon near the city of Faro, where episodic hypoxia (<2 mg dm(-3) DO) occurred regularly in the early morning. These results emphasise the need for a balanced sampling strategy for oxygen monitoring which includes all periods of the day and night, as well as a representative range of sites throughout the lagoon. Such a strategy would provide adequate data to apply management measures to reduce the risk of more persistent hypoxia that would impact on the ecological, economic and leisure uses of this important natural resource.

  10. Study on the Ultrastructure of Sphereovirus and Cell Pathology in Hormonal Cell of Adenohypophysis of Carassius Auratus%金鱼(Carassius auratus)腺垂体激素细胞中的球形病毒及其细胞病理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明; 汝少国; 孙修勤; 邴欣; 范瑞青; 谢嘉琳

    2003-01-01

    利用电镜技术,在金鱼腺垂体促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞中发现了一种球形病毒及其发生基质.该病毒在细胞核中形成不规则形态的包涵体,病毒粒子直径为80~100 nm,呈中等电子密度,无囊膜.病毒侵染造成了促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞的核膜溶解,染色质变性解体,内质网膨胀以及线粒体内嵴与外膜的溶解.此外,病毒的增殖导致了腺垂体中大量促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞的凋亡.

  11. PTHrP potentiating estradiol-induced vitellogenesis in sea bream (Sparus auratus, L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, vitellogenin is an important nutritional precursor protein produced solely in the liver and released into the blood where it binds calcium. In the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) 17beta-Estradiol (E2) plays an important role in the synthesis of vitellogenin, but also the pituitary

  12. The involvement of thyroid hormone metabolism in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) osmoregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Mancera, J.M.; Geven, E.J.W.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of adaptation to low salinity water on the thyroid status of the euryhaline teleost, Sparus auratus. We show that, following low salinity adaptation, the plasma T(4) concentration increases and branchial deiodination activities of T(4), T(3), and rT(3) decrease.

  13. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4))

  14. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  15. Real-time PCR validation of visually identified snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P J; Wakefield, C B; Fairclough, D V; Jackson, G; Travers, M J; Snow, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a total of 212 eggs were visually identified as snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Real-time PCR confirmed visual identification in 69% of cases but corroboration varied widely among plankton samples. The use of molecular tools to support visual identification prior to adopting daily egg production stock assessment methods should be considered.

  16. LINAJES MASCULINOS Y SU DIVERSIDAD EN COMUNIDADES WICHÍ DE FORMOSA / Male lineages diversity in Wichí communities of Formosa province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ramallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}  Durante el año 2005, se realizaron dos viajes de campaña a comunidades Wichí cercanas a las localidades de Ingeniero Juárez y Laguna Yema (provincia de Formosa, Argentina, como parte del proyecto multidisciplinario “De las historias étnicas a la prehistoria en el Gran Chaco”. Partiendo del planteo metodológico de unidad poblacional, se obtuvieron datos genéticos en 93 muestras utilizando marcadores binarios y microsatélites del cromosoma Y, determinando haplogrupos y haplotipos masculinos. El haplogrupo Q1a3a, natural del continente americano, resultó mayoritario en ambas localidades (72,7 % y 81,6 %. Los linajes moleculares se compararon con la diversidad de apellidos registrada y las posibles vinculaciones entre las comunidades Wichís se analizaron  por redes “median joining”, encontrando una variabilidad de linajes coherente con la distribución de las parcialidades del “complejo étnico Wichí” propuesto por Braunstein.   Palabras claves: Herencia genética, cromosoma Y, PCR, SNP, STR   Abstract During the year 2005, as part of the multidisciplinary project “Of the ethnic histories to the prehistory of the Gran Chaco”, two field trips to the wichi communities nearing the locations of Ingeniero Juárez and Laguna Yema (Formosa province, Argentina were made. From the methodological proposal of a population unit, genetic data in 93 samples, employing binary markers and microsatellites of the Y-chromosome were obtained, determining male

  17. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): Implications for the Water Framework Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment–water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007–08 for ...

  18. Anatomia comparada do lenho de Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae) e Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) que ocorrem no cerrado e na caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    Dória, Larissa Chacon [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The cerrado and caatinga are Brazilian phytogeographic domains which differ mainly in relation to latitude, temperature, water availability and soil conditions. Thus, in order to verify anatomical strategies, our goal was compare the wood anatomy of Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae) and Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) occurring in cerrado and caatinga to test whether anatomical differences occur and whether individuals belonging to caatinga exhibit a greater degree of xeromorphism. In cerrado we col...

  19. Co-development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael B; Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2002-09-01

    Using histological techniques, we have simultaneously examined the co-development of the Aphelinid parasitoid Encarsia formosa and its host the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Previously we have determined that regardless of the whitefly instar parasitized, parasitoid larvae would not molt to their final instar until the whitefly reaches its maximum dimensions. In unparasitized T. vaporariorum, this point in development corresponds to the initiation of the adult molt. In part, this study was conducted to determine the developmental state of parasitized whiteflies at the time they achieve their maximum dimensions. It was found that parasitized final instar T. vaporariorum do, in fact, undergo a final molt and that E. formosa larvae will not molt to their final instar until this has occurred. The timing of the final whitefly molt appears unaffected by parasitization. The commonly observed melanization of parasitized whiteflies appears to be a consequence of this molt. In addition, we have discovered that the adult wasp oviposits within the ventral ganglion of the whitefly, and that major organ systems of the whitefly persist very late into parasitoid development. We also report the presence of possible endosymbiotic bacteria residing in the fatbody of E. formosa.

  20. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence was

  1. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing S. Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B, [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5 and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid

  2. Four Myxobolus spp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from the gill lamellae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) in the western part of Japan, with the description of three new species (M. tanakai n. sp., M. paratoyamai n. sp., and M. ginbuna n. sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eigo; Kasai, Akihiro; Tomochi, Hisayuki; Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-07-05

    Approximately three dozen Myxobolus spp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) have been described to parasitize the gills of carp of the genera Cyprinus and Carassius. Hitherto, these fish were often introduced to temperate waters worldwide as food and ornamental fish from Asia, their place of origin. The present study examined the myxosporean infection of seven common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and seven Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) collected from the Fushinogawa River around the university in Yamaguchi City, Japan, during the period April 2015 to October 2016. In total, four Myxobolus spp. were detected in the gill lamellae of Cy. carpio and Ca. langsdorfii, i.e., two species in each species of fish. The four species were characterized morphologically and genetically based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). A new species, Myxobolus tanakai n. sp., from four individuals of Cy. carpio had an elongated pyriform spore (15.4-18.6 μm by 6.3-8.4 μm), resembling the spore shape of Myxobolus koi from Cy. carpio or Carassius auratus in Japan, China, and the USA, but bigger than it (13.2-15.6 μm by 6.6-7.8 μm). The new species formed a clade with M. koi but was distinct from any of the isolates of this species (nucleotide identities less than 98.6%). The second new species, Myxobolus paratoyamai n. sp., from a single Cy. carpio with its one prominent and one rudimentary polar capsule closely resembled the spore morphology of Myxobolus toyamai from Cy. carpio or Carassius gibelio in Japan, China, and the USA. However, the isolate formed a clade with Myxobolus longisporus from Cy. rubrofuscus in China rather than with M. toyamai isolates (nucleotide identities less than 97.9% with known species). Another new species, Myxobolus ginbuna n. sp., from two individuals of Ca. langsdorfii had similar-shaped spores to Myxobolus wulii, but the dimensions were smaller (11.7-13.9 μm by 8.5-9.8 μm vs. 17.6-18.5 μm by 8.9-10.0 μm). This new species

  3. Hydrolysis of Fucoidan by Fucoidanase Isolated from the Marine Bacterium, Formosa algae

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    Artem S. Silchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular fucoidanase was isolated from the marine bacterium, Formosa algae strain KMM 3553. The first appearance of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis products in a cell-free extract was detected after 4 h of bacterial growth, and maximal fucoidanase activity was observed after 12 h of growth. The fucoidanase displayed maximal activity in a wide range of pH values, from 6.5 to 9.1. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ cations strongly activated the enzyme; however, Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations had inhibitory effects on the enzymatic activity. The enzymatic activity of fucoidanase was considerably reduced after prolonged (about 60 min incubation of the enzyme solution at 45 °C. The fucoidanase catalyzed the hydrolysis of fucoidans from Fucus evanescens and Fucus vesiculosus, but not from Saccharina cichorioides. The fucoidanase also did not hydrolyze carrageenan. Desulfated fucoidan from F. evanescens was hydrolysed very weakly in contrast to deacetylated fucoidan, which was hydrolysed more actively compared to the native fucoidan from F. evanescens. Analysis of the structure of the enzymatic products showed that the marine bacteria, F. algae, synthesized an α-l-fucanase with an endo-type action that is specific for 1→4-bonds in a polysaccharide molecule built up of alternating three- and four-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues sulfated mainly at position 2.

  4. Quantifying the threat of extinction from Muller's ratchet in the diploid Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa

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    Loewe Laurence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is a small unisexual fish that has been suspected of being threatened by extinction from the stochastic accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations that is caused by Muller's ratchet in non-recombining populations. However, no detailed quantification of the extent of this threat is available. Results Here we quantify genomic decay in this fish by using a simple model of Muller's ratchet with the most realistic parameter combinations available employing the evolution@home global computing system. We also describe simple extensions of the standard model of Muller's ratchet that allow us to deal with selfing diploids, triploids and mitotic recombination. We show that Muller's ratchet creates a threat of extinction for the Amazon molly for many biologically realistic parameter combinations. In most cases, extinction is expected to occur within a time frame that is less than previous estimates of the age of the species, leading to a genomic decay paradox. Conclusion How then does the Amazon molly survive? Several biological processes could individually or in combination solve this genomic decay paradox, including paternal leakage of undamaged DNA from sexual sister species, compensatory mutations and many others. More research is needed to quantify the contribution of these potential solutions towards the survival of the Amazon molly and other (ancient asexual species.

  5. Myiasis in the imagination of a rural population in Formosa (Goiás, Brazil

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    Edison Rogerio Cansi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Myiases are common parasitic diseases found in livestock. In Brazil, these parasitosis are popularly known as bicheira and berne according to their clinical symptoms and etiological agents. The goal of this study was to record what is known by a rural population, in Formosa (Goiás State, about myiasis in humans and domestic animals, especially cattle. Between 2009 and 2010, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 farmers, who answered questions about the diseases and their etiological agents, the life cycle of the parasitic species and the treatment methods used according to local traditions. The interviewees recognized the bicheiras, providing a rich repertoire of names for their etiological agents, and they knew many of the steps of their biological cycle. However, this kind of comprehensive knowledge was not known for berne; in some cases even the parasite was unknown. This research also highlights the influence of religious syncretism and popular knowledge in the treatment and management of myiasis in animals and humans.

  6. Phlebotominae spatial distribution asssociated with a focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Las Lomitas, Formosa, Argentina, 2002

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    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las Lomitas, Formosa, Argentina, reported 96 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis during 2002. The urban transmission was suggested although previous outbreaks were related with floods of the Bermejo river (BR 50 km from the village. Phlebotomine collections were performed during March 2002 to define the spatial distribution of risk, together with satellite imaginery. The phlebotomine/trap obtained was 1679.5 in the southern BR shore, 1.1 in the periruban-rural environment and 2.3 in the northern Pilcomayo river marshes. Lutzomyia neivai was the prevalent species (91.1% among the 2393 phlebotomine captured, and it was only found in the BR traps. The other species were L. migonei (7.9%, L. cortelezzii (0.9%, and Brumptomyia guimaraesi (0.1%. The satellite images analysis indicates that the fishing spots at the BR were significantlyoverflowed during the transmission peak, consistent with fishermen recollections. This spatial restricted flood might concentrate vectors, reservoirs, and humans in high places. Therefore, both the spatial distribution of vectors and the sensor remoting data suggests that in Las Lomitas area the higher transmission risk it is still related with the gallery forest of the BR, despite of the urban residence of the cases. The surveillance and control implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Migration of intraperitoneally injected thyroid cells in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Scully, P.M.

    1979-07-01

    We have previously reported the development of an extensive invasive growth of the thyroid gland of the gynogenetic teleost, Poecilia formosa (the Amazon molly), following i.p. injection of uv- or ..gamma..-irradiated thyroid cells. This result was suprising by comparison with mammalian work, in which the thyroid is rarely the site for tumor metastases, but the anatomy of the circulation of fish is different from mammals, and in fish the gills and thyroid gland would be among the first tissues in which injected cells might be arrested. Techniques using a fluorescent dye, /sup 125/I membrane label, or (/sup 3/H)thymidine label were used to follow the distribution of i.p. injected cells in the Amazon molly. Fish sampled as soon s 30 min after injection had some labeled cells dispersed in the connective tissue around the ventral aorta and in the bases of the gills, and by 1 to 4 h large numbers of cells had moved into the thyroid region. A few cells still persisted there 200 h later. Experiments on the distribution of heat-killed cells indicated that the initial distribution of the cells was largely governed by mechanical factors. Injected cells would appear to be disseminated in fish by mechanisms similar to those in mammals.

  8. Antiviral Activity of Fridericia formosa (Bureau L. G. Lohmann (Bignoniaceae Extracts and Constituents

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    Geraldo Célio Brandão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical study of Fridericia formosa (Bignoniaceae ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and fruits was guided by in vitro assays against vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV-WR, human herpes virus 1 (HSV-1, murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 by the MTT method. All the ethanol extracts were active against DENV-2, HSV-1, and VACV-WR with best results for the fruits extract against DENV-2 (SI > 38.2. For VACV-WR and HSV-1, EC50 values > 200 μg mL−1 were determined, while no inhibition of the cytopathic effect was observed with EMCV. Five compounds were isolated and identified as the C-glucosylxanthones mangiferin (1, 2′-O-trans-caffeoylmangiferin (2, 2′-O-trans-coumaroylmangiferin (3, 2′-O-trans-cinnamoylmangiferin (5, and the flavonoid chrysin (4. The most active compound was 2′-O-trans-coumaroylmangiferin (3 with SI > 121.9 against DENV-2 and 108.7 for HSV-1. These results indicate that mangiferin cinnamoyl esters might be potential antiviral drugs.

  9. Spatial distribution patterns and movements of Holothuria arguinensis in the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Andjin; Cánovas, Fernando; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Holothurian populations are under pressure worldwide because of increasing demand for beche-de-mer, mainly for Asian consumption. Importations to this area from new temperate fishing grounds provide economic opportunities but also raise concerns regarding future over-exploitation. Studies on the habitat preferences and movements of sea cucumbers are important for the management of sea cucumber stocks and sizing of no-take zones, but information on the ecology and behavior of temperate sea cucumbers is scarce. This study describes the small-scale distribution and movement patterns of Holothuria arguinensis in the intertidal zone of the Ria Formosa national park (Portugal). Mark/recapture studies were performed to record their movements over time on different habitats (sand and seagrass). H. arguinensis preferred seagrass habitats and did not show a size or life stage-related spatial segregation. Its density was 563 ind. ha- 1 and mean movement speed was 10 m per day. Movement speed did not differ between habitats and the direction of movement was offshore during the day and shoreward during the night. Median home range size was 35 m2 and overlap among home ranges was 84%. H. arguinensis' high abundance, close association with seagrass and easy catchability in the intertidal zone, indicate the importance of including intertidal lagoons in future studies on temperate sea cucumber ecology since those systems might require different management strategies than fully submerged habitats.

  10. The effect of finasteride on spermatogenesis of Mesocricetus auratus Impacto da finasterida na espermatogênese do Mesocricetus auratus

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    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of finasteride on the spermatogenesis of adult Mesocricetus auratus. METHODS: Twenty adult hamsters were evaluated. The animals were one year-older, and were randomly divided in 2 different groups: control group with ten animals (n=10 and experimental group also with ten animals (n=10. The animals in the experimental group were shot 7.14 ng/mL (0.5mL of finasteride by 100mg/Kg, subcutaneously in the dorsal region three times per week during 90 days. This dose correspondes to 5mg of the drug used in adult men for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. After three months, the animals were anesthetized through association of 200mg/kg ketamine chloridrate and 2.5 mg/kg of diazepan and were dead through hypovolemia.. The testis removed along with the whole genitourinary apparel were fixed with 10% formalin and submitted to histological analisys by optical microscopy. The hematoxilin-eosin (HE method was used to stain the slides. RESULTS: The mean weight of animals in the control group before death was 129.0±18.8gr. The mean weight of animals in experimental group was 145.0±15.25gr. The mean age of animals in control group before death was 15.2±1.13 months. The mean age of animals in experimental group before death was 17.16±0.82 months. The mean difference in weight between both groups was not statistical significant (p=0.0514. The totality of animals in control group (100% presented no tubular alterations and showed no disturbancy in the spermatogenesis stages. Four animals (40% in the experimental group showed hypotrophy of the seminiferous tubules and six (60% showed normal spermatogenesis, however reduced compared to control group. There was statiscally significant difference (p=0.043 between the control and experimental group related to testicular alterations. CONCLUSION: The animals that were administered finasteride showed significant tubules atrophy and spermatogenesis reduction compared to

  11. Linking nutrient inputs, phytoplankton composition, zooplankton dynamics and the recruitment of pink snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in a temperate bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kerry P.; Longmore, Andrew R.; Hamer, Paul A.; Lee, Randall; Swearer, Stephen E.; Jenkins, Gregory P.

    2016-12-01

    Survival of larval fish is often linked to production of preferred prey such as copepods, both inter- and intra-annually. In turn, copepod production depends not only the quantity of food, but also on the nutritional quality, edibility and/or toxicity of their micro-algal food. Hence, larval fish survival can become de-coupled from levels of nutrient input depending on the resulting composition of the plankton. Here we use a plankton dynamics model to study nutrient input, phytoplankton composition and copepod, Paracalanus, production in relation to interannual variation in recruitment of snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The model was able to simulate the ratio of diatoms to flagellates in the plume of the main river entering Port Phillip Bay. Interannual variability in the copepod, Paracalanus, abundance during the C. auratus spawning period over 5 years was accurately predicted. The seasonal peak in Paracalanus production depended on the timing and magnitude (match-mismatch) of nutrient inputs and how these were reflected in temporal change in the diatom:flagellate ratio. In turn, the model-predicted Paracalanus abundance was strongly related to inter-annaul variability in abundance of snapper, C. auratus, larvae over 7 years. Years of highest larval C. auratus abundance coincided with a matching of the spawning period with the peak in Paracalanus abundance. High freshwater flows and nutrient inputs led to an early seasonal dominance of diatoms, and consequently reduced abundances of copepods over the C. auratus spawning period with correspondingly low abundances of larvae. Conversely years of very low rainfall and nutrient input also led to low phytoplankton and copepod concentrations and larval C. auratus abundances. Highest abundances of larval C. auratus occurred in years of low to intermediate rainfall and nutrient inputs, particularly when pulses of nutrients occurred in the spring period, the latter supporting the match

  12. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  13. Three main stressors acting on the Ria Formosa lagoonal system (Southern Portugal): Physical stress, organic matter pollution and the land ocean gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, S.

    2008-05-01

    During the last 15 years of the 20th century, several researchers carried out extensive sampling of benthic macrofauna communities in the Ria Formosa lagoon. The main objective of this paper is to discern the main communities of benthic fauna of the Ria Formosa and the leading stressors that limit them based on this large data set. The high species richness and high diversity values observed at most of the stations or groups of stations indicate a good ecological status, with the exception of the sewage-impacted areas and the physically stressed areas. It was possible to define three main stressors acting on the Ria Formosa. The most important is the physical stress imposed by the limited water renewal in some areas of the Ria Formosa. The second is the nutrient and organic matter pollution that is limited to the vicinity of the sewage outfall stations and to some locations of the Ria Formosa. This is due to the dual effects of the low residence time of water, but also due to a degradation of water quality in places of relatively restricted water circulation but with high primary production, symptoms of eutrophication. The third stressor is the natural land-ocean gradient, denoting the influence of seawater exchanges and emersion time, attenuated by the high water exchange rates of Ria Formosa. It was possible to differentiate the anthropogenic stress from the natural physical stress through the application of multivariate analysis. However, both structural (species richness and diversity indices) and functional indicators (trophic composition) indicate the same trend - low species richness, low diversity indices, and a community dominated by detritivores species at the locations characterized by high anthropogenic impact or by physical stress. The physically stressed areas were dominated by chironomid larvae and hydrobiid gastropods and the most polluted areas were dominated by oligochaetes, mainly tubificids.

  14. Comparing Immature Development and Life History Traits in Two Coexisting Host-Feeding Parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea and Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-bo; LU Shu-long; LIU Wan-xue; WANG Wen-xia; WANG Wei; WAN Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    Coexisting natural enemies that share a common host resource in the same guild usually exhibit variation in their life history traits, due to their need to share a similar ecological niche. In this study, we compared the immature development times and adult life history traits of two coexisting, host-feeding parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Neochrysocharis formosa Westwood (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae), of which both attack larvae of the same agromyzid leafminers. These two species are both synovigenic, idiobiont parasitoids, whose adults consume host lfuids (“host feeding”) and lay anhydropic eggs. Of the two, D. isaea has a larger body but little or no initial egg load, and engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events. However, it achieves higher fecundity, longer adult longevity, and higher host suppression ability than N. formosa, which has a smaller body and higher initial egg load. Although D. isaea engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events with N. formosa, all of its gains in life history traits per host-feeding event of D. isaea were larger than those of N. formosa. The age-speciifc fecundity and host mortality curves of N. formosa were more skewed in early life than those of D. isaea. In addition, the ovigeny index of N. formosa was negatively correlated to body size. Our results conifrmed that two coexisting parasitoids, which share the same host resource, show different immature development patterns and life history traits, suggesting that different resource allocation mode could be a general rule of coexisting species sharing the same habitat or host.

  15. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines. PMID:24566261

  16. Tanjungides A and B: new antitumoral bromoindole derived compounds from Diazona cf formosa. isolation and total synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-02-21

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey's analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  17. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Murcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanjungides A (1 (Z isomer and B (2 (E isomer, two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  18. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a Carassius female with 206 chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knytl, M; Kalous, L; Symonová, R; Rylková, K; Ráb, P

    2013-01-01

    A single female with 206 chromosomes and another 26 females with 156 chromosomes identified as Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, and 5 individuals with 100 chromosomes identified as crucian carp, C. carassius, were sampled during field survey in one locality in the upper Elbe River. To identify the origin of females with high chromosome numbers, comparative karyotype analysis, GISH, with whole C. carassius DNA as probe and phylogenetic positions of sampled individuals revealed by cytochrome b mitochondrial marker were performed. GISH showed consistently bright labeling of 50 chromosomal elements out of 206, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of C. carassius. The position of these females with high chromosome numbers in a reconstructed phylogenetic tree was within the clade of C. gibelio, documenting its affiliation to C. gibelio mitochondrial, i.e. maternal lineage. Our findings indicated that the mother of the female with high chromosome numbers was a gynogenetically reproducing 156-chromosome C. gibelio female and the father a bisexually reproducing C. carassius male. We, therefore, hypothesized that the C. gibelio × C. carassius allopolyploid female with 206 chromosomes arose by a mechanism of sperm genome addition to an unreduced egg of the mother.

  19. The role of Spartina maritima and Sarcocornia fruticosa on trace metals retention in Ria Formosa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Duarte, Duarte; Isidoro, Jorge; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, phytoremediation has become an increasingly recognized pathway for contaminant removal from water and shallow soils. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of wetlands is complex due to variable conditions of hydrology, soil/sediment types, plant species diversity, growing season and water chemistry. Physico-chemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating contaminants. Saltmarsh plants can sequestrate and inherently tolerate high metal concentrations found in saltmarsh sediments. An increasing number of studies have been carried out to understand the role of halophyte vegetation on retention, biovailability and remediation of the pollutants in coastal areas (estuaries and lagoons). It is already known that the accumulation capacity and the pattern of metal distribution in the plant tissues vary among plant species, namely monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, and with sediment characteristics. During the last decades, there has been a large increase in urbanization and industrialization of the area surrounding Ria Formosa. Due to this reality, anthropogenic contaminants, including trace metals, are transported via untreated sewage and agricultural effluents to several parts of the lagoon. The dominant producers are Spartina maritima (Poales: Poaceae) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), appearing in pure stands respectively in the lower and in the upper saltmarshes. The aim of this work was to survey, comparatively, the role of S. maritima and S. fruticosa on minor and trace element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), contents and distribution amongst sediment and plant tissues. Both S. maritima and S. fruticosa could fix metals from the surrounding belowground environment and accumulate metals, mainly in roots (also in rhizomes in the case of the former). Metal translocation to aerial parts of the plants was, in general, residual.

  20. Contaminant effects in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) from Ria Formosa Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, V L; Santos, M A; Bebianno, M J

    2009-08-01

    Defence and damage biomarkers signals were studied in female and male shore crabs Carcinus maenas transplanted between two sites at Ria Formosa Lagoon (South of Portugal). The cross transplantation occurred during 6 days at a hypothetical reference site (Ramalhete), and a contaminated site (Olhão). DNA unwinding technique was used for DNA integrity measurement. General enzymatic antioxidant responses in gills and hepatopancreas (catalase and gills glutathione peroxidase activities increase) showed that cross transplanted crabs (female and male) are suffering from pro-oxidant challenges at the Olhão site. Gills and hepatopancreas glutathione-S-transferase were reduced in both gender crabs transplanted from Ramalhete to Olhão. Metallothioneins induction occurred in crabs transplanted from Ramalhete to Olhão (contaminated by metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). However metallothionein differences were also observed towards gender and organ specificities. High gills lipid peroxidation exist in male crabs transplanted from Ramalhete to Olhão, while in females it was the opposite. In both gender crabs from the Olhão site, gills DNA integrity decreased compared to the Ramalhete feral crabs. Moreover, hepatopancreas DNA integrity decreased in male crabs transplanted from Olhão to Ramalhete site which may be related to the environmental conditions (lower contamination levels) revealing the difficulty of selection of reference sites in field studies. Data demonstrated that female and male C. maenas antioxidant defences and damage biomarkers were sensitive to the mixture of contaminants present in these sites as well as good indicators of general stress.

  1. Calcification responses to diurnal variation in seawater carbonate chemistry by the coral Acropora formosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. Y.; Eggins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Significant diurnal variation in seawater carbonate chemistry occurs naturally in many coral reef environments, yet little is known of its effect on coral calcification. Laboratory studies on the response of corals to ocean acidification have manipulated the carbonate chemistry of experimental seawater to compare calcification rate changes under present-day and predicted future mean pH/Ωarag conditions. These experiments, however, have focused exclusively on differences in mean chemistry and have not considered diurnal variation. The aim of this study was to compare calcification responses of branching coral Acropora formosa under conditions with and without diurnal variation in seawater carbonate chemistry. To achieve this aim, we explored (1) a method to recreate natural diurnal variation in a laboratory experiment using the biological activities of a coral-reef mesocosm, and (2) a multi-laser 3D scanning method to accurately measure coral surface areas, essential to normalize their calcification rates. We present a cost- and time-efficient method of coral surface area estimation that is reproducible within 2% of the mean of triplicate measurements. Calcification rates were compared among corals subjected to a diurnal range in pH (total scale) from 7.8 to 8.2, relative to those at constant pH values of 7.8, 8.0 or 8.2. Mean calcification rates of the corals at the pH 7.8-8.2 (diurnal variation) treatment were not statistically different from the pH 8.2 treatment and were 34% higher than the pH 8.0 treatment despite similar mean seawater pH and Ωarag. Our results suggest that calcification of adult coral colonies may benefit from diurnal variation in seawater carbonate chemistry. Experiments that compare calcification rates at different constant pH without considering diurnal variation may have limitations.

  2. Contribución al estudio de la biología y capacidad de control de Encarsia Formosa Gahan en la Sabana de Bogotá Biology ano control activity ,of Encarsia formosa Gahan in Bogota (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Español Jeannette Amparo

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción de Encarsia formosa Ganan.(Hvrnenóptero-Aphelinidae, parásito espec ífico de la mosca blanca Trisleurodes vaporariorum (Westwood Ouaintance
    & Baker, se realizó un estudio de biología, comportamiento y adaptación del parásito en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero a nivel de la Sabana de Bogotá, A partir de las primeras liberaciones de Encsrsie, se observó una buena capacidad de búsqueda, dispersión, adaptación y eficiencia
    de control sobre la mayoría de hospederos vegetales muestreados, En condiciones de la boratorio sobre plantas de tomate, se obtuvo una fecundidad promedia de 63 huevos/
    hembra/20 días, una longevidad promedia de 41,4 días, una relación de sexos de 361: 1 Hembras/macho, una duración del ciclo de vida de 22,1 días cuando parasitó ninfas en tercer instar y de 12,7 días cuando parasitó ninfas de mosca blanca en cuarto instar, En la evaluación del control ejercido sobre las ninfas de mosca blanca en plantas de tomate se determinó un mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en los folíolos medios y apicales y un mayor porcentaje de predación en los folíolos basales, En cuanto al control ejercido por Encarsia formosa sobre plantas de tomate y tabaco en laboratorio y tomate,  milflores y alstroemeria bajo condiciones de
    invernadero y sometidas a libre infestación de la plaga y el parásito se determinó un buen control expresado en un alto porcentaje de parasitismo superior al 70% y un bajo
    porcentaje de predación.
    Some preliminary studies on behavior and adaptation of the newly introduced Encarsia formosa Gahan as a parasite of the greenhouse whitefly Trisleurodes vaporariorum (Westwood under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were determined. Different plant hosts of T. vaporariorum were considered. Using tomato as a host for the greenhouse whitefly it was found that E. formosa showed and average
    fecundity of 63 eggs per female in 20 days, an adult

  3. Volatiles from whitefly-infested plants elicit a host-locating response in the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, M A; Chamberlain, K; Guerrieri, E; Pickett, J A; Wadhams, L J; Yasuda, T

    2003-07-01

    The blend of volatile compounds emitted by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) infested with greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) has been studied comparatively with undamaged plants and whiteflies themselves. Collection of the volatiles and analysis by gas chromatography revealed more than 20 compounds produced by plants infested with whitefly. Of these, 4 compounds, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, 3-octanone, and one unidentified compound were emitted at higher levels than from the undamaged control plants. Synthetic (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, or 3-octanone all elicited a significant increase in oriented flight and landing on the source by the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa, in wind tunnel bioassays. Two-component mixtures of the compounds and the three-component mixture all elicited a similar or, in most cases, a better response by the parasitoid, the most effective being a mixture of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-octanone. These results demonstrate that E. formosa uses volatiles from the plant-host complex as olfactory cues for host location.

  4. PERCEPÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE DIFERENTES ATORES SOCIAIS SOBRE O LAGO DO ABREU EM FORMOSA ─ GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Capelle Suess

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre percepção ambiental são importantes para investigação de conhecimentos, valores, opiniões, atitudes e expectativas que as pessoas têm em relação ao seu local de moradia, visto que cada ser humano percebe, reage e responde de maneira diferente ao ambiente em que vive. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a percepção ambiental dos diferentes atores sociais sobre o Lago do Abreu em Formosa-GO. Para isso, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas tanto com moradores quanto com frequentadores do local, além de registros fotográficos e observações realizadas no local de estudo. Os principais problemas expostos pelos entrevistados foram descuido e descaso com a paisagem, com a infraestrutura, com a segurança, com o meio ambiente e com a limpeza. Estes problemas foram constantemente atribuídos ao Poder Público como o principal gerador. Nessa perspectiva, espera-se que o poder público e os moradores assumam o compromisso de zelar por esta importante área cultural arraigada de sinais de sua identidade, localizada no município de Formosa-GO.

  5. Dietary Niche Partitioning of Euphaea formosa and Matrona cyanoptera (Odonata: Zygoptera) on the Basis of DNA Barcoding of Larval Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Chieh; Lin, Chung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Odonate larvae are commonly considered opportunistic general predators in freshwater ecosystems. However, the dietary breadth of most odonate larvae in forest streams is still poorly documented. We characterized the prey species and estimated the level of dietary niche overlap of two damselflies, Euphaea formosa Hagen 1869 and Matrona cyanoptera Hämäläinen and Yeh, 2000 in a forest stream of central Taiwan on the basis of DNA barcoding of larval feces. A collection of 23 successfully identified cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) barcoding sequences suggested that the mayflies (Ephemeroptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and midges (Diptera) comprise the majority (43%, 6/14) of prey species consumed by E. formosa larvae, whereas the identified prey for M. cyanoptera were mainly zooplankton (56%, 5/9). Statistical analysis of dietary overlap indicated that these two species occupy different dietary niches (Pianka's index = 0.219). DNA barcoding analysis of damselfly larval feces was effective in detecting less sclerotized prey such as vertebrates (fish and frog) and small zooplankton. However, a moderately successful rate (<70%) of PCR amplification by universal CO1 primers and a low percentage (<60%) of identifiable sequences in public databases indicate the limitations of naive DNA barcoding in fecal analysis.

  6. Effects of selected insecticides on adults of two parasitoid species of Liriomyza trifolii: Ganaspidium nigrimanus (Figitidae) and Neochrysocharis formosa (Eulophidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Hernández; Kun Guo; Marvin Harris; Tong-Xian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza trifolii is an important pest of vegetables and ornamental crops around the world. This pest is attacked by many parasitoid species. The principal management tactic used against L. trifolii is insecticide application. Insecticides vary in their effects on parasitoid species and insecticides that have less harmful effects should be preferred for the control of this pest. In this study, novaluron, abamectin, λ-cyhalothrin and spinetoram were investigated for their lethal effects on adults of Neochrysocharisformosa and Ganaspidium nigrimanus, two important parasitoids of L. trifolii. Three different bioassays were used on adult parasitoids: direct insecticide application, insecticide intake and insecticide residue. Adult parasitoid response to novaluron exhibited the least lethal effects among the bioassays and insecticides tested. Abamectin had significant mortality to both parasitoid species in the direct application and insecticide intake bioassays and mortality were high for G. nigrimanus in the residue bioassay. Spinetoram was the most harmful insecticide to the adult parasitoids in all three bioassays. λ-cyhalothrin effects varied between the two parasitoids. In the direct application, it was harmful to G. nigrimanus and had no effect on N. formosa. In the insecticide intake bioassay λ-cyhalothrin had no effect in survival of either species, and in the residue bioassay it reduced parasitoid survival of both species.Potential tolerance of N. formosa to λ-cyhalothrin is discussed.

  7. Dietary Niche Partitioning of Euphaea formosa and Matrona cyanoptera (Odonata: Zygoptera) on the Basis of DNA Barcoding of Larval Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Chieh; Lin, Chung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Odonate larvae are commonly considered opportunistic general predators in freshwater ecosystems. However, the dietary breadth of most odonate larvae in forest streams is still poorly documented. We characterized the prey species and estimated the level of dietary niche overlap of two damselflies, Euphaea formosa Hagen 1869 and Matrona cyanoptera Hämäläinen and Yeh, 2000 in a forest stream of central Taiwan on the basis of DNA barcoding of larval feces. A collection of 23 successfully identified cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) barcoding sequences suggested that the mayflies (Ephemeroptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and midges (Diptera) comprise the majority (43%, 6/14) of prey species consumed by E. formosa larvae, whereas the identified prey for M. cyanoptera were mainly zooplankton (56%, 5/9). Statistical analysis of dietary overlap indicated that these two species occupy different dietary niches (Pianka’s index = 0.219). DNA barcoding analysis of damselfly larval feces was effective in detecting less sclerotized prey such as vertebrates (fish and frog) and small zooplankton. However, a moderately successful rate (<70%) of PCR amplification by universal CO1 primers and a low percentage (<60%) of identifiable sequences in public databases indicate the limitations of naive DNA barcoding in fecal analysis. PMID:27432350

  8. Hybridization leads to sensory repertoire expansion in a gynogenetic fish, the Amazon molly (poecilia formosa): a test of the hybrid-sensory expansion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Joy, Jeffrey B; Watson, Corey T; Gonzalez-Bendiksen, Pablo; Gabor, Caitlin R; Breden, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Expansions in sensory systems usually require processes such as gene duplication and divergence, and thus evolve slowly. We evaluate a novel mechanism leading to rapid sensory repertoire expansion: hybrid-sensory expansion (HSE). HSE occurs when two species with differently tuned sensory systems form a hybrid, bringing together alleles from each of the parental species. In one generation, a sensory repertoire is created that is the sum of the variance between parental species. The Amazon molly presents a unique opportunity to test the HSE hypothesis in a "frozen" hybrid. We compared opsin sequences of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to those of the parental species. Both parental species are homozygous at the RH2-1 locus and each of the four long wavelength sensitive loci, while P. formosa possess two different alleles at these loci; one matching each parental allele. Gene expression analysis showed P. formosa use the expanded opsin repertoire that was the result of HSE. Additionally, behavioral tests revealed P. formosa respond to colored stimuli in a manner similar or intermediate to the parental species P. mexicana and P. latipinna. Together these results strongly support the HSE hypothesis. Hybrid-sensory repertoire expansion is likely important in other hybrid species and in other sensory systems.

  9. Distribution of the Formosa strain of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) three and a half years after releases in North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Formosa biotype of the decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus Borgmeier was released and successfully established as a self-sustaining biocontrol agent of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren at several sites around Gainesville, FL in 2003. In order to determine the status of these...

  10. Histopathology and pathophysiology ofCarassius auratusgibelio infected byMyxobolus pharynae%异育银鲫咽碘泡虫病组织病理与病理生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振伟; 陆宏达; 操艮萍; 刘俊杰; 毛毛

    2016-01-01

    咽碘泡虫(Myxobolus pharynae)病是近几年发生在江苏省盐城地区的大丰、射阳和滨海以及周边地区,引起养殖异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)大批死亡的一种黏孢子虫病,咽碘泡虫只特异地寄生在异育银鲫的咽部组织内,为了阐明该病对鱼体的损伤作用,我们对不同患病时期的异育银鲫的组织病理和疾病中期的病理生理进行研究。组织病理结果表明:疾病初期病鱼咽部略有轻度充血,咽碘泡虫以营养体阶段寄生在咽部黏膜下层的组织中,并开始形成由成纤维细胞包裹的小孢囊,其他组织器官无病理损伤现象;疾病中期由于小孢囊数量增加和囊内营养体分裂增殖并逐步发育为成熟孢子后体积增大,构成的大孢囊使咽部显著膨大,包裹小孢囊的结缔组织囊壁充血,逐步萎缩而变薄,成纤维细胞核固缩坏死,咽部黏膜层中的上皮细胞淡染、核固缩坏死,味蕾失去应有的结构,鳃组织细胞在鳃小片间严重增生,肾部分区域出现细胞坏死,肾小球肿胀,肾小管上皮细胞出现滴状玻璃样变性,肝、脾、肠和前肾无病理变化现象;疾病后期小孢囊囊壁、黏膜下层和黏膜层组织细胞进一步坏死崩解,出现孔洞,成熟孢子、坏死组织和血液一并流出孔洞,病鱼肠腔中有许多来自坏死的咽部组织细胞和成熟孢子,其他组织器官病理变化与疾病中期相似。疾病中期病鱼的病理生理分析结果表明:病鱼红细胞数量和大小、血红蛋白浓度、血栓细胞数量、血清总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、血糖、谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶和碱性磷酸酶都分别极显著低于健康鱼(P0.05)。由于咽碘泡虫的寄生部位鱼咽部严重膨大堵塞口咽腔并引发鳃组织增生、肾的损伤和贫血等变化,进一步发展为咽部组织坏死破裂出现孔洞流血,导致病鱼无法摄食

  11. Beauty will save the world, but will the world save beauty? The case of the highly endangered Vavilovia formosa (Stev.) Fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, Aleksandar; Smýkal, Petr; Kenicer, Gregory; Vishnyakova, Margarita; Sarukhanyan, Nune; Akopian, Janna A; Vanyan, Armen; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Smýkalová, Iva; Sherbakova, Ekaterina; Zorić, Lana; Atlagić, Jovanka; Zeremski-Škorić, Tijana; Cupina, Branko; Krstić, Dorđe; Jajić, Igor; Antanasović, Svetlana; Dorđević, Vuk; Mihailović, Vojislav; Ivanov, Alexandr; Ochatt, Sergio; Toker, Cengiz; Zlatković, Bojan; Ambrose, Mike

    2014-11-01

    Vavilovia formosa (Stev.) Fed. is a scientifically valuable common ancestor of the plant tribe Fabeae and also important in breeding and agronomy studies of the cultivated Fabeae, but it is close to extinction. A concerted academic and geovernmental effort is needed to save it. Since 2007, an informal international group of researchers on legumes has been working to increase awareness of Vavilovia formosa (Stev.) Fed., a relict and endangered wild-land relative to crop plant species. A majority of the modern botanical classifications place it within the tribe Fabeae, together with the genera vetchling (Lathyrus L.), lentil (Lens Mill.), pea (Pisum L.) and vetch (Vicia L.). V. formosa is encountered at altitudes from 1,500 m up to 3,500 m in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Russia, Syria and Turkey. This species may be of extraordinary importance for broadening current scientific knowledge on legume evolution and taxonomy because of its proximity to the hypothetical common ancestor of the tribe Fabeae, as well as for breeding and agronomy of the cultivated Fabeae species due to its perenniality and stress resistance. All this may be feasible only if a concerted and long-term conservation strategy is established and carried out by both academic and geovernmental authorities. The existing populations of V. formosa are in serious danger of extinction. The main threats are domestic and wild animal grazing, foraging, and early frosts in late summer. A long-term strategy to save V. formosa from extinction and to sustain its use in both basic and applied research comprises much improved in situ preservation, greater efforts for an ex situ conservation, and novel approaches of in vitro propagation.

  12. Population Structure and Some Growth Properties of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio) in a Mesotrophic Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki DERELI; Ezgi DİNÇTÜRK

    2016-01-01

    The hereby study investigated gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in a mesotrophic lake (Lake Beyşehir, Turkey) from April 2013 to March 2014, in order to outline population structure and some growth properties of the species. Two water quality variables (Chlorophyll-a, Trophic State Index (TSI)) were detected seasonally to define trophic status of the lake. Length and weight distributions, length - weight relationship, sex ratio, gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF) and von Bertalanff...

  13. Growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effect of host age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. Here we confirm that parasitoid developmental rates differ significantly based upon the host instar parasitized. Development was faster when 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were offered for parasitization than when 1st or 2nd instars were used. Our results show that it is primarily the embryo and the first two parasitoid instars that exhibit prolonged developmental times when 1st and 2nd instar whiteflies are parasitized. Although percent emergence was not affected by host age at the time of parasitization, adult longevity as well as adult emergence pattern varied greatly depending upon the instar parasitized. When 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were selected for oviposition, adult wasps lived significantly longer than when 1st or 2nd instars were used; also, there was a sharp emergence peak on the 2nd day after emergence was first observed (reduced or absent when 1st or 2nd instar GHWFs were parasitized) and the emergence period was reduced from between 8 and 11 days to 5 days. In general, the younger the host instar parasitized, the less synchronous was parasitoid development. Previous reports that E. formosa will not molt to the 2nd instar until the host has reached its 4th instar were not confirmed. When 1st instar host nymphs were parasitized, 2nd instar parasitoids were detected in 3rd instar hosts. Importantly, however, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid never molted to its last instar until the host had reached Stage 5 of its last instar, a stage in which host pharate adult formation has been

  14. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K.Schum. (Rubiaceae Pharmacobotanical study of the leaves of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K.Schum. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Peçanha de Miranda Coelho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo um estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum., espécie usada na medicina popular do Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores reumáticas. Realizaram-se estudos morfológicos para a identificação da espécie e para a morfodiagnose macroscópica. Cortes paradérmicos e transversais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar, à mão livre, foram corados com safranina ou com uma mistura de safranina e azul de astra para a morfodiagnose microscópica. A lâmina foliar é subcoriácea, oblongo-lanceolada a elíptica, densamente tomentosa na face abaxial. T. formosa possui folhas hipoestomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paracítico; epiderme unisseriada com células de paredes poligonais; mesofilo dorsiventral com idioblastos cristalíferos, esparsos, isolados ou aos pares, no estrato superior do parênquima paliçádico; tricomas simples são evidentes na epiderme, em ambas faces. A vascularização é formada por dois feixes assessórios na posição adaxial e um feixe central em arco com as terminações invaginadas, na porção proximal do pecíolo, ou em forma de "V-fechado" na porção distal e na nervura principal. A morfologia das estruturas vegetativas e reprodutivas associada à anatomia do mesofilo e do sistema vascular, em conjunto, são caracteres distintivos para esta espécie.This work constitutes a pharmacobotanical study of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum., a species used in folk medicine for rheumatic pains in Northeastern Brazil. The botanical identification and macroscopical morphodiagnosis were carried out by morphological studies. The microscopical morphodiagnosis were realized byparadermic and transversal cuts of the leaves (blades and petiole and stained with safranin or mixture of safranin and astrablue. The blade leaf is subcoriaceous and oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, densely tomentose in the abaxial surface. T. formosa has hypostomatic leaves

  15. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and calcium regulation in vitamin D-deficient sea bream (Sparus auratus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Hang, X.M.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Ross, H.A.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for 22 weeks. Growth rate, whole body mineral pools and calcium balance were determined. Plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and calcitriol levels were assessed. Expression of mRNA for pthrp and pth1r was

  16. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex (subtypes IAB and VI in humans from General Belgrano Island, Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cámara Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the detection of antibodies (immunoglobulin G for subtypes I and VI of VEE viruses complex (Togaviridae family in people from the General Belgrano island, Formosa province (Argentina. The prevalence of neutralizing (NT antibodies for subtype VI was from 30% to 70% and the prevalence of antibodies inhibitory of hemagglutination (HI was of 0% in the first and second inquiry respectively. For the subtype IAB the prevalence of NT antibodies was from 13% to 3.6%, similar to the prevalence total for both subtypes. HI antibodies were not detected in any inquiries for any subtype. It was observed that both subtypes circulate simultaneously, while subtype VI remains constant with some peaks, subtype I was found in low level.

  17. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  18. Sensory acceptability and fatty acid profile of fish crackers made from Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, our aim was to consider the production of fish crackers using Carassius gibelio and to investigate the fatty acid profile and sensory quality of the fish crackers. Fish cracker mixture with a ratio 3.5:1.5 (minced fish/wheat starch was obtained. Based on the total minced fish and starch level, 1.75% salt, 0.25% black pepper, 2% sunflower oil, 1% baking powder and 10% cold water (4 °C were added and stirred until a homogenous mixture was obtained. The mixture was compressed in an extractor and baked. The moisture content of minced fish (CMF, cracker dough (CD and crackers (CCr was 77.73 ± 0.14%, 63.10 ± 2.18% and 7.95 ± 0.67% respectively. The n6/n3 ratio of crackers was 2.61 ± 0.20, PUFA/SFA ratio 2.28 ± 0.06 and DHA/EPA ratio 1.81 ± 0.01. The overall acceptability score obtained by the sensory evaluation of panelists was very high (8.09 ± 0.25.

  19. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  20. Utilization and Quality of Fish Fingers from Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish fingers were produced from Carassius gibelio and evaluated through nutritional parameters. The fish finger nutritional composition changed with pre-frying process. The moisture, crude fat, crude protein and crude ash contents of fish fingers were determined as 56.543 ± 0.113, 10.507 ± 0.116, 15.577 ± 0.382 and 2.027 ± 0.133, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially C 18:1 ω-9 and C18: 2 ω-6 increased with pre-frying process. The values of pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N changed significantly (P<0.05 between fresh fish meat and pre-frying fingers. Scores for flavor, texture, color, odour and general acceptability of frying fish fingers were determined as 8.235 ± 0.207, 8.412 ± 0.193, 8.294 ± 0.206, 8.353 ± 0.170 and 8.471 ± 0.151, respectively.

  1. Condition factor and diet of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Chrysichthys auratus (Siluriformes: Bagridae from Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ebenezer Atobatele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and C. auratus are important, highly valued and threatened freshwater species. To contribute with their ecological knowledge, the condition factor and diet of these two congeneric species were studied between April 2005 and April 2006. Food items of fish were evaluated by occurrence and numerical abundance methods, and the possible changes among sexes, seasons and sizes were considered. Results showed that generally C. nigrodigitatus were better conditioned than C. auratus. The males of C. nigrodigitatus and females of C. auratus were in better condition than their respective opposite sex throughout the year, and during the wet season compared to the dry. The food items of C. nigrodigitatus and C. auratus were similar and comprised twelve species belonging to five groups: Insecta (three species, Crustacea (five species, Arachnida (one species, Rotifera (one species and Mollusca (two species. Other food items included fish scales, unidentified green eggs, plant parts, detritus and sand. Insecta and Crustacea dominated the food items in both species. For C. nigrodigitatus, insect consumption increased with fish size, while Crustacea items decreased (from 89.59% for 8.1cm - 12.0cm size class to 1.58% for 20.1cm - 26.0cm size class. However, while C. auratus smaller sized fish preferred Crustacea (98.72% for 8.1cm -12.0cm size class, larger sized fish had both groups in relatively similar amounts. Schoener Overlap Index for both species and between seasons is 1.00. Diet breadth ranged from 0.00-1.47 for C. nigrodigitatus and 0.00-1.32 for C. auratus. Food Richness ranged from 0.00-1.44 for both species. Gut Repletion Index for C. nigrodigitatus and C. auratus are 76.39% and 76.27% respectively. Although, there is considerable similarity and overlap in the utilization of food resource for both coexisting species, condition factor and feeding behavior suggest strategies to reduce intra- and inter-specific competition. Rev

  2. Optimum conditions for growth in liquid medium of Oscillatoria formosa Bory used as the principal food in laboratory culture of intermediate hosts for schistosomosis and fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Filipa M.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The rearing of snails, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium, S. intercalatum, S. bovis and Fasciola hepatica is the first step to maintain the life cycle of these parasites in laboratory in order to have biological material for the different studies, namely on the systematic biology and immunodiagnostic of schistosomosis and fasciolosis. According to the traditional method, the alga Oscillatoria formosa Bory (Cyanobacteria, principal food source for the snails, was cultivated in soil extract (Sampaio Xavier et al., 1968. However, it was sometimes very difficult to find the proper soil extract and the material was also contaminated by protozoa and fungi. In our work, using a new medium having as a base the Mineral Medium II (modified from Hughes et al., 1958 we found that O. formosa had a better growth response than in the soil extract medium. Snails fed on O. formosa reached three times the size of others at the same age, and they also reached sex maturity earlier, having more egg-masses per snail and, in addition, the rate of survival as well as the number of generations per year under laboratory conditions significantly increased. This culture was also easier to perform, and the axenic conditions easier to maintain.

  3. Using Discrete Element Method to Simulate Influence of Vertical Joints and Upward Groundwater on The Stability of Dip Slope: A Case Study on Formosa Freeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, An; Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Wu, Liang-Chun; Lin, Ming-Lang

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake and rainfall weakening potential sliding surface are common causes of dip slope failure. But in recent years, certain dip slopes failure, for example dip slope sliding without rain on the roadside of Formosa Freeway in northern Taiwan, are caused by uplift groundwater in vertical joints eventually weakening the potential sliding surface. The mechanism of sliding failure should be analyzed in more detail. Furthermore, prestress dissipating in anchors causing dip slope failure is also considered in this study. In this study, conceptual model is simplified from the case of Formosa Freeway in northern Taiwan and the main control factors including angle of slope, stratum, attitude of joints. In addition, drilling data, such as hydraulic conductivity, strength, friction angle and cohesion, are utilized to discuss mechanism and dominant factors of dip slope failure caused by uplift groundwater in vertical joints. UDEC(Universal Distinct Element Code) which is particularly well suited to problems involving jointed media and has been used extensively in stability analysis of jointed rock slopes is utilized in this study. The influence of external factors such as groundwater pressure on block sliding and deformation can also be simulated in UDEC. When the results from numerical simulation fit the condition of slope failure on the roadside of Formosa Freeway, the influence of prestress dissipating in anchors on slope stability is considered subsequently. Finally, simulation results by UDEC are compared with previous research results by FLAC, and discuss the difference between each other.

  4. Updating data on the seasonal changes in the microbiological quality of clams, Ruditapes decussatus, cultured in the Ria Formosa (South Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lameirinhas Cabral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ria Formosa Lagoon is the most important region for bivalves production in the South Portuguese coast. This study evaluates the microbiological contamination of molluscs Ruditapes decussatus originating from two bivalves production areas of Ria Formosa (a more populated area, Faro–Marchil, and a less populated area, Cacela–Vila Real de Santo António that were analysed monthly during 1 year. The levels of Escherichia coli and Vibrio spp. were followed and related with temperature profiles. The highest levels of E. coli were found in bivalves collected from Marchil during periods of higher temperatures (summer, mainly due to the population increase during the summer in that area. Although the shellfish harvesting production area classification does not lead to a change in the current classification (Class B. In Cacela higher levels of E. coli were observed especially during the winter, probably due to diffuse sources of faecal discharges. For both areas, the highest levels of Vibrio spp. were found in February and March 2013, these months correspond to a higher level of bacterioplankton in Ria Formosa. Lower levels of Vibrios spp. were found in October 2013 in both bivalve production areas. The analysis of this information can be particularly useful in the development of sanitary surveys and evaluate the human health risks associated with bivalves consumption, thence improving the quality of marketed bivalves, result in adding value to the final product.

  5. Interspecific interference competition between Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in parasitizing Bemisia tabaci(Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)on five tomato varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Ting Pang; Liang Wang; Yan-Hong Hou; Zu-Hua Shi

    2011-01-01

    Interspecific competition between Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia,two major parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci,and the influence of five tomato varieties on competition outcome were investigated under laboratory conditions.E.formosa parasitized more B.tabaci than E.sophia when in single wasp assays on any of the tomato varieties investigated.When B.tabaci nymphs were exposed to both wasp species(either simultaneously or sequentially),the number of B.tabaci nymphs parasitized by either waspspecies was significantly decreased compared to the sole access condition.Total mortalityof B.tabaci was increased when B.tabaci nymphs were exposed to both wasp species compared to only one wasp species.Thus competition between E.formosa and E.sophia apparently reduced parasitoid offspring numbers,but not the efficiency of biological control.In fact,control efficiency was enhanced in some cases,particularly on tomato variety Huangtuoyuan(HTY).When wasps were allowed sequential access to hosts,interference occurred through host feeding by the second wasp,especially if it was E.sophia.The effect of different tomato varieties was not significant.

  6. Study on the quality changes of Carassius Auratus during storage between refrigeration and partial freezing%鲫鱼在冷藏和微冻贮藏下品质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越华; 俞所银; 任青; 包建强

    2013-01-01

    Sensory assessment,pH,2-th iobarbituric acid value (TBA),volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N),K value and aerobic plate count were used as the assessment standards for the sake of studying the quality change of Crucian which were stored by the way of refrigeration (4℃) and partial freezing (-3℃).Results showed that the sensory assessment had reached the upper limit after 8d and 24d stored at 4℃ and-3℃ respectively.The TBA value stored at 4℃ on the 14th day was 1.29mg/100g,however it was 1.58mg/100g at-3℃ on the 30th day.The TVB-N value stored for 8days at 4℃ was 18.76mg/100g,meanwhile,it reached 18.52mg/100g when stored at-3℃ at 24th day.At 4℃ stored for 8d and-3℃ stored for 24d,the K value were 56.7% and 53.2% separately.The aerobic plate count of Crucian stored for 12d at 4℃ was 7.02lg cfu/g,at-3℃ on the 30th day it reached 5.78lg cfu/g.Talking all indicators of changes,the shelf life were 8d and 24d respectively at 4℃ and-3℃ condition.Compared with refrigeration,the partial freezing conditions would increase the shelf life obviously.%以感官品质、pH、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)、总挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)和鲜度指标K值、细菌总数为指标,研究鲫鱼在冷藏(4℃)和微冻(-3℃)贮藏中品质的变化规律.结果表明,鲫鱼在4℃和-3℃贮藏条件下,分别在第8d和第24d达到感官品质接受上限.4℃条件下第14d TBA值为1.29mg/100g,-3℃贮藏条件下第30d TBA值为1.58mg/100g.4℃条件下贮藏8d TVB-N值为18.76mg/100g,-3℃贮藏24d TVB-N值为18.52mg/100g.4℃贮藏8d和-3℃贮藏24d的鲫鱼K值分别为56.7%和53.2%.4℃贮藏12d细菌总数为7.02lg cfu/g,3℃贮藏30d为5.78lg cfu/g.综合各指标变化,4℃和-3℃条件下鲫鱼的货架期分别为8d和24d,与冷藏相比,微冻能明显的延长鲫鱼的货架期.

  7. Distribution and elimination of enrofloxacin in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio%恩诺沙星在异育银鲫体内的组织分布及消除规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方星星; 刘秀红; 丁相卿; 赵文婷; 刘文斌; 陆承平

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of enrofloxacin ( EF) in tissues was investigated after single intravenous (i. v. ) and oral ( p. o. ) administration of 10 mg·kg‐1 body weight in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp at 24-26 ℃. The tissue concentration of EF was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography( HPLC). A two-compartment model kinetics was observed following i. v. administration. The plasma concentration-time data following p. o. administration showed a double peak-shaped curve, indicating the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation of EF in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. The absorption of EF was very good with a bio-availability( F) of 86%. After both administrations, the distribution of drug was extensive, the AUC in kidney, muscle, Hepatopancreas,gill and blood was 624.2,965.9,721.8,298.0,239.6 μg·h·mL‐1 and 465-3,343.1,542.9,411.4,205.9 μg·h·mL‐1, respectively;the Cmax in five tissues was 33.48,16.91,26.44,18.71 μg·g‐1 and 15.30 μg·mL‐1 ,9.20,5.39,7.78,6.88 u.g·g‐' and 4.50 μg·mL‐l,respectively. The depletion time of EF was considerably long,the Tl/2β of drug in five tissues was 169.0,141.4, 113.4,36.7,63.5 h and 27. 3,49. 2,77.0,38.5,62. 7 h,respectively. Conclusion: EF administered p. o. at a dose of 10 mg·kg‐1 might offer a good option for the treatment of infectious diseases in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,while its relatively long T1/2β indicated a long withdrawal period.%在24 ~26℃水温条件下,以10mg·kg-1剂量,用高效液相色谱法检测组织中药物浓度,研究静脉注射和口服给药后恩诺沙星在健康异育银鲫组织内的代谢分布规律.结果表明:静脉注射后,药物在组织中代谢动力学特征符合二室模型;口服给药后,药物吸收良好,生物利用度(F)为86%,组织药物浓度-时间曲线呈现双峰,推测是由于药物在异育银鲫体内的肠肝循环作用所致.静脉注射和口服两种给药方式下,恩诺沙星在异育银鲫体内均具有良好的组织分布,肾脏、肌肉、肝胰脏、鳃和血液5种组织中的药物浓度时间曲线下总面积(AUC)分别为624.2、965.9、721.8、298.0、239.6μg·h·mL-1和465.3、343.1、542.9、411.4、205.9μg·h·mL-1,最大药物浓度(Cmax)分别为33.48、16.91、26.44、18.71μg·g-1和15.30μg·mL-1,9.20、5.39、7.78、6.88μg·g-1和4.50μg·mL-1;药物在各组织中消除时间较长,消除半衰期(T1/2β)分别为169.0、141.4、113.4、36.7、63.5h和27.3、49.2、77.0、38.5、62.7h.结论:恩诺沙星以10mg·kg-1剂量单次口服给药,对细菌引起的异育银鲫病可以起到较好的治疗作用,但需注意药物残留问题.

  8. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe;

    2010-01-01

    and nitrite on the O2 consumption rate and isometric twitch force development in electrically paced ventricular preparations during hypoxia, and measured O2 affinity and nitrite reductase activity of the purified heart Mbs of both species. Upon hypoxia (9% O2), O2 consumption and developed force decreased...

  9. 二倍体鲫鲤F2产生不同倍性卵子的证据%Evidence of Different Ploidy Eggs Produced by Diploid F2 Hybrids of Carassius auratus (♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 孙远东; 罗凯坤; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    在检测到鲫鲤F2产生3种不同大小(直径分别为0.13 cm,0.17cm和0.2 cm)类型的卵子基础上,进行了F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)及F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)的交配实验.通过染色体计数和流式细胞仪分析,在F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)后代中获得了四倍体、三倍体、二倍体鱼;在F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)后代中获得了四倍体和三倍体鱼.这两个交配组合后代中出现的不同倍性的鱼类为证明鲫鲤F2能产生三倍体、二倍体和单倍体卵子提供了进一步证据.F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)中雄性四倍体鱼的存在说明在四倍体后代中存在基因型为XXXY的个体.对上述两个交配组合后代的四倍体鱼和三倍体鱼的性腺结构观察表明:四倍体鱼是可育的,而三倍体鱼是不育的.作者认为鲫鲤F2能够产生二倍体和三倍体卵子与核内复制机制和生殖细胞的融合有关.%Based on the presence of three types of eggs with different diameters 0.13, 0.17 and 0.2 cm, we made two crosses: F2 (♀)by × diploid red crucian carp (♂), and F2 (♀) × F10 tetraploid (♂). The ploidy levels of the progeny of the two crosses were examined chromosome counting and DNA content measurement by flow cytometer. In the offspring of the former cross, tetraploids, triploids, and diploid were obtained. In the progeny of the latter cross, tetraploids and triploids were observed. The production of the different ploidy level fish in the progeny of the two crosses provided a further evidence that F2 might generate triploid, diploid and XXXY probably existed in the tetraploid progeny. The gonadal structures of the tetraploids and triploids indicated that both female and male tetraploids were fertile and the triploids were sterile. We concluded that the formations of different ploidy level eggs from F2 were contributed by endoreduplication and fusion of germ cells.

  10. Effects of Roxarsone on Na+-K+-ATPase Activity and DNA Damage in Carassius auratus%洛克沙胂对鲫鱼两种生态毒理学指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 李浩; 张斌

    2009-01-01

    采用静态试验法,将鲫鱼暴露于4、16、64 mg·L-1洛克沙胂中48、96、144 h后,检测了鱼鳃、.肾脏和肝的Na+-K+-ATP酶活性.结果表明,在同一组织中,随着处理浓度的提高.洛克沙胂对鲫鱼各组织Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制作用增强.对于不同组织.同一处理浓度的洛克沙胂对鲫鱼鳃中Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制作用更为明显,其次是肝和肾(P<0.01).在同一浓度下,洛克沙胂对鲫鱼各组织Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制率呈明显的时间-效应关系,暴露时间越长,抑制率越高(P<0.01).此外,单细胞凝胶电泳试验(SCGE)结果表明,鲫鱼暴露于0.5、1、2 mg·L-1洛克沙胂中72 h能引起鲫鱼肾细胞明显的DNA损伤,并在设定剂量范围内呈现一定的剂量-效应关系;同时,鲫鱼肾细胞于体外暴露于1、10、100、500、1 000mg·L-1洛克沙胂3、6、12 h后,可引起严重的DNA损伤.

  11. 洛克沙胂在鲫鱼体内的残留及消除动力学研究%Studies on the residue and elimination of roxarsone in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永学; 陈杖榴; 刘志昌; 陈展飞

    2004-01-01

    本文对洛克沙胂在鲫鱼体内的砷残留及消除动力学进行了研究,鲫鱼在室内水池洛克沙胂溶液10 mg/L(以As计)中连续暴露15天进行富集残留试验后转入清水中进行消除试验.采用微波消解处理和氢化物-原子荧光光度法测定鱼鳃、肌肉、血清和内脏中总砷含量.结果表明,砷在鱼体内的表现为吸收和分布较快,肌肉和血清中总砷水平仅为0.3~0.4 mg/kg,内脏中残留最高达30.25 mg/kg.洛克沙胂在鲫鱼组织中消除符合一级速率动力学过程,消除半衰期(t1/2)为2.5~2.8 h,鱼鳃中砷浓度在初始2 h内下降快,此后消除较慢,t1/2为9.45 h.

  12. 转青鱼生长激素基因异源四倍体鲫鲤%Black Carp GH Gene Transgenic Allotetraploid Hybrids of Carassius auratus red var.(♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯浩; 傅永明; 骆剑; 吴慧; 刘筠; 刘少军

    2011-01-01

    The ecological risk is the “bottleneck” for commercialization of transgenic fish. The sterile transgenic triploid fish derived from hydrating the transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is one of the keys to solve this problem.The “all fish” gene construct (pbcAbcGHc) containing Black Carp B-actin gene promoter and cDNA of growth hormone (GH) gene from the same species was introduced into the fertilized eggs of the allotetroploid fish through microinjection. The contrast cultivation results show that the weight and body length of PO of the transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days were much larger than those of the controls. PCR assay was applied among 60 transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days and the integration ratio of the exogenous transplant gene in the genome of the caudal fin is 90%. The transplant gene could be detected in 13 of 20 samples from the sperm of the male transgenic tetraploid fish.The RT-PCR result demonstrates that the transcription of exogenous GH gene could be found in the muscle, liver,kidney and oval of the biggest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed PO of the Black Carp GH gene transgenic tetraploid fish with outstanding growth rate, which made the solid foundation for the pure line establishment of the transgenic tetraploid fish and for developing the sterile transgenic triploid fish.%生态安全性是转基因鱼走向市场的瓶颈,通过转基因四倍体鱼同转基因二倍体鱼杂交获得不育的转基因三倍体鱼是解决该问题的有效途径之一.本研究构建了青鱼β-actin基因启动子和青鱼生长激素(GH)基因精确连接的"金鱼"基因pbcAbcGHc;并采用显微注射法将pbcAbcGHc 导入异源四倍体鲫鲤受精卵.对照养殖结果表明,150日龄的转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤原代(P0)的体重及体长明显大于对照组.选择60尾P0代转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,采用PCR方法检测出外源青鱼GH基因在P0代转基因四倍体尾鳍基因组DNA中的整合率为90%;对20尾雄性P0代转基因四倍体精液样本的PCR检测发现,13个样本具有外源青鱼GH基因的整合.在一尾生长速度显著的P0代转基因四倍体鲫鲤的肌肉、肝脏、肾脏和卵巢组织中可检测到外源青鱼GH基因的转录.本研究成功获得了具有明显生长优势的P0代转青鱼GH基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,为建立转青鱼GH基因异源四倍体鲫鲤纯系和研制不育的转基因三倍体鱼奠定了基础.

  13. Transparent crucian carp Carassius auratus, a fish model suitable for study in vivo%透明鲫——一个适合活体研究的鱼类模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯彬; 汪学杰; 常藕琴; 刘春; 王芳; 马必勇; 梁慧丽; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解鲫成体透明的原因,探讨该性状的应用特性,为透明鲫作为水生实验动物材料系统开发提供基础.方法 对透明鲫进行繁殖,并观察其后代性状,了解透明性状的遗传规律;体视镜观察透明鲫色素细胞的种类与分布,并与鲫比较;组织切片和压片确认微孢子虫对透明鲫的感染,并观察感染症状的变化.结果 鲫的透明性状可以遗传,大部分后代表现为通体透明,心、肝、肾、肠、鳔、鳃、脊椎等组织器官肉眼清晰可见.与正常鲫比较,透明鲫的主要色素细胞为黄色素细胞,并未发现虹彩色素细胞,黑色素细胞的数量也大为减少.微孢子虫对鱼体的感染过程可直观观察,病原的扩散和空间分布能实时获得,具普通鱼类无法比拟的应用优势.结论 虹彩色素细胞的缺失是鲫透明突变的结构基础.由于透明鲫内部器官可直接观测,无需依靠解剖或复杂仪器系统,在同一动物身上可能获得一系列的动态试验数据,或可作为模型材料广泛应用于生命科学不同领域.%Objective To better understand the mechanism of transparency in adult crucian carp, explore its application and provide more evidence to support it as a novel aquatic animal model. Methods The transparent crucian carp was bred,and the phenotype of offsprings was examined to learn the inheritance of the transparent character. A stereo-microscope was used to examine the types and patterns of chromatophores in transparent and common crucian carps. The fish infected with microsporidia were closely monitored. Tissue sections and wet-mounted squashes were prepared to observe the parasites in muscle tissues, and tissue sections were used to characterize the pathological changes under the light microscope. Results The transparent fish were healthy and fertile, showing a inherent character. The mutants manifested as entire transparent body. The main internal organs, such as heart, liver, gut, kidney, swim bladder, gills, and spinal cord, in living fish were visible by naked eye. Compared with common crucian carp, the main chromatophores in the transparent fish was xanthophore, loss of iridophore, and the number of melanophore was reduced. The process of microsporidia infection in transparent mutants can be directly visualized in vivo, and the dynamic, spatial pattern of pathogen invasion could be acquired in a real-time manner, superior to other conventional fish models. Conclusions The absence of iri-dophores underlies the transparent mutant of crucian carp histologically. The changes of internal organs in transparent fish can be observed directly, do not require anatomical or other delicate instruments. A series of dynamic data are likely to be observed from a single transparent fish, therefore, it is expected to be widely used in life science studies.

  14. Digenean parasites of six species of birds from Formosa Province, Argentina Digéneos parásitos de seis especies de aves de la provincia de Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge of the diversity of digenean parasites from birds collected in Formosa Province, Argentina. The helminthological survey of 15 specimens of 6 bird species revealed the presence of 5 digenean species: Clinostomatopsis sorbens (Braun, 1899 and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Clinostomidae from the esophagus of Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert; Glaphyrostomum propinquum Braun, 1901 (Brachylaimidae from the cloaca of Guira guira (Gmelin; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 (Stomylotrematidae from the cloaca of Busarellus nigricollis (Latham and Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham; and Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 (Dicrocoeliidae from the bile canaliculi of G. guira, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot and Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot. The present study adds new morphometric data on 2 species of digeneans (C. sorbens and G. propinquum and new host records for C. sorbens, G. propinquum, A. heterolecithodes and S. vicarium. The genera Clinostomatopsis Dollfus, 1932 and Glaphyrostomum Braun, 1901 are reported for the first time in Argentina.El propósito de este trabajo es incrementar el conocimiento sobre la diversidad de digéneos parásitos de aves recolectadas en la provincia de Formosa, Argentina. El estudio helmintológico de 15 ejemplares de 6 especies de aves reveló la presencia de 5 especies de digéneos: Clinostomatopsis sorbens (Braun, 1899 y Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Clinostomidae halladas en el esófago de Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert; Glaphyrostomum propinquum Braun, 1901 (Brachylaimidae recolectada de la cloaca de Guira guira (Gmelin; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 (Stomylotrematidae encontrada en la cloaca de Busarellus nigricollis (Latham y Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 (Dicrocoeliidae hallada en los canalículos biliares de G. guira, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot y Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot. El presente estudio

  15. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  16. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  17. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Peregrin

    Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  18. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  19. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  20. cDNA cloning of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and expression of the active region as myofibril-bound serine proteinase inhibitor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Long; Cao, Min-Jie; Shi, Chao-lan; Wei, Xiao-Nan; Li, Huan; Du, Cui-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) (EC 5.3.1.9) can act as a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) inhibitor (MBSPI) in fish. In order to better understand the biological information of the GPI and its functional domain for inhibiting MBSP, the cDNA of GPI was cloned from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) with RT-PCR, nested-PCR and 3'-RACE. The result of sequencing showed that the GPI cDNA had an open reading frame of 1662bp encoding 553 amino acid residues. After constructing and comparing the three-dimensional structures of GPI and MBSP, the middle fragment of crucian carp GPI (GPI-M) was predicted as a functional domain for inhibiting MBSP. Then the crucian carp GPI-M gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the recombinant GPI-M (rGPI-M) with molecular mass of approximately 21kDa in the form of inclusion bodies. The rGPI-M was obtained at an electrophoresis level purity of approximately 95% after denaturation and dialysis renaturation.

  1. 光叶三角梅'Formosa'叶片挥发性组分的GC-MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Components from Bougainvillea glabra 'Formosa'by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夙侠; 黄青云; 刘鸿洲; 林春松

    2009-01-01

    三角梅不仅观赏性强,而且具有多方面的保健作用.为了阐明三角梅的次生代谢机制,本研究采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取光叶三角梅(Bougainvillea glabra 'Formosa')叶的挥发性成分,并通过GC-MS法进行定性和定量分析.本试验共分离出61种成分,经NIST数据库检索、与标准谱图比较,鉴定出47个化学组分,占总挥发性组分含量的90%以上.结果表明,该三角梅叶中含有叶醛、植醇、棕榈酸、对乙烯基愈创木酚、柠檬烯等对人体有益的化合物.

  2. Comportamento pós-colheita de mamões Formosa 'Tainung 01' acondicionados em diferentes embalagens para o transporte Post harvest behavior of Papaya Formosa 'Tainung 01' conditioned in different packings for transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a comportamento pós-colheita de mamões do grupo Formosa híbrido 'Tainung 01', submetidos a diferentes formas de acondicionamento para o transporte rodoviário, desde o local da produção até o mercado atacadista. Foram utilizados mamões colhidos nos estádios 1 (até 10% da área superficial da casca com cor amarela e 3 (25 a 40% da área superficial da casca com cor amarela, acondicionados sob diferentes formas: a granel, em caixas de madeira, em caixas de papelão ondulado e em caixas plásticas forradas com plástico-bolha (controle, e transportados a Viçosa-MG, distante 750 km da produção, onde os frutos foram avaliados. Após seleção e novo acondicionamento, os frutos foram armazenamento a 24,5 ± 2ºC por 8 dias, com amostragens a cada 2 dias, para avaliação de índice de cor da casca, perda de massa fresca, taxa respiratória, firmeza da polpa e o índice de injúrias mecânicas. Os resultados evidenciaram os efeitos depreciativos das injúrias mecânicas na qualidade final do mamão, sendo que o transporte de frutos a granel, em relação ao controle, promoveu alterações na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos, com aumento do índice de cor da casca, redução na firmeza da polpa, elevada perda de massa fresca e taxa respiratória, e maiores percentagens de área da casca injuriada, nos dois estádios de coloração estudados (1,14 e 1,21%, respectivamente. As caixas de papelão ondulado e caixas plásticas forradas com plástico-bolha mantiveram baixa a percentagem de área injuriada em relação aos transportados a granel, constituindo-se em alternativas promissoras na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de mamão Formosa destinado ao mercado interno.The aim of this study was to evaluate the post harvest behavior of papaya from the hybrid group Formosa 'TAINUNG 01' stored in different packages for road transportation, from the farm to the wholesale market. It was used papaya picked

  3. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman,Bernardo; Ferreira,Lydia Masako; Bôas, Flaviane Cássia Vilas [UNIFESP; Mariano, Mario

    2004-01-01

    To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of gra...

  4. On the record of pug-headedness in snapper, Pagrus auratus (Forster, 1801 (Perciformes, Sparidae from New Zealand

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    Laith JAWAD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pug-headedness in the snapper Pagrus auratus is reported for the first time from New Zealand, based on a specimen (aged 2+ collected from Whangarei Harbour. Severe damage to the underlying bones of the mouth and snout regions was noted. The mouth of the specimen was virtually closed. Several factors were attributed to the cause of these anomalies among which are genetic and epigenetic causes.

  5. Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

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    Sait BULUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.

  6. CONFIGURACIONES DE LA RELACIÓN DE CIUDADANÍA ENTRE LOS TOBAS DE FORMOSA: LO UNIVERSAL Y LO PARTICULAR

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    Valeria I\\u00F1igo Carrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone una reflexión sobre las formas políticas en que la acumulación de capital se organiza de manera directa e tre los tobas del este de la provincia de Formosa. Para ello, parte de señalar que la relación de ciudadanía se constituye en la expresión plena del sujeto político en la organización capitalista de la producción social. Seguidamente, avanza sobre la tensi entre la condición general, la de ciudadano del Estado argentino, y la condición específica de indígena. Asimismo, el trabajo se ocupa de los carices que asume el ejercicio de esa relación en cuanto a la premisa de universalidad en ella contenida, a partir de la consagración de derechos especiales destinados a los pueblos indígenas. Aborda, en definitiva, la construcción de un tipo particular de ciudadanía para el sujeto indígena. Se aproxima, por último, a la producción de los tobas como "clientes políticos".

  7. Primer registro de Elachistocleis skotogaster Lavilla, Vaira & Ferrari, 2003 (Anura: Microhylidae para la provincia de Formosa, Argentina

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    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre el 4 de marzo y el 25 de abril de 2011, en 6 sistemas de trampas instalados en la Provinciade Formosa, Ciudad de Las Lomitas, Departamento Patiño, Ruta Nacional N° 81, Establecimiento Sumayen 2000 (24°39'49,4" S; 60°38'29,9" O; 137 m.s.n.m.; datum WGS84, fueron colectados 32 microhílidos con vientre gris manchado de blanco, y características franjas y manchas de color naranja endiferentes partes de las patas, axilas e ingle. Dichos ejemplares, correspondientes al género Elachistocleis se encuentran depositados en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Herpetología del Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral. Luego de analizar los ejemplares colectados (fijados y preservados en formol al 10% consideramos que se trata de E. skotogaster por presentarlas siguientes características morfológicas externas especificadas por Lavilla et al. (2003.

  8. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): implications for the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment-water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007-08 for nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were also collected for pore water nutrients and microphytobenthic chlorophyll a. Measurements of temperature, salinity and photosynthetic active radiation were also taken. The lagoon salinity is affected by occasional strong rainfall events. From comparison with previous work, a decrease in the nitrogen concentration in the water column can be observed, which may indicate an improvement of the water quality. Pore water nutrient concentrations were significantly larger than in the water column. Sediment-water exchanges are considered to be the most important processes in nutrient dynamics of the lagoon. Benthic microalgal biomass was also large compared with that of the phytoplankton. It represents about 99% of the total microalgal chlorophyll biomass of the system. The lagoon also contains (discontinuous) meadows of intertidal seagrass, but we did not study these. Due to the importance of sediments, the standard monitoring plans required by the Water Framework Directive may fail to track changes in the nutrient conditions and the microalgal responses to them.

  9. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, A D; Pond, V; Dailey, K

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  10. Aging changes in the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the guppy Poecilia reticulatus and the Amazon molly P. formosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Pond, V.; Dailey, K.

    1983-01-01

    Histological surveys of the kidneys of two poeciliid fishes, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and the guppy P. reticulatus, throughout their lifespans showed no regular aging trends. Few kidney lesions were found in the Amazon molly until very late in life, 60 months or more, when obsolescent glomeruli and dilated renal tubules occurred. Guppies showed involutional changes of the renal system earlier, and the lesions became more severe with age, particularly in male fish. Hemopoietic tissue was reduced in amount in older fish of both species. Guppies of a year and older had marked accumulation of melanin in the melanomacrophage centers of the kidney, and the amount present increased with age. By contrast, there was little melanin deposition in mollies until almost the end of the lifespan. Hyaline droplets were consistently seen in the renal tubules of the mollies, but were rare in guppies. The degenerative changes in the kidneys of these two teleosts are similar to those seen in the kidneys of aging mammals. Despite the loss of normal structure in older fish, it seemed unlikely that degeneration of the kidney was directly involved in aging and death.

  11. 基于SCAR标记技术的丽蚜小蜂快速识别%SCAR marker for rapid identification of Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐锐; 张桂芬; 贤振华; 万方浩

    2012-01-01

    丽蚜小蜂Encarsia formosa Gahan作为温室粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood和烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)等粉虱类害虫的优势寄生蜂而备受关注.针对丽蚜小蜂体型微小,难以与其他同域近缘种寄生蜂快速、准确区别的问题,本研究采用SCAR(sequence characterized amplified region,特异性扩增区域)标记技术,筛选出一对丽蚜小蜂特征片段扩增引物(EFZZF/EFZZR),其扩增片段的大小为287 bp.种特异性检验结果表明,该对引物只对丽蚜小蜂的基因组DNA具有扩增能力,对其近缘种属寄生蜂如浅黄恩蚜小蜂Encarsia sophia(Girault & Dodd)、海氏桨角蚜小蜂Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose、本地未知种桨角蚜小蜂Eretmocerus sp.、蒙氏桨角蚜小蜂Eretmocerus mundus Mercet、刺粉虱黑蜂Amitus hesperidum Silvertri不具有扩增效果,对丽蚜小蜂的寄主包括不同生物型(B型、Q型、ZHJ-1型和ZHJ-2型)的烟粉虱、温室粉虱以及我国最常见的黑刺粉虱Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintanca)等亦不具有扩增能力.同时,该检测技术灵敏度高,对成虫的最低检出阈值为7.812 ng/μL(相当于1/1 600头成虫).研究结果对丽蚜小蜂的种类识别、寄主谱的确定及其有效利用具有重要意义.%Encarsia formosa Gahan ( Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is the dominant parasitoid of important whitefly species, such as Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Most of the Aphelinidae species are small and morphologically similar, and this makes them hard to be identified accurately. In this study, a pair of SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) primers (EFZZF/ EFZZR) which are specific to En. formosa was developed by using other five common Aphelinidae species and four biotypes of B. tabaci as the control. The fragment amplified by these primer pairs was 287 bp in length. Species specificity test showed that all En. formosa specimens were detected with no cross

  12. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tello Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. Para estandarizar el proceso de cría masiva de E. formosa, se evaluaron tres densidades diferentes de liberación de las avispas (6, 12 y 18 avispas/planta en tres frecuencias de liberación (1, 2 y 3 veces/semana, sobre plantas de tomate de ocho semanas de edad con tres niveles de infestación (15, 30 y 45 ninfas de mosca blanca/hoja, susceptibles de ser parasitadas. El mayor porcentaje de parasitismo (70% en ninfas de tercer instar se logró cuando se liberaron seis avispas por planta, dosificadas en tres momentos diferentes en la misma semana. El menor porcentaje de parasitismo (50%, se obtuvo cuando se realizó una sola liberación de 6, 12 o 18 avispas. Los resultados anteriores permiten concluir que se puede lograr un porcentaje de parasitismo en torno a un 70% de la infestación de mosca blanca (hasta 45 ninfas/hoja en plantas de tomate con pocas avispas de E. formosa (seis cuando se liberan en tres momentos diferentes.

  13. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish.

  14. Discovery of "Hydrothermal" Chemosynthetic Community in a Cold Seep Environment, Formosa Ridge: Seafloor Observation Results from First ROV Cruise, off Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiyama, H.; Lin, S.; Fujikura, K.; Huang, C.; Ku, C.; Lin, L.; Liu, C.; Morita, S.; Nunoura, T.; Soh, W.; Toki, T.; Yang, T. F.

    2007-12-01

    First ROV diving survey has been conducted around the selected three sites (Formosa Ridge, Sites C and G) in offshore SW Taiwan, where gas hydrate broadly occurs within the thick Quaternary marine sediments. The Formosa Ridge and Site G are located in the South China Sea Continental Slope, whereas Site C is located in the frontal portion of a fault-bend fold in the accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan. Large, dense chemosynthetic communities were discovered at water depth of about 1120 - 1140 m on the top of the Formosa Ridge by direct observation using ROV Hyper-Dolphin of JAMSTEC. Colonies are distributed in depressions or fissures of large, carbon-depleted authigenic carbonates. The community is dominated by deep- sea mussel, Bathymodiolus platifrons, and galatheid crab, Shinkaia crosnieri. Most of species corresponds to those of hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, such as the Hatoma Knoll and the Iheya Ridge. Methane gas bubbles were found within the colony, and methane hydrate was also found beneath the aggregation of B. platifrons, which is harboured endosymbiont methanotroph in their gill in the Okinawa Trough. On the other hand, S. crosnieri from the Okinawa Trough culture numerous epibiont sulfur-oxidizing bacteria on their carapace. Therefore, they require high concentration of H2S from the subseafloor fluids. Single channel seismic profiles show the presence of clear BSR underneath the Formosa Ridge, and suggest the possible upward migration of gassy fluids beneath the top of the ridge. Therefore, the 'hydrothermal' chemosynthetic communities are supported by unusual high concentrations of methane and H2S fluids from the subseafloor. This is first discovery of "hydrothermal" chemosynthetic communities in cold seep environments of the world. No active seeps and the related phenomena are found around the Site G. Large seep carbonates around the summit are often covered by mud veneer and organisms. Therefore, this mud volcano is inferred to be

  15. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangjun; Schlupp, Ingo; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs’ embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars) and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers) and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as), in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess–as most other teleost fish—two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a)/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b), respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary) and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the analyzed

  16. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  17. Sistema de salud pública y comunidades indígenas de la Provincia de Formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina S. Mirassou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Relato de la experiencia de la autora en el ejercicio de la medicina y la salud pública entre los aborígenes de la provincia de Formosa, Argentina; la experiencia cubre 34 años, 11 de los cuales la realizó en una pequeña comunidad Wichí ubicada en el extremo noroeste, lindante con la provincia de Salta, Bolivia y Paraguay. De los 530 162 habitantes de la provincia 43 358 (6.5% son pueblos originarios de las etnias Wichí, Qom, y Pilagá. Los problemas particulares de estas comunidades se deben a las distancias entre las comunidades y los servicios médicos regulares, y a las diferencias culturales. La situación mejoró en los últimos 30 años al facilitar y acercar los servicios médicos a las poblaciones, incorporar y mejorar la preparación de las parteras aborígenes, formar agentes sanitarios, auxiliares médicos y la mejora de las condiciones sociales en general. Los resultados más destacados fueron la disminución de los índices de mortalidad infantil, de la incidencia de tuberculosis, ninguna muerte por meningitis tuberculosa desde 1999. Es de importancia haber incorporado a la enseñanza los idiomas propios de las etnias y el manifiesto respeto a sus diferentes costumbres. Los cambios originaron nuevos riesgos: accidentes viales, alcoholismo en los jóvenes, obesidad, diabetes (antes no diagnosticada, y crisis de liderazgo en las comunidades.

  18. Relating Magnetic Parameters to Heavy Metal Concentrations and Environmental Factors at Formosa Mine Superfund Site, Douglas County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the field of environmental magnetism have led to exciting new applications for this field. Magnetic minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and tend to have an affinity for heavy metals. Hence, it has been demonstrated that magnetic properties are often significantly related to concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants. As a result, magnetic techniques have been used as proxy for determining hot spots of several types of pollution produced from a diversity of anthropogenic sources. Magnetic measurements are non-destructive and relatively inexpensive compared to geochemical analyses. The utility of environmental magnetic methods varies widely depending on biological, chemical and physical processes that create and transform soils and sediments. Applications in the direction of mapping heavy metals have been studied and shown to be quite useful in countries such as China and India but to date, little research has been done in the US. As such, there is need to expand the scope of research to a wider range of soil types and land uses, especially within the US. This study investigates the application of environmental magnetic techniques to mapping of heavy metal concentrations at the Formosa Mine Superfund Site, an abandoned mine about 25 miles southwest of Roseburg, OR. The soils and sediment at this site are derived from pyrite-rich bedrock which is weak in terms of magnetic susceptibility. Using hotspot analysis, correlation and cluster analyses, interactions between metals and magnetic parameters are investigated in relation to environmental factors such as proximity to seeps and adits. Preliminary results suggest significant correlation of magnetic susceptibility with certain heavy metals, signifying that magnetic methods may be useful in mapping heavy metal hotspots at this site. Further analysis examines the relation of various land use differences in magnetic signatures obtained throughout the Cow Creek watershed.

  19. Priority substances in a SW European coastal lagoon - Ria Formosa, Portugal. Twenty years of temporal evolution of metals and butyltins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Carvalho, Pedro; Paquete, Rita; Nuno Duarte, Duarte; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the European Union has decided to specifically include nickel, cadmium, plumb and TBT in its list of priority substances in water. Trace metals pose a significant threat to organisms because above threshold availability, act as enzyme inhibitors resulting in adverse ecological effects to sediment-associated biota (e.g. macrophytes, benthos, demersal fish) and to higher-biota (e.g. pelagic fish and aquatic birds). Since 2003 International Maritime Organization called for a ban of the application of tributyltin-based paints. Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and persistence of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their potential biomagnification in the food webs, and their adverse effects to human health and environment, particularly most recent reviews focuses on possible endocrine disrupting effects of OT's (Galloway, 2006; Nakanishi, 2007; Takahashi et al., 1999; Veltman et al., 2006). Saltmarshes are highly heterogeneous environments that have been suffered pressures by the increasing urbanization and industrialization in the adjacent areas. Saltmarsh sediments integrate inputs of contaminants, like metals and organotin compounds and may act as long-term sources of contaminants. At the Ria Formosa saltmarsh several activities were responsible for long-term contaminants, some of them considered priority substances. This work aims to provide information about the present levels and temporal evolution in the last decades of metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Cd and Ag, in addition to Fe and Al) and butyltins (TBT, DBT and MBT) in saltmarsh sediments at south of Portugal. Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS. Butyltins were determined, after derivatization, by solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results showed that legislation was an effective instrument for the decreasing of contamination levels, to sustainable values to ecosystem

  20. Transfusion medicine in the Formosa Fun Coast water park explosion: The role of combined tissue and blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Yeh, Chin-Chuan; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2016-10-01

    The Formosa Fun Coast explosion, occurring in a recreational water park located in the Northern Taiwan on 27 June 2015, made 499 people burn-injured. For those who had severe burn trauma, surgical intervention and fluid resuscitation were necessary, and potential blood transfusion therapy could be initiated, especially during and after broad escharotomy. Here, we reviewed the literature regarding transfusion medicine and skin grafting as well as described the practicing experience of combined tissue and blood bank in the burn disaster in Taiwan. It was reported that patients who were severely burn-injured could receive multiple blood transfusions during hospitalization. Since the use of skin graft became a mainstay alternative for wound coverage after the early debridement of burn wounds at the beginning of the 20th century, the development of tissue banking program was initiated. In Taiwan, the tissue banking program was started in 2006. And the first combined tissue and blood bank was established in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital in 2010, equipped with the non-sterile, clean and sterile zones distinctly segregated with a unidirectional movement in the sterile area. The sterile zone was a class 10000 clean room equipped with high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPAF) and positive air pressure ventilation. The combined tissue and blood bank has been able to provide the assigned blood products and tissue graft timely and accurately, with the concepts of centralized management. In the future, the training of tissue and blood bank technicians would be continued and fortified, particularly on the regulation and quality control for further bio- and hemovigilance.

  1. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  2. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae from Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rivera Félix

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical, and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta’s length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05 for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001 showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05 and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05.

  3. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  4. Argon laser-induced damage in the goldfish (C. auratus) retina following whole-body hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Michael A.; Lund, David J.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Ann M.; Cowan, Beth L.; Lester, Paul; Odom, Daniel G.

    1990-07-01

    The heat shock response is a phenomenon common to all cells and is characterized by an increase in the rate of synthesis of intracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) . The response occurs following rapid transient increases in terrerature sufficient to cause stress but not cell death. HSPs appear to perform protective functions that raise the cell''s tolerance to diverse noxious stimuli. Thus we postulated that we could limit laser-induced retinal darriage through induction of the heat shock -response. Corrmon goldfish (C. auratus) made hyperthermic by immersion in 35C water for 15 minutes and radiolabeled with [355]methionine showed retinal liSPs with apparent molecular weights of 110 90 70 and 35 kilodaltons. To test the protective effects of HSPs against laser injury goldfish were made hyperthermic and 4 and 24 hr later their retinas were irradiated with argon laser light (51 4 . 5 nm spot size at the cornea 3. 0 mm irradiance 125 mW/cm2) . NonhyperLhermic animals served as controls. Following 24 hr of recovery fish were terminated and retinas fixed for histology. Fundus photographs were taken irrunediately after laser exposure . Lesion diameters were measured from fundus photographs and evaluated statistically. The mean retinal lesion diameters of fish not subjected to hyperthermJ. a laser exposed 4 hr post hyperLhermia and laser exposed 24 hr post hyperthermia were 10. 25 1. 4 SD 8. 82 2. 1 SD and 6. 78

  5. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Verónica Rivera; Martínez-Pérez, José Antonio; Molina, Jacob Rubio; Emiliano, Rafael; Zuñiga, Quintanar; López, Jonathan Franco

    2013-03-01

    Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical), and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta's length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05) for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001) showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05) and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05).

  6. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  7. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Valverde, Joanna Gardel; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Plácido-Pereira, Rosa Maria; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2013-05-01

    The lack of an adequate model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection is a limiting factor for studying American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a promising model because besides being highly susceptible to dermotropic Leishmania infection, the lesions are very similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans. However, different Leishmania isolates or species and/or protocols have resulted in different outcomes, whereas no study has evaluated the reproducibility of L. braziliensis infection in this model. The natural history of L. braziliensis infection in 34 hamsters was evaluated by using a single parasite isolate in 8 independent experiments under similar experimental conditions. Clinical, histological and immunological analyses were performed. The hamsters presented skin ulcers similar to those observed in ATL. The intra-experiment lesion increment tended to show an intermediary variance. Histological analysis of infected skins showed granulomatous reaction, scarce amastigotes, and Schaumann's bodies. Blood lymphocytes proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. The severity of the infection was positively correlated to spleen weight, and the titres of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies. Our findings indicate that the hamster is an appropriate model for immunopathogenesis studies of CL caused by L. braziliensis, supporting its use in clinical, vaccine and chemotherapy experimental protocols.

  8. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  9. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  10. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  11. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Histopathological changes caused by the metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) in the gut of the gibel carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, K

    2005-01-01

    Metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) were found in the gut of some gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) specimens from a Hungarian water reservoir. Location of metacestodes in the freshly opened gut was marked with disseminated, red-coloured, pinhead-sized nodules in the anterior part of the intestine. In histological sections, metacestodes were found in a hole inside the propria layer of the intestinal folds. The worms were in direct contact with the host tissue without being encapsulated as a result of host reaction. In some specimens with extruded rostellum the rostellar hooks were bored into the host tissue and suckers grabbed pieces of the surrounding connective tissue. Around the worms, congested capillaries and formation of macrophages were seen in the lysed connective tissue.

  13. Keloid heterograft in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch Heteroenxerto de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Bernardo Hochman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of keloid heterograft in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample is formed by 18 male hamsters, heterogenic ones, aged between 10 and 14 weeks. Keloid fragments were obtained from keloid scars of the breast region of adult female mulatto patient. Each hamster received keloid fragments into both of its pouches, in a total of 36 grafted fragments. Animals were distributed into 6 groups for having their grafts assessed in the days 5, 12, 21, 42, 84, and 168. A macroscopic assessment is performed by comparing the pouch containing the grafted fragment, at each time point, with the same pouch in the immediate post surgical moment through a comparison of standardized photographs. Under microscope, the presence of blood vases is considered within the conjunctive tissue of the grafted fragment, as a criterion of its integration. Other events, as keratin secretion, the presence of cellular infiltrated, epithelium and keloid collagen fibers aspects are also analyzed. RESULTS: Macroscopy reveals intensive vascularization of the pouch up to 12 days from the transplantation and the presence of constant dark brown pigmentation on the grafted keloid fragments. In microscopy, the integration of keloid fragments is considered by the presence of blood capillary vases within conjunctive tissue. The presence of intensive cellular inflammatory type infiltrated up to 12 days is also observed, as well as the remaining of keloid epithelium up to 21 days, and the appearing of melanocytes from the day 42. CONCLUSION: Hamster cheek pouch represents, a priori, an experimental model for the investigation of keloid.OBJETIVO: Investigar a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, heterogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloidianas da região mam

  14. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nayara Luiz; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Kisaka, Tiago Borges; Simplicio, Nathan de Castro Soares; Bortoluzzi, Lilian; Lima, Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino

    2015-01-01

    The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies. PMID:26334283

  15. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Luiz Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies.

  16. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Rotllant, J.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and

  17. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  18. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  19. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  20. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Malcolm

    Full Text Available Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ, partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ, and areas outside (Outside the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP, Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002. Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58% that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL. HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  1. Mechanisms Explaining Nursery Habitat Association: How Do Juvenile Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) Benefit from Their Nursery Habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M.; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T.; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D.; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species. PMID:25803443

  2. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

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    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  3. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

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    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  4. A new recombinant endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase from the marine bacterium Formosa algae KMM 3553: enzyme characteristics and transglycosylation products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaykin, Mikhail I; Belik, Alexey A; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Rasskazov, Valerii A; Isakov, Vladimir V; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2017-02-01

    A specific endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase (GFA) gene was found in genome of marine bacterium Formosa algae KMM 3553. For today this is the only characterized endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) in Formosa genus and the only bacterial EC 3.2.1.39 GH16 endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase with described transglycosylation activity. It was expressed in E. coli and isolated in homogeneous state. Investigating the products of polysaccharides digestion with GFA allowed to establish it's substrate specificity and classify this enzyme as glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.39). The amino-acid sequence of GFA consists of 556 residues and shows sequence similarity of 45-85% to β-1,3-glucanases of bacteria belonging to the CAZy 16th structural family of glycoside hydrolases GH16. Enzyme has molecular weight 61 kDa, exhibits maximum of catalytic activity at 45 °C, pH 5.5. Half-life period at 45 °С is 20 min, complete inactivation happens at 55 °C within 10 min. Km for hydrolysis of laminarin is 0.388 mM. GFA glucanase from marine bacteria F. algae is one of rare enzymes capable to catalyze reactions of transglycosylation. It catalyzed transfer of glyconic part of substrate molecule on methyl-β-D-xylopyranoside, glycerol and methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside. The enzyme can be used in structure determination of β-1,3-glucans (or mixed 1,3;1,4- and 1,3;1,6-β-D-glucans) and enzymatic synthesis of new carbohydrate-containing compounds.

  5. Pastoreo caprino en el monte formoseño (Argentina - (Goat cattle shepherding in formosa mount (Argentine

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    HELGUERO, pedro Santiago

    2005-11-01

    includes all those behaviors acquired in the course of the life, across the learning, by means of the test-mistake (positive and negative experiences and that changes from an individual to other one of the same species. The goats are outlined for the mobility and sensibility of the top lips, the thin and long structure of the face, the good capacity of opening of the mouth, the skill to consume leaned on two legs, particularity that allows the goats to surviving in unfavorable environments, where the food shortage is frequent. In the present workshop the forest species were not identified in the surface of shepherding in reason of which the aim of the same one was: To identify the habits and routines during the shepherding of the goats, in the mount of Formosa. To analyze the habits and routines during the shepherding of the goats were had in one count the following

  6. Detecting the changes in rural communities in Taiwan by applying multiphase segmentation on FORMOSA-2 satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yishuo

    2015-09-01

    regions containing roads, buildings, and other manmade construction works and the class with high values of NDVI indicates that those regions contain vegetation in good health. In order to verify the processed results, the regional boundaries were extracted and laid down on the given images to check whether the extracted boundaries were laid down on buildings, roads, or other artificial constructions. In addition to the proposed approach, another approach called statistical region merging was employed by grouping sets of pixels with homogeneous properties such that those sets are iteratively grown by combining smaller regions or pixels. In doing so, the segmented NDVI map can be generated. By comparing the areas of the merged classes in different years, the changes occurring in the rural communities of Taiwan can be detected. The satellite imagery of FORMOSA-2 with 2-m ground resolution is employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The satellite imagery of two rural communities (Jhumen and Taomi communities) is chosen to evaluate environmental changes between 2005 and 2010. The change maps of 2005-2010 show that a high density of green on a patch of land is increased by 19.62 ha in Jhumen community and conversely a similar patch of land is significantly decreased by 236.59 ha in Taomi community. Furthermore, the change maps created by another image segmentation method called statistical region merging generate similar processed results to multiphase segmentation.

  7. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  8. Qualidade pós-colheita do mamão formosa 'Tainung 01' comercializados em diferentes estabelecimentos no Município de Mossoró-RN Postharvest quality of 'Tainung 01' papaya formosa traded in different types of establishments

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    Luciana Morais de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita do mamão Formosa cv. Tainung 01, comercializado em diferentes tipos de estabelecimento do município de Mossoró-RN. Os frutos foram coletados em três tipos de estabelecimentos comerciais. Os dias das coletas foram considerados como blocos e os locais de comercialização, como tratamentos. Houve grande incidência de manchas, injúrias, deformações e podridões que comprometeram a aparência externa dos frutos. A aparência externa não comprometeu a qualidade física e química do mamão, independentemente do tipo de estabelecimento.The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the post harvest quality of cv. Tainung 01 papaya Formosa, traded in different types of establishments in Mossoró city, RN. The fruits were collected in three types of establishments. The days of the collections were the blocks and the local marketing the treatments. There was a high incidence of spots, insults, deformation and decay that undertook the external appearance of fruits. The external appearance did not compromise the quality of physical chemistry papaya regardless of the type of the establishment.

  9. Resposta de fêmeas de Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae aos odores do hospedeiro e da planta-hospedeira em olfatômetro de quatro vias Response of female Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae to host and plant-host odors

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    Kátia Maria Medeiros de Siqueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente importância da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci raça B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae como praga agrícola tem incentivado a busca de inimigos naturais que possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico. Estudou-se a atração de fêmeas de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae aos odores emanados pelo seu hospedeiro - a mosca-branca B. tabaci raça B - em plantas de tomate, em olfatômetro de quatro vias. O parasitóide não apresentou atração aos odores da planta de tomate nem ao complexo planta de tomate-ninfas de B. tabaci.The increasing importance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci race B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae as one of the major agricultural pest of this century, has resulted in a search for natural enemies that can be used in biological control programs. The response of naive females of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidaeto volatiles from its hostspecies: insect (B. tabacci race B and plant (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill. were tested using 4-nose olfactometre. Parasitoid was not attracted by neither or insect hostspecies volatile.

  10. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B-biotype and parasitism by Encarsia formosa (Gahan on collard, soybean and tomato plants Aspectos biológicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B e parasitismo por Encarsia formosa (Gahan em couve, soja e tomateiro

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    Karina Manami Takahashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B-biotype (= B. argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a polyphagous insect attacking many plant species of economic importance. A comparison study was conducted on the duration of the egg-to-adult period, and the percentage of hatching eggs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B-biotype on collard (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C., soybean(Glycine max (L. Merr. and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. plants, as well as the egg-to-adult period of Encarsia formosa (Gahan on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th whitefly nymphal instars on these three plant species. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory (25ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, 14-hour photophase. The duration of the egg-to-adult period of B. tabaci was 19.8 days on collard, 21.2 days on soybean and 22.0 days on tomato. The number of hatched eggs was higher on collard when compared to soybean and tomato plants. Concerning E. formosa regardless of plant species, the duration for the egg-to-adult period was shorter for the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs as compared with the other instars.A mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B é uma praga polífaga que ataca muitas culturas de importância econômica. O controle químico pode causar problemas como o aparecimento de resistência nesse inseto, resíduos nos produtos das culturas, ou mesmo poluição ambiental. Um método alternativo seria o controle biológico, com o parasitóide Encarsia formosa (Gahan, o mais usado contra moscas brancas a nível mundial. Avaliaram-se o tempo de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto e a porcentagem de ninfas eclodidas de B. tabaci (Genn. biótipo B em couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C., soja (Glycine max (L. Merr. e tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., bem como o desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto de E. formosa em ninfas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstares dessa mosca-branca nessas três espécies vegetais. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em laboratório, a 25ºC, 70

  11. 虹鳟性激素与免疫活动的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬

    1999-01-01

    Gonadal maturation is accompanied with adrenocortical bypertrophy in salmonid fish. Sex hormones may also modulate the function of the immune system in fish. In goldfish, Carassius auratus , plasma IgM levels had relations to gonadal maturation. The administra-

  12. [Influence of the sex of the final host on experimental Dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynouard, F; Barrabes, A; Combescot, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental Dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus. The parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. The average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. The same applies to the extent of parasitism: the average number of adult worms is higher when parasitosis occurs in males. However, the sex of the hamster has no influence on the proportion of male and female worms present and the degree of microfilarial count, observed in male hamsters seems to result only from the presence in the same of a greater number of worms.

  13. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  14. Criterios de liberación de Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae para el control de Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

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    Aragón Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Para la toma adecuada de decisiones en el manejo de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, se han propuesto diferentes criterios que buscan reducir el impacto producido por el uso indiscriminado de insecticidas. Sin embargo, estos criterios de decisión son aplicables principalmente al control químico de plagas y no se conoce su uso en programas de control biológico. Por lo tanto, con este trabajo se propuso generar unos criterios de decisión para el control biológico de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos T. vaporariorum con el parasitoide Encarsia formosa, teniendo en cuenta su respuesta funcional y porcentaje de control. En un diseño completamente al azar se ubicaron 18 plantas de tomate de 8 semanas de edad infestadas con 500 ninfas de mosca blanca y 3 plantas como control absoluto. En cada planta se liberaron 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 adultos de E. formosa, con tres repeticiones por densidad. Se registró el número de ninfas melanizadas por efectos del parasitismo de E. formosa a los 12; 19 y 26 días después de la primera liberación y, al finalizar la cosecha, se realizó un conteo de las ninfas de mosca blanca totales. Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que para obtener un control cercano a 80% se debe liberar un parasitoide por cada 17 ninfas de mosca blanca de tercer instar, evaluando el control después de 35 días. Se pueden realizar nuevas liberaciones de E. formosa dirigidas al control de las nuevas ninfas encontradas en los muestreos periódicos del cultivo.

  15. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT

    1998-01-01

    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  16. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

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    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  17. Population Structure and Some Growth Properties of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio in a Mesotrophic Lake

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    Hakki DERELI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hereby study investigated gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in a mesotrophic lake (Lake Beyşehir, Turkey from April 2013 to March 2014, in order to outline population structure and some growth properties of the species. Two water quality variables (Chlorophyll-a, Trophic State Index (TSI were detected seasonally to define trophic status of the lake. Length and weight distributions, length - weight relationship, sex ratio, gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (CF and von Bertalanffy equation were calculated for C. gibelio sampled monthly. Trophic status of the lake was defined as mesotrophic. Total length and weight of C. gibelio samples was determined in the range of 8.5 and 28.4 cm and 15 and 408 g, respectively. Mean total length and weight of individuals were calculated as 17.5 ± 2.37 cm and 88.6 ± 39.02 g, respectively. There was a negative allometry between length and weight for C. gibelio. The fish samples were composed of 52% females and 48% males, between II and VII years old. Spawning period of the species occurred between April and June after GSI values reached their maximum in March. The CF values were validated between 1.5-1.7 besides the mean rate of females and males were 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. The parameters of von Bertalanffy equation were calculated as L∞: 19.8 cm, W∞: 652.9 gr, k: 0.934. In conclusion, C. gibelio has almost lost the economic value since the individuals are smaller than market size (≥ 250 g, probably due to lack of nutrients/mesotrophic situation of Lake Beyşehir.

  18. Assessing land-ocean connectivity via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal): combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Carlos; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Scholten, Jan; Knoeller, Kay; Gröcke, Darren R.; Carvalho, Liliana; Anibal, Jaime; Wilson, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Natural radioactive tracer-based assessments of basin-scale submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are well developed. However, SGD takes place in different modes and the flow and discharge mechanisms involved occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Quantifying SGD while discriminating its source functions therefore remains a major challenge. However, correctly identifying both the fluid source and composition is critical. When multiple sources of the tracer of interest are present, failure to adequately discriminate between them leads to inaccurate attribution and the resulting uncertainties will affect the reliability of SGD solute loading estimates. This lack of reliability then extends to the closure of local biogeochemical budgets, confusing measures aiming to mitigate pollution.Here, we report a multi-tracer study to identify the sources of SGD, distinguish its component parts and elucidate the mechanisms of their dispersion throughout the Ria Formosa - a seasonally hypersaline lagoon in Portugal. We combine radon budgets that determine the total SGD (meteoric + recirculated seawater) in the system with stable isotopes in water (δ2H, δ18O), to specifically identify SGD source functions and characterize active hydrological pathways in the catchment. Using this approach, SGD in the Ria Formosa could be separated into two modes, a net meteoric water input and another involving no net water transfer, i.e., originating in lagoon water re-circulated through permeable sediments. The former SGD mode is present occasionally on a multi-annual timescale, while the latter is a dominant feature of the system. In the absence of meteoric SGD inputs, seawater recirculation through beach sediments occurs at a rate of ˜ 1.4 × 106 m3 day-1. This implies that the entire tidal-averaged volume of the lagoon is filtered through local sandy sediments within 100 days ( ˜ 3.5 times a year), driving an estimated nitrogen (N) load of ˜ 350 Ton N yr-1 into the system

  19. Aspectos do ciclo silvestre do Trypanosoma cruzi em regiões de cerrado (Município de Formosa, Estado de Goiás Aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the region of cerrado (Formosa municipality, State of Goias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Mello

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados resultados de estudos sobre roedores, marsupiais e triatomíneos do norte do municipio de Formosa,Estado de Goiás, e sua importância no ciclo silvestre do T.cruzi. A região estudada esta localizada do ponto de vista geográfico, na "Provincia do Cerrado". Foram coletados 963 roedores, 11 marsupiais e 766 triatomíneos silvestres. O índice de infecção pelo T. cruzi entre os roedores foi de 0,1% e entre os marsupiais 36,3%, enquanto todos os triatomíneos estavam negativos. Face aos aspectos ecológicos estudados, discute-se o papel desempenhado por roedores e marsupiais na manutenção e circulação do T. cruzi em ambiente silvestre. Alguns aspectos epidemiológicos no ambiente doméstico foram também abordados.Studies were carried out on the role of rodents, marsupials and triatoma bugs in the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi. The area studied, located in the county of formosa, State of Goiás, Brasil, belongs to the "Província do Cerrado". The following animals were collected and examined: 963 rodents, 11 marsupials and 766 wild triatomid bugs. The infection rates for T. cruzi were as follow: 36.3% for the marsupials, 0.1% for the rodents, while all the triatomids were negative. The role of the collected mammals in the maintenance and circulation of T. cruzi in the wild environment is discussed. In addition, some epidemiological aspects of the domestic environment were also studied.

  20. “Apenas bicicleta teníamos”: El proceso de organización del Movimiento Campesino de Formosa (MOCAFOR en perspectiva histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Berger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo me propongo reconstruir el proceso de organización del MOCAFOR a través de los relatos de dirigentes e integrantes de la organización y agentes de instituciones públicas, religiosas y sindicales con el interés de comprender la diversidad de trayectorias e intereses específicos que confluyeron en este agrupamiento, las tensiones y conflictos que llevaron a su conformación como organización y los vínculos con agentes e instituciones.La consideración histórica del proceso de organización permite comprender las características y demandas del MOCAFOR, sus condiciones de emergencia y las tensiones en la relación con instituciones estatales, religiosas, organizaciones sindicales y de trabajadores desocupados y agrupaciones o partidos políticos.Este escrito se basa en resultados del trabajo de campo realizado en la provincia de Formosa entre los años 2004 y 2012 en los cuales realicé entrevistas a integrantes y dirigentes del MOCAFOR y a agentes y funcionarios de programas e instituciones estatales y de instituciones religiosas y sindicales.

  1. Costs and benefits of polyandry in a placental poeciliid fish Heterandria formosa are in accordance with the parent-offspring conflict theory of placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Honkola, O; Friman, E; Lindström, K

    2011-12-01

    In viviparous species, a conflict over maternal resource allocation may arise between mothers and embryos, between siblings, and between maternal and paternal genes within an embryo due to relatedness asymmetries. We performed two experiments to study the effects of polyandry and brood relatedness on offspring growth in a placental fish (Heterandria formosa). Polyandry was beneficial as it increased the probability of pregnancy, possibly to avoid genetic incompatibility. However, females mated to four males produced offspring that had a longer maturation time than those of monandrous females. When within-brood relatedness was manipulated, the size of the newborn offspring decreased with time in low-relatedness treatment, whereas in highly related broods, offspring size was constant. Low within-brood relatedness may lead to less cooperative offspring in terms of resource extraction from the mother, which may lead to impaired development during gestation. Offspring conflict may thus reduce the benefits of polyandry in viviparous species. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. [Entering the Dawn of a New Life: A Discussion of Life for Survivors of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Min

    2016-02-01

    A dust explosion at the Formosa Fun Coast water park in Taiwan caused nearly 500 burn injury cases. One hundred of these cases involved burns over more than 20% of the total body surface area. This tragedy inundated hospitals across northern Taiwan with an unprecedented number of burn patients. Significant manpower and medical resources were targeted on related resuscitation and treatment efforts, with support and assistance provided by agencies and organizations nationwide. Most of the burn patients were young people in their teens and twenties, whose severe burns posed the greatest threat and challenge to their lives so far. Furthermore, their experience presented major psychosocial and physical health challenges. Patients received an array of clinical treatments such as debridement, skin grafting, dressing, and rehabilitation. Debilitating pain, skin damage, changes to body image, physical disabilities, helplessness, sadness, and anxiety have not only deeply affected the patients physically and psychologically but also created significant life stresses for their family members / companions, which requires counseling in order to facilitate emotional healing. Although burn patients gradually recover as they pass through the acute, recovery, and rehabilitation phases, they will face the challenges of lifelong rehabilitation after discharge. I hope that these young victims will take courage and be brave and strong in dealing with the difficulties and challenges of daily life and will embrace the future with hope as they enter the dawn of their new life.

  3. First experience using cultured epidermal autografts in Taiwan for burn victims of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park explosion, as part of Japanese medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Harunari, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroto

    2016-05-01

    On June 27, 2015, a flammable starch-based powder exploded at Formosa Fun Coast in Taipei, Taiwan, injuring 499 people, and more than 200 people were in critical condition with severe burns. Although a cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) was not approved or used in clinical practice, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration requested a Japanese CEA manufacturer to donate CEA for the burn victims as part of international medical assistance. The authors cooperated in this project and participated in the patient selection, wound bed management for CEA, and technical assistance for CEA use. Here, we provide an overview of the project. Nine patients were enrolled, and two patients were excluded from the skin biopsy; seven skin biopsies were collected approximately 1 month after the disaster. The average TBSA% burned was 81.0%, and the mean age was 20.1 years. CEA was grafted in five patients; wound closure had been obtained in one patient, and one patient was severely ill at the time of grafting. The CEA was combined with a wide split auto mesh graft or patch graft. The mean re-epithelization rate at 4 weeks after the grafting was 84.2% by patient, and all of the patients survived. Although this project had many obstacles to overcome, CEA grafting was successful and contributed to wound closure and survival.

  4. Evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of rutaceae and lauraceae ethanol extracts on golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus peritoneal macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Chavez Enciso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≤2 selectivity indices (S/I, the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12 and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11. These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  5. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  7. Low O2 avoidance is associated with physiological perturbation but not exhaustion in the snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Herbert, Neill A

    2012-08-01

    It is already known that the New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) does not avoid hypoxia until reaching an oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) of 3.1±1.2 kPa at 18 °C. Avoidance at this level of PO(2) and temperature is below the critical oxygen partial pressure of the species (P(crit)=5.8±0.6 kPa, 43.5±4.5 mmHg) and is therefore expected to result in major physiological stress. Results from the current study showed that avoidance was associated with numerous physiological perturbations, including a significant endocrine response, haematological changes, osmoregulatory disturbance and metabolic adjustments in the heart, liver and muscle. Snapper clearly experienced physiological stress at the point of avoidance but they were not however in a state of physiological exhaustion since some fuel reserves were still available. In addition to avoidance, snapper also showed a subtle reduction in swimming speed - this energy-saving response may have helped snapper minimise the physiological challenge of low O(2) residence. It is therefore concluded that snapper can reside in water below their P(crit) threshold for brief periods of time and, without any evidence of physiological exhaustion at the point of avoidance, fish should recover quickly once normoxia is selected. Lastly, with signs of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac tissue at the point of avoidance, we tentatively suggest that snapper may leave hypoxia to protect heart function.

  8. Photoperiodic regulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and steroidogenesis in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Photoperiodic modulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression in testis has never been reported for any seasonal breeder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of MT1R in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis in a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic conditions i.e. critical- (CP; 12.5L:11.5D); short-day- (SD; 8L:16D) and long-day- (LD; 16L:8D) for 10 weeks wherein testicular steroidogenesis, local melatonin synthesis and the expression of MT1R were analyzed. SD induced melatonin suppressed testicular steroidogenesis as evident from regressed testicular histoarchitecture, decreased expression of AR, StAR, LH-R, P₄₅₀SCC and enzyme activities of 3β- and 17β-HSD. Differential photoperiodic regulation of MT1R expression in testis suggests its involvement in photoperiodic signal transduction for seasonal adjustment of reproduction. Increased S-NAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase) activity and local testicular melatonin under SD condition suggest an inhibitory effect of the local melatonergic system on testicular steroidogenesis. Completely opposite responses were recorded for all the parameters analyzed when hamsters were exposed to CP or LD conditions. In conclusion, we may suggest that photoperiod via regulating circulatory and local melatonin level as well as MT1R expression in testes fine tunes the steroidogenesis and thereby, the reproductive status of male golden hamster.

  9. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  10. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhan, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Na; Qiang, Hui-qing; Hotez, Peter; Xiao, Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate and understand the acquired immunity in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by primary Necator americanus infective third-stage larvae (L3) infection. Hamsters infected with 150 L3 for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 weeks, were challenged with the same number of L3 and sacrificed 25 days post challenge. The primarily infected hamsters exhibited 99-100% protection against subsequent L3 challenge compared to un-infected naive hamsters. The acquired immunity was developed as early as 1 week post L3 infection and lasted up to 10 weeks. Similar protective immunity was obtained in hamsters infected with N. americanus L3 and then treated orally with a single of 100mg/kg albendazole, followed by challenge with N. americanus L3 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. The infected hamsters exhibited a rise in IgG antibodies against L3 and juvenile adult worm antigens. Histological examination showed that challenging L3 were trapped in the skin of primarily infected hamsters and surrounded or infiltrated by different inflammatory cells. The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection.

  11. Chemometric approach to evaluate element distribution in muscle, liver and fish bone of roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) from Swarzędzkie Lake (Poland) using ICP-MS and FIAS-CVAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Maria; Komorowicz, Izabela; Hanć, Anetta; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied. The study indicated a large variation in the occurrence of the investigated elements in different parts of the fish body. The highest content of Al and Zn was stated in all fish organs for each fish species. The majority of the applied statistical and chemometric methods (e.g., PCA, CA) refer to roach since we had a large number of data for this species. The obtained results were assessed in terms of their accuracy and precision using certified reference material of Fish Muscle ERM BB422.

  12. Occurrence and seasonal loads of pesticides in surface water and suspended particulate matter from a wetland of worldwide interest--the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2015-11-01

    Two novel methods were developed to extract and quantify 56 pesticides in surface waters, considering their content in both dissolved aqueous phase (DAP) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) fractions. These procedures were applied to coastal samples taken seasonally during 2012-2013, from three strategic sampling sites along the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south of Portugal). Briefly, 500 mL of water samples were filtrated, separating both fractions. The DAP fraction was extracted and pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE), while the SPM was extracted using ultrasonic extraction technique (USE). Both fractions were then analyzed, and the pesticides were quantified and identified, within 35 min, by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-MS/MS), respectively. The extraction of pesticides from the SPM fraction showed average recoveries of 102%, detection limits below 2.2 ng/L, and quantification limits ranging from 0.3 to 6.6 ng/L. Considering the real water samples, 73% of the selected pesticides were quantified in both DAP and SPM fractions (ΣDAP+SPM 2.3 μg/L) and their maximum levels were measured in autumn and winter. By category, the global loads of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides were ≈407, ≈323, and ≈1.6 μg/L, respectively. Thirty-one percent of the quantified pesticides exceeded the European directives levels (2008/105/EC and 98/83/EC). From the total loads, the SPM fraction contribution was 32%, showing the importance of measuring pesticides in that fraction. The water physicochemical parameters revealed that the total nitrogen amounts were very high relatively to the legal required values, mainly close to the city of Faro (2.6 mg/L). In light of the above, measures are in need to meet European directives and protect both fauna and humans that use this area for leisure.

  13. Frozen F1's amidst a masterpiece of nature: new insights into the rare hybrid origin of gynogenesis in the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S M; Vamosi, S M

    2010-12-01

    All-female 'species' of fish have been shown to be great models in ecological and evolutionary studies because of the insights they can provide into the origin and evolution of asexuality, the ecology of hybrids, associations between genotype and environment, and the maintenance of sex. Gynogenetic organisms that evolved from sexual ancestors, and combine the disadvantageous traits from sexuality and asexuality, have long baffled evolutionary biologists trying to understand their origin and persistence with their sympatric sexual counterparts. In this issue, a new study using an integrated molecular phylogenetic and classical genetic approach has uncovered compelling evidence regarding the obscure asexual origin of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa. By performing an extensive phylogeographic analysis, Stöck et al. (2010) provide evidence that the Amazon molly arose only once within its history, with monophyly being strongly supported by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analyses. This result, combined with an elaborate failed attempt to resynthesize the lineage, suggests that vertebrate gynogens such as the Amazon molly are not rare because they are at a disadvantage to their sexual counterparts, but because the genomic conditions under which they arise are rare. Organisms that apparently combine the disadvantages of both sexuality and asexuality remain difficult to understand from both an ecological and an evolutionary perspective, and Stöck et al. (2010) highlight several outstanding important questions. Nonetheless, given that we now have a better knowledge of the origin and history of this unique 'species', this should allow researchers to better understand how these frozen F1's can persist amidst the masterpiece of nature.

  14. Implementation of a Newton-Krylov iterative method to address strong non-linear feedback effects in FORMOSA-B BWR core simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanya, Doddy Febrian

    A Newton-BICGSTAB solver has been developed to reduce the CPU execution time of the FORMOSA-B boiling water reactor (BWR) core simulator. The new solver treats the strong non-linearities in the problem explicitly using the Newton's method, replacing the traditionally used nested iterative approach. Taking advantage of the higher convergence rate provided by the Newton's method, assuming that a good initial estimate of the unknowns is provided, and utilizing an efficient preconditioned BICGSTAB solver, we have developed a computationally efficient Newton-BICGSTAB solver to evaluate the three-dimensional, two-group neutron diffusion equations coupled with a two-phase flow model within a BWR core simulator. The robustness of the solver has been tested against numerous BWR core configurations and consistent results have been observed each time. The best exact Newton-BICGSTAB solver performance provides an overall speedup of 2.07 to the core simulator, with reference to the traditional approach, i.e. outer (fission-source)-inner (red/black line SOR). When solving the same problem using the traditional approach but with the BICGSTAB solver as the inner iteration solver [traditional (BICGSTAB)], we observed a speedup of 1.85. This means that the Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an additional 12% increase in the overall speedup over the traditional (BICGSTAB) solver. However, one needs to note that, on average, the exact Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an overall speedup of around 1.70; whereas, on average, the traditional (BICGSTAB) provides an overall speedup of around 1.60. An investigation on the feasibility of implementing an inexact Newton-BICGSTAB solver indicates that further reduction in the execution time can likely be obtained through this approach. This study shows that the inexact Newton-BICGSTAB solver can provide speedups of 1.73 to 2.10 with respect to the traditional solver.

  15. Estudo e modelagem da cinética de desidratação osmótica do mamão formosa (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Aquar Ânoar Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da cinética e modelagem do processo de desidratação osmótica de cubos de mamão Formosa (Carica papaya L., assim como da qualidade do produto final. O tratamento osmótico foi conduzido a 30ºC, com agitação de 110rpm, utilizando-se dois tipos de soluções de sacarose 70ºBrix: a primeira contendo lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido láctico 0,1M e a segunda com lactato de sódio 2,4% p/p e ácido cítrico 0,1M. O estudo da cinética de desidratação osmótica mostrou que a solução contendo ácido cítrico apresentou valor de perda de água (WL, ao final de 48 horas de processo, ligeiramente superior ao encontrado para a solução contendo ácido láctico. Comportamento contrário ocorreu para o ganho de sólidos (SG. O ajuste dos dados experimentais foi realizado através do modelo difusional para geometria cúbica, sem considerar encolhimento durante o processo e um modelo empírico de dois parâmetros. Os coeficientes de difusividade efetiva de água (Def variaram de 1,27 a 5,03 x 10-10 m²/s. A qualidade da fruta após processamento foi avaliada através de análises de vitamina C, carotenóides totais, acidez e pH.

  16. ORDEN GLOBAL Y REESTRUCTURACIÓN LOCAL: ALGODÓN Y SOJA EN EL NORDESTE ARGENTINO - PROVINCIAS DE CHACO Y FORMOSA - (1990-2012

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    Sebastián Gómez Lende

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ordem global é, no período contemporâneo, sinônimo de racionalidade; todo o que se opõe a ele, ou não é permeable a seus desígnios, é sindicado como irracional e, portanto, devém não-moderno, letárgico. No entanto, entre as situações racionais ‘puras’ -que obedecem cegamente à lógica verticalizada do mercado mundial e o grande capital-, e as situações ‘irracionais’ -absolutamente refractarias às exigências da ordem global-, existe um variado e complexo leque de casos intermediários; nesse conjunto de agentes sociais, sectores económicos e espaços, a razão global e a razão local misturam-se, para configurar híbridos definidos em virtude de sua desigual adaptação ou reestruturação respeito dos ditados da lógica hegemónica. O propósito deste trabalho consiste em estudar o processo de reordenação do circuito do algodão no nordeste argentino (províncias de Chaco e Formosa durante o período 1990-2012, ante o auge do sistema de poder neoliberal, a penetração, no médio rural, do paradigma da agricultura científica globalizada e a irrupción da soja transgénica, num marco de crise estrutural (quase terminal do setor.

  17. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  18. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

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    Maria A Terres

    Full Text Available Baited Underwater Video (BUV systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  19. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

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    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  20. Cutaneous myxosarcoma in a Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratusMixossarcoma cutâneo em um Hamster Sírio

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    Renée Laufer Amorim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathological findings in a 2-years-old Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus with a cutaneous myxosarcoma are described. Grossly, there was a large cutaneous mass in the right cervical region. Microscopical evaluation revealed a myxosarcoma characterized by pleomorphic, fusiform cells loosely arranged, randomly distributed, and presenting a moderate amount of basophilic amorphous stroma. There were hemorrhagic areas within the tumor. The basophilic amorphous stroma was positive to Alcian blue confirming the presence of a mucopolysaccharide matrix. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, and were negative for cytokeratin or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP.São descritos os achados anatomopatológicos de um caso de mixossarcoma cutâneo em um Hamster Sírio de 2 anos de idade. Macroscopicamente, foi evidenciada um grande massa cutânea na região cervical lateral direita. A microscopia revelou a presença de um caso de mixossarcoma caracterizado por células fusiformes pleomórficas, frouxamente arranjadas, distribuídas aleatoriamente e, apresentando quantidade moderada de substância basofílica amorfa no estroma e áreas hemorrágicas. O estroma basofílico amorfo foi positivo na coloração Alcian blue, confirmando a presença de matriz mucopolissacarídea. Na imunoistoquímica, as células neoplásicas expressaram vimentina e foram negativas para a marcação de citoqueratina e proteína ácida fibrilar (GFAP.

  1. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  2. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, Maria A; Lawrence, Emma; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C

    2015-01-01

    Baited Underwater Video (BUV) systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing) were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  3. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozio, Sarah; Manson, Chloe; Gourevitch, Eleanor; Burns, Thomas J.; Greener, Mark S.; Downie, J. Roger

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus) is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora) on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats. PMID:28199338

  4. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j

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    Ian David Woolsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47, Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11 and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS (n = 9 with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi. C57BL/6j mice (n = 4 were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3% at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001 and growth (p ≤ 0.0001. No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus.

  5. Práticas sociais e simbólicas: comunidade de pescadores e unidade de conservação em Baía Formosa/RN / Práticas sociais e simbólicas: comunidade de pescadores e unidade de conservação em Baía Formosa/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne Louise dos Santos Govindin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The conservation unities emerged in response to the environmental damages. In the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian Northeast, the most of the damages come from the sugar-cane agro-industry, especially by the deforestation for the introduction of sugar-cane fields and installation of the industry structure. Besides the damages over the biodiversity, there are critical social problems that affect the communities which survive using directly or indirectly the biome from the Atlantic Forest. This article has the objective of identify the natural resources and the uses of them by a fisher´s community located at Baía Formosa/RN, and also analyze the symbolic and social practices reproduced in the Conservation Unity of the Mata Estrela before and after the creation and installation of a sugar-alcohol industry. For that, it was used the ethnographic approach, a literature review and the oral history approach. The symbolic and social practices in the Mata Estrela were stronger in the past. The fruits, wood, medicinal plants and the animals were used by the community for subsistence and trade. The social practices were the agriculture, hunting and gathering, and the entertainment. The symbolic practices were the legends, the ancient cemetery and the Santa Cruz das Areias Sanctuary.

  6. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study

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    Kemmler W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler,1 Marc Teschler,1 Sabine Goisser,2 Michael Bebenek,1 Simon von Stengel,1 Leo Cornelius Bollheimer,2,3 Cornel C Sieber,2,3 Ellen Freiberger2 1Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany; 3Department of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St John of God Hospital, Regensburg, GermanyBackground: Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort.Methods: A total of 689 Caucasian females 18–35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews.Results: Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m2, low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s, and low grip strength (<20 kg, the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70–79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001. Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252 exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%. Of importance, anthropometric, demographic

  7. Análisis de la proporción sexual al nacimiento en la etnia toba de la provincia de Formosa

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    Lanza, Norberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En seres humanos, la varianza en éxito reproductivo es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. Dada esta caracterísitca, Trivers y Willard postularon que sería ventajoso para madres en buenas condiciones físicas invertir en engendrar varones, mientras que aquellas madres cuyo estado físico no es óptimo deberían engendrar niñas. Una disminución en el estado nutricional y físico de la madre, un aumento de la edad materna al nacimiento y un incremento en el orden de paridad, determinaría una disminución en la proporción de hijos varones al momento del nacimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de evaluar la hipótesis de Trivers y Willard en dos comunidades Toba de la provincia de Formosa. Se relevaron 396 historias reproductivas de mujeres de una comunidad peri-urbana y 336 de una comunidad rural. Se estimó el Indice de Masculinidad (IM de cada comunidad desde el año 1980 y se analizó su variación en relación a la edad materna y la paridad. Ambas comunidades muestran una disminución del IM a partir primer nacimiento. La comunidad peri-urbana muestra una caída del IM en relación con la edad materna hasta los 39 años incrementándose a partir de los 40 años. La comunidad rural, muestra un patrón similar, pero con un primer aumento entre los 25 y 29 años. Los resultados muestran una importante caída del IM hasta los años 1985-1988 y una recuperación a partir de esos años. La asociación con variables socioeconómicas durante estos años también se presentará como posible evidencia a favor de la hipótesis bajo estudio.

  8. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  9. "Es un ejemplo no solamente para los de su raza qom sino para toda la juventud formoseña": El patrimonio cultural inmaterial y la música indígena en la controvertida política formoseña "É um exemplo, não somente para os da sua raça qom, mas para toda a mocidade de Formosa": O patrimônio cultural e a música indígena na controversa política da província de Formosa "This is an example not only for their Qom race but for all the youth of Formosa": Cultural heritage and indigenous music in Formosa's controversial politics

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    Silvia Citro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos las políticas culturales emprendidas recientemente en la provincia de Formosa, Argentina, respecto del patrimonio cultural inmaterial indígena y, en especial, de la música de los tobas o qom. Nuestra hipótesis es que el gobierno provincial ha tendido a instrumentalizar estratégicamente estas políticas culturales, para crear la imagen de una administración que ideológicamente adhiere a los discursos globalizados impuestos a las democracias (como el "multiculturalismo" y la "salvaguardia del patrimonio cultural", y a su vez, para legitimar un imaginario provincial sobre el "ser formoseño" que, si bien se reconoce "pluricultural", invisibiliza a los indígenas contemporáneos, enmascarando conflictos y desigualdades.Analisamos as políticas culturais empreendidas recentemente na província de Formosa, Argentina, no que diz respeito ao patrimônio cultural imaterial indígena e especialmente a música dos índios tobas ou qom. A nossa hipótese é a de que o governo provincial tem-se inclinado a instrumentalizar estrategicamente estas políticas culturais para, de um lado, criar a imagem de uma administração que ideologicamente aderiria aos mandados globalizados que se impõem às políticas democráticas (como o "multiculturalismo", e a "salvaguarda do patrimônio cultural" e, do outro, para legitimar um imaginário provincial sobre o ser formosenho que, ainda se reconhecendo "pluricultural", invisibiliza aos indígenas contemporâneos, mascarando conflitos e desigualdades.We analyze recent cultural policy in the province of Formosa, Argentina, regarding indigenous intangible cultural heritage, particularly the music of the Toba or Qom. Our hypothesis is that the provincial government has strategically instrumentalized these cultural policies in order to create the image of an administration that ideologically endorses global discourses imposed on democracies (such as "multiculturalism" and "the safeguarding of cultural

  10. Influência da adubação com esterco bovino e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de Carica papaya L. (var. Formosa Influence of fertilization with bovine manure and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth of Carica papaya L. 'Formosa' seedlings

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    Cláudia Elizabete de Lima Lins

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao rápido crescimento do mamoeiro, poucos são os solos que, em condições naturais, podem satisfazer a sua demanda por nutrientes, sendo necessária a aplicação de fertilizantes minerais que favoreçam as plantas no período do transplantio para o campo. Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA são conhecidos por tornarem os seus hospedeiros mais resistentes aos estresses bióticos e abióticos, sendo por isso empregados na produção de mudas de diversas árvores frutíferas. Nesse trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência da inoculação de FMA e da aplicação de matéria orgânica no crescimento de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. var. Formosa, em casa-de-vegetação. Mudas foram cultivadas em solo arenoso (caracterizado pelo baixo teor de P: 4 ppm, inoculado com FMA e adubado ou não com 50g de esterco bovino. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e três repetições: - inoculação com FMA nativos, com Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, ou com Scutellospora hetervgama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, com ou sem matéria orgânica O experimento foi avaliado a cada 10 dias, sendo aferidos os parâmetros: altura, diâmetro do caule e número de folhas. Diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos adubados e não adubados foram observados a partir do 30º dia Após 40 dias, as plantas inoculadas com os FMA nativos apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento do que as inoculadas isoladamente com G. albida ou S. hetervgama, em todos os parâmetros avaliados, tanto em solo adubado como em solo não adubado.Due to the fast growth of papaya few are the soils that can satisfy its demand for nutrients under natural conditions, the application of mineral fertilizers that favor the plants in the period of the transplant to the field being necessary. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are known for making their hosts more resistant to biotic and abiotic stress, this being the reason why they have

  11. Análise química do pecíolo e limbo foliar como indicadora do estado nutricional dos mamoeiros 'solo' e 'formosa' Petiole and leaf blade analyses as nutritional status indicators of 'solo' and 'formosa' papaya trees

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    Cláudia Sales Marinho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de um consenso na literatura sobre qual parte da folha, limbo ou pecíolo, seria a mais indicada para avaliação do estado nutricional do mamoeiro, dificulta o uso da análise foliar como ferramenta de diagnose para a cultura. Assim, foi conduzido um experimento para comparar a diagnose do estado nutricional efetuada pela análise do limbo e do pecíolo foliar de mamoeiros pertencentes aos grupos 'Solo' e 'Formosa'. Foi adotado o delineamento em blocos casualizados para avaliar seis variedades de mamoeiros, três de cada grupo. Foram retiradas amostras foliares em cinco épocas, a cada três meses. A folha recém-madura foi dividida em limbo e pecíolo, onde foram determinados os teores de N, NO3-, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cl, Fe, Mn e Zn. Estes teores foram comparados com os citados na literatura como adequados para a cultura. A diagnose do estado nutricional do mamoeiro quando efetuada por meio da análise do limbo ou do pecíolo foliar levou a diferentes diagnósticos mostrando a necessidade de definição de um único padrão. A análise do limbo foliar mostrou-se mais efetiva que a do pecíolo para diagnosticar o estado nutricional, diferenciando melhor as variedades de mamoeiro, em relação a N, P, K e Cl, não diferindo em relação aos demais nutrientes. Sendo assim, o limbo foliar deve ser utilizado como indicador do estado nutricional do mamoeiro.The absence of a literature consensus about parts of leaves, blade or petiole which would be most indicative of the nutritional status of papaya trees, has hindered the use of foliar analysis as a diagnosis tool for this crop. An experiment was carried out to compare the nutricional status evaluated using blades and petioles of 'solo' and 'formosa' papaya groups. A completely randomized block design was used to test six varieties, three of each group. Leaves were sampled every three months in five occasions. Recently matured leaves were separated in petioles and blades for the

  12. Massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio in the upper Elbe basin associated with herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, Tomá; Kalous, Luká; Vesel, Tomá; Krásová, Eva; Reschová, Stanislava; Rylková, Katerˇina; Kulich, Pavel; L, Miloslav Petrt; Pokorová, Dagmar; Knytl, Martin

    2012-12-27

    From 22 May to 10 June 2011 massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio was observed in alluvial Lake Řehacˇka close to the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. More than 1400 kg of dead fish were collected and no other fish species were affected. Further molecular and cytogenetic investigation of fish (n = 232) revealed that the Rˇehacˇka population of Prussian carp consisted exclusively of gynogenetic triploid females. The causative agent was identified by means of molecular and electron microscopy as a herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2). This is the first report of CyHV-2 from the Czech Republic and the second finding worldwide of CyHV-2 causing mass mortality of C. gibelio. Some other localities in the upper Elbe River basin where C. gibelio was affected are also noted. We assume that the massive wave of deaths of all female gynogenetic Prussian carp can be attributed to limited genetic variation and the favourable conditions for development of viral disease.

  13. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

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    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  14. Identification of two metallo- thionein isoforms by molecu-lar cloning of their cDNAs infresh-water fish, crucian carp(Carassius-cuvieri)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Generally, there are two major isoforms of me- tallothionein (MT)in mammals. In this study two cDNAs of metallothionein, MT-A and MT-B, in a fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The homology of their reading frame is about 92.3%. The sequence analysis of both cDNAs gave the structures of coding regions corresponding to 60 amino acid residues, and the structures of complete 3′-untranslated regions in which a significant difference in the size of their 3′-untranslated regions (130 bp for MT-A and 280 bp for MT-B) exists. The results of amino acid sequenc-ing of both MT-1 and MT-2 purified by HPLC are identical to those deduced from MT cDNA genes, indicating that MT-1 is from MT-A gene and MT-2 is from MT-B gene respec-tively. No blocking in the N-terminal of MT-2 isoform was the first case found in vertebrates, most of which were block-ed by acetylation. These results suggest that there were dif-ferential controls at the transcription level and after transla-tion of these two MT isoforms. And this gives a clue to un-derstand the diversities of their functions.

  15. La ofidiofauna de la reserva ecológica El Bagual, Formosa: abundancia, utilización de los hábitats y estado de situación

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    Yanosky, Ángel Alberto

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The snake fauna of El Bagual Ecological Reserve, Formosa: abundance, habitat utilization and situational state. From records made during eight months consisting of direct observations and some captures, the snake fauna was analyzed to know specific composition, abundance and states of conservation. Each species was associated to the habitat where was found. Although bibliographical record cites 60 species, 19 were found within the protected area. Five were categorized to be very abundant, nine abundant, three common and two scarce. The snake fauna was also analyzed to describe functional guilds according to specific habits and an index of community similarity was considered. High and low grasslands together with the forests supported the highest number of species and in a finally situational states of wild fauna, two potential management problems are expected. One of them with venemous snake fauna which would require a future regulation management, and the other with boids requiring a conservation management technique.

  16. Indígenas y franciscanos en las misiones de Laishí y Tacaaglé del Territorio Nacional de Formosa. Estanislao Zeballos y los niños tobas del Chaco

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    Gabriela Dalla-Corte Caballero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the discursive construction of Estanislao Severo Zeballos defending the management of the Franciscan order of the Diocese of Santa Fe, which included the National Territory of Chaco and Formosa and the Chaco region of northern in the province of Santa Fe. Throughout this vast area, the Franciscans were ordered to “reduce” and “missionary” the indigenous Toba, Mocovíes and Pilagás. The textual and visual discourse Soñando con los niños del Chaco (Zeballos, 1918, allows to develop his socio-economic project with the ideas of the Prefect of Missions, Fray Pedro Iturralde, and of J. Amadeu Baldrich. The aim was to define the proposed organization in Laishí and Tacaaglé, both founded in 1901 in the Central Chaco.

  17. 蒲公英水提物对鲫鱼生长、鱼体成分、消化酶和免疫系统的影响%Effects of Aqueous Extract of Taraxacum Mongolicum Hand-mazz.on Growth Performance, Muscle Composition, Digestive Enzyme and Immune System of Carassius Auratus Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小玉; 沈明浩

    2010-01-01

    本试验将蒲公英水提物添加在鲫鱼饲料中喂养鲫鱼70 d,观察研究蒲公英水提物对各组鲫鱼的生长、鱼体成分、消化酶和免疫系统的影响.结果表明,添加4%、2%的蒲公英水提物能促进鲫鱼的生长,对鲫鱼的肉质有改善作用,能显著提高鲫鱼的淀粉酶和蛋白酶活性(P0.05);4%、2%的蒲公英水提物能显著提高鲫鱼血清碱性磷酸酶的活性(P<0.05).

  18. Effects of exogenous cortisol on TSH-β subunit mRNA level and serum thyroid hormone levels of Carassius auratus gibelio%外源性皮质醇对异育银鲫TSH-β mRNA表达和血清甲状腺激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲宪成; 杨艳红; 刘颖; 周正峰; 崔严慧

    2007-01-01

    运用Sybr Green Ⅰ荧光定量RT-PCR方法和放射免疫方法(RIA)分析了外源性皮质醇(cortisol)对异育银鲫促甲状腺激素β亚基(TSH-β)mRNA表达和血清甲状腺激素水平的影响.实验设计为10周,实验组每两周注射一次0.2 mg/kg体重的cortisol(用57%酒精溶解),对照组注射同剂量的57%酒精.实验期间没有投喂饲料.在本实验条件下,研究结果显示:注射3次外源性cortisol后,异育银鲫TSH-β mRNA表达量与对照组相比略有下降;注射5次后,与对照组相比显著降低(P<0.05).另一方面,RIA结果显示:注射3次外源性cortisol后,实验组与对照组相比,血清甲状腺激素T3和T4含量虽略有升高,但无显著差异;而注射5次后显著升高(P<0.05).以上结果提示:外源性cortisol能够影响异育银鲫脑下垂体-甲状腺轴.

  19. Organización circadiana del comportamiento alimentario de la lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax) y el carpín (Carassius auratus) : sincronización por el alimento y la luz / Francisco Javier Sánchez Vázquez ; directores Salvador Zamora Navarro, Juan Antonio Madrid Pérez.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    1995-01-01

    Tesis-Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. D 452. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. D 520. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. T.M.-1261.

  20. 金鱼PP2A调节亚基PR55γ基因的克隆及表达分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF THE GENE ENCODING THE PR55/Bγ OF PP-2A IN GOLDFISH.CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珺琼; 谢斯思; 陈培超; 邹立军; 刘文彬; 肖亚梅; 刘少军; 刘筠; 李万程

    2011-01-01

    蛋白磷酸酶2A是一种重要的丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白磷酸酶,对于调控多细胞的生命活动起重要作用.以金鱼大脑为材料,运用RT-PCR技术克隆得到PP2A调节亚基B55家族中PR55γ基因编码区部分序列.结果显示PR55γ基因eDNA长1218 bp,编码的多肽共含405个氨基酸.序列分析表明,该基因编码的蛋白与已知其他物种对应的PR55γ蛋白质均有着很高的同源性.用RT-PCR的方法检测了PR55γ基因在金鱼不同组织和胚胎发育不同时期的mRNA表达水平.结果表明,PR55γ基因表达呈现明显的组织和胚胎发育阶段差异性.在成体组织中,仅在大脑和鳍中有表达.在胚胎发育过程中,PR55γ从神经胚开始出现,整体呈现上升趋势,在出膜期达到最高水平.据此推测,PR55γ基因可能在金鱼胚胎发育中具有多种重要作用.%The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is an important posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that modulates the functional status of more than thirty percent of total cellular proteins.In the present study, we reported the molecular cloning of a partial cDNA coding for the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A from the brain of goldfish through 5' RACE PCR strategy.The partial PR55γ cDNA contained 1218 nucleotides which encoded a deduced partial protein of 405 amino acids.Sequence homology analysis showed that the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A displayed a high level of amino acid identity with the counterpart from other species including human and rat, indicating the conservation of PR55/Bγ.RT-PCR analysis revealed that PR55/Bγ mRNA was specifically expressed in the brain and fin of goldfish.Our demonstration that PR55/Bγwas expressed in the fish fin was a novel finding for the first time.This result suggested that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit in fish likely played an important role in swimming, balancing and sensitivity to the water environment.Moreover, during the development of goldfish, PR55/Bγ mRNA was initially detected at neurula stage, suggesting that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit was likely implicated in control of the brain development differentiation in fish.Furthermore, we found that PR55/Bγ became gradually increased from the optic vesicle stage and reached a peak level at the muscle movement stage, and thereafter, PR55/Bγ mRNA maintained at this level with slight fluctuation from heart beat to hatching larvae.These results indicated that PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit was actively regulating the development processes of these different stages.The consistent developmental expression patterns of PR55/Bγ (Fig.2) and the catalytic subunits (PP-2Ac)[28]also supported that PR55/Bγ may regulate fish development in holoenzyme, which was different from that of certain regulatory subunits of PP-2A[20-22].Thus, our present study demonstrated that the specific PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as regulatory subunit may play an important role in regulating fish development.In addition, PP-2A containing PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit may play important roles of homeostasis in brain and fin.

  1. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed deprivation and randomly distributed into the 12 tanks (40 fish per tank). The tanks were randomly assigned the four diets. Fifty fish were taken from the remaining fish and frozen for initial fish body chemical analysis. During the experiment, an excess amount of feed was fed to fish and uneaten feed were collected after 1h in each feeding, dried at 60℃ and reweighed. Leaching rate of uneaten feed in tanks was estimated by placing weighed feeds into a tank without fish for 1 h and then recovering, drying and reweighing. The average leaching rate was used to calibrate the amount of uneaten feed. Faeces were collected after uneaten feed collection at the start of the experiment and through all the experiment period after 7d. To minimize nutrient leaching in faeces, only fresh and intact faeces were collected. Faeces were dried at 70℃ for digestibility determination. At the end of the trial, the fish were starved for 1 d and batch weighed. Fish were killed by a blow on the head and blood samples were collected (24h after last feeding) from the caudal vein of six fish from each tank at the end of the feeding trial by using heparinized syringes. Blood was centrifuged at 3500 r/min for 15 min, plasma-separated and stored at - 80 ℃. The remaining fish in each tank were taken for final fish body composition analysis. The results showed that feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE) decreased significantly (p < 0. 05). Apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCp) significantly increased (p < 0. 05), but ADC of dry matter and energy decreased (p < 0.05). Total nitrogen intake (TNI), apparent nitrogen intake (ANI), faecal nitrogen output (FNO), non-faecal nitrogen excretion (NFE) and nitrogen retention (NE) significantly decreased with the increasing dietary soybean meal (p < 0. 05), but nitrogen load (NL) significantly increased (p < 0. 05). Levels of plasma glucose, triacylglycerol and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary soybean meal (p < 0. 05), but plasma cholesterol concentration and lysozyme activities decreased (p <0. 05). In conclusion, the results from this study showed adverse effects of inclusion of the soybean meal in diets on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. The palatability was not negatively affected when soybean meal was included in the diets. Unbalanced amino acid composition of soybean meal diets seem to be the main reason to influence growth performance and nitrogen load of gibel carp.

  2. 3种不同血清型副溶血弧菌对异育银鲫的急性毒性研究%The Acute Toxicity Test about the Different Serological Type of Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Carassius auratus gibelio var.Songpu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小亮; 贺中华; 田甜; 李波

    2009-01-01

    在静水条件下,采用1×109 CFU/ml,1×108 CFU/ml,1×107 CFU/ml,1×106 CFU/ml,1×103 CFU/ml的副溶血弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)对异育银鲫幼苗进行人工注射感染,通过96小时急性毒性试验,测定不同浓度副溶血弧菌血清型对异育银鲫LC50值和安全浓度.结果显示,血清型为01:KⅢ,01:KⅥ,05:KⅣ的副溶血弧菌对异育银鲫96小时的LC50值分别为7.9×106 CFU/ml,2.0×106 CFU/ml,7.9×106 CFU/ml.异育银鲫对血清型01:KⅢ,01:KⅥ,05:KⅣ的安全浓度分别为6.3×104 CFU/ml,1.66×103 CFU/ml,3.7×103 CFU/ml.

  3. EFFECT OF FAECAL COLLECTION INTERVAL AND DIETARY MEAT AND BONE MEAL LEVELS ON DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉含量对异育银鲫(Carassiusauratus gibelio) 消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 雷武; 韩冬; 杨云霞

    2008-01-01

    本研究探讨了通过收集器不同粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉(MBM)含量对异育银鲫干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的表观消化率 (ADC) 影响.不同梯度(0, 20, 40, 60, 80 ,100%)的肉骨粉替代鱼粉(FM) 蛋白配制成六种等氮 (粗蛋白: 410 g/kg) 等能 (总能: 18 kJ/g) 的饲料,通过11周的饲养实验,实验开始后2周开始收集粪便,收集时间分别是:排粪后 1 min, 投喂后4h和16h. 结果表明,干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率明显随粪便收集时间增加而升高(p0.05). 干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率随饲料中肉骨粉含量的增加呈线性或近线性下降.因此,在消化率测定中应该尽快收集排出的粪便以保证消化率的真实性.消化率是影响肉骨粉利用一个因素.%The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of faecal collection interval (using a settling column) and the levels of dietary meat and bone meals (MBM) on the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) for dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus in gibel carp. Six iso-nitrogenous (crude protein: 410 g/kg) and iso-energetic (gross energy: 18 kJ/g) diets were used in which fish meal (FM) protein was gradually replaced by MBM at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. These diet combinations were fed to juvenile gibel carp for 11 weeks. The faecal samples were collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment using a settlement column starting 1 min after excretion started, or 4h and 16h after feeding. The results showed that the ADCs of dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus increased significantly as the time from excretion to faecal collections increased while not being significant for the high MBM inclusion diets. ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, energy and phosphorus decreased linearly or almost linearly with the increase in dietary MBM levels. These findings suggest that faeces should be collected soon after they had settled under the conditions of this study for digestibility determination while rapid leaching is apparently responsible for this false reading of digestibility with increasing sampling interval. It is also apparent that the digestibility is one of the problems affecting the use of MBM in juvenile gibel carp.

  4. Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates.

  5. Qualidade pós-colheita do mamão formosa armazenado sob refrigeração Post harvest quality of papaya storage under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita do mamão Formosa 'Tainung 01' armazenado sob temperaturas refrigeradas. Os frutos foram provenientes de um plantio comercial no município de Baraúna-RN. O armazenamento ocorreu em câmaras a 8; 10 e 12ºC ± 1 ºC, mantidas a 90 ± 5% UR durante os períodos de 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias. Após cada período, os mesmos foram transferidos para a condição ambiente (20 ± 1ºC 60 ± 5% UR onde se simulou um período de prateleira de sete dias. Em seguida, os mamões foram avaliados quanto à aparência externa e interna, coloração da casca, perda de massa e firmeza de polpa. A melhor estimativa para a manutenção da qualidade e aumento da vida útil pós-colheita do mamão Formasa 'Tainung 01' foi observada nos frutos submetidos a 10°C, 90 ± 5% UR até 20 dias, com boa aparência externa e interna (notas acima de 3,0, desenvolvimento da coloração amarela na casca, firmeza de polpa superior a 20 N e perda de massa de 7%. Os frutos submetidos a 8°C e a 10°C, 90 ± 5% UR desenvolveram sintomas de danos pelo frio após 21 dias de armazenamento, agravando-se com a extensão do armazenamento. No armazenamento a 12°C, 90 ± 5% UR, observou-se um amadurecimento acelerado com amolecimento aquoso da polpa a partir de 28 dias. Aos 35 dias, os frutos estavam inaptos para o consumo, havendo grande incidência de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post harvest quality and shelf storage of 'Tainung 01' papaya fruit stored under different refrigerated temperatures. The fruits were from a commercial cultivation in the district of Baraúna-RN-Brazil. The fruits were storied in cold rooms at 8º, 10º and 12ºC ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% RH during the period of 7, 14, 21 e 28 days. After each period, the fruits were put at environmental conditions (20º ± 1ºC 60 ± 5% RH where was simulated a shelf life period for seven days. Then, the papayas

  6. FROM THE CURRICULAR DESIGN TO THE CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF A NEW CURRICULUM FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHERS TO BE IN THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY FROM FORMOSA / DEL DISEÑO CURRICULAR AL DESARROLLO CURRICULAR. UN ESTUDIO DE CASO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE UN NUEVO PLAN DE ESTUDIOS DEL PROFESORADO EN BIOLOGÍA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE FORMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E. Montes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive investigation, from the socio-critical paradigm. It consists of the evaluation of the curriculum development of the new curriculum for the biology teachers to be in the national university from Formosa, in the republic of Argentina. It has been applied since 2001. The main objective is oriented to the identification of the fulfillments, problematic situations and action alternatives constructed in in the process of changing the curriculum. It is applied quantitative and qualitative techniques, with the intervention of students and teachers in the phase of collection and analysis of information. The methodological and theoretical triangulation is made to get a higher validity of the data obtained. We hope to get a significant contribution for the referred university.

  7. Response of GSTase and Liver Esterase in Goldfish (Carrasius auratus) and Topmouth Gudegon (Pseudorasbora parva) after Sublethal Exposure to Cyhalofop-butyl and Profurite-aminium%氰氟草酯、杀虫安亚致死剂量对金鱼Carrasius auratus和麦穗鱼Pseudorasbora parva