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Sample records for formin 1-isoform iv

  1. The role of formins in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWard, Aaron D; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Matheson, Stephen F; Alberts, Arthur S

    2010-02-01

    Formins are a conserved family of proteins that play key roles in cytoskeletal remodeling. They nucleate and processively elongate non-branched actin filaments and also modulate microtubule dynamics. Despite their significant contributions to cell biology and development, few studies have directly implicated formins in disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the roles of formins in cell division, migration, immunity, and microvesicle formation in the context of human disease. In addition, we discuss the importance of controlling formin activity and protein expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

  2. Formins in Development: Orchestrating Body Plan Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Raymond; Linardopoulou, Elena V.; Osborn, Gregory E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Formins, proteins defined by the presence of an FH2 domain and their ability to nucleate linear F-actin de novo, play a key role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton. Initially thought to primarily regulate actin, recent studies have highlighted a role for formins in the regulation of microtubule dynamics, and most recently have uncovered the ability of some formins to coordinate the organization of both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. While biochemical analyses of this family of proteins have yielded many insights into how formins regulate diverse cytoskeletal reorganizations, we are only beginning to appreciate how and when these functional properties are relevant to biological processes in a developmental or organismal context. Developmental genetic studies in fungi, Dictyostelium, vertebrates, plants and other model organisms have revealed conserved roles for formins in cell polarity, actin cable assembly and cytokinesis. However, roles have also been discovered for formins that are specific to particular organisms. Thus, formins perform both global and specific functions, with some of these roles concurring with previous biochemical data and others exposing new properties of formins. While not all family members have been examined across all organisms, the analyses to date highlight the significance of the flexibility within the formin family to regulate a broad spectrum of diverse cytoskeletal processes during development. PMID:18996154

  3. FMNL formins boost lamellipodial force generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kage, Frieda; Winterhoff, Moritz; Dimchev, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here...... reduces both migration and capability of cells to move against viscous media. Together, we conclude that force generation in lamellipodia strongly depends on FMNL formin activity, operating in addition to Arp2/3 complex-dependent filament branching....

  4. Formins: Bringing new insights to the organization of actin cytoskeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chunqing; REN Haiyun

    2006-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an important component of eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton and is temporally and spatially controlled by a series of actin binding proteins (ABPs). Among ABPs, formin family proteins have attracted much attention as they can nucleate unbranched actin filament from the profilin bound actin pool in vivo. In recent years, a number of formin family members from different organisms have been reported, and their characteristics are known more clearly, although some questions are still to be clarified. Here, we summarize the structures, functions and nucleation mechanisms of different formin family proteins, intending to compare them and give some new clues to the study of formins.

  5. FMNL formins boost lamellipodial force generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Frieda; Winterhoff, Moritz; Dimchev, Vanessa; Mueller, Jan; Thalheim, Tobias; Freise, Anika; Brühmann, Stefan; Kollasser, Jana; Block, Jennifer; Dimchev, Georgi; Geyer, Matthias; Schnittler, Hans-Joachim; Brakebusch, Cord; Stradal, Theresia E. B.; Carlier, Marie-France; Sixt, Michael; Käs, Josef; Faix, Jan; Rottner, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation. Strikingly, in melanoma cells, FMNL2/3 gene inactivation almost completely abolishes protrusion forces exerted by lamellipodia and modifies their ultrastructural organization. Consistently, CRISPR/Cas-mediated depletion of FMNL2/3 in fibroblasts reduces both migration and capability of cells to move against viscous media. Together, we conclude that force generation in lamellipodia strongly depends on FMNL formin activity, operating in addition to Arp2/3 complex-dependent filament branching. PMID:28327544

  6. Characterization of Leukocyte Formin FMNL1 Expression in Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Vanina D.; Iljin, Kristiina; Kampf, Caroline; Uhlen, Mathias; Carpén, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Formins are cytoskeleton regulating proteins characterized by a common FH2 structural domain. As key players in the assembly of actin filaments, formins direct dynamic cytoskeletal processes that influence cell shape, movement and adhesion. The large number of formin genes, fifteen in the human, suggests distinct tasks and expression patterns for individual family members, in addition to overlapping functions. Several formins have been associated with invasive cell properties in experimental models, linking them to cancer biology. One example is FMNL1, which is considered to be a leukocyte formin and is known to be overexpressed in lymphomas. Studies on FMNL1 and many other formins have been hampered by a lack of research tools, especially antibodies suitable for staining paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissues. Here we characterize, using bioinformatics tools and a validated antibody, the expression pattern of FMNL1 in human tissues and study its subcellular distribution. Our results indicate that FMNL1 expression is not restricted to hematopoietic tissues and that neoexpression of FMNL1 can be seen in epithelial cancer. PMID:24700756

  7. Conformational Flexibility Differentiates Naturally Occurring Bet v 1 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Ahammer, Linda; Kamenik, Anna S; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-06-03

    The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. Using NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the initial proteolytic cleavage sites in two naturally occurring Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a) and Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), are conformationally flexible. Inaccessible cleavage sites in helices and strands are highly flexible on the microsecond-millisecond time scale, whereas those located in loops display faster nanosecond-microsecond flexibility. The data consistently show that Bet v 1.0102 is more flexible and conformationally heterogeneous than Bet v 1.0101. Moreover, NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements reveal that the backbone amides in Bet v 1.0102 are significantly more solvent exposed, in agreement with this isoform's higher susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. The differential conformational flexibility of Bet v 1 isoforms, along with the transient exposure of inaccessible sites to the protein surface, may be linked to proteolytic susceptibility, representing a potential structure-based rationale for the observed differences in Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization.

  8. Microtubule binding by the formin Cappuccino and its implications for Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth Anne

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks is required for a number of fundamental cellular processes. Formin family actin nucleators are emerging coordinators of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, as they can both nucleate actin filaments and bind microtubules in vitro. To gain a more detailed mechanistic understanding of formin-microtubule interactions and formin-mediated actin-microtubule crosstalk, we studied microtubule binding by Cappuccino (Capu), a formin involv...

  9. Rho GTPase-formin pairs in cytoskeletal remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Peng, Jun; Wallar, Bradley J; Alberts, Arthur S

    2005-01-01

    Diaphanous-related formins (Drfs) are members of a conserved formin family of actin-nucleating proteins and are thought to act as Rho GTPase effectors in signal transduction pathways that govern gene expression, cytoskeletal remodelling and cell division. In vitro evidence suggests that the three mammalian Drf proteins--mDia1, mDia2 and mDia3-have distinct GTPase-binding specificities. However, much of our current understanding of GTPase-Drf partnerships in mammalian cell signalling is based on expression studies using Drfs missing their unique GTPase-binding domains. We have employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and gene targeting approaches to identify the function of different GTPase-formin pairs in cell signalling. These studies have allowed us to uncover new roles for Drf proteins in cytoskeletal remodelling and novel regulatory mechanisms whereby GTPases influence formin function. Our genetic experiments strongly suggest that Drfs cooperate with other GTPase effector proteins, including the gene product of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene, WASP, during the regulation of cell proliferation. Further, the Drf gene knockout experiments indicate that this family of formins has a role in cancer pathophysiology.

  10. Roots of angiosperm formins: The evolutionary history of plant FH2 domain-containing proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žárský Viktor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shuffling of modular protein domains is an important source of evolutionary innovation. Formins are a family of actin-organizing proteins that share a conserved FH2 domain but their overall domain architecture differs dramatically between opisthokonts (metazoans and fungi and plants. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of formins in most eukaryotic kingdoms, aiming to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario that may have produced the current diversity of domain combinations with focus on the origin of the angiosperm formin architectures. Results The Rho GTPase-binding domain (GBD/FH3 reported from opisthokont and Dictyostelium formins was found in all lineages except plants, suggesting its ancestral character. Instead, mosses and vascular plants possess the two formin classes known from angiosperms: membrane-anchored Class I formins and Class II formins carrying a PTEN-like domain. PTEN-related domains were found also in stramenopile formins, where they have been probably acquired independently rather than by horizontal transfer, following a burst of domain rearrangements in the chromalveolate lineage. A novel RhoGAP-related domain was identified in some algal, moss and lycophyte (but not angiosperm formins that define a specific branch (Class III of the formin family. Conclusion We propose a scenario where formins underwent multiple domain rearrangements in several eukaryotic lineages, especially plants and chromalveolates. In plants this replaced GBD/FH3 by a probably inactive RhoGAP-like domain, preserving a formin-mediated association between (membrane-anchored Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Subsequent amplification of formin genes, possibly coincident with the expansion of plants to dry land, was followed by acquisition of alternative membrane attachment mechanisms present in extant Class I and Class II formins, allowing later loss of the RhoGAP-like domain-containing formins in angiosperms.

  11. The role of formin tails in actin nucleation, processive elongation, and filament bundling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, Christina L; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E

    2014-10-31

    Formins are multidomain proteins that assemble actin in a wide variety of biological processes. They both nucleate and remain processively associated with growing filaments, in some cases accelerating filament growth. The well conserved formin homology 1 and 2 domains were originally thought to be solely responsible for these activities. Recently a role in nucleation was identified for the Diaphanous autoinhibitory domain (DAD), which is C-terminal to the formin homology 2 domain. The C-terminal tail of the Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) is conserved among FMN formins but distinct from other formins. It does not have a DAD domain. Nevertheless, we find that Capu-tail plays a role in filament nucleation similar to that described for mDia1 and other formins. Building on this, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes nucleation activity. Capu-tail has low-affinity interactions with both actin monomers and filaments. Removal of the tail reduces actin filament binding and bundling. Furthermore, when the tail is removed, we find that processivity is compromised. Despite decreased processivity, the elongation rate of filaments is unchanged. Again, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes the processive association with the barbed end, indicating that this is a general role for formin tails. Our data show a role for the Capu-tail domain in assembling the actin cytoskeleton, largely mediated by electrostatic interactions. Because of its multifunctionality, the formin tail is a candidate for regulation by other proteins during cytoskeletal rearrangements.

  12. Thrombotic Microangiopathy in Inverted Formin 2-Mediated Renal Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challis, Rachel C; Ring, Troels; Xu, Yaobo

    2017-01-01

    and her mother also had Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a mutation in the inverted formin 2 gene (INF2) in the mutational hotspot for FSGS. Subsequent analysis of the Newcastle aHUS cohort identified another family with a functionally-significant mutation in INF2...

  13. Formins: Actin nucleators that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Tang, Elizabeth I; Wong, Chris Kc; Lee, Will M; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-01-01

    Formins are a growing class of actin nucleation proteins that promote the polymerization of actin microfilaments, forming long stretches of actin microfilaments to confer actin filament bundling in mammalian cells. As such, microfilament bundles can be formed in specific cellular domains, in particular in motile mammalian cells, such as filopodia. Since ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific adherens junction (AJ), at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli-spermatid interface is constituted by arrays of actin microfilament bundles, it is likely that formins are playing a significant physiological role on the homeostasis of ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. In this Commentary, we provide a timely discussion on formin 1 which was recently shown to be a crucial regulator of actin microfilaments at the ES in the rat testis (Li N et al. Endocrinology, 2015, in press; DOI: 10.1210/en.2015-1161, PMID:25901598). We also highlight research that is needed to unravel the functional significance of formins in spermatogenesis.

  14. Differential susceptibility of RAE-1 isoforms to mouse cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapovic, Jurica; Lenac, Tihana; Antulov, Ronald; Polic, Bojan; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Carayannopoulos, Leonidas N; Koszinowski, Ulrich H; Krmpotic, Astrid; Jonjic, Stipan

    2009-08-01

    The NKG2D receptor is one of the most potent activating natural killer cell receptors involved in antiviral responses. The mouse NKG2D ligands MULT-1, RAE-1, and H60 are regulated by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) proteins m145, m152, and m155, respectively. In addition, the m138 protein interferes with the expression of both MULT-1 and H60. We show here that one of five RAE-1 isoforms, RAE-1delta, is resistant to downregulation by MCMV and that this escape has functional importance in vivo. Although m152 retained newly synthesized RAE-1delta and RAE-1gamma in the endoplasmic reticulum, no viral regulator was able to affect the mature RAE-1delta form which remains expressed on the surfaces of infected cells. This differential susceptibility to downregulation by MCMV is not a consequence of faster maturation of RAE-1delta compared to RAE-1gamma but rather an intrinsic property of the mature surface-resident protein. This difference can be attributed to the absence of a PLWY motif from RAE-1delta. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism of host escape from viral immunoevasion of NKG2D-dependent control.

  15. Autoinhibition of the formin Cappuccino in the absence of canonical autoinhibitory domains

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Batbileg; Vizcarra, Christina L.; Phillips, Martin L.; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2012-01-01

    Formins are a conserved family of proteins known to enhance actin polymerization. Most formins are regulated by an intramolecular interaction. The Drosophila formin, Cappuccino (Capu), was believed to be an exception. Capu does not contain conserved autoinhibitory domains and can be regulated by a second protein, Spire. We report here that Capu is, in fact, autoinhibited. The N-terminal half of Capu (Capu-NT) potently inhibits nucleation and binding to the barbed end of elongating filaments b...

  16. Centrosome polarization in T cells: a task for formins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAndrés-Delgado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available T-cell antigen receptor (TCR engagement triggers the rapid reorientation of the centrosome, which is associated with the secretory machinery, towards the immunological synapse (IS for polarized protein trafficking. Recent evidence indicates that upon TCR triggering the INF2 formin, together with the formins DIA1 and FMNL1, promotes the formation of a specialized array of stable detyrosinated MTs that breaks the symmetrical organization of the T-cell microtubule (MT cytoskeleton. The detyrosinated MT array and TCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation should coincide for centrosome polarization. We propose that the pushing forces produced by the detyrosinated MT array, which modify the position of the centrosome, in concert with Src kinase dependent TCR signaling, which provide the reference frame with respect to which the centrosome reorients, result in the repositioning of the centrosome to the IS.

  17. The Role of Formin Tails in Actin Nucleation, Processive Elongation, and Filament Bundling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, Christina L.; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2014-01-01

    Formins are multidomain proteins that assemble actin in a wide variety of biological processes. They both nucleate and remain processively associated with growing filaments, in some cases accelerating filament growth. The well conserved formin homology 1 and 2 domains were originally thought to be solely responsible for these activities. Recently a role in nucleation was identified for the Diaphanous autoinhibitory domain (DAD), which is C-terminal to the formin homology 2 domain. The C-terminal tail of the Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) is conserved among FMN formins but distinct from other formins. It does not have a DAD domain. Nevertheless, we find that Capu-tail plays a role in filament nucleation similar to that described for mDia1 and other formins. Building on this, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes nucleation activity. Capu-tail has low-affinity interactions with both actin monomers and filaments. Removal of the tail reduces actin filament binding and bundling. Furthermore, when the tail is removed, we find that processivity is compromised. Despite decreased processivity, the elongation rate of filaments is unchanged. Again, replacement of Capu-tail with DADs from other formins tunes the processive association with the barbed end, indicating that this is a general role for formin tails. Our data show a role for the Capu-tail domain in assembling the actin cytoskeleton, largely mediated by electrostatic interactions. Because of its multifunctionality, the formin tail is a candidate for regulation by other proteins during cytoskeletal rearrangements. PMID:25246531

  18. Control of Formin Distribution and Actin Cable Assembly by the E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Dma1 and Dma2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, M Angeles; Piatti, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Formins are widespread actin-polymerizing proteins that play pivotal roles in a number of processes, such as cell polarity, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and cell migration. In agreement with their crucial function, formins are prone to a variety of regulatory mechanisms that include autoinhibition, post-translational modifications, and interaction with formin modulators. Furthermore, activation and function of formins is intimately linked to their ability to interact with membranes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the two formins Bni1 and Bnr1 play both separate and overlapping functions in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, they are controlled by both common and different regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that proper localization of both formins requires the redundant E3 ubiquitin ligases Dma1 and Dma2, which were previously involved in spindle positioning and septin organization. In dma1 dma2 double mutants, formin distribution at polarity sites is impaired, thus causing defects in the organization of the actin cable network and hypersensitivity to the actin depolymerizer latrunculin B. Expression of a hyperactive variant of Bni1 (Bni1-V360D) rescues these defects and partially restores proper spindle positioning in the mutant, suggesting that the failure of dma1 dma2 mutant cells to position the spindle is partly due to faulty formin activity. Strikingly, Dma1/2 interact physically with both formins, while their ubiquitin-ligase activity is required for formin function and polarized localization. Thus, ubiquitylation of formin or a formin interactor(s) could promote formin binding to membrane and its ability to nucleate actin. Altogether, our data highlight a novel level of formin regulation that further expands our knowledge of the complex and multilayered controls of these key cytoskeleton organizers.

  19. Drosophila Cappuccino alleles provide insight into formin mechanism and role in oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Haneul; Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila development, the formin actin nucleator Cappuccino (Capu) helps build a cytoplasmic actin mesh throughout the oocyte. Loss of Capu leads to female sterility, presumably because polarity determinants fail to localize properly in the absence of the mesh. To gain deeper insight into how Capu builds this actin mesh, we systematically characterized seven capu alleles, which have missense mutations in Capu's formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. We report that all seven alleles have del...

  20. The ability to induce microtubule acetylation is a general feature of formin proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Thurston

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic microtubules exist as distinct dynamic and stable populations within the cell. Stable microtubules direct and maintain cell polarity and it is thought that their stabilization is dependent on coordinative organization between the microtubule network and the actin cytoskeleton. A growing body of work suggests that some members of the formin family of actin remodeling proteins also regulate microtubule organization and stability. For example, we showed previously that expression of the novel formin INF1 is sufficient to induce microtubule stabilization and tubulin acetylation, but not tubulin detyrosination. An important issue with respect to the relationship between formins and microtubules is the determination of which formin domains mediate microtubule stabilization. INF1 has a distinct microtubule-binding domain at its C-terminus and the endogenous INF1 protein is associated with the microtubule network. Surprisingly, the INF1 microtubule-binding domain is not essential for INF1-induced microtubule acetylation. We show here that expression of the isolated FH1 + FH2 functional unit of INF1 is sufficient to induce microtubule acetylation independent of the INF1 microtubule-binding domain. It is not yet clear whether or not microtubule stabilization is a general property of all mammalian formins; therefore we expressed constitutively active derivatives of thirteen of the fifteen mammalian formin proteins in HeLa and NIH3T3 cells and measured their effects on stress fiber formation, MT organization and MT acetylation. We found that expression of the FH1 + FH2 unit of the majority of mammalian formins is sufficient to induce microtubule acetylation. Our results suggest that the regulation of microtubule acetylation is likely a general formin activity and that the FH2 should be thought of as a dual-function domain capable of regulating both actin and microtubule networks.

  1. Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the formin mDia2 upon completion of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWard, Aaron D; Alberts, Arthur S

    2009-07-24

    Formins assemble non-branched actin filaments and modulate microtubule dynamics during cell migration and cell division. At the end of mitosis formins contribute to the generation of actin filaments that form the contractile ring. Rho small GTP-binding proteins activate mammalian diaphanous-related (mDia) formins by directly binding and disrupting an intramolecular autoinhibitory mechanism. Although the Rho-regulated activation mechanism is well characterized, little is known about how formins are switched off. Here we reveal a novel mechanism of formin regulation during cytokinesis based on the following observations; 1) mDia2 is degraded at the end of mitosis, 2) mDia2 is targeted for disposal by post-translational ubiquitin modification, 3) forced expression of activated mDia2 yields binucleate cells due to failed cytokinesis, and 4) the cytokinesis block is dependent upon mDia2-mediated actin assembly as versions of mDia2 incapable of nucleating actin but that still stabilize microtubules have no effect on cytokinesis. We propose that the tight control of mDia2 expression and ubiquitin-mediated degradation is essential for the completion of cell division. Because of the many roles for formins in cell morphology, we discuss the relevance of mDia protein turnover in other processes where ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is an essential component.

  2. Interaction of formin FH2 with skeletal muscle actin. EPR and DSC studies.

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    Kupi, Tünde; Gróf, Pál; Nyitrai, Miklós; Belágyi, József

    2013-10-01

    Formins are highly conserved proteins that are essential in the formation and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The formin homology 2 (FH2) domain is responsible for actin binding and acts as an important nucleating factor in eukaryotic cells. In this work EPR and DSC were used to investigate the properties of the mDia1-FH2 formin fragment and its interaction with actin. MDia1-FH2 was labeled with a maleimide spin probe (MSL). EPR results suggested that the MSL was attached to a single SH group in the FH2. In DSC and temperature-dependent EPR experiments we observed that mDia1-FH2 has a flexible structure and observed a major temperature-induced conformational change at 41 °C. The results also confirmed the previous observation obtained by fluorescence methods that formin binding can destabilize the structure of actin filaments. In the EPR experiments the intermolecular connection between the monomers of formin dimers proved to be flexible. Considering the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular roles of formins this internal flexibility of the dimers is probably important for manifestation of their biological functions.

  3. Interaction between microtubules and the Drosophila formin Cappuccino and its effect on actin assembly.

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    Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A; Vizcarra, Christina L; Bois, Justin S; Quinlan, Margot E

    2014-02-14

    Formin family actin nucleators are potential coordinators of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, as they can both nucleate actin filaments and bind microtubules in vitro. To gain a more detailed mechanistic understanding of formin-microtubule interactions and formin-mediated actin-microtubule cross-talk, we studied microtubule binding by Cappuccino (Capu), a formin involved in regulating actin and microtubule organization during Drosophila oogenesis. We found that two distinct domains within Capu, FH2 and tail, work together to promote high-affinity microtubule binding. The tail domain appears to bind microtubules through nonspecific charge-based interactions. In contrast, distinct residues within the FH2 domain are important for microtubule binding. We also report the first visualization of a formin polymerizing actin filaments in the presence of microtubules. Interestingly, microtubules are potent inhibitors of the actin nucleation activity of Capu but appear to have little effect on Capu once it is bound to the barbed end of an elongating filament. Because Capu does not simultaneously bind microtubules and assemble actin filaments in vitro, its actin assembly and microtubule binding activities likely require spatial and/or temporal regulation within the Drosophila oocyte.

  4. Autoinhibition of the formin Cappuccino in the absence of canonical autoinhibitory domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Batbileg; Vizcarra, Christina L; Phillips, Martin L; Quinlan, Margot E

    2012-10-01

    Formins are a conserved family of proteins known to enhance actin polymerization. Most formins are regulated by an intramolecular interaction. The Drosophila formin, Cappuccino (Capu), was believed to be an exception. Capu does not contain conserved autoinhibitory domains and can be regulated by a second protein, Spire. We report here that Capu is, in fact, autoinhibited. The N-terminal half of Capu (Capu-NT) potently inhibits nucleation and binding to the barbed end of elongating filaments by the C-terminal half of Capu (Capu-CT). Hydrodynamic analysis indicates that Capu-NT is a dimer, similar to the N-termini of other formins. These data, combined with those from circular dichroism, suggest, however, that it is structurally distinct from previously described formin inhibitory domains. Finally, we find that Capu-NT binds to a site within Capu-CT that overlaps with the Spire-binding site, the Capu-tail. We propose models for the interaction between Spire and Capu in light of the fact that Capu can be regulated by autoinhibition.

  5. Interaction between Microtubules and the Drosophila Formin Cappuccino and Its Effect on Actin Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Vizcarra, Christina L.; Bois, Justin S.; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2014-01-01

    Formin family actin nucleators are potential coordinators of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, as they can both nucleate actin filaments and bind microtubules in vitro. To gain a more detailed mechanistic understanding of formin-microtubule interactions and formin-mediated actin-microtubule cross-talk, we studied microtubule binding by Cappuccino (Capu), a formin involved in regulating actin and microtubule organization during Drosophila oogenesis. We found that two distinct domains within Capu, FH2 and tail, work together to promote high-affinity microtubule binding. The tail domain appears to bind microtubules through nonspecific charge-based interactions. In contrast, distinct residues within the FH2 domain are important for microtubule binding. We also report the first visualization of a formin polymerizing actin filaments in the presence of microtubules. Interestingly, microtubules are potent inhibitors of the actin nucleation activity of Capu but appear to have little effect on Capu once it is bound to the barbed end of an elongating filament. Because Capu does not simultaneously bind microtubules and assemble actin filaments in vitro, its actin assembly and microtubule binding activities likely require spatial and/or temporal regulation within the Drosophila oocyte. PMID:24362037

  6. Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii formin 3, an actin nucleator dispensable for tachyzoite growth and motility.

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    Daher, Wassim; Klages, Natacha; Carlier, Marie-France; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a group of obligate intracellular parasites that rely on gliding motility to enter host cells. Drugs interfering with the actin cytoskeleton block parasite motility, host cell invasion, and egress from infected cells. Myosin A, profilin, formin 1, formin 2, and actin-depolymerizing factor have all been implicated in parasite motility, yet little is known regarding the importance of actin polymerization and other myosins for the remaining steps of the parasite lytic cycle. Here we establish that T. gondii formin 3 (TgFRM3), a newly described formin homology 2 domain (FH2)-containing protein, binds to Toxoplasma actin and nucleates rabbit actin assembly in vitro. TgFRM3 expressed as a transgene exhibits a patchy localization at several distinct structures within the parasite. Disruption of the TgFRM3 gene by double homologous recombination in a ku80-ko strain reveals no vital function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is consistent with its weak level of expression in this life stage. Conditional stabilization of truncated forms of TgFRM3 suggests that different regions of the molecule contribute to distinct localizations. Moreover, expression of TgFRM3 lacking the C-terminal domain severely affects parasite growth and replication. This work provides a first insight into how this specialized formin, restricted to the group of coccidia, completes its actin-nucleating activity.

  7. The formin DAD domain plays dual roles in autoinhibition and actin nucleation.

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    Gould, Christopher J; Maiti, Sankar; Michelot, Alphée; Graziano, Brian R; Blanchoin, Laurent; Goode, Bruce L

    2011-03-08

    Formins are a large family of actin assembly-promoting proteins with many important biological roles. However, it has remained unclear how formins nucleate actin polymerization. All other nucleators are known to recruit actin monomers as a central part of their mechanisms. However, the actin-nucleating FH2 domain of formins lacks appreciable affinity for monomeric actin. Here, we found that yeast and mammalian formins bind actin monomers but that this activity requires their C-terminal DAD domains. Furthermore, we observed that the DAD works in concert with the FH2 to enhance nucleation without affecting the rate of filament elongation. We dissected this mechanism in mDia1, mapped nucleation activity to conserved residues in the DAD, and demonstrated that DAD roles in nucleation and autoinhibition are separable. Furthermore, DAD enhancement of nucleation was independent of contributions from the FH1 domain to nucleation. Together, our data show that (1) the DAD has dual functions in autoinhibition and nucleation; (2) the FH1, FH2, and DAD form a tripartite nucleation machine; and (3) formins nucleate by recruiting actin monomers and therefore are more similar to other nucleators than previously thought.

  8. Concerted action of two formins in gliding motility and host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Wassim Daher

    Full Text Available The invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites share a conserved form of gliding motility that powers parasite migration across biological barriers, host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. Previous studies have established that the duration and direction of gliding motility are determined by actin polymerization; however, regulators of actin dynamics in apicomplexans remain poorly characterized. In the absence of a complete ARP2/3 complex, the formin homology 2 domain containing proteins and the accessory protein profilin are presumed to orchestrate actin polymerization during host cell invasion. Here, we have undertaken the biochemical and functional characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii formins and established that they act in concert as actin nucleators during invasion. The importance of TgFRM1 for parasite motility has been assessed by conditional gene disruption. The contribution of each formin individually and jointly was revealed by an approach based upon the expression of dominant mutants with modified FH2 domains impaired in actin binding but still able to dimerize with their respective endogenous formin. These mutated FH2 domains were fused to the ligand-controlled destabilization domain (DD-FKBP to achieve conditional expression. This strategy proved unique in identifying the non-redundant and critical roles of both formins in invasion. These findings provide new insights into how controlled actin polymerization drives the directional movement required for productive penetration of parasites into host cells.

  9. Metastasis suppressor microRNA-335 targets the formin family of actin nucleators.

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    Jennifer Lynch

    Full Text Available MiRNAs can have pleiotropic effects by targeting multiple genes belonging to diverse signalling networks. Alternatively, miRNAs can enhance the potency of their cellular effects by targeting multiple genes within the same genetic pathway. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that miR-335 is a potent suppressor of tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis, in part by targeting several genes involved in these cellular processes, including ROCK1, MAPK1, LRG1, SP1 and SOX4. Here, we demonstrate that direct targeting of multiple members of the formin family of actin nucleators contributes to the inhibitory effects of miR-335 in neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that miR-335 regulates the expression of at least five formin family members and validate three family members, FMNL3, FMN2 and DAAM2, as direct targets of miR-335. The contribution of the formin family genes to cancer progression and metastasis has recently begun to emerge and here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of FMN2 and DAAM2 to regulate tumour cell migration and invasion, using siRNA-mediated inhibition of each of these formin genes. Finally, we demonstrate that the formin genes, in particular FMNL3, are responsible for the protrusion of actin-rich filopodia structures that contribute to the enhanced migratory and invasive potential associated with reduced expression of miR-335. Thus, direct targeting of the formin family contributes to the metastasis suppressing abilities of miR-335 by providing a direct regulatory link to the actin assembly machinery of the cell. We conclude that miR-335 is a master regulator of tumour cell migration and invasion by directly targeting a plethora of genes that effectively control cell migratory processes.

  10. Metastasis Suppressor microRNA-335 Targets the Formin Family of Actin Nucleators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jennifer; Meehan, Maria H.; Crean, John; Copeland, John; Stallings, Raymond L.; Bray, Isabella M.

    2013-01-01

    MiRNAs can have pleiotropic effects by targeting multiple genes belonging to diverse signalling networks. Alternatively, miRNAs can enhance the potency of their cellular effects by targeting multiple genes within the same genetic pathway. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that miR-335 is a potent suppressor of tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis, in part by targeting several genes involved in these cellular processes, including ROCK1, MAPK1, LRG1, SP1 and SOX4. Here, we demonstrate that direct targeting of multiple members of the formin family of actin nucleators contributes to the inhibitory effects of miR-335 in neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that miR-335 regulates the expression of at least five formin family members and validate three family members, FMNL3, FMN2 and DAAM2, as direct targets of miR-335. The contribution of the formin family genes to cancer progression and metastasis has recently begun to emerge and here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of FMN2 and DAAM2 to regulate tumour cell migration and invasion, using siRNA-mediated inhibition of each of these formin genes. Finally, we demonstrate that the formin genes, in particular FMNL3, are responsible for the protrusion of actin-rich filopodia structures that contribute to the enhanced migratory and invasive potential associated with reduced expression of miR-335. Thus, direct targeting of the formin family contributes to the metastasis suppressing abilities of miR-335 by providing a direct regulatory link to the actin assembly machinery of the cell. We conclude that miR-335 is a master regulator of tumour cell migration and invasion by directly targeting a plethora of genes that effectively control cell migratory processes. PMID:24223803

  11. Differential CARM1 Isoform Expression in Subcellular Compartments and among Malignant and Benign Breast Tumors.

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    David Shlensky

    Full Text Available Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1 is a coactivator for ERα and cancer-relevant transcription factors, and can methylate diverse cellular targets including histones. CARM1 is expressed in one of two alternative splice isoforms, full-length CARM1 (CARM1FL and truncated CARM1 (CARM1ΔE15. CARM1FL and CARM1ΔE15 function differently in transcriptional regulation, protein methylation, and mediation of pre-mRNA splicing in cellular models.To investigate the functional roles and the prognosis potential of CARM1 alternative spliced isoforms in breast cancer, we used recently developed antibodies to detect differential CARM1 isoform expression in subcellular compartments and among malignant and benign breast tumors.Immunofluorescence in MDA-MB-231 and BG-1 cell lines demonstrated that CARM1ΔE15 is the dominant isoform expressed in the cytoplasm, and CARM1FL is more nuclear localized. CARM1ΔE15 was found to be more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than CARM1FL, indicating that the truncated isoform may be the oncogenic form. Clinical cancer samples did not have significantly higher expression of CARM1FL or CARM1ΔE15 than benign breast samples at the level of mRNA or histology. Furthermore neither CARM1FL nor CARM1ΔE15 expression correlated with breast cancer molecular subtypes, tumor size, or lymph node involvement.The analysis presented here lends new insights into the possible oncogenic role of CARM1ΔE15. This study also demonstrates no obvious association of CARM1 isoform expression and clinical correlates in breast cancer. Recent studies, however, have shown that CARM1 expression correlates with poor prognosis, indicating a need for further studies of both CARM1 isoforms in a large cohort of breast cancer specimens.

  12. Direct interaction of the mouse cytomegalovirus m152/gp40 immunoevasin with RAE-1 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Li; Mans, Janet; Paskow, Michael J; Brown, Patrick H; Schuck, Peter; Jonjić, Stipan; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H

    2010-03-23

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are ubiquitous species-specific viruses that establish acute, persistent, and latent infections. Both human and mouse CMVs encode proteins that inhibit the activation of natural killer (NK) cells by downregulating cellular ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. The MCMV glycoprotein m152/gp40 downregulates the surface expression of RAE-1 to prevent NK cell control in vivo. So far, it is unclear if there is a direct interaction between m152 and RAE-1 and, if so, if m152 interacts differentially with the five identified RAE-1 isoforms, which are expressed as two groups in MCMV-susceptible or -resistant mouse strains. To address these questions, we expressed and purified the extracellular domains of RAE-1 and m152 and performed size exclusion chromatography binding assays as well as analytical ultracentrifugation and isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize these interactions quantitatively. We further evaluated the role of full-length and naturally glycosylated m152 and RAE-1 in cotransfected HEK293T cells. Our results confirmed that m152 binds RAE-1 directly, relatively tightly (K(d) RAE-1 isoforms, corresponding to the susceptibility to downregulation by m152. A PLWY motif found in RAE-1beta, although contributing to its affinity for m152, does not influence the affinity of RAE-1gamma or RAE-1delta, suggesting that other differences contribute to the RAE-1-m152 interaction. Molecular modeling of the different RAE-1 isoforms suggests a potential site for the m152 interaction.

  13. ROCK1 isoform-specific deletion reveals a role for diet-induced insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Huang, Hu; Choi, Kangduk; Lee, Dae Ho; Shi, Jianjian; Liu, Tiemin; Chun, Kwang Hoon; Seo, Ji A.; Lima, Ines S.; Zabolotny, Janice M.; Wei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) isoforms regulate insulin signaling and glucose metabolism negatively or positively in cultured cell lines and skeletal muscle. However, the in vivo function of the ROCK1 isoform in adipose tissue has not been addressed. To determine the specific role of the adipose ROCK1 isoform in the development of insulin resistance and obesity, mice lacking ROCK1 in adipose tissue globally or selectively were studied. Here, we show that insulin's ability to activate IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling was greatly enhanced in adipose tissue of ROCK1−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. These effects resulted from the inhibitory effect of ROCK1 on insulin receptor action, as evidenced by the fact that IR tyrosine phosphorylation was abolished in ROCK1−/− MEF cells when ROCK1 was reexpressed. Consistently, adipose-specific disruption of ROCK1 increased IR tyrosine phosphorylation in adipose tissue and modestly improved sensitivity to insulin in obese mice induced by high-fat feeding. This effect is independent of any changes in adiposity, number or size of adipocytes, and metabolic parameters, including glucose, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels, demonstrating a minimal effect of adipose ROCK1 on whole body metabolism. Enzymatic activity of ROCK1 in adipose tissue remained ∼50%, which likely originated from the fraction of stromal vascular cells, suggesting involvement of these cells for adipose metabolic regulation. Moreover, ROCK isoform activities were increased in adipose tissue of diet-induced or genetically obese mice. These data suggest that adipose ROCK1 isoform plays an inhibtory role for the regulation of insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity in vivo. PMID:24326423

  14. Learning-dependent gene expression of CREB1 isoforms in the molluscan brain

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    Hisayo Sadamoto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein1 (CREB1 has multiple functions in gene regulation. Various studies have reported that CREB1-dependent gene induction is necessary for memory formation and long-lasting behavioral changes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we characterized Lymnaea CREB1 (LymCREB1 mRNA isoforms of spliced variants in the central nervous system (CNS of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Among these spliced variants, the three isoforms that code a whole LymCREB1 protein are considered to be the activators for gene regulation. The other four isoforms, which code truncated LymCREB1 proteins with no kinase inducible domain, are the repressors. For a better understanding of the possible roles of different LymCREB1 isoforms, the expression level of these isoform mRNAs was investigated by a real-time quantitative RT-PCR method. Further, we examined the changes in gene expression for all the isoforms in the CNS after conditioned taste aversion (CTA learning or backward conditioning as a control. The results showed that CTA learning increased LymCREB1 gene expression, but it did not change the activator/repressor ratio. Our findings showed that the repressor isoforms, as well as the activator ones, are expressed in large amounts in the CNS, and the gene expression of CREB1 isoforms appeared to be specific for the given stimulus. This was the first quantitative analysis of the expression patterns of CREB1 isoforms at the mRNA level and their association with learning behavior.

  15. Human heterochromatin protein 1 isoforms regulate androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsumi, Momoe; Shiota, Masaki; Yokomizo, Akira; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Takeuchi, Ario; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Inokuchi, Junichi; Song, Yoohyun; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Naito, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is critical for the tumorigenesis and development of prostate cancer, as well as the progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer. We previously showed that the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) β isoform plays a critical role in transactivation of AR signaling as an AR coactivator that promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation. However, the roles of other HP1 isoforms, HP1α and HP1γ, in AR expression and prostate cancer remain unclear. Here, we found that knockdown of HP1γ, but not HP1α, reduced AR expression and cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in LNCaP cells. Conversely, overexpression of full-length HP1α and its C-terminal deletion mutant increased AR expression and cell growth, whereas overexpression of HP1γ had no effect. Similarly, HP1α overexpression promoted 22Rv1 cell growth, whereas HP1γ knockdown reduced the proliferation of CxR cells, a castration-resistant LNCaP derivative. Taken together, HP1 isoforms distinctly augment AR signaling and cell growth in prostate cancer. Therefore, silencing of HP1β and HP1γ may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Alterations of Lymphoid Enhancer Factor-1 Isoform Expression in Solid Tumors and Acute Leukemias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbing WANG; Carsten M(U)LLER-TIDOW; Ping JI; Bj(o)rn STEFFEN; Ralf METZGER; Paul M. SCHNEIDER; Hartmut HALFTER; Mark SCHRADER; Wolfgang E. BERDEL; Hubert SERVE

    2005-01-01

    Two major transcripts of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) have been described. The long isoform with β-catenin binding domain functions as a transcriptional enhancer factor. The short isoform derives from an intronic promoter and exhibits dominant negative activity. Recently, alterations of LEF- 1isoforms distribution have been described in colon cancer. In the current study we employed a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR method (TaqMan) to analyze expression of LEF-1 isoforms in a large cohort of human tumor (n=304) and tumor-free control samples (n=56). The highest expression level of LEF-1 was found in carcinoma samples whereas brain cancer samples expressed little. Expression of LEF1 was different in distinct cancer types. For example, the mRNA level of LEF-1 was lower in testicular tumor samples compared with tumor-free control samples. Besides epithelial cancers, significant LEF-1expression was also found in hematopoietic cells. In hematological malignancies, overall LEF-1 level was higher in lymphocytic leukemias compared with myeloid leukemias and normal hematopoiesis. However,acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia showed a significantly increased fraction of the oncogenic LEF-1 compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. Taken together,these data suggest that LEF-1 is abundantly expressed in human tumors and the ratio of the oncogenic and the dominant negative short isoform altered not only in carcinomas but also in leukemia.

  17. Formin like 1 expression is increased on CD4+ T lymphocytes in spontaneous autoimmune uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, Roxane L; Uhl, Patrizia B; Amann, Barbara; Krackhardt, Angela M; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2017-02-10

    The membrane protein expression repertoire of cells changes in course of activation. In equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), a spontaneous autoimmune disease in horses with relapsing and ultimately blinding inner eye inflammation, CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial pathogenic cells activated in the periphery directly prior to an inflammatory episode. In order to find relevant changes in the membrane proteome associated to disease, we sorted CD4+ lymphocytes and compared protein abundance from the generated proteome datasets of both healthy horses and ERU cases. We detected formin like 1, a key player in actin dependent cellular processes such as phagocytosis, cell adhesion and cell migration, with significantly higher abundance in the CD4+ cell membrane proteome of horses with ERU. In transmigration experiments, we demonstrated higher migration rate of cells originating from diseased animals connecting formin like 1 to the migratory ability of cells. These findings are the first description of formin like 1 in association to processes involved in migration of inflammatory CD4+ T cells across the blood-retinal barrier in a spontaneous ocular autoimmune disease and suggest formin like 1 to play a role in the molecular mechanisms of ERU disease pathogenesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005384.

  18. Immunopositivity for histone macroH2A1 isoforms marks steatosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Francesca Rappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Prevention and risk reduction are important and the identification of specific biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC represents an active field of research. Increasing evidence indicates that fat accumulation in the liver, defined as hepatosteatosis, is an independent and strong risk factor for developing an HCC. MacroH2A1, a histone protein generally associated with the repressed regions of chromosomes, is involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and is present in two alternative spliced isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. These isoforms have been shown to predict lung and colon cancer recurrence but to our knowledge, their role in fatty-liver associated HCC has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We examined macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 protein expression levels in the liver of two murine models of fat-associated HCC, the high fat diet/diethylnistrosamine (DEN and the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN liver specific knock-out (KO mouse, and in human liver samples of subjects with steatosis or HCC, using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Protein levels for both macroH2A1 isoforms were massively upregulated in HCC, whereas macroH2A1.2 was specifically upregulated in steatosis. In addition, examination of human liver samples showed a significant difference (p<0.01 in number of positive nuclei in HCC (100% of tumor cells positive for either macroH2A1.1 or macroH2A1.2, when compared to steatosis (<2% of hepatocytes positive for either isoform. The steatotic areas flanking the tumors were highly immunopositive for macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. CONCLUSIONS: These data obtained in mice and humans suggest that both macroH2A1 isoforms may play a role in HCC pathogenesis and moreover may be considered as novel diagnostic markers for human HCC.

  19. Regulation of the formin Cappuccino is critical for polarity of Drosophila oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bor, Batbileg; Bois, Justin S.; Quinlan, Margot E.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) creates an actin mesh-like structure that traverses the oocyte during mid-oogenesis. This mesh is thought to prevent premature onset of fast cytoplasmic streaming which normally happens during late-oogenesis. Proper cytoskeletal organization and cytoplasmic streaming are crucial for localization of polarity determinants such as osk, grk, bcd and nanos mRNAs. Capu mutants disrupt these events, leading to female sterility. Capu is regulated by another nuc...

  20. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the

  1. Metallothionein 1 Isoform Gene Expression Induced by Cadmium in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the gene expression of metallothionein 1 (MT-1) isoforms in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Methods The expression of mRNA representing the seven active MT-1 genes was determined in HPBLs by quantitative RT-PCR before and after exposure to cadmium. Results Basal expressions of MT-1X, and MT-1A in HPBLs were similar to expression of housekeeping gene. In contrast, the basal gene expressions of MT-1H, 1F, 1E, and 1G were a little transcripts in human HPBLs. No signal was detected for MT-1B. There was a sex difference (P<0.05). in basal gene expression of MT-1E. The levels of gene expression of MT-1A, 1E, 1F, 1G, 1H, and 1X increased, but the level of MT-1B did not increase after exposure to cadmium. Conclusions Gene expressions of MT-1G, MT-1H, MT-1F, and MT-1X in HPBLs can be used as a potential biomarker of cadmium exposure.

  2. Regulation of actin catch-slip bonds with a RhoA-formin module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho-Yin; Lou, Jizhong; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Chien, Shu; Ono, Shoichiro; Zhu, Cheng; McIntire, Larry V.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is regulated cooperatively by force and biochemical signaling. We previously demonstrated that actin depolymerization under force is governed by catch-slip bonds mediated by force-induced K113:E195 salt-bridges. Yet, the biochemical regulation as well as the functional significance of actin catch bonds has not been elucidated. Using AFM force-clamp experiments, we show that formin controlled by RhoA switches the actin catch-slip bonds to slip-only bonds. SMD simulations reveal that the force does not induce the K113:E195 interaction when formin binds to actin K118 and E117 residues located at the helical segment extending to K113. Actin catch-slip bonds are suppressed by single residue replacements K113E and E195K that interrupt the force-induced K113:E195 interaction; and this suppression is rescued by a K113E/E195K double mutant (E/K) restoring the interaction in the opposite orientation. These results support the biological significance of actin catch bonds, as they corroborate reported observations that RhoA and formin switch force-induced actin cytoskeleton alignment and that either K113E or E195K induces yeast cell growth defects rescued by E/K. Our study demonstrates how the mechano-regulation of actin dynamics is modulated by biochemical signaling molecules, and suggests that actin catch bonds may be important in cell functions.

  3. Drosophila Cappuccino alleles provide insight into formin mechanism and role in oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Haneul; Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A; Bor, Batbileg; Quinlan, Margot E

    2015-05-15

    During Drosophila development, the formin actin nucleator Cappuccino (Capu) helps build a cytoplasmic actin mesh throughout the oocyte. Loss of Capu leads to female sterility, presumably because polarity determinants fail to localize properly in the absence of the mesh. To gain deeper insight into how Capu builds this actin mesh, we systematically characterized seven capu alleles, which have missense mutations in Capu's formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. We report that all seven alleles have deleterious effects on fly fertility and the actin mesh in vivo but have strikingly different effects on Capu's biochemical activity in vitro. Using a combination of bulk and single- filament actin-assembly assays, we find that the alleles differentially affect Capu's ability to nucleate and processively elongate actin filaments. We also identify a unique "loop" in the lasso region of Capu's FH2 domain. Removing this loop enhances Capu's nucleation, elongation, and F-actin-bundling activities in vitro. Together our results on the loop and the seven missense mutations provides mechanistic insight into formin function in general and Capu's role in the Drosophila oocyte in particular.

  4. Cell-cycle regulation of formin-mediated actin cable assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yansong; Wong, Catherine C L; Mennella, Vito; Michelot, Alphée; Agard, David A; Holt, Liam J; Yates, John R; Drubin, David G

    2013-11-19

    Assembly of appropriately oriented actin cables nucleated by formin proteins is necessary for many biological processes in diverse eukaryotes. However, compared with knowledge of how nucleation of dendritic actin filament arrays by the actin-related protein-2/3 complex is regulated, the in vivo regulatory mechanisms for actin cable formation are less clear. To gain insights into mechanisms for regulating actin cable assembly, we reconstituted the assembly process in vitro by introducing microspheres functionalized with the C terminus of the budding yeast formin Bni1 into extracts prepared from yeast cells at different cell-cycle stages. EM studies showed that unbranched actin filament bundles were reconstituted successfully in the yeast extracts. Only extracts enriched in the mitotic cyclin Clb2 were competent for actin cable assembly, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity was indispensible. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity also was found to regulate cable assembly in vivo. Here we present evidence that formin cell-cycle regulation is conserved in vertebrates. The use of the cable-reconstitution system to test roles for the key actin-binding proteins tropomyosin, capping protein, and cofilin provided important insights into assembly regulation. Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, we identified components of the actin cables formed in yeast extracts, providing the basis for comprehensive understanding of cable assembly and regulation.

  5. F- and G-actin homeostasis regulates mechanosensitive actin nucleation by formins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Chiharu; Kiuchi, Tai; Akiba, Yushi; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Maruoka, Masahiro; Narumiya, Shuh; Mizuno, Kensaku; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    Physical force evokes rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Signalling pathways such as tyrosine kinases, stretch-activated Ca(2+) channels and Rho GTPases are involved in force sensing. However, how signals are transduced to actin assembly remains obscure. Here we show mechanosensitive actin polymerization by formins (formin homology proteins). Cells overexpressing mDia1 increased the amount of F-actin on release of cell tension. Fluorescence single-molecule speckle microscopy revealed rapid induction of processive actin assembly by mDia1 on cell cortex deformation. mDia1 lacking the Rho-binding domain and other formins exhibited mechanosensitive actin nucleation, suggesting Rho-independent activation. Mechanosensitive actin nucleation by mDia1 required neither Ca(2+) nor kinase signalling. Overexpressing LIM kinase abrogated the induction of processive mDia1. Furthermore, s-FDAPplus (sequential fluorescence decay after photoactivation) analysis revealed a rapid actin monomer increase on cell cortex deformation. Our direct visualization of the molecular behaviour reveals a mechanosensitive actin filament regeneration mechanism in which G-actin released by actin remodelling plays a pivotal role.

  6. N-Myc Differentially Regulates Expression of MXI1 Isoforms in Neuroblastoma

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    Michael B. Armstrong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of the MYCN proto-oncogene is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma (NB. MYCN encodes the N-Myc protein, a transcriptional regulator that dimerizes with the Max transcription factor, binds to E-box DNA sequences, and regulates genes involved in cell growth and apoptosis. Overexpression of N-Myc leads to transcriptional activation and an increase in NB cell proliferation. Mxi1, a member of the Myc family of transcriptional regulators, also binds to Max. However, Mxi1 is a transcriptional repressor and inhibits proliferation of NB cells, suggesting that Mxi1 functions as an N-Myc antagonist. Our laboratory previously identified Mxi1-0, an alternatively transcribed Mxi1 isoform. Mxi1-0 has properties distinct from those of Mxi1; in contrast to Mxi1, Mxi1-0 is unable to suppress c-Myc-dependent transcription. We now show that Mxi1-0 expression increases in response to MYCN overexpression in NB cells, with a positive correlation between MYCN and MXI1-0 RNA levels. We also show that N-Myc expression differentially regulates the MXI1 and MXI1-0 promoters: Increased MYCN expression suppresses MXI1 promoter activity while enhancing transcription through the MXI1-0 promoter. Finally, induction of Mxi1-0 leads to increased proliferation, whereas expression of Mxi1 inhibits cell growth, indicating differential roles for these two proteins. These data suggest that N-Myc differentially regulates the expression of MXI1 and MXI1-0 and can alter the balance between the two transcription factors. Furthermore, MXI1-0 appears to be a downstream target of MYCN-dependent signaling pathways and may contribute to N-Myc-dependent cell growth and proliferation.

  7. Characterization of Diaphanous-related formin FMNL2 in human tissues

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    Kampf Caroline

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diaphanous-related formins govern actin-based processes involved in many cellular functions, such as cell movement and invasion. Possible connections to developmental processes and cellular changes associated with malignant phenotype make them interesting study targets. In spite of this, very little is known of the tissue distribution and cellular location of any mammalian formin. Here we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the formin family member formin -like 2 (FMNL2 in human tissues. Results An FMNL2 antibody was raised and characterized. The affinity-purified FMNL2 antibody was validated by Western blotting, Northern blotting, a peptide competition assay and siRNA experiments. Bioinformatics-based mRNA profiling indicated that FMNL2 is widely expressed in human tissues. The highest mRNA levels were seen in central and peripheral nervous systems. Immunohistochemical analysis of 26 different human tissues showed that FMNL2 is widely expressed, in agreement with the mRNA profile. The widest expression was detected in the central nervous system, since both neurons and glial cells expressed FMNL2. Strong expression was also seen in many epithelia. However, the expression in different cell types was not ubiquitous. Many mesenchymal cell types showed weak immunoreactivity and cells lacking expression were seen in many tissues. The subcellular location of FMNL2 was cytoplasmic, and in some tissues a strong perinuclear dot was detected. In cultured cells FMNL2 showed mostly a cytoplasmic localization with perinuclear accumulation consistent with the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, FMNL2 co-localized with F-actin to the tips of cellular protrusions in WM164 human melanoma cells. This finding is in line with FMNL2's proposed function in the formation of actin filaments in cellular protrusions, during amoeboid cellular migration. Conclusion FMNL2 is expressed in multiple human tissues, not only in the central nervous system

  8. Common formin-regulating sequences in Smy1 and Bud14 are required for the control of actin cable assembly in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Julian A; Rankova, Aneliya; Johnston, Adam B; Alioto, Salvatore L; Goode, Bruce L

    2016-03-01

    Formins comprise a large family of proteins with diverse roles in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. However, the spatiotemporal mechanisms used by cells to control formin activities are only beginning to be understood. Here we dissected Smy1, which has dual roles in regulating formins and myosin. Using mutagenesis, we identified specific sequences in Smy1 critical for its in vitro inhibitory effects on the FH2 domain of the formin Bnr1. By integrating smy1 alleles targeting those sequences, we genetically uncoupled Smy1's functions in regulating formins and myosin. Quantitative imaging analysis further demonstrated that the ability of Smy1 to directly control Bnr1 activity is crucial in vivo for proper actin cable length, shape, and velocity and, in turn, efficient secretory vesicle transport. A Smy1-like sequence motif was also identified in a different Bnr1 regulator, Bud14, and found to be essential for Bud14 functions in regulating actin cable architecture and function in vivo. Together these observations reveal unanticipated mechanistic ties between two distinct formin regulators. Further, they emphasize the importance of tightly controlling formin activities in vivo to generate specialized geometries and dynamics of actin structures tailored to their physiological roles.

  9. Structure and function of the interacting domains of Spire and Fmn-family formins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcarra, Christina L.; Kreutz, Barry; Rodal, Avital A.; Toms, Angela V.; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Quinlan, Margot E.; Eck, Michael J. (UCLA); (Brandeis); (DFCI)

    2012-07-11

    Evidence for cooperation between actin nucleators is growing. The WH2-containing nucleator Spire and the formin Cappuccino interact directly, and both are essential for assembly of an actin mesh during Drosophila oogenesis. Their interaction requires the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) domain of Spire and the C-terminal tail of the formin. Here we describe the crystal structure of the KIND domain of human Spir1 alone and in complex with the tail of Fmn2, a mammalian ortholog of Cappuccino. The KIND domain is structurally similar to the C-lobe of protein kinases. The Fmn2 tail is coordinated in an acidic cleft at the base of the domain that appears to have evolved via deletion of a helix from the canonical kinase fold. Our functional analysis of Cappuccino reveals an unexpected requirement for its tail in actin assembly. In addition, we find that the KIND/tail interaction blocks nucleation by Cappuccino and promotes its displacement from filament barbed ends providing insight into possible modes of cooperation between Spire and Cappuccino.

  10. Formin-2, polyploidy, hypofertility and positioning of the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Benjamin; Lim, Hyunjung; Carabatsos, Mary Jo; Harrington, Anne; Ecsedy, Jeffrey; Pellman, David; Maas, Richard; Leder, Philip

    2002-12-01

    Successful reproduction in mammals requires a competent egg, which is formed during meiosis through two assymetrical cell divisions. Here, we show that a recently identified formin homology (FH) gene, formin-2 (Fmn2), is a maternal-effect gene that is expressed in oocytes and is required for progression through metaphase of meiosis I. Fmn2(-/-) oocytes cannot correctly position the metaphase spindle during meiosis I and form the first polar body. We demonstrate that Fmn2 is required for microtubule-independent chromatin positioning during metaphase I. Fertilization of Fmn2(-/-) oocytes results in polyploid embryo formation, recurrent pregnancy loss and sub-fertility in Fmn2(-/-) females. Injection of Fmn2 mRNA into Fmn2-deficient oocytes rescues the metaphase I block. Given that errors in meiotic maturation result in severe birth defects and are the most common cause of chromosomal aneuploidy and pregnancy loss in humans, studies of Fmn2 may provide a better understanding of infertility and birth defects.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii profilin acts primarily to sequester G-actin while formins efficiently nucleate actin filament formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Kristen M; Daher, Wassim; Ma, Christopher I; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Sibley, L David

    2012-03-27

    Apicomplexan parasites employ gliding motility that depends on the polymerization of parasite actin filaments for host cell entry. Despite this requirement, parasite actin remains almost entirely unpolymerized at steady state; formation of filaments required for motility relies on a small repertoire of actin-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that apicomplexan formins and profilin exhibit canonical functions on heterologous actins from higher eukaryotes; however, their biochemical properties on parasite actins are unknown. We therefore analyzed the impact of T. gondii profilin (TgPRF) and FH1-FH2 domains of two formin isoforms in T. gondii (TgFRM1 and TgFRM2) on the polymerization of T. gondii actin (TgACTI). Our findings based on in vitro assays demonstrate that TgFRM1-FH1-FH2 and TgFRM2-FH1-FH2 dramatically enhanced TgACTI polymerization in the absence of profilin, making them the sole protein factors known to initiate polymerization of this normally unstable actin. In addition, T. gondii formin domains were shown to both initiate polymerization and induce bundling of TgACTI filaments; however, they did not rely on TgPRF for these activities. In contrast, TgPRF sequestered TgACTI monomers, thus inhibiting polymerization even in the presence of formins. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the unusual control mechanisms of actin dynamics within the parasite.

  12. Local IGF-1 isoform protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses via SirT1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Claycomb, William C; Ladurner, Andreas G; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2009-12-10

    Oxidative and hypertrophic stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone with a complex post-transcriptional regulation, generating distinct isoforms. Locally acting IGF-1 isoform (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from toxic injury and from infarct. In the murine heart, moderate overexpression of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1 was reported to mitigate oxidative stress. SirT1 is known to promote lifespan extension and to protect from metabolic challenges. Circulating IGF-1 and SirT1 play antagonizing biological roles and share molecular targets in the heart, in turn affecting cardiomyocyte physiology. However, how different IGF-1 isoforms may impact SirT1 and affect cardiomyocyte function is unknown. Here we show that locally acting mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression/activity, whereas circulating IGF-1 isoform does not affect it, in cultured HL-1 and neonatal cardiomyocytes. mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity exerts protection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered hypertrophy and against paraquat (PQ) and Ang II-induced oxidative stress. Conversely, circulating IGF-1 triggered itself oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Interestingly, potent cardio-protective genes (adiponectin, UCP-1 and MT-2) were increased specifically in mIGF-1-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, in a SirT1-dependent fashion. Thus, mIGF-1 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative and hypertrophic stresses via SirT1 activity, and may represent a promising cardiac therapeutic.

  13. Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu LIU; Zhuomin WANG; Yun BAI; Min WANG; Ying LI; Sen WEI; Qinghua ZHOU; Jun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms,and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions.In this study,we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER nega-tive) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.Methods: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive).After stable cell lines were made,a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents,including doxorubicin,docetaxel,and 5-FU,was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1.The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.Results: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis.BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis.The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50,but not p46,p33,or p29,increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7.Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen,while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms.In the detection of the expression of K-ras,Hsp70,cytochrome c,Raf-1,ER-α,and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot,only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46,respectively.Furthermore,the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Distinct isoforrns of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells,and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

  14. NHE-1 isoform of the Na+/H+ antiport is expressed in the rat and rabbit esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallat, S; Schmidt, L; Reaka, A; Rao, D; Chang, E B; Rao, M C; Ramaswamy, K; Layden, T J

    1995-11-01

    Rabbit esophageal cells show an amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ antiporter activity. Several distinct molecular isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchanger family (NHE) are reported to be present in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and rabbits. The aim of this study was to examine which isoforms are present in rabbit and rat esophageal cells and whether this isoform could be up-regulated by serum factors. Specific primers designed from the rat NHE-1-4 and the rabbit NHE-1-3 isoform sequences were used for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis with RNA from rabbit and rat esophageal cells. Ribonuclease protection assay was used to determine the serum-induced up-regulation of NHE-1. Antibodies raised against the NHE-1 C-terminal fragment were used for Western blotting with rabbit esophageal membranes. In both the rat and rabbit esophagus, only the NHE-1 isoform messenger RNA could be detected. The NHE-1 messenger RNA, detected in rabbit esophageal cells grown from tissue explants, was up-regulated by serum factors. The antibody detected a 95-kilodalton protein in esophageal cell membranes. The rabbit and rat esophagus exclusively express the NHE-1 isoform, hypothesized to be involved in cytoplasmic pH regulation. Therefore, the results of this study suggest a role for NHE-1 in protecting cells against gastric acid that is refluxed into the esophagus.

  15. An Arabidopsis Class Ⅱ Formin, AtFH19, Nucleates Actin Assembly, Binds to the Barbed End of Actin Filaments, and Antagonizes the Effect of AtFH1 on Actin Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyan Zheng; Haibo Xin; Jinxing Lin; Chun-Ming Liu; Shanjin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Formin is a major protein responsible for regulating the nucleation of actin filaments,and as such,it permits the cell to control where and when to assemble actin arrays.It is encoded by a multigene family comprising 21 members in Arabidopsis thaliana.The Arabidopsis formins can be separated into two phylogenetically-distinct classes:there are 11 class Ⅰ formins and 10 class Ⅱ formins.Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation and elongation stimulated by each formin isovariant,and how the different isovariants coordinate to regulate actin dynamics in cells.Here,we characterize a class Ⅱ formin,AtFH19,biochemically.We found that AtFH19 retains all general properties of the formin family,including nucleation and barbed end capping activity.It can also generate actin filaments from a pool of actin monomers bound to profilin.However,both the nucleation and barbed end capping activities of AtFH19 are less efficient compared to those of another well-characterized formin,AtFH1.Interestingly,AtFH19 FH1FH2 competes with AtFH1 FH1FH2 in binding actin filament barbed ends,and inhibits the effect of AtFH1 FH1FH2 on actin.We thus propose a mechanism in which two quantitatively different formins coordinate to regulate actin dynamics by competing for actin filament barbed ends.

  16. A novel EB-1/AIDA-1 isoform, AIDA-1c, interacts with the Cajal body protein coilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Michael D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cajal bodies (CBs are nuclear suborganelles that play a role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are crucial for pre-mRNA splicing. Upon nuclear reentry, Sm-class snRNPs localize first to the CB, where the snRNA moiety of the snRNP is modified. It is not clear how snRNPs target to the CB and are released from this structure after their modification. Coilin, the CB marker protein, may participate in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN. SMN is crucial for snRNP assembly and is the protein mutated in the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Coilin knockout mice display significant viability problems and altered CB formation. Thus characterization of the CB and its associated proteins will give insight into snRNP biogenesis and clarify the dynamic organization of the nucleus. Results In this report, we identify a novel protein isoform of EB-1/AIDA-1, termed AIDA-1c, that interacts with the CB marker protein, coilin. Northern and nested PCR experiments reveal that the AIDA-1c isoform is expressed in brain and several cancer cell lines. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that AIDA-1c competes with SmB' for coilin binding sites, but does not bind SMN. When ectopically expressed, AIDA-1c is predominantly nuclear with no obvious accumulations in CBs. Interestingly, another EB-1/AIDA-1 nuclear isoform, AIDA-1a, does not bind coilin in vivo as efficiently as AIDA-1c. Knockdown of EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms by siRNA altered Cajal body organization and reduced cell viability. Conclusion These data suggest that specific EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms, such as AIDA-1c, may participate in the regulation of nucleoplasmic coilin protein interactions in neuronal and transformed cells.

  17. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Martijn F; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Smulders, Marinus J M; Gilissen, Luud J W J

    2009-03-03

    Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01) were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01) was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  18. FHOD1, a formin upregulated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, participates in cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gardberg

    Full Text Available Cancer cells can obtain their ability to invade and metastasise by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Exploiting this mechanism of cellular plasticity, malignant cells can remodel their actin cytoskeleton and down-regulate proteins needed for cell-cell contacts. The mechanisms of cytoskeletal reorganisation resulting in mesenchymal morphology and increased invasive potential are poorly understood. Actin nucleating formins have been implicated as key players in EMT. Here, we analysed which formins are altered in squamous cell carcinoma related EMT. FHOD1, a poorly studied formin, appeared to be markedly upregulated upon EMT. In human tissues FHOD1 was primarily expressed in mesenchymal cells, with little expression in epithelia. However, specimens from oral squamous cell cancers demonstrated consistent FHOD1 upregulation in mesenchymally transformed cells at the invasive edge. This upregulation was confirmed in an oral squamous carcinoma model, where FHOD1 expression was markedly increased upon EMT in a PI3K signalling dependent manner. In the EMT cells FHOD1 contributed to the spindle-shaped morphology and mesenchymal F-actin organization. Furthermore, functional assays demonstrated that FHOD1 contributes to cell migration and invasion. Finally, FHOD1 depletion reduced the ability of EMT cancer cells to form invadopodia and to degrade extracellular matrix. Our results indicate that FHOD1 participates in cytoskeletal changes in EMT. In addition, we show that FHOD1 upregulation occurs during cancer cell EMT in vivo, which indicates that FHOD1 may contribute to tumour progression.

  19. FHOD1, a Formin Upregulated in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Participates in Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardberg, Maria; Kaipio, Katja; Lehtinen, Laura; Mikkonen, Piia; Heuser, Vanina D.; Talvinen, Kati; Iljin, Kristiina; Kampf, Caroline; Uhlen, Mathias; Grénman, Reidar; Koivisto, Mari; Carpén, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells can obtain their ability to invade and metastasise by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Exploiting this mechanism of cellular plasticity, malignant cells can remodel their actin cytoskeleton and down-regulate proteins needed for cell-cell contacts. The mechanisms of cytoskeletal reorganisation resulting in mesenchymal morphology and increased invasive potential are poorly understood. Actin nucleating formins have been implicated as key players in EMT. Here, we analysed which formins are altered in squamous cell carcinoma related EMT. FHOD1, a poorly studied formin, appeared to be markedly upregulated upon EMT. In human tissues FHOD1 was primarily expressed in mesenchymal cells, with little expression in epithelia. However, specimens from oral squamous cell cancers demonstrated consistent FHOD1 upregulation in mesenchymally transformed cells at the invasive edge. This upregulation was confirmed in an oral squamous carcinoma model, where FHOD1 expression was markedly increased upon EMT in a PI3K signalling dependent manner. In the EMT cells FHOD1 contributed to the spindle-shaped morphology and mesenchymal F-actin organization. Furthermore, functional assays demonstrated that FHOD1 contributes to cell migration and invasion. Finally, FHOD1 depletion reduced the ability of EMT cancer cells to form invadopodia and to degrade extracellular matrix. Our results indicate that FHOD1 participates in cytoskeletal changes in EMT. In addition, we show that FHOD1 upregulation occurs during cancer cell EMT in vivo, which indicates that FHOD1 may contribute to tumour progression. PMID:24086398

  20. RhoB and the mammalian Diaphanous-related formin mDia2 in endosome trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallar, Bradley J; Deward, Aaron D; Resau, James H; Alberts, Arthur S

    2007-02-01

    Rho GTPases and the dynamic assembly and disassembly of actin filaments have been shown to have critical roles in both the internalization and trafficking of growth factor receptors. While all three mammalian Diaphanous-related (mDia1/2/3) formin GTPase effector proteins have been localized on endosomes, a role for their actin nucleation, filament elongation, and/or bundling remains poorly understood in the context of intracellular trafficking. In a study of a functional relationship between RhoB, a GTPase known to associate with both early- and late-endosomes, and the formin mDia2, we show that 1) RhoB and mDia2 interact on endosomes; 2) GTPase activity-the ability to hydrolyze GTP to GDP-is required for the ability of RhoB to govern endosome dynamics; and 3) the actin dynamics controlled by RhoB and mDia2 is necessary for vesicle trafficking. These studies further suggest that Rho GTPases significantly influence the activity of mDia family formins in driving cellular membrane remodeling through the regulation of actin dynamics.

  1. With no lysine L-WNK1 isoforms are negative regulators of the K+-Cl- cotransporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Adriana; de Los Heros, Paola; Melo, Zesergio; Chávez-Canales, María; Murillo-de-Ozores, Adrián R; Moreno, Erika; Bazúa-Valenti, Silvana; Vázquez, Norma; Hadchouel, Juliette; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    The K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCC1-KCC4) encompass a branch of the SLC12 family of electroneutral cation-coupled chloride cotransporters that translocate ions out of the cell to regulate various factors, including cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration, among others. L-WNK1 is an ubiquitously expressed kinase that is activated in response to osmotic stress and intracellular chloride depletion, and it is implicated in two distinct hereditary syndromes: the renal disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) and the neurological disease hereditary sensory neuropathy 2 (HSN2). The effect of L-WNK1 on KCC activity is unknown. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells, we show that the activation of KCCs by cell swelling was prevented by L-WNK1 coexpression. In contrast, the activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 was remarkably increased with L-WNK1 coexpression. The negative effect of L-WNK1 on the KCCs is kinase dependent. Elimination of the STE20 proline-alanine rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress-responsive kinase (OSR1) binding site or the HQ motif required for the WNK-WNK interaction prevented the effect of L-WNK1 on KCCs, suggesting a required interaction between L-WNK1 molecules and SPAK. Together, our data support that NKCC1 and KCCs are coordinately regulated by L-WNK1 isoforms.

  2. A cryptic targeting signal creates a mitochondrial FEN1 isoform with tailed R-Loop binding properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Kazak

    Full Text Available A growing number of DNA transacting proteins is found in the nucleus and in mitochondria, including the DNA repair and replication protein Flap endonuclease 1, FEN1. Here we show a truncated FEN1 isoform is generated by alternative translation initiation, exposing a mitochondrial targeting signal. The shortened form of FEN1, which we term FENMIT, localizes to mitochondria, based on import into isolated organelles, immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation. In vitro FENMIT binds to flap structures containing a 5' RNA flap, and prefers such substrates to single-stranded RNA. FENMIT can also bind to R-loops, and to a lesser extent to D-loops. Exposing human cells to ethidium bromide results in the generation of RNA/DNA hybrids near the origin of mitochondrial DNA replication. FENMIT is recruited to the DNA under these conditions, and is released by RNase treatment. Moreover, high levels of recombinant FENMIT expression inhibit mtDNA replication, following ethidium bromide treatment. These findings suggest FENMIT interacts with RNA/DNA hybrids in mitochondrial DNA, such as those found at the origin of replication.

  3. The Drosophila formin Fhos is a primary mediator of sarcomeric thin-filament array assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Arkadi; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-01-01

    Actin-based thin filament arrays constitute a fundamental core component of muscle sarcomeres. We have used formation of the Drosophila indirect flight musculature for studying the assembly and maturation of thin-filament arrays in a skeletal muscle model system. Employing GFP-tagged actin monomer incorporation, we identify several distinct phases in the dynamic construction of thin-filament arrays. This sequence includes assembly of nascent arrays after an initial period of intensive microfilament synthesis, followed by array elongation, primarily from filament pointed-ends, radial growth of the arrays via recruitment of peripheral filaments and continuous barbed-end turnover. Using genetic approaches we have identified Fhos, the single Drosophila homolog of the FHOD sub-family of formins, as a primary and versatile mediator of IFM thin-filament organization. Localization of Fhos to the barbed-ends of the arrays, achieved via a novel N-terminal domain, appears to be a critical aspect of its sarcomeric roles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16540.001 PMID:27731794

  4. Aurora B regulates formin mDia3 in achieving metaphase chromosome alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lina; Zhang, Jiayin; Ahmad, Sana; Rozier, Lorene; Yu, Haiqian; Deng, Haiteng; Mao, Yinghui

    2011-03-15

    Proper bipolar attachment of sister kinetochores to the mitotic spindle is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show an essential role of the formin mDia3 in achieving metaphase chromosome alignment. This function is independent of mDia3 actin nucleation activity, but is attributable to EB1-binding by mDia3. Furthermore, the microtubule binding FH2 domain of mDia3 is phosphorylated by Aurora B kinase in vitro, and cells expressing the nonphosphorylatable mDia3 mutant cannot position chromosomes at the metaphase plate. Purified recombinant mDia3 phosphorylated by Aurora B exhibits reduced ability to bind microtubules and stabilize microtubules against cold-induced disassembly in vitro. Cells expressing the phosphomimetic mDia3 mutant do not form stable kinetochore microtubule fibers; despite they are able to congress chromosomes to the metaphase plate. These findings reveal a key role for mDia3 and its regulation by Aurora B phosphorylation in achieving proper stable kinetochore microtubule attachment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of the formin Cappuccino is critical for polarity of Drosophila oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Batbileg; Bois, Justin S; Quinlan, Margot E

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila formin Cappuccino (Capu) creates an actin mesh-like structure that traverses the oocyte during midoogenesis. This mesh is thought to prevent premature onset of fast cytoplasmic streaming which normally happens during late-oogenesis. Proper cytoskeletal organization and cytoplasmic streaming are crucial for localization of polarity determinants such as osk, grk, bcd, and nanos mRNAs. Capu mutants disrupt these events, leading to female sterility. Capu is regulated by another nucleator, Spire, as well as by autoinhibition in vitro. Studies in vivo confirm that Spire modulates Capu's function in oocytes; however, how autoinhibition contributes is still unclear. To study the role of autoinhibition in flies, we expressed a Capu construct that is missing the Capu Inhibitory Domain, CapuΔN. Consistent with a gain of activity due to loss of autoinhibition, the actin mesh was denser in CapuΔN oocytes. Further, cytoplasmic streaming was delayed and fertility levels decreased. Localization of osk mRNA in early stages, and bcd and nanos in late stages, were disrupted in CapuΔN-expressing oocytes. Finally, evidence that these phenotypes were due to a loss of autoinhibition comes from coexpression of the N-terminal half of Capu with CapuΔN, which suppressed the defects in actin, cytoplasmic streaming and fertility. From these results, we conclude that Capu can be autoinhibited during Drosophila oocyte development.

  6. WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Dovas, Athanassios; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Sidani, Mazen; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Desmarais, Vera; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan; Backer, Jonathan M; Alberts, Art; Condeelis, John

    2008-03-24

    We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity.

  7. Direct binding of specific AUF1 isoforms to tandem zinc finger domains of tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Vishram P; Zucconi, Beth E; Wilson, Gerald M; Blackshear, Perry J

    2012-02-17

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype of a family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins that can bind to AU-rich elements in mRNAs and promote their decay. TTP binds to mRNA through its central tandem zinc finger domain; it then promotes mRNA deadenylation, considered to be the rate-limiting step in eukaryotic mRNA decay. We found that TTP and its related family members could bind to certain isoforms of another AU-rich element-binding protein, HNRNPD/AUF1, as well as a related protein, laAUF1. The interaction domain within AUF1p45 appeared to be a C-terminal "GY" region, and the interaction domain within TTP was the tandem zinc finger domain. Surprisingly, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP occurred even with TTP mutants that lacked RNA binding activity. In cell extracts, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP potentiated TTP binding to ARE-containing RNA probes, as determined by RNA gel shift assays; AUF1p45 did not bind to the RNA probes under these conditions. Using purified, recombinant proteins and a synthetic RNA target in FRET assays, we demonstrated that AUF1p45, but not AUF1p37, increased TTP binding affinity for RNA ∼5-fold. These data suggest that certain isoforms of AUF1 can serve as "co-activators" of TTP family protein binding to RNA. The results raise interesting questions about the ability of AUF1 isoforms to regulate the mRNA binding and decay-promoting activities of TTP and its family members as well as the ability of AUF1 proteins to serve as possible physical links between TTP and other mRNA decay proteins and structures.

  8. A truncated-Flt1 isoform of breast cancer cells is upregulated by Notch and downregulated by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Jovita; Barrot, Carme; Carvajal, Silvia; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Pau; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that the major isoform of Flt1/VEGFR-1 expressed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was a truncated intracellular isoform transcribed from intron 21 (i21 Flt1). This isoform upregulated the active form of Src and increased breast cancer cell invasiveness. Since expression of the transmembrane and soluble Flt1 isoforms of HUVEC is activated by Notch signaling, we wondered whether the expression of the intracellular isoform i21 Flt1 was also dependent on Notch activation. We report here that the expression of i21 Flt1 in HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells is downregulated by the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. In addition, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with siRNA specific for Notch-1 and Notch-3 downregulates the expression of i21 Flt1. In agreement with these findings, HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, cultured on dishes coated with recombinant human Dll4 extracellular domain, express higher levels of i21 Flt1. In cancer cells, Flt1 is a target of the micro RNA family miR-200. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, the truncated intracellular isoform i21 Flt1 is also negatively regulated by miR-200c. Retinoic acid interferes i21 Flt1 expression by downregulating Notch-3 and upregulating miR-200 expression. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with both a γ-secretase inhibitor and retinoic acid suppresses the expression of i21 Flt1, providing a new mechanism to explain the effectiveness of this therapeutic approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Myeloproliferative defects following targeting of the Drf1 gene encoding the mammalian diaphanous related formin mDia1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Kitchen, Susan M; West, Richard A; Sigler, Robert; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Alberts, Arthur S

    2007-08-15

    Rho GTPase-effector mammalian diaphanous (mDia)-related formins assemble nonbranched actin filaments as part of cellular processes, including cell division, filopodia assembly, and intracellular trafficking. Whereas recent efforts have led to thorough characterization of formins in cytoskeletal remodeling and actin assembly in vitro, little is known about the role of mDia proteins in vivo. To fill this knowledge gap, the Drf1 gene, which encodes the canonical formin mDia1, was targeted by homologous recombination. Upon birth, Drf1+/- and Drf1-/- mice were developmentally and morphologically indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates. However, both Drf1+/- and Drf1-/- developed age-dependent myeloproliferative defects. The phenotype included splenomegaly, fibrotic and hypercellular bone marrow, extramedullary hematopoiesis in both spleen and liver, and the presence of immature myeloid progenitor cells with high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios. Analysis of cell surface markers showed an age-dependent increase in the percentage of CD11b+-activated and CD14+-activated monocytes/macrophages in both spleen and bone marrow in Drf1+/- and Drf1-/- animals. Analysis of the erythroid compartment showed a significant increase in the proportion of splenic cells in S phase and an expansion of erythroid precursors (TER-119+ and CD71+) in Drf1-targeted mice. Overall, knocking out mDia1 expression in mice leads to a phenotype similar to human myeloproliferative syndrome (MPS) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These observations suggest that defective DRF1 expression or mDia1 function may contribute to myeloid malignancies and point to mDia1 as an attractive therapeutic target in MDS and MPS.

  10. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia, which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  11. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Su; Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary K

    2015-08-01

    The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia), which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  12. In-silico characterization of Formin Binding Protein 4 Family of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit; Bhattacharya, Simanti; Bagchi, Angshuman; Dasgupta, Rakhi

    2015-03-01

    Members of the Formin Binding Protein 4 Family or the FNBP4 were indirectly reported to be associated with many of the biological processes. These proteins possess two WW domains. So far there are practically no reports regarding the characterization and classification of the protein by any means. Keeping in mind the importance of the proteins from this FNBP4 family, we have tried an in silico approach to come up with a comprehensive analysis of the proteins. We have analyzed the proteins by considering their sequence conservation, their phylogenetic distributions among the different organisms. We have also investigated the functional properties of the WW domains in the proteins. Finally, we have made an attempt to elucidate the structural details of the domains and predicted the possible modes of their interactions. Our findings show that FNBP4 is eukaryotic in its distribution and follows a trend of evolution where animal and plant homologues have evolved in an independent manner. While the WW domain is the only common motif present across the FNBP4 family of proteins, there are different classes (mainly two) of WW domains that are found among different FNBP4 proteins. Structure function predictions indicate a possible role of FNBP4 in either protein stabilization control or transcript processing. Our study on FNBP4 may therefore open up new avenues to generate new interest in this highly important but largely unexplored class of proteins. Future studies with proteins from this family may answer many important questions of protein-protein interactions in different biologically important processes.

  13. Structural diversity and evolution of the N-terminal isoform-specific region of ecdysone receptor-A and -B1 isoforms in insects

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    Kubo Takeo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecdysone receptor (EcR regulates various cellular responses to ecdysteroids during insect development. Insects have multiple EcR isoforms with different N-terminal A/B domains that contain the isoform-specific activation function (AF-1 region. Although distinct physiologic functions of the EcR isoforms have been characterized in higher holometabolous insects, they remain unclear in basal direct-developing insects, in which only A isoform has been identified. To examine the structural basis of the EcR isoform-specific AF-1 regions, we performed a comprehensive structural comparison of the isoform-specific region of the EcR-A and -B1 isoforms in insects. Results The EcR isoforms were newly identified in 51 species of insects and non-insect arthropods, including direct-developing ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects. The comprehensive structural comparison revealed that the isoform-specific region of each EcR isoform contained evolutionally conserved microdomain structures and insect subgroup-specific structural modifications. The A isoform-specific region generally contained four conserved microdomains, including the SUMOylation motif and the nuclear localization signal, whereas the B1 isoform-specific region contained three conserved microdomains, including an acidic activator domain-like motif. In addition, the EcR-B1 isoform of holometabolous insects had a novel microdomain at the N-terminal end. Conclusions Given that the nuclear receptor AF-1 is involved in cofactor recruitment and transcriptional regulation, the microdomain structures identified in the isoform-specific A/B domains might function as signature motifs and/or as targets for cofactor proteins that play essential roles in the EcR isoform-specific AF-1 regions. Moreover, the novel microdomain in the isoform-specific region of the holometabolous insect EcR-B1 isoform suggests that the holometabolous insect EcR-B1 acquired additional transcriptional

  14. Serum amyloid A1 isoforms display different efficacy at Toll-like receptor 2 and formyl peptide receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Zhou, Huibing; Cheng, Ni; Qian, Feng; Ye, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute-phase protein and a precursor of amyloid A, the deposit of which leads to amyloidosis. Different alleles exist in SAA1, a predominant form of the human SAA gene family. Emerging evidence has shown correlations between these alleles and diseases including familiar Mediterranean fever and amyloidosis. However, it remains unclear how the proteins encoded by these SAA1 alleles act differently. Here we report the characterization of proteins encoded by SAA1.1, SAA1.3, and SAA1.5, in comparison to that encoded by SAA2.2, for their preference of the SAA receptors including formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). SAA1.1 was more efficacious than SAA1.3 and SAA1.5 but equally efficacious to SAA2.2 in calcium mobilization and chemotaxis assays, which measure the activation of the G protein-coupled FPR2. In agreement with this, SAA1.1 and SAA2.2 induced more robust phosphorylation of ERK than SAA1.3 and SAA1.5. Only small differences were observed between the SAA1 proteins tested and SAA2.2 in TLR2-dependent NF-κB luciferase reporter assay. In comparison, SAA1.3 was most effective in stimulating ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/10ScN (Tlr4lps-del) mice, we examined the SAA isoforms for their induction of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. SAA1.3 was most potent in the induction of TNFα and IL-1rn, whereas SAA1.5 induced robust IL-10 expression. These results show differences of the SAA1 isoforms in their selectivity for the SAA receptors, which may affect their roles in modulating inflammation and immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Small-molecule intramimics of formin autoinhibition: a new strategy to target the cytoskeletal remodeling machinery in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, L Leanne; Wallar, Bradley J; Turner, Julie D; Vroegop, Steven M; Kilkuskie, Robert E; Kitchen-Goosen, Susan M; Xu, H Eric; Alberts, Arthur S

    2013-11-15

    Although the cancer cell cytoskeleton is a clinically validated target, few new strategies have emerged for selectively targeting cell division by modulating the cytoskeletal structure, particularly ways that could avoid the cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects of current agents such as taxanes. We address this gap by describing a novel class of small-molecule agonists of the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formins, which act downstream of Rho GTPases to assemble actin filaments, and their organization with microfilaments to establish and maintain cell polarity during migration and asymmetric division. GTP-bound Rho activates mDia family members by disrupting the interaction between the DID and DAD autoregulatory domains, which releases the FH2 domain to modulate actin and microtubule dynamics. In screening for DID-DAD disruptors that activate mDia, we identified two molecules called intramimics (IMM-01 and -02) that were sufficient to trigger actin assembly and microtubule stabilization, serum response factor-mediated gene expression, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In vivo analysis of IMM-01 and -02 established their ability to slow tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer. Taken together, our work establishes the use of intramimics and mDia-related formins as a new general strategy for therapeutic targeting of the cytoskeletal remodeling machinery of cancer cells.

  16. Mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 regulates GSK3β-dependent microtubule dynamics required for T cell migratory polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoxia Dong

    Full Text Available The mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia1, a Rho-regulated cytoskeletal modulator, has been shown to promote T lymphocyte chemotaxis and interaction with antigen presenting cells, but the mechanisms underpinning mDia1 roles in these processes have not been defined. Here we show that mDia1(-/- T cells exhibit impaired lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1-mediated T cell adhesion, migration and in vivo trafficking. These defects are associated with impaired microtubule (MT polarization and stabilization, altered MT dynamics and reduced peripheral clustering of the MT plus-end-protein, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC in migrating T cells following LFA-1-engagement. Loss of mDia1 also leads to impaired inducible inactivation of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK 3β as well as hyperphosphorylation and reduced levels of APC in migrating T cells. These findings identify essential roles for the mDia1 formin in modulating GSK3β-dependent MT contributions to induction of T-cell polarity, adhesion and motility.

  17. Mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 regulates GSK3β-dependent microtubule dynamics required for T cell migratory polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baoxia; Zhang, Steven S; Gao, Wen; Su, Haichun; Chen, Jun; Jin, Fuzi; Bhargava, Ajay; Chen, Xiequn; Jorgensen, Lars; Alberts, Arthur S; Zhang, Jinyi; Siminovitch, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian diaphanous-related formin (mDia1), a Rho-regulated cytoskeletal modulator, has been shown to promote T lymphocyte chemotaxis and interaction with antigen presenting cells, but the mechanisms underpinning mDia1 roles in these processes have not been defined. Here we show that mDia1(-/-) T cells exhibit impaired lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)-mediated T cell adhesion, migration and in vivo trafficking. These defects are associated with impaired microtubule (MT) polarization and stabilization, altered MT dynamics and reduced peripheral clustering of the MT plus-end-protein, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) in migrating T cells following LFA-1-engagement. Loss of mDia1 also leads to impaired inducible inactivation of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β as well as hyperphosphorylation and reduced levels of APC in migrating T cells. These findings identify essential roles for the mDia1 formin in modulating GSK3β-dependent MT contributions to induction of T-cell polarity, adhesion and motility.

  18. Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanfeng; Xie, Huijun; Qiao, Yudan; Wang, Jianmei; Zhu, Xiling; He, Guoyang; Li, Yuling; Ren, Xiaoli; Wang, Feifei; Liang, Li; Ding, Yanqing

    2015-10-01

    Formin-like2 (FMNL2) is a member of the diaphanous-related formins family, which act as effectors and upstream modulators of Rho GTPases signaling and control the actin-dependent processes, such as cell motility or invasion. FMNL2 has been identified as promoting the motility and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, whether FMNL2 regulates Rho signaling to promote cancer cell invasion remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated an essential role for FMNL2 in the activations of Rho/ROCK pathway, SRF transcription or actin assembly, and subsequent CRC cell invasion. FMNL2 could activate Rho/ROCK pathway, and required ROCK to promote CRC cell invasion. Moreover, FMNL2 promoted the formation of filopodia and stress fiber, and activated the SRF transcription in a Rho-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that FMNL2 was necessary for LPA-induced invasion, RhoA/ROCK activation, actin assembly and SRF activation. FMNL2 was an essential component of LPA signal transduction toward RhoA by directly interacting with LARG. LARG silence inhibited RhoA/ROCK pathway and CRC cell invasion. Collectively, these data indicate that FMNL2, acting as upstream of RhoA by interacting with LARG, can promote actin assembly and CRC cell invasion through a Rho/ROCK-dependent mechanism.

  19. Small-molecule agonists of mammalian Diaphanous-related (mDia) formins reveal an effective glioblastoma anti-invasion strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Jessica D; Lavik, Kari I; Rubinic, Kaitlin A; Chiaia, Nicolas; Khuder, Sadik A; Howard, Marthe J; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L; Alberts, Arthur S; Eisenmann, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    The extensive invasive capacity of glioblastoma (GBM) makes it resistant to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and thus makes it lethal. In vivo, GBM invasion is mediated by Rho GTPases through unidentified downstream effectors. Mammalian Diaphanous (mDia) family formins are Rho-directed effectors that regulate the F-actin cytoskeleton to support tumor cell motility. Historically, anti-invasion strategies focused upon mDia inhibition, whereas activation remained unexplored. The recent development of small molecules directly inhibiting or activating mDia-driven F-actin assembly that supports motility allows for exploration of their role in GBM. We used the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 and mDia agonists IMM-01/-02 and mDia2-DAD peptides, which disrupt autoinhibition, to examine the roles of mDia inactivation versus activation in GBM cell migration and invasion in vitro and in an ex vivo brain slice invasion model. Inhibiting mDia suppressed directional migration and spheroid invasion while preserving intrinsic random migration. mDia agonism abrogated both random intrinsic and directional migration and halted U87 spheroid invasion in ex vivo brain slices. Thus mDia agonism is a superior GBM anti-invasion strategy. We conclude that formin agonism impedes the most dangerous GBM component-tumor spread into surrounding healthy tissue. Formin activation impairs novel aspects of transformed cells and informs the development of anti-GBM invasion strategies.

  20. Small-molecule agonists of mammalian Diaphanous–related (mDia) formins reveal an effective glioblastoma anti-invasion strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Jessica D.; Lavik, Kari I.; Rubinic, Kaitlin A.; Chiaia, Nicolas; Khuder, Sadik A.; Howard, Marthe J.; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L.; Alberts, Arthur S.; Eisenmann, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive invasive capacity of glioblastoma (GBM) makes it resistant to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and thus makes it lethal. In vivo, GBM invasion is mediated by Rho GTPases through unidentified downstream effectors. Mammalian Diaphanous (mDia) family formins are Rho-directed effectors that regulate the F-actin cytoskeleton to support tumor cell motility. Historically, anti-invasion strategies focused upon mDia inhibition, whereas activation remained unexplored. The recent development of small molecules directly inhibiting or activating mDia-driven F-actin assembly that supports motility allows for exploration of their role in GBM. We used the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 and mDia agonists IMM-01/-02 and mDia2-DAD peptides, which disrupt autoinhibition, to examine the roles of mDia inactivation versus activation in GBM cell migration and invasion in vitro and in an ex vivo brain slice invasion model. Inhibiting mDia suppressed directional migration and spheroid invasion while preserving intrinsic random migration. mDia agonism abrogated both random intrinsic and directional migration and halted U87 spheroid invasion in ex vivo brain slices. Thus mDia agonism is a superior GBM anti-invasion strategy. We conclude that formin agonism impedes the most dangerous GBM component—tumor spread into surrounding healthy tissue. Formin activation impairs novel aspects of transformed cells and informs the development of anti-GBM invasion strategies. PMID:26354425

  1. Arabidopsis group le formins localize to specific cell membrane domains, interact with actin-binding proteins and cause defects in cell expansion upon aberrant expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeks, M.J.; Cvrcková, F.; Machesky, L.M.; Mikitová, V.; Ketelaar, T.; Zársky, V.; Davies, B.; Hussey, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    ¿ The closely related proteins AtFH4 and AtFH8 represent the group Ie clade of Arabidopsis formin homologues. The subcellular localization of these proteins and their ability to affect the actin cytoskeleton were examined. ¿ AtFH4 protein activity was identified using fluorimetric techniques. Intera

  2. Crystal Structure of a Complex between Amino and Carboxy Terminal Fragments of mDia1: Insights into Autoinhibition of Diaphanous-Related Formins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezami, A.; Poy, F; Toms, A; Zheng, W; Eck, M

    2010-01-01

    Formin proteins direct the nucleation and assembly of linear actin filaments in a variety of cellular processes using their conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. Diaphanous-related formins (DRFs) are effectors of Rho-family GTPases, and in the absence of Rho activation they are maintained in an inactive state by intramolecular interactions between their regulatory N-terminal region and a C-terminal segment referred to as the DAD domain. Although structures are available for the isolated DAD segment in complex with the interacting region in the N-terminus, it remains unclear how this leads to inhibition of actin assembly by the FH2 domain. Here we describe the crystal structure of the N-terminal regulatory region of formin mDia1 in complex with a C-terminal fragment containing both the FH2 and DAD domains. In the crystal structure and in solution, these fragments form a tetrameric complex composed of two interlocking N+C dimers. Formation of the tetramer is likely a consequence of the particular N-terminal construct employed, as we show that a nearly full-length mDia1 protein is dimeric, as are other autoinhibited N+C complexes containing longer N-terminal fragments. The structure provides the first view of the intact C-terminus of a DRF, revealing the relationship of the DAD to the FH2 domain. Delineation of alternative dimeric N+C interactions within the tetramer provides two general models for autoinhibition in intact formins. In both models, engagement of the DAD by the N-terminus is incompatible with actin filament formation on the FH2, and in one model the actin binding surfaces of the FH2 domain are directly blocked by the N-terminus.

  3. Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates submergence-dependent root hair development in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Liu, Jingmiao; Han, Chang-Deok

    2013-08-01

    By using a forward genetic approach, a formin homology 1 gene (OsFH1) was identified as a critical regulator of rice root hair development. The phenotypic effect of OsFH1 on root hair development was verified by using three independent mutants, one point mutation and two T-DNA insertions. The study showed that OsFH1 is required for the elongation of root-hairs. However, Osfh1 exhibited growth defect of root hairs only when roots were grown submerged in solution. To understand how OsFH1 impinges on plant responses to root submergence, the growth responses of Osfh1 root hairs to anoxia, carbohydrate supplementation and exogenous hormones (auxin and ethylene) and nutrients (Fe and Pi) were examined. However, none of these treatments rescued the growth defects of Osfhl1 root hairs. This study demonstrates that OsFH1 could be involved in preventing submergence-induced inhibition of root hair growth.

  4. T cell responses in mammalian diaphanous-related formin mDia1 knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Kathryn M; West, Richard A; Hildebrand, Dagmar; Kitchen, Susan M; Peng, Jun; Sigler, Robert; Zhang, Jinyi; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Alberts, Arthur S

    2007-08-24

    Activated T cells rapidly assemble filamentous (F-) actin networks in response to ligation of the T cell receptor or upon interaction with adhesive stimuli in order to facilitate cell migration and the formation of the immune synapse. Branched filament assembly is crucial for this process and is dependent upon activation of the Arp2/3 complex by the actin nucleation-promoting factor Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp). Genetic disruption of the WAS gene has been linked to hematopoietic malignancies and various cytopenias. Although the contributions of WASp and Arp2/3 to T cell responses are fairly well characterized, the role of the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formins, which both nucleate and processively elongate non-branched F-actin, has not been demonstrated. Here, we report the effects on T cell development and function following the knock out of the murine Drf1 gene encoding the canonical formin p140mDia1. Drf1(-/-) mice develop lymphopenia characterized by diminished T cell populations in lymphoid tissues. Consistent with a role for p140mDia1 in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, isolated Drf1(-/-) splenic T cells adhered poorly to extracellular matrix proteins and migration in response to chemotactic stimuli was completely abrogated. Both integrin and chemokine receptor expression was unaffected by Drf1(-/-) targeting. In response to proliferative stimuli, both thymic and splenic Drf1(-/-) T cells failed to proliferate; ERK1/2 activation was also diminished in activated Drf1(-/-) T cells. These data suggest a central role for p140mDia1 in vivo in dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling events driving normal T cell responses.

  5. The basic region of the diaphanous-autoregulatory domain (DAD) is required for autoregulatory interactions with the diaphanous-related formin inhibitory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallar, Bradley J; Stropich, Brittany N; Schoenherr, Jessica A; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan M; Alberts, Arthur S

    2006-02-17

    Mammalian diaphanous-related (mDia) formins act as Rho GTPase effectors during cytoskeletal remodeling. Rho binding to mDia amino-terminal GTPase-binding domains (GBDs) causes the adjacent Dia-inhibitory domain (DID) to release the carboxyl-terminal Dia-autoregulatory (DAD) domain that flanks the formin homology-2 (FH2) domain. The release of DAD allows the FH2 domain to then nucleate and elongate nonbranched actin filaments. DAD, initially discovered as a region of homology shared between a phylogenetically divergent set of formin proteins, is comprised of a core motif, MDXLLXL, and an adjacent region is comprised of numerous basic residues, typically RRKR in the mDia family. Here, we show that these specific amino acids within the basic region of DAD contribute to the binding of DID and therefore the maintenance of the mDia autoregulatory mechanism. In addition, expression of full-length versions of mDia2 containing amino acid substitutions in either the DAD core or basic regions causes profound changes in the F-actin architecture, including the formation of filopodia-like structures that rapidly elongate from the cell edge. These studies further refine our understanding of the molecular contribution of DAD to mDia control and the role of mDia2 in the assembly of membrane protrusions.

  6. Inverted formin 2 mutations with variable expression in patients with sporadic and hereditary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gbadegesin, Rasheed A

    2012-01-01

    Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease. Recent advances in molecular genetics show that defects in the podocyte play a major role in its pathogenesis and mutations in inverted formin 2 (INF2) cause autosomal dominant FSGS. In order to delineate the role of INF2 mutations in familial and sporadic FSGS, we sought to identify variants in a large cohort of patients with FSGS. A secondary objective was to define an approach for genetic screening in families with autosomal dominant disease. A total of 248 individuals were identified with FSGS, of whom 31 had idiopathic disease. The remaining patients clustered into 64 families encompassing 15 from autosomal recessive and 49 from autosomal dominant kindreds. There were missense mutations in 8 of the 49 families with autosomal dominant disease. Three of the detected variants were novel and all mutations were confined to exon 4 of INF2, a regulatory region responsible for 90% of all changes reported in FSGS due to INF2 mutations. Thus, in our series, INF2 mutations were responsible for 16% of all cases of autosomal dominant FSGS, with these mutations clustered in exon 4. Hence, screening for these mutations may represent a rapid, non-invasive and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant FSGS.

  7. The Formin DAAM Functions as Molecular Effector of the Planar Cell Polarity Pathway during Axonal Development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Rita; Migh, Ede; Antal, Otilia; Mukherjee, Anindita; Jenny, Andreas; Mihály, József

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies established that the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for various aspects of nervous system development and function, including axonal guidance. Although it seems clear that PCP signaling regulates actin dynamics, the mechanisms through which this occurs remain elusive. Here, we establish a functional link between the PCP system and one specific actin regulator, the formin DAAM, which has previously been shown to be required for embryonic axonal morphogenesis and filopodia formation in the growth cone. We show that dDAAM also plays a pivotal role during axonal growth and guidance in the adult Drosophila mushroom body, a brain center for learning and memory. By using a combination of genetic and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that Wnt5 and the PCP signaling proteins Frizzled, Strabismus, and Dishevelled act in concert with the small GTPase Rac1 to activate the actin assembly functions of dDAAM essential for correct targeting of mushroom body axons. Collectively, these data suggest that dDAAM is used as a major molecular effector of the PCP guidance pathway. By uncovering a signaling system from the Wnt5 guidance cue to an actin assembly factor, we propose that the Wnt5/PCP navigation system is linked by dDAAM to the regulation of the growth cone actin cytoskeleton, and thereby growth cone behavior, in a direct way.

  8. Formin-mediated actin polymerization cooperates with Mushroom body defect (Mud)-Dynein during Frizzled-Dishevelled spindle orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher A; Manning, Laurina; Lu, Michelle S; Golub, Ognjen; Doe, Chris Q; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2013-10-01

    To position the mitotic spindle, cytoskeletal components must be coordinated to generate cortical forces on astral microtubules. Although the dynein motor is common to many spindle orientation systems, 'accessory pathways' are often also required. In this work, we identified an accessory spindle orientation pathway in Drosophila that functions with Dynein during planar cell polarity, downstream of the Frizzled (Fz) effector Dishevelled (Dsh). Dsh contains a PDZ ligand and a Dynein-recruiting DEP domain that are both required for spindle orientation. The Dsh PDZ ligand recruits Canoe/Afadin and ultimately leads to Rho GTPase signaling mediated through RhoGEF2. The formin Diaphanous (Dia) functions as the Rho effector in this pathway, inducing F-actin enrichment at sites of cortical Dsh. Chimeric protein experiments show that the Dia-actin accessory pathway can be replaced by an independent kinesin (Khc73) accessory pathway for Dsh-mediated spindle orientation. Our results define two 'modular' spindle orientation pathways and show an essential role for actin regulation in Dsh-mediated spindle orientation.

  9. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  10. Hyperglycemic activity of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone B1 isoform (CHH-B1) of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Aguilar, Manuel B; Re, Ana Denisse; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is the most abundant neuropeptide produced by the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the crustacean eyestalk. CHH plays a principal role in the control of glucose metabolism. The CHH-B1 isoform is produced in the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by alternative splicing of the chhB gene and its cDNA sequence has revealed that this isoform has a non-amidated C-terminal residue (CHH-like peptide). In this work, a recombinant CHH-B1 (rCHH-B1) with a sequence identical to the native hormone was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33 and purified from the culture medium by RP-HPLC. The identity of the purified rCHH-B1 was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by using an anti-CHH-B1 polyclonal antibody. An in vivo assay showed that the hyperglycemic effect was dependant of the dosage of rCHH-B1, and the maximal hyperglycemic response was obtained with 250pmol treatment. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence of the C-terminus and its correct structure are both important for the hyperglycemic activity of naturally occurring non-amidated CHH peptides, such as CHH-B1. CHH-B1 appears to be the first reported CHH-like peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity produced in the sinus gland of a penaeid shrimp.

  11. Selective deletion of the membrane-bound colony stimulating factor 1 isoform leads to high bone mass but does not protect against estrogen-deficiency bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang-Qing; Wu, Jian-Jun; Troiano, Nancy; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-Yan; Insogna, Karl

    2012-07-01

    To better define the biologic function of membrane-bound CSF1 (mCSF1) in vivo, we have generated mCSF1 knockout (k/o) mice. Spinal bone density (BMD) was 15.9% higher in k/o mice compared to wild-type (wt) controls (P bone marrow isolated from mCSF1 k/o mice was reduced compared to wt marrow. There were no defects in osteoblast number or function suggesting that the basis for the high bone mass phenotype was reduced resorption. In addition to a skeletal phenotype, k/o mice had significantly elevated serum triglyceride levels (123 ± 7 vs. 88 ± 3.2 mg/dl; k/o vs. wt, P bone loss following ovariectomy (OVX). OVX induced a significant fourfold increase in the expression of the soluble CSF1 isoform (sCSF1) in the bones of wt mice while expression of mCSF1 was unchanged. These findings indicate that mCSF1 is essential for normal bone remodeling since, in its absence, BMD is increased. Membrane-bound CSF1 does not appear to be required for estrogen-deficiency bone loss while in contrast; our data suggest that sCSF1 could play a key role in this pathologic process. The reasons why mCSF1 k/o mice have hypertriglyceridemia are currently under study.

  12. Loss of RhoB expression enhances the myelodysplastic phenotype of mammalian diaphanous-related Formin mDia1 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D DeWard

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and hyperplastic bone marrow. Complete loss or interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 occur frequently in MDS. One candidate tumor suppressor on 5q is the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia-related formin mDia1, encoded by DIAPH1 (5q31.3. mDia-family formins act as effectors for Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins including RhoB, which has also been shown to possess tumor suppressor activity. Mice lacking the Drf1 gene that encodes mDia1 develop age-dependent myelodysplastic features. We crossed mDia1 and RhoB knockout mice to test whether the additional loss of RhoB expression would compound the myelodysplastic phenotype. Drf1(-/-RhoB(-/- mice are fertile and develop normally. Relative to age-matched Drf1(-/-RhoB(+/- mice, the age of myelodysplasia onset was earlier in Drf1(-/-RhoB(-/- animals--including abnormally shaped erythrocytes, splenomegaly, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In addition, we observed a statistically significant increase in the number of activated monocytes/macrophages in both the spleen and bone marrow of Drf1(-/-RhoB(-/- mice relative to Drf1(-/-RhoB(+/- mice. These data suggest a role for RhoB-regulated mDia1 in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  13. Loss of RhoB expression enhances the myelodysplastic phenotype of mammalian diaphanous-related Formin mDia1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWard, Aaron D; Leali, Kellie; West, Richard A; Prendergast, George C; Alberts, Arthur S

    2009-09-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and hyperplastic bone marrow. Complete loss or interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 occur frequently in MDS. One candidate tumor suppressor on 5q is the mammalian Diaphanous (mDia)-related formin mDia1, encoded by DIAPH1 (5q31.3). mDia-family formins act as effectors for Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins including RhoB, which has also been shown to possess tumor suppressor activity. Mice lacking the Drf1 gene that encodes mDia1 develop age-dependent myelodysplastic features. We crossed mDia1 and RhoB knockout mice to test whether the additional loss of RhoB expression would compound the myelodysplastic phenotype. Drf1(-/-)RhoB(-/-) mice are fertile and develop normally. Relative to age-matched Drf1(-/-)RhoB(+/-) mice, the age of myelodysplasia onset was earlier in Drf1(-/-)RhoB(-/-) animals--including abnormally shaped erythrocytes, splenomegaly, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In addition, we observed a statistically significant increase in the number of activated monocytes/macrophages in both the spleen and bone marrow of Drf1(-/-)RhoB(-/-) mice relative to Drf1(-/-)RhoB(+/-) mice. These data suggest a role for RhoB-regulated mDia1 in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  14. Sitagliptin reduces cardiac apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis primarily by insulin-dependent mechanisms in experimental type-II diabetes. Potential roles of GLP-1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Picatoste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key process in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, their underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, leading to a lack of therapy. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 enhancer, sitagliptin, reduces hyperglycemia but may also trigger direct effects on the heart. METHODS: Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats developed type-II diabetes and received sitagliptin, an anti-hyperglycemic drug (metformin or vehicle (n=10, each. After cardiac structure and function assessment, plasma and left ventricles were isolated for biochemical studies. Cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were used for in vitro assays. RESULTS: Untreated GK rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, plasma GLP-1 decrease, and cardiac cell-death, hypertrophy, fibrosis and prolonged deceleration time. Moreover, cardiac pro-apoptotic/necrotic, hypertrophic and fibrotic factors were up-regulated. Importantly, both sitagliptin and metformin lessened all these parameters. In cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, high-concentration of palmitate or glucose induced cell-death, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Interestingly, GLP-1 and its insulinotropic-inactive metabolite, GLP-1(9-36, alleviated these responses. In addition, despite a specific GLP-1 receptor was only detected in cardiomyocytes, GLP-1 isoforms attenuated the pro-fibrotic expression in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, GLP-1 receptor signalling may be linked to PPARδ activation, and metformin may also exhibit anti-apoptotic/necrotic and anti-fibrotic direct effects in cardiac cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin, via GLP-1 stabilization, promoted cardioprotection in type-II diabetic hearts primarily by limiting hyperglycemia e hyperlipidemia. However, GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36 promoted survival and anti-hypertrophic/fibrotic effects on cultured cardiac cells, suggesting cell-autonomous cardioprotective actions.

  15. Differences between disease-associated endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) isoforms in cellular expression, interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and regulation by cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, N; Low, W Y; Onipinla, A; Mein, C; Caulfield, M; Munroe, P B; Chernajovsky, Y

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) processes peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation and promotes cytokine receptor ectodomain shedding. These known functions of ERAP1 may explain its genetic association with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified four novel alternatively spliced variants of ERAP1 mRNA, designated as ΔExon-11, ΔExon-13, ΔExon-14 and ΔExon-15. We also observed a rapid and differential modulation of ERAP1 mRNA levels and spliced variants in different cell types pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have studied three full-length allelic forms of ERAP1 (R127-K528, P127-K528, P127-R528) and one spliced variant (ΔExon-11) and assessed their interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in transfected cells. We observed variation in cellular expression of different ERAP1 isoforms, with R127-K528 being expressed at a much lower level. Furthermore, the cellular expression of full-length P127-K528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant was enhanced significantly when co-transfected with TNF-R1. Isoforms P127-K528, P127-R528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant associated with TNF-R1, and this interaction occurred in a region within the first 10 exons of ERAP1. Supernatant-derived vesicles from transfected cells contained the full-length and ectodomain form of soluble TNF-R1, as well as carrying the full-length ERAP1 isoforms. We observed marginal differences between TNF-R1 ectodomain levels when co-expressed with individual ERAP1 isoforms, and treatment of transfected cells with tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 exerted variable effects on TNF-R1 ectodomain cleavage. Our data suggest that ERAP1 isoforms may exhibit differential biological properties and inflammatory mediators could play critical roles in modulating ERAP1 expression, leading to altered functional activities of this enzyme.

  16. Importance of a Lys113-Glu195 intermonomer ionic bond in F-actin stabilization and regulation by yeast formins Bni1p and Bnr1p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Rubenstein, Peter A

    2013-06-28

    Proper actin cytoskeletal function requires actin's ability to generate a stable filament and requires that this reaction be regulated by actin-binding proteins via allosteric effects on the actin. A proposed ionic interaction in the actin filament interior between Lys(113) of one monomer and Glu(195) of a monomer in the apposing strand potentially fosters cross-strand stabilization and allosteric communication between the filament interior and exterior. We interrupted the potential interaction by creating either K113E or E195K actin. By combining the two, we also reversed the interaction with a K113E/E195K (E/K) mutant. In all cases, we isolated viable cells expressing only the mutant actin. Either single mutant cell displays significantly decreased growth in YPD medium. This deficit is rescued in the double mutant. All three mutants display abnormal phalloidin cytoskeletal staining. K113E actin exhibits a critical concentration of polymerization 4 times higher than WT actin, nucleates more poorly, and forms shorter filaments. Restoration of the ionic bond, E/K, eliminates most of these problems. E195K actin behaves much more like WT actin, indicating accommodation of the neighboring lysines. Both Bni1 and Bnr1 formin FH1-FH2 fragment accelerate polymerization of WT, E/K, and to a lesser extent E195K actin. Bni1p FH1-FH2 dramatically inhibits K113E actin polymerization, consistent with barbed end capping. However, Bnr1p FH1-FH2 restores K113E actin polymerization, forming single filaments. In summary, the proposed ionic interaction plays an important role in filament stabilization and in the propagation of allosteric changes affecting formin regulation in an isoform-specific fashion.

  17. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  20. The mDial formin is required for neutrophil polarization, migration, and activation of the LARG/RhoA/ROCK signaling axis during chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongquan; Zhang, Jinyi; Mullin, Michael; Dong, Baoxia; Alberts, Arthur S; Siminovitch, Katherine A

    2009-03-15

    Neutrophil chemotaxis depends on actin dynamics, but the roles for specific cytoskeleton regulators in this response remain unclear. By analysis of mammalian diaphanous-related formin 1 (mDia1)-deficient mice, we have identified an essential role for this actin nucleator in neutrophil chemotaxis. Lack of mDia1 was associated with defects in chemoattractant-induced neutrophil actin polymerization, polarization, and directional migration, and also with impaired activation of RhoA, its downstream target p160-Rho-associated coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), and the leukemia-associated RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG). Our data also revealed mDia1 to be associated with another cytoskeletal regulator, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), at the leading edge of chemotaxing neutrophils and revealed polarized morphology and chemotaxis to be more mildly impaired in WAS(-/-) than in mDia1(-/-) neutrophils, but essentially abrogated by combined mDia1/WASp deficiency. Thus, mDia1 roles in neutrophil chemotaxis appear to be subserved in concert with WASp and are realized at least in part by activation of the LARG/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

  1. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  2. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  3. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  4. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  5. Marketing produktu Karel IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšů, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the thesis Marketing of the product Karel IV. is to propose chanels of marketing communication and indicate possibilities of next product's development. Theoretical part is based on marketing plan and it's partition. In the practical part you can find market analysis and competing products analysis, product's evolution description and marketing research.

  6. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  7. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  8. The H{sub 1}–H{sub 2} domain of the α{sub 1} isoform of Na{sup +}–K{sup +}–ATPase is involved in ouabain toxicity in rat ventricular myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Chen; Li, Jun-xia; Guo, Hui-cai; Zhang, Li-nan; Guo, Wei; Meng, Jing; Wang, Yong-li, E-mail: wangyongli@gmail.com

    2012-07-01

    The composition of different isoforms of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA, Na/K pump) in ventricular myocytes is an important factor in determining the therapeutic effect and toxicity of cardiac glycosides (CGs) on heart failure. The mechanism whereby CGs cause these effects is still not completely clear. In the present study, we prepared two site-specific antibodies (SSA78 and WJS) against the H{sub 1}–H{sub 2} domain of α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} isoforms of NKA in rat heart, respectively, and compared their influences on the effect of ouabain (OUA) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. SSA78 or WJS, which can specifically bind with the α{sub 1} or α{sub 2} isoform, were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot and immunofluorescent staining methods. Preincubation of myocytes with SSA78 inhibited low OUA affinity pump current but not high OUA affinity pump current, reduced the rise in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), attenuated mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, and delayed the decrease of the myocardial contractile force as well as the occurrence of arrhythmic contraction induced by high concentrations (1 mM) but not low concentrations (1 μM) of OUA. Similarly, preincubation of myocytes with WJS inhibited high OUA affinity pump current, reduced the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and the contractility induced by 1 μM but not that induced by 1 mM OUA. These results indicate that the H{sub 1}–H{sub 2} domain of the NKA α{sub 1} isoform mediates OUA-induced cardiac toxicity in rat ventricular myocytes, and inhibitors for this binding site may be used as an adjunct to CGs treatment for cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► We prepared two antibodies against the H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} isoforms of NKA. ► The H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of the NKA α{sub 1} isoform mediates OUA-induced cardiac toxicity. ► The H{sub 1}-H{sub 2

  9. Ras-Association Domain Family 1 Isoform A (RASSF1A) Gene Polymorphism rs1989839 is Associated with Risk and Metastatic Potential of Osteosarcoma in Young Chinese Individuals: A Multi-Center, Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei; Zhan, Wang; Chen, Zhiyuan

    2016-11-23

    BACKGROUND The ras-association domain family 1 isoform A (RASSF1A) gene serves as a bona fide tumor suppressor gene. The polymorphisms in RASSF1A were previously reported to be associated with the risk of solid malignant tumors. We hypothesized herein that RASSF1A gene polymorphisms are involved in the risk and prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 279 young OS cases and 286 tumor-free controls from the east Chinese population. Five tagSNPs of RASSF1A gene (rs2236947A/C, rs2073497A/C, rs1989839C/T, rs72932987C/T, and rs4688728G/T) were genotyped. DNA was isolated from blood samples and then underwent PCR analysis for genotyping. RESULTS rs1989839C/T is an important predictor of osteosarcoma risk and outcome. The CT genotype of rs1989839 is highly related to elevated risk of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, rs1989839C/T is also associated with the Enneking stage of osteosarcoma and risk of lung metastasis. One of the other 4 SNPs, rs2236947A/C, shows a borderline significance in predicting osteosarcoma risk. CONCLUSIONS Our study is the first to prove that RASSF1A gene polymorphisms may potentially be predictive for osteosarcoma risk and prognosis.

  10. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  11. dBASE IV basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  12. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  15. DSM-IV Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) will become one of most frequently used reference documents in counseling profession. Describes progress being made in development of DSM-IV, scheduled for publication in 1994. Describes revision process and proposed organizational changes and new diagnostic…

  16. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  17. The Modern RPG IV Language

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This updated, classic work on the RPG language covers all the new functions and features that have been added since 2003, including new op codes and built-in functions, new chapters on free-format RPG IV and Web programming interfaces, information on implementing XML within RPG IV, and expanded information on procedures. This reference guide takes both novice and experienced RPG IV programmers through the language, from its foundation to its most advanced techniques. More than 100 charts and tables, as well as 350 real-life code samples of functions and operations are included, showing readers

  18. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects ... Management Genetic Testing (3 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Morquio syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A ...

  19. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  20. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  1. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  2. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  3. VeVeRa-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Oudijk; Klarita Sadiraj

    2012-01-01

    Original title: VeVeRa-IV The Dutch population is set to age rapidly in the coming years. More and more people will also attain a very great age. This means that the need for home care and care provided in nursing or residential care homes will also increase. As part of the Long-term Care Programme

  4. Phase IV of Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Viraj

    2010-04-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan). Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  5. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  6. Alle har en historie, IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    Alle har en historie IV: Pædagogik med Freedom Writers lader et væld af pædagogiske facetter udspringe af den kendte skole-film Freedom Writers’ scener og handlinger. Der er både fokus på en almen tilgang til pædagogik og på Freedom Writer-metodikken, dels gennem de filmscener, der sættes til...

  7. Report on the O IV and S IV lines observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The O IV intercombination lines observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) between 1397 and 1407 A provide useful density diagnostics. This document presents data that address two issues related to these lines: (1) the contribution of S IV to the O IV 1404.8 line; and (2) the range of sensitivity of the O IV 1399.8/1401.2 ratio.

  8. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  9. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  10. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  11. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  12. A cerium(IV)-carbon multiple bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2013-12-02

    Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic ''ate'' cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon. [German] Auf direktem Wege zu einem Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex gelangt man durch die Einelektronenoxidation einer anionischen Carben-Cerat(III)-Vorstufe. So werden Zersetzungsprozesse vermieden, die die Oxidation neutraler Cer(III)-Verbindungen erschweren. Der Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex enthaelt die erste Lanthanoid(IV)-Element-Mehrfachbindung; dabei binden Cer und Kohlenstoff ueber zwei Elektronenpaare.

  13. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Kovacevic, Andjelka; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  14. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  15. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  16. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  17. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  18. Functional Cooperativity between ABCG4 and ABCG1 Isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Hegyi

    Full Text Available ABCG4 belongs to the ABCG subfamily, the members of which are half transporters composed of a single transmembrane and a single nucleotide-binding domain. ABCG proteins have a reverse domain topology as compared to other mammalian ABC transporters, and have to form functional dimers, since the catalytic sites for ATP binding and hydrolysis, as well as the transmembrane domains are composed of distinct parts of the monomers. Here we demonstrate that ABCG4 can form homodimers, but also heterodimers with its closest relative, ABCG1. Both the full-length and the short isoforms of ABCG1 can dimerize with ABCG4, whereas the ABCG2 multidrug transporter is unable to form a heterodimer with ABCG4. We also show that contrary to that reported in some previous studies, ABCG4 is predominantly localized to the plasma membrane. While both ABCG1 and ABCG4 have been suggested to be involved in lipid transport or regulation, in accordance with our previous results regarding the long version of ABCG1, here we document that the expression of both the short isoform of ABCG1 as well as ABCG4 induce apoptosis in various cell types. This apoptotic effect, as a functional read-out, allowed us to demonstrate that the dimerization between these half transporters is not only a physical interaction but functional cooperativity. Given that ABCG4 is predominantly expressed in microglial-like cells and endothelial cells in the brain, our finding of ABCG4-induced apoptosis may implicate a new role for this protein in the clearance mechanisms within the central nervous system.

  19. Atmosphere of Mars - Mariner IV models compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Fjeldbo, G.; Fjeldbo, W. C.

    1966-01-01

    Mariner IV models of three Mars atmospheric layers analogous to terrestrial E, F-1 and F-2 layers, considering relative mass densities, temperatures, carbon dioxide photodissociation and ionization profile

  20. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  1. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  2. Comparison of Russian and IVS intensive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdubov, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    The article presents results of first comparison the Russian National UT1-UTC estimation program Ru-U and IVS-intensive international campaign. It is shown that the Ru-U sessions are performing with good accuracy and results can be included into international VLBI data processing scheme. Comparison of different distributions shows that the problem of correlation lack between single delay formal errors and UT1 estimations are presented both in Ru-U and IVS-intensive series.

  3. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  4. Synthesis and characterization of chiral thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) benzamidinate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Sebastian; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    Two chiral benzamidinate complexes of tetravalent actinides (Th(IV) and U(IV)) were synthesized using a salt metathesis reaction of the corresponding actinide(IV) tetrachlorides and the potassium salt of the chiral benzamidine (S,S)-N,N-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA). The structure of the complexes was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction. These are the first examples of chiral amidinate complexes of actinides.

  5. Axis IV--psychosocial and environmental problems--in the DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A; Ekselius, L; Ramklint, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore the properties of axis IV in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). In a naturalistic cross-sectional design, a group (n = 163) of young (18-25 years old) Swedish psychiatric outpatients was assessed according to DSM-IV. Psychosocial and environmental problems/axis IV were evaluated through structured interviewing by a social worker and by self-assessment on a questionnaire. Reliability between professional assessment and self-assessment of axis IV was examined. Concurrent validity of axis IV was also examined. Reliability between professional and self-assessed axis IV was fair to almost perfect, 0.31-0.83, according to prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa. Categories of psychosocial stress and environmental problems were related to the presence of axis I disorders, co-morbidity, personality disorders and decreasing Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) values. The revised axis IV according to DSM-IV seems to have concurrent validity, but is still hampered by limited reliability.

  6. On the stabilization of niobium(V) solutions by zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as chloride and sulphate. This is ascribed to the co-polymerization of niobium(V) and the hydrolysed ionic species of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) to form colloidal...

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  9. The Berkeley SETI program - SERENDIP IV instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthimer, Dan; Bowyer, Stuart; Ng, David; Donnelly, Charles; Cobb, Jeff; Lampton, Michael; Airieau, Sabine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the hardware design of SERENDIP IV, which will be deployed in early 1997 for a 21-cm sky survey at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center's 305-m radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. SERENDIP IV is a 167 million channel spectrum analyzer, covering a 100-Mhz bandwidth, with 0.6-Hz resolution and a 1.7-s integration time. SERENDIP IV's modular design incorporates a bank of digital mixers and filters to separate the 100 MHz band into 40 2.5 MHz subbands. Each 2.5 MHz subband is further broken down into 0.6 Hz bins by means of a four million point fast Fourier transform. The resulting power spectra are analyzed by 40 high-speed processors. Narrowband signals having power significantly above background noise levels are recorded along with telescope coordinates, time, and frequency. The data are sent in real time to Berkeley for analysis.

  10. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Oxochloroalkoxide of the Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV as oxides precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luiz Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV oxides mixture (CeO2-3TiO2 was prepared by thermal treatment of the oxochloroisopropoxide of Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV. The chemical route utilizing the Cerium (III chloride alcoholic complex and Titanium (IV isopropoxide is presented. The compound Ce5Ti15Cl16O30 (iOPr4(OH-Et15 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and TG/DTG. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the oxides resulting from the thermal decomposition of the precursor at 1000 degreesC for 36 h indicated the formation of cubic cerianite (a = 5.417Å and tetragonal rutile (a = 4.592Å and (c = 2.962 Å, with apparent crystallite sizes around 38 and 55nm, respectively.

  12. Functions in Free-Format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written especially for programmers adopting a free-format style, this manual explores the role of functions in writing RPG IV programs. Demonstrating the potential of functions, many topics are explored such as details about existing RPG IV built-in functions, writing new functions, using ILE concepts to use C functions, and utilizing IBM API's functions. Explaining how to write small programs, either as sub-procedures or modules, and how to gather those parts together to make programs that are easy to write and maintain, this is a natural next step for programmers familiar with a free-format

  13. Polityka religijna Ptolemeusza IV Filopatora : wybrane aspekty

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Religion was very highly placed in the politics and propaganda of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy IV Philopator belonged to the kings of Egypt who were particularly active in this field. The person of Ptolemy I Soter, who was the founder of the dynasty, was of considerable importance in his policy. Among many other things, Ptolemy IV established his eponymous cult in Ptolemais. He also invested the dynastic cult with its final form by incorporating into it the cult of Theoi Soters (Ptolemy I a...

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  16. Painlevé IV coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  17. Bis(4-methylpiperidinium hexachloridostannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Helliwell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H14N2[SnCl6], is built of 4-methylpiperidinium cations, occupying special positions on the mirror plane, and hexachloridostannate(IV anions on a special position of 2/m symmetry. The ions are linked via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds into chains running along the b axis.

  18. TFRC—IVS Flow Control Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEKaijian; LINYaping; YANGAng

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the TCP (Trans-mission Control Protocol) friendliness of multicast video-conferencing systems. Through the analysis and simulation experiments it is shown that the slow response to network state changes and the fixed rate adjustment process lead to TCP unfriendliness in the bandwidth sharing. Therefore,this paper proposes a new TCP friendly flow control al-gorithm called TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm for the current best-effort Internet. TFRC-IVS (TCP-Friendly Rate Control--INRIA Videoconferencing System) algo-rithm utilizes TCP friendly control function derived from complex TCP model to calculate TCP friendly sending rate.Simulation results show that TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm improves the smoothness of transmission rates and converges quickly to the stable sending rate. In addi-tion, the TCP friendly control function in TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm ensures the TCP friendliness of video flows and fair bandwidth allocation with TCP flows, which the traditional static rate adjustment algorithm lacks.

  19. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  20. Adding source positions to the IVS Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; Thaller, D.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneous estimation of source positions, Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) and station positions in one common adjustment is crucial for a consistent generation of celestial and terrestrial reference frame (CRF and TRF, respectively). VLBI is the only technique to guarantee this consistency. Previous publications showed that the VLBI intra-technique combination could improve the quality of the EOPs and station coordinates compared to the individual contributions. By now, the combination of EOP and station coordinates is well established within the IVS and in combination with other space geodetic techniques (e.g. inter-technique combined TRF like the ITRF). Most of the contributing IVS Analysis Centers (AC) now provide source positions as a third parameter type (besides EOP and station coordinates), which have not been used for an operational combined solution yet. A strategy for the combination of source positions has been developed and integrated into the routine IVS combination. Investigations are carried out to compare the source positions derived from different IVS ACs with the combined estimates to verify whether the source positions are improved by the combination, as it has been proven for EOP and station coordinates. Furthermore, global solutions of source positions, i.e., so-called catalogues describing a CRF, are generated consistently with the TRF similar to the IVS operational combined quarterly solution. The combined solutions of the source positions time series and the consistently generated TRF and CRF are compared internally to the individual solutions of the ACs as well as to external CRF catalogues and TRFs. Additionally, comparisons of EOPs based on different CRF solutions are presented as an outlook for consistent EOP, CRF and TRF realizations.

  1. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular

  2. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported.

  3. Fluctuations in type IV pilus retraction

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, M; Jonsson, A B; Wallin, M; Linden, Martin; Johansson, Emil; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The type IV pilus retraction motor is found in many important bacterial pathogens. It is the strongest known linear motor protein and is required for bacterial infectivity. We characterize the dynamics of type IV pilus retraction in terms of a stochastic chemical reaction model. We find that a two state model can describe the experimental force velocity relation and qualitative dependence of ATP concentration. The results indicate that the dynamics is limited by an ATP-dependent step at low load and a force-dependent step at high load, and that at least one step is effectively irreversible in the measured range of forces. The irreversible nature of the sub-step(s) lead to interesting predictions for future experiments: We find different parameterizations with mathematically identical force velocity relations but different fluctuations (diffusion constant). We also find a longer elementary step compared to an earlier analysis, which agrees better with known facts about the structure of the pilus filament and e...

  4. [Fe IV] Emission in Ionized Nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un análisis de la emisión en [Fe IV] en varias nebulosas ionizadas, basado en nuevas identificaciones y medidas anteriores de líneas de [Fe IV]. Las abundancias de Fe obtenidas al sumar las abundancias de los iones relevantes (principalmente Fe++ y Fe3+ resultan ser menores, por factores en el rango 2.6-5.9, que las abundancias implicadas por las líneas de [Fe III] y un factor de corrección por la ionizacion obtenido con modelos de ionizacion. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta discrepancia así como las implicaciones que tiene para nuestro entendimiento tanto de la evolución del polvo en nebulosas ionizadas como de la historia química de galaxias de baja metalicidad.

  5. Dipyridinium tribromidochloridobis(4-chlorophenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Mun Lo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The tin atom in the substituted ammonium stannate(IV, (C5H6N2[SnBr3(C6H4Cl2Cl], lies on a center of symmetry in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Each independent halogen site is occupied by bromine and chlorine anions in an approximate 3:1 ratio. The pyridinium cation forms a hydrogen bond to only one of the halogen atoms.

  6. What Is New in Rome IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women’s health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-C], and IBS with mixed bowel habits) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected. PMID:28274109

  7. Soome-ugri IV maailmakongressi kunstiprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome-ugri IV maailmakongressi kultuuriprogrammi raames toimub Sagadis Tiiu Kirsipuu kureeritud puuskulptuuri sümpoosion "Ilmapuu". 8. augustist on soome-ugri kunstnikud Anatoli Stepanov, Nikolai Bõkov, Marja-Liisa Mäki-Penttilä, Jakov Jakovlev, Reino Saijets, Jozsef Lukacs, Anatoli Punegov, Pjotr Rjabov, Elo Liiv ja Urmas Rauba teinud puuskulptuure, mida eksponeeritakse kongressi toimumise ajal Tallinnas. Urmas Sisaski kontsert mõisapargis

  8. Examining Computational Assumptions For Godiva IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Alexander Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaegers, Peter James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Over the course of summer 2016, the effects of several computational modeling assumptions with respect to the Godiva IV reactor were examined. The majority of these assumptions pertained to modeling errors existing in the control rods and burst rod. The Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP, was used to investigate these modeling changes, primarily by comparing them to that of the original input deck specifications.

  9. DNA ligase IV syndrome; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Thomas; Gennery, Andrew R

    2016-10-07

    DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency, LIG4 syndrome, often associated with other systemic features. DNA ligase IV is part of the non-homologous end joining mechanism, required to repair DNA double stranded breaks. Ubiquitously expressed, it is required to prevent mutagenesis and apoptosis, which can result from DNA double strand breakage caused by intracellular events such as DNA replication and meiosis or extracellular events including damage by reactive oxygen species and ionising radiation.Within developing lymphocytes, DNA ligase IV is required to repair programmed DNA double stranded breaks induced during lymphocyte receptor development.Patients with hypomorphic mutations in LIG4 present with a range of phenotypes, from normal to severe combined immunodeficiency. All, however, manifest sensitivity to ionising radiation. Commonly associated features include primordial growth failure with severe microcephaly and a spectrum of learning difficulties, marrow hypoplasia and a predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. Diagnostic investigations include immunophenotyping, and testing for radiosensitivity. Some patients present with microcephaly as a predominant feature, but seemingly normal immunity. Treatment is mainly supportive, although haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used in a few cases.

  10. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  11. Density diagnostics derived from the O iv and S iv intercombination lines observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Dudík, J.; Mason, H. E.; Giunta, A.; Reeves, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    The intensity of the O iv 2s2 2p 2P-2s2p24P and S iv 3 s2 3p 2P-3s 3p24 P intercombination lines around 1400 Å observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provide a useful tool to diagnose the electron number density (Ne) in the solar transition region plasma. We measure the electron number density in a variety of solar features observed by IRIS, including an active region (AR) loop, plage and brightening, and the ribbon of the 22-June-2015 M 6.5 class flare. By using the emissivity ratios of O iv and S iv lines, we find that our observations are consistent with the emitting plasma being near isothermal (logT[K] ≈ 5) and iso-density (Ne ≈ 1010.6 cm-3) in the AR loop. Moreover, high electron number densities (Ne ≈ 1013 cm-3) are obtained during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the S iv line ratio. We note that the S iv lines provide a higher range of density sensitivity than the O iv lines. Finally, we investigate the effects of high densities (Ne ≳ 1011 cm-3) on the ionization balance. In particular, the fractional ion abundances are found to be shifted towards lower temperatures for high densities compared to the low density case. We also explored the effects of a non-Maxwellian electron distribution on our diagnostic method. The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of artificial antigens for astragaloside IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bunge, Fabaceae and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV- bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.

  13. Planning a Kinetic and Mechanistic Study with Cerium (IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Samir B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents a kinetic study that utilizes a method for varying the concentrations of the possible Ce(IV) species and computing the concentration distribution of the sulfato and hydroxo species of Ce(IV). (MLH)

  14. Surgical decision making for stage IV adult acquired flatfoot disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kyle S; Hyer, Christopher F

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition affecting the lower extremity. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is the primary etiology for the development of a flatfoot deformity in an adult. PTTD is classified into 4 stages (with stage IV subdivided into stage IV-A and IV-B). This classification is described in detail in this article.

  15. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated... administrator shall determine each participant's estimated title IV benefit. The estimated title IV...

  16. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  17. 40 CFR 144.23 - Class IV wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class IV wells. 144.23 Section 144.23... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.23 Class IV wells. (a) Injection into existing Class IV wells is authorized for up to six months after approval or promulgation...

  18. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV With the Texas Functional Living Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The relationships between TFLS and WAIS-IV and WMS-IV were examined in both normally developing and clinical samples. In general, the highest correlati...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) complexes with Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radoske, Thomas; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    We report herein the synthesis and characterization of several imine complexes of tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) and uranium (U(IV)). The ligands investigated in this study are a Schiff base type, including the well-known salen ligand (H{sub 2}Le, Fig. 1). The complexation in solution was investigated by NMR measurements indicating paramagnetic effects of unpaired f-electrons of U(IV) on the ligand molecule. We also determined the solid-state molecular structures of the synthesized complexes by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The synthesized complexes show an eight-fold coordination geometry around the actinide center surrounded by two tetradentate ligands with 2N- and 2O-donor atoms.

  20. Revisiting Case IV: a reassessment of bias and standard errors of Case IV under range restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Dustin A; Mendoza, Jorge L; Terry, Robert

    2013-11-01

    In 2004, Hunter and Schmidt proposed a correction (called Case IV) that seeks to estimate disattenuated correlations when selection is made on an unmeasured variable. Although Case IV is an important theoretical development in the range restriction literature, it makes an untestable assumption, namely that the partial correlation between the unobserved selection variable and the performance measure is zero. We show in this paper why this assumption may be difficult to meet and why previous simulations have failed to detect the full extent of bias. We use meta-analytic literature to investigate the plausible range of bias. We also show how Case IV performs in terms of standard errors. Finally, we give practical recommendations about how the contributions of Hunter and Schmidt (2004) can be extended without making such stringent assumptions.

  1. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  2. Dual (type IV left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdil Baskan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS, and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from the right coronary artery (RCA. Dual LAD is a benign coronary artery anomaly, but should be recognised especially before interventional procedures. With the increasing use of multidedector computed tomography (MDCT, it is essential for radiologists to be aware of this entity and the cross-sectional findings.

  3. Research in collegiate mathematics education IV

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed; Kaput, Jim

    2001-01-01

    This fourth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME IV) reflects the themes of student learning and calculus. Included are overviews of calculus reform in France and in the U.S. and large-scale and small-scale longitudinal comparisons of students enrolled in first-year reform courses and in traditional courses. The work continues with detailed studies relating students' understanding of calculus and associated topics. Direct focus is then placed on instruction and student comprehension of courses other than calculus, namely abstract algebra and number theory. The volume co

  4. Stable kagome lattices from group IV elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, O.; Schoeters, B.; Partoens, B.

    2015-03-01

    A thorough investigation of three-dimensional kagome lattices of group IV elements is performed with first-principles calculations. The investigated kagome lattices of silicon and germanium are found to be of similar stability as the recently proposed carbon kagome lattice. Carbon and silicon kagome lattices are both direct-gap semiconductors but they have qualitatively different electronic band structures. While direct optical transitions between the valence and conduction bands are allowed in the carbon case, no such transitions can be observed for silicon. The kagome lattice of germanium exhibits semimetallic behavior but can be transformed into a semiconductor after compression.

  5. Benzylchloridobis(quinolin-8-olatotin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibao Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Sn(C7H7(C9H6NO2Cl], the SnIV ion is in a distorted octahedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn—N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn—N bond.

  6. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  7. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Anesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase.

  8. Hospitalization Costs for Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery Treated With Intravenous Acetaminophen (IV-APAP) Plus Other IV Analgesics or IV Opioid Monotherapy for Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Brett A; Pham, An T; Shah, Manasee V; Eaddy, Michael T; Lunacsek, Orsolya E; Wan, George J

    2017-02-01

    To assess the impact on hospitalization costs of multimodal analgesia (MMA), including intravenous acetaminophen (IV-APAP), versus IV opioid monotherapy for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Utilizing the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Hospital Drug Database (HDD), patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), total hip arthroplasty (THA), or surgical repair of hip fracture between 1/1/2011 and 8/31/2014 were separated into postoperative pain management groups: MMA with IV-APAP plus other IV analgesics (IV-APAP group) or an IV opioid monotherapy group. All patients could have received oral analgesics. Baseline characteristics and total hospitalization costs were compared. Additionally, an inverse probability treatment weighting [IPTW] with propensity scores analysis further assessed hospitalization cost differences. The IV-APAP group (n = 33,954) and IV opioid monotherapy group (n = 110,300) differed significantly (P opioid monotherapy group (US$12,540 ± $9564 vs. $13,242 ± $35,825; P opioid monotherapy. This difference was driven by medical costs; importantly, there was no difference in pharmacy costs. Generalizability of the results may be limited to patients admitted to hospitals similar to those included in HDD. Dosing could not be determined, so it was not possible to quantify utilization of IV-APAP or ascertain differences in opioid consumption between the 2 groups. This study did not account for healthcare utilization post-discharge.

  9. Zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-catalyzed highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-16

    In this report, zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 83% yield and up to 98% ee, while, for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 79% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclized tetrahydrofuran compounds could be obtained in most cases.

  10. Zirconium(IV) and Hafnium(IV)-Catalyzed Highly Enantioselective Epoxidation of Homoallylic and Bishomoallylic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 81% yield and up to 98% ee, while for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 75% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclize compounds could be obtained in most cases. PMID:20481541

  11. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  12. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  13. Aqueous chemistry of Ce(iv): estimations using actinide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Banik, Nidhu Lal; Pédrot, Mathieu; Pourret, Olivier; Vallet, Valérie

    2017-10-10

    The prediction of cerium (Ce) aqueous speciation is relevant in many research fields. Indeed, Ce compounds are used for many industrial applications, which may require the control of Ce aqueous chemistry for their synthesis. The aquatic geochemistry of Ce is also of interest. Due to its growing industrial use and its release into the environment, Ce is now considered as an emerging contaminant. Cerium is also used as a proxy of (paleo)redox conditions due to the Ce(iv)/Ce(iii) redox transition. Finally, Ce(iv) is often presented as a relevant analogue of tetravalent actinides (An(iv)). In the present study, quantum chemical calculations were conducted to highlight the similarities between the structures of Ce(iv) and tetravalent actinide (An(iv); An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu) aqua-ions, especially Pu(iv). The current knowledge of An(iv) hydrolysis, solubility and colloid formation in water was briefly reviewed but important discrepancies were observed in the available data for Ce(iv). Therefore, new estimations of the hydrolysis constants of Ce(iv) and the solubility of Ce(iv)-(hydr)oxides are proposed, by analogy with Pu(iv). By plotting pH-Eh (Pourbaix) diagrams, we showed that the pH values corresponding to the onset of Ce(iv) species formation (i.e. Ce(iv)-(hydr)oxide or dissolved Ce(iv)) agreed with various experimental results. Although further experimental studies are required to obtain a more accurate thermodynamic database, the present work might yet help to predict more accurately the Ce chemical behavior in aqueous solution.

  14. Correcting C IV-based virial black hole masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The C IVλλ1498,1501 broad emission line is visible in optical spectra to redshifts exceeding z ˜ 5. C IV has long been known to exhibit significant displacements to the blue and these `blueshifts' almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows. As a consequence, single-epoch virial black hole (BH) mass estimates derived from C IV velocity widths are known to be systematically biased compared to masses from the hydrogen Balmer lines. Using a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (LBol = 1045.5-1048 erg s-1), redshift 1.5 < z < 4.0 quasars with both C IV and Balmer line spectra, we have quantified the bias in C IV BH masses as a function of the C IV blueshift. C IV BH masses are shown to be a factor of 5 larger than the corresponding Balmer-line masses at C IV blueshifts of 3000 km s-1and are overestimated by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts, ≳5000 km s-1. Using the monotonically increasing relationship between the C IV blueshift and the mass ratio BH(C IV)/BH(Hα), we derive an empirical correction to all C IV BH masses. The scatter between the corrected C IV masses and the Balmer masses is 0.24 dex at low C IV blueshifts (˜0 km s-1) and just 0.10 dex at high blueshifts (˜3000 km s-1), compared to 0.40 dex before the correction. The correction depends only on the C IV line properties - i.e. full width at half-maximum and blueshift - and can therefore be applied to all quasars where C IV emission line properties have been measured, enabling the derivation of unbiased virial BH-mass estimates for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift, spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the literature.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Inpatient Costs for Obstetrics and Gynecology Surgery Patients Treated With IV Acetaminophen and IV Opioids Versus IV Opioid-only Analgesia for Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Pham, An T; Lovelace, Belinda; Balaban, Stela; Wan, George J

    2017-06-01

    Recovery from obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) surgery, including hysterectomy and cesarean section delivery, aims to restore function while minimizing hospital length of stay (LOS) and medical expenditures. Our analyses compare OB/GYN surgery patients who received combination intravenous (IV) acetaminophen and IV opioid analgesia with those who received IV opioid-only analgesia and estimate differences in LOS, hospitalization costs, and opioid consumption. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Premier Database between January 2009 and June 2015, comparing OB/GYN surgery patients who received postoperative pain management with combination IV acetaminophen and IV opioids with those who received only IV opioids starting on the day of surgery and continuing up to the second postoperative day. We performed instrumental variable 2-stage least-squares regressions controlling for patient and hospital covariates to compare the LOS, hospitalization costs, and daily opioid doses (morphine equivalent dose) of IV acetaminophen recipients with that of opioid-only analgesia patients. We identified 225 142 OB/GYN surgery patients who were eligible for our study of whom 89 568 (40%) had been managed with IV acetaminophen and opioids. Participants averaged 36 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasians (60%). Multivariable regression models estimated statistically significant differences in hospitalization cost and opioid use with IV acetaminophen associated with $484.4 lower total hospitalization costs (95% CI = -$760.4 to -$208.4; P = 0.0006) and 8.2 mg lower daily opioid use (95% CI = -10.0 to -6.4), whereas the difference in LOS was not significant, at -0.09 days (95% CI = -0.19 to 0.01; P = 0.07). Compared with IV opioid-only analgesia, managing post-OB/GYN surgery pain with the addition of IV acetaminophen is associated with decreased hospitalization costs and reduced opioid use.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) corrole complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Buckley, Heather L; Lukens, Wayne W; Arnold, John

    2013-09-18

    The first examples of actinide complexes incorporating corrole ligands are presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesized via salt metathesis with the corresponding lithium corrole in remarkably high yields (93% and 83%, respectively). Characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed both complexes to be dimeric, having two metal centers bridged via bis(μ-chlorido) linkages. In each case, the corrole ring showed a large distortion from planarity, with the Th(IV) and U(IV) ions residing unusually far (1.403 and 1.330 Å, respectively) from the N4 plane of the ligand. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of both the Th and U dimers revealed dynamic solution behavior. In the case of the diamagnetic thorium corrole, variable-temperature, DOSY (diffusion-ordered) and EXSY (exhange) (1)H NMR spectroscopy was employed and supported that this behavior was due to an intrinsic pseudorotational mode of the corrole ring about the M-M axis. Additionally, the electronic structure of the actinide corroles was assessed using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility. This novel class of macrocyclic complexes provides a rich platform in an underdeveloped area for the study of nonaqueous actinide bonding and reactivity.

  17. [The relationships of intelligence and memory assessed using the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepach, A C; Daseking, M; Petermann, F; Waldmann, H C

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the relationships of intelligence and memory scores derived from WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. We were especially interested in the reciprocal predictive values of the test scales. A sample of 137 healthy adults with an age range between 16 and 69 years was assessed with the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV. The test order was balanced. Pearson correlations were conducted on the subtest and scale level. A series of 14 linear regression models was tested with memory performance as predictor for intelligence and vice versa. A model including the 3 main memory scales of the WMS-IV was able to predict the global IQ best. It nevertheless explained only 46% of the variance. The memory and intelligence measures show significant relationships, but also represent distinct functions. WAIS-IV and WMS-IV complement one another. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  19. The MAX IV storage ring project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Pedro F; Leemann, Simon C; Sjöström, Magnus; Andersson, Ake

    2014-09-01

    The MAX IV facility, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, features two electron storage rings operated at 3 GeV and 1.5 GeV and optimized for the hard X-ray and soft X-ray/VUV spectral ranges, respectively. A 3 GeV linear accelerator serves as a full-energy injector into both rings as well as a driver for a short-pulse facility, in which undulators produce X-ray pulses as short as 100 fs. The 3 GeV ring employs a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice to achieve, in a relatively short circumference of 528 m, a bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad, which reduces to 0.2 nm rad as insertion devices are added. The engineering implementation of the MBA lattice raises several technological problems. The large number of strong magnets per achromat calls for a compact design featuring small-gap combined-function magnets grouped into cells and sharing a common iron yoke. The small apertures lead to a low-conductance vacuum chamber design that relies on the chamber itself as a distributed copper absorber for the heat deposited by synchrotron radiation, while non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating provides for reduced photodesorption yields and distributed pumping. Finally, a low main frequency (100 MHz) is chosen for the RF system yielding long bunches, which are further elongated by passively operated third-harmonic Landau cavities, thus alleviating collective effects, both coherent (e.g. resistive wall instabilities) and incoherent (intrabeam scattering). In this paper, we focus on the MAX IV 3 GeV ring and present the lattice design as well as the engineering solutions to the challenges inherent to such a design. As the first realisation of a light source based on the MBA concept, the MAX IV 3 GeV ring offers an opportunity for validation of concepts that are likely to be essential ingredients of future diffraction-limited light sources.

  20. [Vaughan Williams class IV antiarrhythmic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, M; Washizuka, T; Ikeguchi, S; Sasayama, S

    1996-08-01

    Vaughan Williams class IV antiarrhythmic drugs have Ca-channel blocking actions. Since L-type Ca-channels play key roles in regulating pulse conduction in atrioventricular node as well as in pathologically-depolarized myocardium, Ca-channel blockers known to modulate this type of Ca-channel (ICa,L) are used as antiarrhythmic agents. ICa,L channels have relatively high threshold potential (-40 mV) to activate and long-opening properties, and are enhanced by beta-adrenergic stimulation. Among three major ICa,L blockers, dihydropyridines such as nifedipine were found to bind to the channel from extracellular side. In contrast, verapamil and diltiazem interact with the channel from the cytoplasmic side, thereby causing rate-dependent block of ICa,L channels. This sideness of pharmacological action of the Ca-channel blockers determines an important therapeutic modality and their indication for tachyarrhythmias.

  1. Ultrathin magnetic structures IV applications of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is de...

  2. Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Martínez Carmenate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo está extraído de la obra inédita de Urbano Martínez Carmenate, Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV. Ofrece una mirada sobre los primeros años de la trayectoria profesional de Alejo Carpentier. Se muestra cómo, durante la década de 1920, se inicia como periodista y cronista teatral. A la vez, comienzan sus conexiones con el Grupo Minorista, que desempeña un papel destacado en la etapa republicana en Cuba. También se contempla su viaje a México en 1926, que constituye su primer contacto directo con la naturaleza y la cultura americanas.

  3. Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Martínez Carmenate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo está extraído de la obra inédita de Urbano Martínez Carmenate, Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV. Ofrece una mirada sobre los primeros años de la trayectoria profesional de Alejo Carpentier. Se muestra cómo, durante la década de 1920, se inicia como periodista y cronista teatral. A la vez, comienzan sus conexiones con el Grupo Minorista, que desempeña un papel destacado en la etapa republicana en Cuba. También se contempla su viaje a México en 1926, que constituye su primer contacto directo con la naturaleza y la cultura americanas.

  4. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  5. Retraction statement: 'Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer' by Yuanfeng Zeng, Huijun Xie, Yudan Qiao, Jianmei Wang, Xiling Zhu, Guoyang He, Yuling Li, Xiaoli Ren, Feifei Wang, Li Liang and Yanqing Ding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The above article in Cancer Science (doi: 10.1111/cas.12768), published online on 26 October 2015 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Yusuke Nakamura, and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Panels +C3 and +Y27632 of SW480 Mock shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels + C3 and +Y27632 of HT29 FMNL2 shown in Figure 2a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels shFMNL2-1 and shmDial1-1 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, shFMNL2-2 and shmDial1-2 in Figure 3a appear to have been taken from the same image, Panels of shFMNL2-1 + shmDial1-1 and shFMNL2-1 + shmDial1-2 of +LPA appear to have been taken from the same image, gel bands of FLAG in Figure 4e appear to have been have been manipulated by erasing gel bands. Reference Zeng Y, Xie H, Qiao Y, Wang J, Zhu X, He G, Li Y, Ren X, Wang F, Liang L, Ding Y. Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer. Cancer Sci 2015; 106: 1385-93. doi: 10.1111/cas.12768.

  6. Collagen IV in Normal Skin and in Pathological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture's syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  7. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  8. Collagen IV in normal skin and in pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. Results: The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture′s syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Conclusions: Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  9. Evaluation conjointe de la WAIS-IV et de la MEM-IV

    OpenAIRE

    Paumier, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    L’intelligence et la mémoire, composantes essentielles du fonctionnement cognitif, sont régulièrement évaluées lors d’un bilan psychologique. Chez l’adulte, l’intelligence s’évalue avec la WAIS-IV et la mémoire avec la MEM-IV. Dans notre étude, nous avons évalué conjointement ces batteries en administrant leurs sous-tests principaux à 66 personnes âgées de 18 à 50 ans. Comme ces échelles s’interprètent selon des indices distincts, nous proposons d’utiliser le modèle CHC comme grille de lectur...

  10. New titanium(IV and vanadium(IV haloalkoxides: synthetic route and structural characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Giovana G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel binuclear titanium(IV complex [{TiCl(OPr i2(HOPr i }2(mu-OPr i2], 1, and the first mononuclear vanadyl(IV chloroalcoholate [VCl(O(HOPr i4]Cl, 2, have been prepared from 2:1:1 mixtures of [Ti(OPr i4], KOPr i and VCl3. Products were characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR, EPR, NMR and electronic spectroscopies, magnetic susceptibility measurements and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. A third product was found to be polynuclear and to contain both titanium and vanadium. Semi-empirical quantum-mechanical calculations were carried out for the evaluation of the electronic structure of 1.

  11. New titanium(IV) and vanadium(IV) halo alkoxides: synthetic route and structural characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Giovana G.; Reis, Dayane M.; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Mangrich, Antonio S.; Sa, Eduardo L. de; Soares, Jaisa F. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jaisa@quimica.ufpr.br; Hitchcock, Peter B.; Leigh, G. Jeffery [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Hoerner, Manfredo [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Matos, Robson M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2003-12-01

    The novel binuclear titanium(IV) complex [{l_brace}Ti Cl(OPr{sup i}){sub 2}(HOPr{sup i} ){r_brace}{sub 2}({mu}-OPr{sup i}){sub 2}], 1, and the first mononuclear vanadyl(IV) chloroalcoholate [VCl(O)(HOPr{sup i}){sub 4}]Cl, 2, have been prepared from 2:1:1 mixtures of [Ti(OPr{sup i}){sub 4}], KOPr{sup i} and VCl{sub 3}. Products were characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR, EPR, NMR and electronic spectroscopies, magnetic susceptibility measurements and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. A third product was found to be polynuclear and to contain both titanium and vanadium. Semi-empirical quantum-mechanical calculations were carried out for the evaluation of the electronic structure of 1. (author)

  12. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dailia B; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620-800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4.

  13. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  14. IV therapy and infection control in patients in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Ray

    Universal precautions and general infection control measures need to be considered when undertaking any clinical procedure, but when administering intravenous (IV) therapy (medicines and/or maintenance fluids), specific measures need to be considered. This is especially important for vulnerable patients or if administering IV therapy in the home environment. There are many reasons why patients may need to receive IV therapy in the community, and these will all present nurses with specific problems. This article discusses some of the infection control procedures one must undertake when administering IV therapy to patients in the community.

  15. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  16. The state of Th(IV) in solutions of EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, I.G.; Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropova, V.V. [Institute of Radioecological, Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The work was dedicated to determination of the Th(IV) forms in aqueous solutions in the wide ranges of pH and metal ion concentrations, investigation of the Th{sup 4+}-cation hydrolytic polymerization and EDTA anion influence on the Th(IV) state in the solutions. The dialysis, centrifugation, spectrophotometry methods were used to achieve the objectives. It was shown, that concentration of Th(IV) polynuclear form depends on EDTA anion concentration in the solutions. The polynuclear form concentration decreases with the increase of EDTA concentration. The increase of pH shifts the established equilibrium to formation of Th(IV) polynuclear complexes formation.

  17. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.

  18. Toward Phase IV, Populating the WOVOdat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Newhall, C. G.; Schwandner, F. M.; Selva, J.; Ueda, H.

    2009-12-01

    One of challenges for volcanologists is the fact that more and more people are likely to live on volcanic slopes. Information about volcanic activity during unrest should be accurate and rapidly distributed. As unrest may lead to eruption, evacuation may be necessary to minimize damage and casualties. The decision to evacuate people is usually based on the interpretation of monitoring data. Over the past several decades, monitoring volcanoes has used more and more sophisticated instruments. A huge volume of data is collected in order to understand the state of activity and behaviour of a volcano. WOVOdat, The World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest, will provide context within which scientists can interpret the state of their own volcano, during and between crises. After a decision during the 2000 IAVCEI General Assembly to create WOVOdat, development has passed through several phases, from Concept Development (Phase-I in 2000-2002), Database Design (Phase-II, 2003-2006) and Pilot Testing (Phase-III in 2007-2008). For WOVOdat to be operational, there are still two (2) steps to complete, which are: Database Population (Phase-IV) and Enhancement and Maintenance (Phase-V). Since January 2009, the WOVOdat project is hosted by Earth Observatory of Singapore for at least a 5-year period. According to the original planning in 2002, this 5-year period will be used for completing the Phase-IV. As the WOVOdat design is not yet tested for all types of data, 2009 is still reserved for building the back-end relational database management system (RDBMS) of WOVOdat and testing it with more complex data. Fine-tuning of the WOVOdat’s RDBMS design is being done with each new upload of observatory data. The next and main phase of WOVOdat development will be data population, managing data transfer from multiple observatory formats to WOVOdat format. Data population will depend on two important things, the availability of SQL database in volcano

  19. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two

  20. A classification system for O-B2 stars based on the Si IV and C IV resonance lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henize, K. G.; Wray, J. D.; Parsons, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    Low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra from Skylab Experiment S-019 are used to explore the variations of Si IV and C IV line strengths with temperature and luminosity. These considerations lead to a classification system in which the Si/C ratio is used to discriminate luminosity among the O stars and temperature among the O9-B2 stars of lower luminosity. Stars falling in these two regimes may be distinguished either by the presence of C IV emission or on the basis of C IV absorption strength. The log(Si IV/C IV) vs C IV diagram is proposed as a primary tool in such a classification system. The rapid variation in the Si IV/C IV ratio from less than 1/10 at O9 to greater than 10 at B1.5 for luminosity class III-V stars appears to be an especially useful criterion for the temperature classification of stars in this spectral range.

  1. A comparison between IV paracetamol and IV metamizol for postoperative analgesia after retinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Susanne; Kiencke, Peter; Giesecke, Thorsten; Eggert, Dirk; Thumann, Gabriele; Kampe, Sandra

    2005-10-01

    To assess clinical efficacy of IV paracetamol 1 g and IV metamizol 1 IV metamizol 1 g on a 24-h dosing schedule in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 38 ASA physical status I-III patients undergoing retinal surgery. General anaesthesia using remifentanil, propofol, and desflurane was performed for surgery. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups, receiving infusions of paracetamol 1 g/100 mL (Para Group), of metamizol 1 g/100 mL (Meta Group), or of 100 mL of saline solution as placebo control (Plac Group) 30 min before arrival in the recovery area and every 6 h up to 24 h postoperatively. All patients had unrestricted access to intravenous opioid rescue medication. The primary efficacy variables were pain scores at rest over 30 h postoperatively analysed by using repeated ANOVA measurement. Secondary efficacy variables were pain scores on coughing, also analysed by repeated ANOVA measurement. Five patients in the Plac Group and one patient in the Meta Group interrupted the study protocol. Regarding pain scores at rest, Mauchly-test of sphericity was significant (p = 0.03). For the p time effects a significant result was detected (p metamizol (p = 0.025; mean difference 14.4; 95% CI p 1.5-27.4), and no significant difference between the Para Group and the Meta Group (p = 1.0; mean difference 0.4; 95% CI-12.8 to 13.6). Pain scores on coughing showed a significant different main effect between the three treatment groups (p = 0.022). The Bonferroni adjusted pair wise comparisons between the Plac Group and the Para Group showed a significant difference in favour of IV paracetamol (p = 0.032; mean difference 17.9; 95% CI 1.3-34.6), a p difference, though not reaching statistical significance, in favour of IV metamizol between the Plac Group and the Meta Group (p = 0.081; p mean difference 15.0; 95% CI -1.4 to 31.4), and no significant difference between the Para Group and the Meta Group (p = 1.0; p mean difference 2.9; 95% CI -13

  2. Quantitative neuroimaging in mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Raphael; Mayfield, Joan; Swift, Caren; Nestrasil, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the MCOLN1 gene. This gene encodes the endosomal/lysosomal transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1 (TRPML1). Affected patients suffer from neurodevelopmental abnormalities and progressive retinal dystrophy. In a prospective natural history study we hypothesized the presence of an additional slow cerebral neurodegenerative process. We have recruited 5 patients, tested their neurodevelopmental status, and measured cerebral regional volumes and white matter integrity using MRI yearly. Over a period of up to 3 years, MLIV patients remained neurologically stable. There was a trend for increased cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes and increased ventricular size, while white matter and cerebellar volumes decreased. Mean diffusivity (MD) was increased and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were below normal in all analyzed brain regions. There was a positive correlation between motor scores of the Vineland Scale and the FA values in the corticospinal tract (corr coef 0.39), and a negative correlation with the MD values (corr coef -0.50) in the same brain region. We conclude from these initial findings that deficiency in mucolipin-1 affects the entire brain but that there might be a selective regional cerebral neurodegenerative process in MLIV. In addition, these data suggest that diffusion-weighted imaging might be a good biomarker for following patients with MLIV. Therefore, our findings may be helpful for designing future clinical trials.

  3. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Educational Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin A.; Davis, Dennis M.

    This paper describes the structure and function of the SYS IV PLATO Curriculum Project's (PCP) computer-based management system and justifies the system design. A consideration of features most critical in the design of management systems provides the context for a discussion of specific SYS IV features, which include its ability to deliver any…

  4. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Technical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, John T.; Felty, J. Michael

    This paper is the second in a three-part series on SYS IV, an instructional management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) that incorporates some of the features of the previous SYS systems. Focus is primarily on the new features that make the system unique. Following a brief background section explaining the purpose of SYS IV,…

  5. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the IVS 2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during 2012 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staff supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  6. FORTRAN IV Digital Filter Design Programs. Digital Systems Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, E.; And Others

    The goals of the Digital Systems Education Project (DISE) include the development and distribution of educational/instructional materials in the digital systems area. Toward that end, this document contains three reports: (1) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for Low-Pass Butterworth and Chebychev Digital Filters; (2) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for…

  7. On the ion chromatographic determination of S(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Ion Chromatographie determination of S(IV) is described with special reference to the determination of SO 2(g) and/or aerosol S(IV) along with chloride, nitrate and sulfate in particulate matter. A method is presented for the baseline separation of the above species. The Chromatographic behavior of hydroxymethanesulfonate under various eluent conditions is discussed.

  8. Beyond the DSM-IV: Assumptions, Alternatives, and Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Shane J.; Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto; Prosser, Ellie C.; LaRue, Stephanie; Spalitto, Susan Vehige; Ulven, Jon C.

    2006-01-01

    Current diagnostic processes reflect the limitations and utility of the framework of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Clinical information in the DSM-IV's 5-axis system almost exclusively focuses on weaknesses and pathology and is summarized in a flawed…

  9. Group IV photonics for the mid infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2013-02-01

    This paper outlines the challenges and benefits of applying silicon-based photonic techniques in the 2 to 5 μm midinfrared (MIR) wavelength range for chem.-bio-physical sensing, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, secure communications, Ladar, active imaging, and high-speed communications at 2 μm. Onchip passive and active components, mostly waveguided, will enable opto-electronic CMOS or BiCMOS integrated "circuits" for system-on-a-chip applications such as spectroscopy and lab-on-a-chip. Volume manufacture in a silicon foundry is expected to yield low-cost (or even disposable) chips with benefits in size-weight-power and ruggedness. This is "long-wavelength optoelectronic integration on silicon" which we call LIOS. Room temperature operation appears feasible, albeit with performance compromises at 4 to 5 μm. In addition to the electronics layer (which may include RF wireless), a 3-D LIOS chip can include several inter-communicating layers utilizing the photonic, plasmonic, photoniccrystal and opto-electro-mechanical technologies. The LIOS challenge can be met by (1) discovering new physics, (2) employing "new" IV and III-V alloys, (3) scaling-up and modifying telecom components, and (4) applying nonlinearoptical wavelength conversion in some cases. This paper presents proposals for MIR chip spectrometers employing frequency-comb and Ge blackbody sources. Active heterostructures employing Si, Ge, SiGe, GeSn and SiGeSn are key for laser diodes, photodetectors, LEDs, switches, amplifiers, and modulators that provide totally monolithic foundry integration, while numerous III-V semiconductor MIR devices within the InGaAsSb and InGaAsP families offer practical hybrid integration on Si PICs. Interband cascade and quantum cascade lasers on Ge waveguides are important in this context.

  10. Intermetallic communication in titanium(IV) ferrocenyldiketonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulatas, Lea T; Brown, Seth N; Ojomo, Edema; Noll, Bruce C; Cavo, Matthew J; Holt, Paul B; Wopperer, Matthew M

    2009-11-16

    A tetradentate bis(ferrocenyldiketonate) ligand, Fc(2)BobH(2), is prepared via Claisen condensation of acetylferrocene and 2,2'-biphenyldiacetyl chloride, and is metalated with titanium(IV) isopropoxide to give (Fc(2)Bob)Ti(O(i)Pr)(2) in good yield. The isopropoxide groups are replaced with di(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate groups on treatment with the corresponding acid, and with chlorides on treatment with trimethylsilyl chloride. Metathesis with catechol leads to the bis(o-hydroxyphenoxide) complex rather than the chelating catecholate complex. Hydrolysis selectively gives the mu-oxo trimer (Delta,Delta,Delta)/(Lambda,Lambda,Lambda)-{(Fc(2)Bob)Ti(mu-O)}(3). The solid-state structures of the mu-oxo trimer and the bis(o-hydroxyphenoxide) complex show that the ferrocene substituents are oriented proximal to the biphenyl backbone rather than pointed out toward the exogenous groups. The complexes show dramatic changes in color depending on the bound anions, ranging from the red isopropoxide (lambda(max) = 489 nm) to the green bis(di(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate) (lambda(max) = 653 nm). The oxidation potentials of the ferrocenes show modest shifts based on the titanium environment, but the redox potentials of the two ferrocenes are never separated by more than 60 mV. These results and those of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the titanium interacts principally with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the ferrocenyldiketonate and very little with its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO).

  11. INTERMAT-IV (red de investigación INTERdisciplinar en MATeriales - IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Jordá, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    La red INTERMAT IV sigue la continuidad del trabajo realizado en la serie de redes INTERMAT que se han venido desarrollando durante estos últimos años (2011-2015). El acrónimo INTERMAT viene de “investigación INTERdisciplinar en MATeriales” y el objetivo de cada una de estas redes ha sido la investigación sobre las prácticas docentes en el área de la Ciencia de los Materiales. Esta investigación, centrada en el uso de las TIC en clase, se ha planteado como un trabajo de equipo con carácter co...

  12. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  13. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  14. Actinide Corroles: Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) bis(-chloride) Dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Buckley, Heather L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Arnold, John

    2013-12-01

    The first synthesis and structural characterization of actinide corroles is presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesised and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature 1H NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  15. Comparative distribution of the alpha 1(IV), alpha 5(IV), and alpha 6(IV) collagen chains in normal human adult and fetal tissues and in kidneys from X-linked Alport syndrome patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Peissel, B; Geng, L.; Kalluri, R.; Kashtan, C; Rennke, H G; Gallo, G R; Yoshioka, K.; Sun, M J; Hudson, B.G.; Neilson, E. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have shown previously that the 5' ends of the genes for the alpha 5(IV) and alpha 6(IV) collagen chains lie head-to-head on Xq22 and are deleted in patients with Alport syndrome (AS)-associated diffuse leiomyomatosis. In this study, we raised a rabbit anti-human alpha 6(IV)chain antibody, demonstrated its specificity by the analysis of recombinant NC1 domains af all six type IV chains, and studied the distribution of the alpha 6(IV) chain in relation to the alpha 1(IV) and alpha 5(IV) chai...

  16. Endogeneity in Panel Data Models with Time-Varying and Time-Fixed Regressors: To IV or not IV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    We analyse the problem of parameter inconsistency in panel data econometrics due to the correlation of exogenous variables with the error term.A common solution in this setting is to use Instrumental-Variable (IV) estimation in the spirit of Hausman-Taylor (1981). However, some potential shortcom......We analyse the problem of parameter inconsistency in panel data econometrics due to the correlation of exogenous variables with the error term.A common solution in this setting is to use Instrumental-Variable (IV) estimation in the spirit of Hausman-Taylor (1981). However, some potential...... shortcomings of the latter approach recently gave rise to the use of non-IV two-step estimators. Given their growing number of empirical applications, we aim to systematically compare the performance of IV and non-IV approaches in the presence of time-fixed variables and right hand side endogeneity using Monte...

  17. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Vladilo, G.; Bonifacio, P.

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha , a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum toward QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the ``Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha /alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10-5. Data from UVES-VLT.

  18. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorenzano, A F M; Bonifacio, P

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha, a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum towardS QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the "Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha/alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10^(-5).

  19. Structure activity relationship modelling of milk protein-derived peptides with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative structure activity type models were developed in an attempt to predict the key features of peptide sequences having dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity. The models were then employed to help predict the potential of peptides, which are currently reported in the literature to be present in the intestinal tract of humans following milk/dairy product ingestion, to act as inhibitors of DPP-IV. Two models (z- and v-scale) for short (2-5 amino acid residues) bovine milk peptides, behaving as competitive inhibitors of DPP-IV, were developed. The z- and the v-scale models (p<0.05, R(2) of 0.829 and 0.815, respectively) were then applied to 56 milk protein-derived peptides previously reported in the literature to be found in the intestinal tract of humans which possessed a structural feature of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides (P at the N2 position). Ten of these peptides were synthetized and tested for their in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory properties. There was no agreement between the predicted and experimentally determined DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the competitive peptide inhibitors. However, the ranking for DPP-IV inhibitory potency of the competitive peptide inhibitors was conserved. Furthermore, potent in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity was observed with two peptides, LPVPQ (IC50=43.8±8.8μM) and IPM (IC50=69.5±8.7μM). Peptides present within the gastrointestinal tract of human may have promise for the development of natural DPP-IV inhibitors for the management of serum glucose.

  20. Tin(IV) and lead(IV) complexes with a tetradentate redox-active ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Alexandr V; Trofimova, Olesya Yu; Fukin, Georgy K; Ketkov, Sergei Yu; Smolyaninov, Ivan V; Cherkasov, Vladimir K

    2012-08-28

    The coordination chemistry of a tetradentate redox-active ligand, glyoxal-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylanil) (H(2)L), was investigated with the diorganotin(IV) and diphenyllead(IV) moieties. Complexes R(2)SnL (R = Me (1), Et (2), (t)Bu (3), Ph (4)) and Ph(2)PbL (5) have been prepared and characterized. The molecular structures of compounds 1, 3, and 5 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The diamagnetic octahedral complexes bear a tetradentate O,N,N,O redox-active ligand with a nearly planar core. Complexes 1-5 demonstrate solvatochromism in solution. The CV of complexes 1-5 reveals four one-electron redox processes. The spin density distribution in the chemically generated cations and anions of 1-5 was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. The experimental data agree well with the results of DFT calculations of electronic structures for 1, its pyridine adduct 1·Py, cation 1(+) and anion 1(-).

  1. Implications of oxidovanadium(IV) binding to actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Susana; Almeida, Rui M; Moura, José J G; Aureliano, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Oxidovanadium(IV), a cationic species (VO(2+)) of vanadium(IV), binds to several proteins, including actin. Upon titration with oxidovanadium(IV), approximately 100% quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of monomeric actin purified from rabbit skeletal muscle (G-actin) was observed, with a V(50) of 131 μM, whereas for the polymerized form of actin (F-actin) 75% of quenching was obtained and a V(50) value of 320 μM. Stern-Volmer plots were used to estimate an oxidovanadium(IV)-actin dissociation constant, with K(d) of 8.2 μM and 64.1 μM VOSO(4), for G-actin and F-actin, respectively. These studies reveal the presence of a high affinity binding site for oxidovanadium(IV) in actin, producing local conformational changes near the tryptophans most accessible to water in the three-dimensional structure of actin. The actin conformational changes, also confirmed by (1)H NMR, are accompanied by changes in G-actin hydrophobic surface, but not in F-actin. The (1)H NMR spectra of G-actin treated with oxidovanadium(IV) clearly indicates changes in the resonances ascribed to methyl group and aliphatic regions as well as to aromatics and peptide-bond amide region. In parallel, it was verified that oxidovanadium(IV) prevents the G-actin polymerization into F-actin. In the 0-200 μM range, VOSO(4) inhibits 40% of the extent of polymerization with an IC(50) of 15.1 μM, whereas 500 μM VOSO(4) totally suppresses actin polymerization. The data strongly suggest that oxidovanadium(IV) binds to actin at specific binding sites preventing actin polymerization. By affecting actin structure and function, oxidovanadium(IV) might be responsible for many cellular effects described for vanadium.

  2. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Watanabe,Akiharu; Higashi, Toshiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1988-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful...

  3. A case of hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G P Prashanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN -IV, also known as congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is a very rare condition that presents in infancy with anhidrosis, absence of pain sensation and self -mutilation. Developmental delay and mental retardation are usually present. Ultrastructural study of the peripheral nerves demonstrates loss of the unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. We here report a 8 year -old boy with HSAN IV with typical clinical features where the diagnosis was supported by nerve biopsy findings. However, our case was unusual since mental development was normal.

  4. Long-Term IQ Stability Using the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV among a Sample of Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the stability of scores on the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV over an approximate six-year period. Previous research using older versions of the WISC and WAIS have suggested that these scales demonstrate strong stability of scores. Since research that has compared the stability of scores between the WISC-IV and the WAIS-IV is…

  5. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  6. Long-Term IQ Stability Using the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV among a Sample of Special Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the stability of scores on the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV over an approximate six-year period. Previous research using older versions of the WISC and WAIS have suggested that these scales demonstrate strong stability of scores. Since research that has compared the stability of scores between the WISC-IV and the WAIS-IV is…

  7. Fire retardancy of emulsion polymerized poly (methyl methacrylate)/cerium(IV) dioxide and polystyrene/cerium(IV) dioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Guipeng [Department of Chemistry and Fire Retardant Research Facility, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Lu, Hongdian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China); Zhou, You; Hao, Jianwei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wilkie, Charles A., E-mail: charles.wilkie@marquette.edu [Department of Chemistry and Fire Retardant Research Facility, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepare PMMA and PS containing ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization by XRD and TEM shows that some of the ceria is well-dispersed in the polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of ceria to both polymers leads to reduced thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In PMMA, the fire retardancy is enhanced but there is little effect in PS. - Abstract: In situ emulsion polymerization was employed to obtain poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/cerium(IV) dioxide and polystyrene (PS)/cerium(IV) dioxide nanocomposites at two different cerium(IV) dioxide loadings (2.3 wt% and 4.6 wt%). Transmission electron microscope results indicated uniform dispersion of cerium (IV) dioxide in the polymer matrix. Both PMMA and PS nanocomposites exhibit lower thermal stability than the pristine polymers. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC) and cone calorimetry are used to evaluate the fire retardancy of the polymer nanocomposites. PMMA/cerium(IV) dioxide showed significant heat release rate (HRR) reduction at low loadings (<5 wt%), while PS/cerium(IV) dioxide exhibits less HRR reduction at the same loadings. An explanation of the role of cerium (IV) dioxide in fire retardancy of polymer/ceria nanocomposites based on XPS results is suggested.

  8. GALLEX solar neutrino observations: results for GALLEX IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, W.; Handt, J.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Wojcik, M.; Zakharov, Yu.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Sann, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Mössbauer, R.; Wanninger, S.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Cribier, M.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report the GALLEX solar neutrino results for the measuring period GALLEX IV, from 14 February 1996 until 23 January 1997. Counting for the GALLEX IV runs was completed on 19 June 1997. The GALLEX IV result from 12 solar runs is [118.4±17.8 (stat.)±6.6 (sys.)] SNU (1σ). The combined result for GALLEX I+II+III+IV, which comprises 65 solar runs, is 77.5±6.2(-4.7, +4.3)(1σ) SNU. The GALLEX experimental program to register solar neutrinos has now been completed. In April 1998, GALLEX was succeeded by a new project, the Gallium Neutrino Observatory (GNO), with newly defined motives and goals.

  9. U(IV) fluorescence spectroscopy. A new speciation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Susanne; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    We combined absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to study the speciation of U(IV) in solution in concentrations down to 10{sup -6} M uranium. With our time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence setup we could determine the fluorescence decay time of U(IV) in perchloric as well as in chloric acid with 2.6 ± 0.3 ns at room temperature and 148.4 ± 6.5 ns at liquid nitrogen temperature. For the U(IV) sulfate system, we observed a bathochromic shift and a peak shape modification in the fluorescence spectra with increasing sulfate concentration in solution. Thus, the potential of U(IV) fluorescence for speciation analysis could be proven.

  10. 75 FR 16445 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...--TSP Qualifications Attachment V.D--Rate Filing Attachment V.E--Customer Satisfaction Survey Attachment... Internet on the USTRANSCOM homepage at http:// ] www.transcom.mil/j5/pt/dtr_part_iv.cfm. Dated: March...

  11. Anticancer platinum (IV) prodrugs with novel modes of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Fei; Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Jothibasu, Ramasamy; Ang, Wee Han

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, the search for improved platinum drugs based on the classical platinum (II)-diam(m)ine pharmacophore has yielded only a handful of successful candidates. New methodologies centred on platinum (IV) complexes, with better stability and expanded coordination spheres, offer the possibility of overcoming limitations inherent to platinum (II) drugs. In this review, novel strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells using platinum (IV) constructs are discussed. These approaches exploit the unique electrochemical characteristics and structural attributes of platinum (IV) complexes as a means of developing anticancer prodrugs that can target and selectively destroy cancer cells. Anticancer platinum (IV) prodrugs represent promising new strategies as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in the ongoing battle against cancer.

  12. [Mucolipidoses type IV in a patient with mapuche ancestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ch, Marta; Méndez C, José Ignacio; Concha G, María José; Huete L, Isidro; González B, Sergio; Durán S, Gloria P

    2008-07-01

    We report a 7 year-old girl with mapuche ancestors, diagnosed as a cerebral palsy since infancy and on active rehabilitation. She acquired motor and cognitive skills at 3 years of age. At 5 years of age, a slow neurological deterioration started, associated to visual impairment. Optic atrophy was added to the typical neurological exam of ataxic cerebral palsy and the diagnosis was re-considered. Neuroimaging showed a slow and progressive atrophy of intracerebral structures and ultramicroscopy revealed intracytoplasmatic inclusions in conjunctiva and skin, compatible with mucolipidoses type IV (ML-IV). ML-IV must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy associated with loss of acquired skills and progressive visual impairment. Electron microscopy of skin or conjunctiva is a useful diagnostic test. Suspicion of ML-IV must not be restricted to Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  13. Platinum(iv) anticancer prodrugs - hypotheses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dan

    2016-08-16

    In this manuscript we focus on Pt(iv) anticancer prodrugs. We explore the main working hypotheses for the design of effective Pt(iv) prodrugs and note the exceptions to the common assumptions that are prevalent in the field. Special attention was devoted to the emerging class of "dual action" Pt(iv) prodrugs, where bioactive ligands are conjugated to the axial positions of platinum in order to obtain orthogonal or complementary effects that will increase the efficacy of killing the cancer cells. We discuss the rationale behind the design of the "dual action" prodrugs and the results of the pharmacological studies obtained. Simultaneous release of two bioactive moieties inside the cancer cells often triggers several processes that together determine the fate of the cell. Pt(iv) complexes provide many opportunities for applying new concepts in targeting, synergistic cell killing and exploiting novel nanodelivery systems.

  14. Fluoride removal from water by zirconium (IV) doped chitosan bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    bio-composite was at par with commercial alumina to mitigate water fluoride limit .... analyzed for residual fluoride concentration by ion selective ..... zirconium (IV) doped chitosan were reused in another ... desalination in India: Review Article.

  15. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  16. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  17. IV cannula securement: protecting the patient from infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgingson, Ray

    The use of venous cannulas to administer intravenous therapy is a common clinical intervention within the hospital setting. Once in situ, IV cannulas must be securely fixed in order to prevent their movement or displacement; as unsecured cannulas pose significant health risks, such as mechanical phlebitis and an increased risk of infection. This article explores some of the complications associated with inappropriately secured IV cannulas, along with a discussion on common securement devices.

  18. COBRA-IV: the model and the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Wheeler, C.L.; Cena, R.J.; McMonagle, C.A.; Cuta, J.M.; Trent, D.S.

    1977-07-01

    The objective of this report is to present the mathematical basis of the COBRA-IV computer program (Wheeler et al., 1976) being developed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The COBRA-IV code is an extended version of the COBRA-IIIC subchannel analysis code that computes the flow and enthalpy distributions in nuclear fuel rod bundles and cores for both steady state and transient conditions (Rowe, 1973).

  19. Iværksætteri ved knopskydning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen ser nærmere på iværksætteri ved knopskydning - hvorfor knopskydning fra eksisterende virksomheder menes at give positive bidrag til vækst og overlevelse blandt iværksætterne blandt andet ved at se på internationale undersøgelser, der er foretaget af forskellige typer af knopskydning. Art....... Artiklen kaster lys over, hvor udbredt knopskydning er som kilde til virksomhedsetableringer i Danmark. Udgivelsesdato: 6/9...

  20. Assembling filamentous phage occlude pIV channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, D K; Russel, M; Simon, S M

    2001-07-31

    Filamentous phage f1 is exported from its Escherichia coli host without killing the bacterial cell. Phage-encoded protein pIV, which is required for phage assembly and secretion, forms large highly conductive channels in the outer membrane of E. coli. It has been proposed that the phage are extruded across the bacterial outer membrane through pIV channels. To test this prediction, we developed an in vivo assay by using a mutant pIV that functions in phage export but whose channel opens in the absence of phage extrusion. In E. coli lacking its native maltooligosacharride transporter LamB, this pIV variant allowed oligosaccharide transport across the outer membrane. This entry of oligosaccharide was decreased by phage production and still further decreased by production of phage that cannot be released from the cell surface. Thus, exiting phage block the pIV-dependent entry of oligosaccharide, suggesting that phage occupy the lumen of pIV channels. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for viral exit through a large aqueous channel.

  1. Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Astragaloside IV in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anti-fibrotic effects of Astragaloside IV in systemic sclerosis. Methods: Treated or untreated systemic sclerosis (SSc and normal fibroblast isolated from corresponding pairs were utilized to detect expression of collagen and fibronectin by western blot, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining and histopathological examination. SSc mouse model induced by bleomycin was used to evaluate the effects of the drug in vivo. Results: Compared to normal fibroblast (NF, the expression of collagen and fibronectin in SSc (SScF dramatically increased, and this could be reduced by Astragaloside IV (AST in a dose- or time-dependent manner at both protein and mRNA levels. Administration of Astragaloside IV consistently decreased collagen formation and partially restored the structure, as well as suppressing collagen and fibronectin expression in the skin lesions of SSc-model mice. Mechanistically, Astragaloside IV-induced fibrosis reduction may be due to deregulation of Smad 3/Fli-1, the major mediators of the fibrotic response and key molecules for TGF-β signaling. Astragaloside IV also decreased the level of p-SMAD3 and completely blocked its relocation into the nuclei. Conclusion: Astragaloside IV attenuates fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β-Smads3 axis in systemic sclerosis.

  2. The mechanism of astragaloside IV promoting sciatic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhang; Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol (astragaloside IV), the main active component of the traditional Chinese medicine astragalus membranaceus, has been shown to be neuroprotective. This study investigated whether astragaloside IV could promote the repair of injured sciatic nerve. Denervated sciatic nerve of mice was subjected to anastomosis. The mice were intraperitoneal y injected with 10, 5, 2.5 mg/kg astragaloside IV per day for 8 consecutive days. Western blot assay and real-time PCR results demonstrated that growth-associated protein-43 ex-pression was upregulated in mouse spinal cord segments L 4–6 after intervention with 10, 5, 2.5 mg/kg astragaloside IV per day in a dose-dependent manner. Luxol fast blue staining and elec-trophysiological detection suggested that astragaloside IV elevated the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and simultaneously increased motor nerve conduction velocity and action potential amplitude in the sciatic nerve of mice. These results indicated that astragaloside IV con-tributed to sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery in mice. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the upregulation of growth-associated protein-43 expression.

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  4. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  5. Evolution of iv iron compounds over the last century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C

    2009-12-01

    Administration of intravenous (IV) iron has become pivotal in the management of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since parenteral iron was first introduced for human use in the 1930s, things have come a long way. Seventy years ago, iron was toxic, administered as an iron oxyhydroxide complex. This problem was circumvented with the introduction of compounds containing iron in a core surrounded by a carbohydrate shell. The carbohydrate shell consists of molecules such as dextran, sucrose, dextrin or gluconate. The first dextran-containing IV iron preparations carried a small risk of anaphylaxis, but the more recently introduced low molecular weight iron dextran preparation has significantly less risk of this. Iron reactions occur with all IV iron preparations, but are generally not thought to be immune based. Recently, newer IV iron preparations have appeared in the market, including Ferumoxytol (Feraheme) and ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject). These latest IV iron preparations do not contain a requirement for a test dose, and a much higher dose of iron can be delivered as a single administration. Thus, giving supplemental iron to man has come a long way since 1930s; we are now in an era when we are able to administer higher doses of iron with acceptable safety and without significant adverse effects. However, the long-term safety of the newer IV iron preparations is not yet established.

  6. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  7. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  8. Characterization of human and mouse peroxiredoxin IV: Evidence for inhibition by Prx-IV of epidermal growth factor- and p53-induced reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, CM; Kok, KH; Jin, DY; Chun, ACS; Zhou, Y.; Fung, PCW; Kung, HF; Jeang, KT

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize human and mouse Prx-IV. We identified mouse peroxiredoxin IV (Prx-IV) by virtue of sequence homology to its human ortholog previously called AOE372. Mouse Prx-IV conserves an amino-terminal presequence coding for signal peptide. The amino acid sequences of mature mouse and human Prx-IV share 97.5% identity. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Prx-IV is more closely related to Prx-I/-II/-III than to Prx-V/-VI. Previously, we mapped the...

  9. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence.

  10. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

  11. Carbonate complexation of Np(IV) in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akira [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kohara, Yukitoshi [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data for actinide (IV) have been required. The solubility of Np(IV) in carbonate media was studied for determination of thermodynamic data. The concentration of dissolved Np(IV) was measured with ionic strengths from 0.5 to 2.9 M (M {identical_to} mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3}), hydrogen-ion concentration exponent (pH{sub c} = -log[H{sup +}]) from 8 to 13 and with the total carbonate concentration (C{sub T}) from 5x10{sup -3} M to 7x10{sup -1} M by an oversaturation method. It was found that the solubility of Np(IV) decreased with increasing pH{sub c} and increased with increasing C{sub T}. On the basis of analysis of the solubility data, the dominant aqueous species of Np(IV) were expected to be Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-}, Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2-} and Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4}{sup 4-} in the present study. The apparent equilibrium constants of the carbonate and carbonatohydroxo complexes were obtained in the respective ionic strength and the equilibrium constants at the zero ionic strength were extrapolated. The obtained equilibrium constants supported the literature values strongly, and contributed to improve the reliability of the thermodynamic data. (author)

  12. Effect of bowel obstruction on stage IV colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tan, Xiao-Ping; Ye, Jun-Wen; Liu, Qin; Zeng, Qingli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, with a high mortality rate, particularly among patients with advanced-stage disease complicated by bowel obstruction. The present study aimed to investigate the value of different surgical procedures and potential predictors of survival for patients with stage IV CRC, with or without bowel obstruction. Between August, 1994 and December, 2005, a total of 2,950 CRC patients were diagnosed and treated at our hospital. Among these, 381 patients had stage IV disease and were divided into two groups according to the presence (n=295) or absence (n=86) of bowel obstruction. The clinical data of all the patients with stage IV CRC were retrospectively analyzed and all the patients were followed up. Our results demonstrated statistically significant differences in gender, radical resection, histological type, ascites, tumor location, peritoneal and liver metastases between the obstruction and non-obstruction groups. We also observed that hepatic metastases and radical resection were factors associated with prognosis according to the univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, the mean/median survival time was 49.4/21.6 and 37.2/17.1 months in the non-obstruction and obstruction groups, respectively. In conclusion, obstruction was not found to be an independent indicator of survival for patients with stage IV CRC, with patients in the obstruction group exhibiting a worse overall survival compared to those in the non-obstruction group, whereas active radical surgery significantly improved the prognosis of patients with stage IV CRC.

  13. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Takenaga, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hayashino, T.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Taylor, I.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Nantais, C. M.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Sui, H.; Wan, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as ˜3.5 MeV . Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308 ±0.020 (stat)-0.040 +0.039(syst ))×1 06/(cm2 sec ) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6 ±1.6 (stat )±0.6 (syst ))% . The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2θ12=0.327-0.031+0.026 , all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SK-IV) measures this angle to be sin2θ12=0.334-0.023+0.027 , the determined mass-squared splitting is Δ m212=4.8-0.8+1.5×10-5 eV2 .

  14. Adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) for Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie; Nguyen, Minh Cao

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing is used for many purposes including identification of children for proper educational placement (e.g., children with learning disabilities, or intellectually gifted students), and to guide education by identifying cognitive strengths and weaknesses so that teachers can adapt their instructional style to students' specific learning styles. Most of the research involving intelligence tests has been conducted in highly developed Western countries, yet the need for intelligence testing is as or even more important in developing countries. The present study, conducted through the Vietnam National University Clinical Psychology CRISP Center, focused on the cultural adaptation of the WISC-IV intelligence test for Vietnam. We report on (a) the adaptation process including the translation, cultural analysis and modifications involved in adaptation, (b) present results of two pilot studies, and (c) describe collection of the standardization sample and results of analyses with the standardization sample, with the goal of sharing our experience with other researchers who may be involved in or interested in adapting or developing IQ tests for non-Western, non-English speaking cultures.

  15. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY BETWEEN IV ESMOLOL AND IV FENTANYL ON ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Lais Mustaque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Laryngoscopy and intubation is an integral part for providing general anaesthesia to patients undergoing various types of surgery. It also plays an important role in critical care units viz. for providing mechanical ventilation. It is a very essential tool in the hands of anaesthesiologist in maintaining airway. The present study is undertaken to determine and compare the efficacy of single bolus dose of IV esmolol 1 mg/kg and IV fentanyl 2 mcg/kg in attenuating the haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation and to ascertain the effectiveness of esmolol hydrochloride and fentanyl citrate in suppressing sympathetic responses. MATERIAL & METHODS The study was conducted under the Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, during the period July 2013 to June 2014. For this purpose, 150 patients of either sex between 20-50 years of ASA I & II physical status were selected after obtaining informed and written consent and were divided into two groups namely, Group E receiving IV esmolol (1 mg/kg and Group F receiving IV fentanyl (2 mcg/kg. RESULTS Inj. fentanyl 2 mcg/kg IV administered 5 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation was able to prevent adverse haemodynamic changes better than Inj. esmolol 1 mg/kg IV administered 3 minutes prior to laryngoscopy and intubation during elective surgeries under general anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Hence, from the findings of this study we can conclude that IV bolus dose of fentanyl 2 mcg/kg administered 5 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation can attenuate the sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation without any side effects of the drug in healthy patients undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia.

  16. Coordination Chemistry of Homoleptic Actinide(IV)-Thiocyanate Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Wilson, Richard E

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, vibrational and optical spectroscopy for the eight-coordinate thiocyanate compounds, [Et4 N]4 [Pu(IV) (NCS)8 ], [Et4 N]4 [Th(IV) (NCS)8 ], and [Et4 N]4 [Ce(III) (NCS)7 (H2 O)] are reported. Thiocyanate was found to rapidly reduce plutonium to Pu(III) in acidic solutions (pHcoordination in acetonitrile based on the observation of intense ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data do not support the interaction of the metal orbitals with the ligand π system, but support an enhanced An(IV) -NCS interaction, as the Lewis acidity of the metal ion increases from Th to Pu.

  17. IVs to Skip for Immunizing WEP against FMS Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    The WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is a part of IEEE 802.11 standard designed for protecting over-the-air communication. While almost all of the WLAN (Wireless LAN) cards and the APs (Access Points) support WEP, a serious key recovery attack (aka FMS attack) was identified by Fluhrer et al. The FMS attack can basically be prevented by skipping IVs (Initial Values) used in the attack, but naive skip methods reveal information on the WEP key since most of them depend on the WEP key and the patterns of the skipped IV reveal it. In order to skip IVs safely, the skip patterns must be chosen carefully. In this paper, we review the attack conditions (6) and (7), whose success probability is the highest, 0.05, amongst all known conditions to guess one key-byte from one packet. Then we identify their safe skip patterns.

  18. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, Britt; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Tremonti, Christy A; Myers, Adam D; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S

    2015-01-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In April 2014, the CPWS administered a demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the US or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the US astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the IAU (16%)...

  19. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Rupert, Peter B.; An, Dahlia D.; Illy, Marie-Claire; Ralston, Corie Y.; Brabec, Jiri; de Jong, Wibe A.; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2017-09-01

    Berkelium (Bk) has been predicted to be the only transplutonium element able to exhibit both +III and +IV oxidation states in solution, but evidence of a stable oxidized Bk chelate has so far remained elusive. Here we describe the stabilization of the heaviest 4+ ion of the periodic table, under mild aqueous conditions, using a siderophore derivative. The resulting Bk(IV) complex exhibits luminescence via sensitization through an intramolecular antenna effect. This neutral Bk(IV) coordination compound is not sequestered by the protein siderocalin—a mammalian metal transporter—in contrast to the negatively charged species obtained with neighbouring trivalent actinides americium, curium and californium (Cf). The corresponding Cf(III)-ligand-protein ternary adduct was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Combined with theoretical predictions, these data add significant insight to the field of transplutonium chemistry, and may lead to innovative Bk separation and purification processes.

  20. Relative subtest scatter in the WAIS-IV standardization sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Binder, Adrienne L

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of differences between highest and lowest subtest scores as a function of highest subtest score (relative scatter), are reported for the standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV). Large differences between highest and lowest subtest scores were common. The degree of relative scatter was related to the height of the highest subtest score. For the 10 core WAIS-IV subtests, the correlation between the level of the highest subtest score and the amount of scatter was r = .62; for all 15 subtests the correlation was. 63. The level of the highest subtest score was more strongly related to scatter than was Full Scale IQ. Clinical implications for inferring cognitive impairment and estimating premorbid abilities are discussed. When considering the possibility of acquired cognitive impairment, we recommend caution in the interpretation of subtest score differences.

  1. Hydration and hydrolysis of thorium(IV) in aqueous solution and the structures of two crystalline thorium(IV) hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torapava, Natallia; Persson, Ingmar; Eriksson, Lars; Lundberg, Daniel

    2009-12-21

    Solid octaaqua(kappa(2)O-perchlorato)thorium(IV) perchlorate hydrate, [Th(H(2)O)(8)(ClO(4))](ClO(4))(3).H(2)O, 1, and aquaoxonium hexaaquatris(kappaO-trifluoromethanesulfonato)thorium(IV) trisaquahexakis(kappaO-trifluoromethanesulfonato)thorinate(IV), H(5)O(2)[Th(H(2)O)(6)(OSO(2)CF(3))(3)][Th(H(2)O)(3)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)], 2, were crystallized from concentrated perchloric and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid solutions, respectively. 1 adopts a severely distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic configuration with an additional oxygen from the perchlorate ion at a longer distance. 2 consists of individual hexaaquatris(kappaO-trifluoromethanesulfonato)thorium(IV) and trisaquahexakis(kappaO-trifluoromethanesulfonato)thorinate(IV) ions and an aquaoxonium ion bridging these two ions through hydrogen bonding. The hydrated thorium(IV) ion is nine-coordinated in aqueous solution as determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and large angle X-ray scattering (LAXS). The LAXS studies also showed a second hydration sphere of about 18 water molecules, and traces of a 3rd hydration sphere. Structural studies in aqueous solution of the hydrolysis products of thorium(IV) have identified three different types of hydrolysis species: a mu(2)O-hydroxo dimer, [Th(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(12)](6+), a mu(2)O-hydroxo tetramer, [Th(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(16)](8+), and a mu(3)O-oxo hexamer, [Th(6)O(8)(H(2)O)(n)](8+). Detailed structures of these three hydrolysis species are given. A compilation of reported solid state structures of actinoid(IV) compounds with oxygen donor ligands show a strong correlation between the An-O bond distance and the coordination number. The earlier reported U-O bond distance in the hydrated uranium(IV) ion in aqueous solution, confirmed in this study, is related to nine-coordination. The hydrated tri- and tetravalent actinoid ions in aqueous solution all seem to be nine-coordinated. The trivalent ions show a significant difference in bond distance to prismatic and

  2. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  3. J-Integral characterization of the nozzle steels from intermediate test vessels IV-5 and IV-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auten, T.A.; Macdonald, B.D.; Scavone, D.W.; Bozik, D.

    1994-10-01

    Reported here are the results of elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests performed on low alloy steels from the nozzles of the intermediate test vessels IV-5 and IV-9 from the Heavy Steel Section Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These vessels had been given prototypic nozzle corner flaw tests prior to the development of the ASTM E-813 standard test procedure for J-integral testing. The objective of this work is to provide J-integral material test support for future elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of the nozzles. J-integral tests at 88{degrees}C (190{degrees}F) of the IV-5 nozzle material produced stable ductile tearing. The tearing resistance data are expected to support analysis of the observed similar stable tearing response of the nozzle corner flaw. J-integral tests at 24{degrees}C (75{degrees}F) of the IV-9 nozzle produced elastic-plastic fracture instability preceded by stable tearing. A similar response was observed in the IV-9 nozzle corner flaw test. It will be a major and important challenge to develop a fracture mechanics rationale that reconciles these small specimen and nozzle corner flaw test results. These test results are being made available to allow their use by a wide variety of organizations in developing such a rationale, which would be a significant contribution to quantifying the flaw tolerance of reactor pressure vessels.

  4. (Benzyl phenyl sulfoxide-κO)dichloridodiphenyl­tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Xia Tan; Chang-Fa Zhang; Xi-Cheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    The SnIV atom in the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)2Cl2(C13H12OS)], displays a distorted C2Cl2O trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment, with a mean Sn—C distance of 2.121 (9) Å and with Sn—O = 2.331 (2) Å. The SnIV atom is displaced by 0.169 (2) Å from the equatorial C2Cl plane towards the direction of the second axially bonded Cl atom.

  5. Driver for solar cell i-v characteristic plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.B.

    1980-01-15

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-v) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions, with automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the i-v curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  6. BCS class IV drugs: Highly notorious candidates for formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Rohan; Dand, Neha

    2017-02-28

    BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs. A decade back, extreme examples of class IV compounds were an exception rather than the rule, yet today many drug candidates under development pipeline fall into this category. Formulation and development of an efficacious delivery system for BCS class IV drugs are herculean tasks for any formulator. The inherent hurdles posed by these drugs hamper their translation to actual market. The importance of the formulation composition and design to successful drug development is especially illustrated by the BCS class IV case. To be clinically effective these drugs require the development of a proper delivery system for both oral and per oral delivery. Ideal oral dosage forms should produce both a reasonably high bioavailability and low inter and intra subject variability in absorption. Also, ideal systems for BCS class IV should produce a therapeutic concentration of the drug at reasonable dose volumes for intravenous administration. This article highlights the various techniques and upcoming strategies which can be employed for the development of highly notorious BCS class IV drugs. Some of the techniques employed are lipid based delivery systems, polymer based nanocarriers, crystal engineering (nanocrystals and co-crystals), liquisolid technology, self-emulsifying solid dispersions and miscellaneous techniques addressing the P

  7. Why IV Setup for Stream Ciphers is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography.......In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography....

  8. Supramolecular organotin(IV) dithiocarboxylates as potential antimicrobial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zia-ur-Rehman, [No Value; Muhammady, Niaz; Shah, Afzal; Ali, Saqib; Butler, Ian S.; Meetsma, Auke

    2012-01-01

    A series of tri-, chlorodi-, and diorganotin(IV) derivatives of 4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine-1-carbodithioate (L) {R = n-C4H9 (1), C6H11 (2), CH3 (3) and C6H5 (4)}, (n-C4H9)(2)SnClL (5) and R2SnL2 {R = n-C4H9 (6), C2H5 (7), CH3 (8)} have been synthesized by refluxing organotin(IV) chlorides with t

  9. Respiratory complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Pincott, S; Demmer, L

    1996-12-01

    Pulmonary complications are described in a case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, established by studies of collagen biosynthesis. At age 20.5 years the patient, who had previously suffered a spontaneous colonic perforation, developed intermittent recurrent hemoptysis and had a spontaneous hemopneumothorax. At presentation, imaging studies revealed multiple scattered cavitary lesions in both lungs. On separate occasions large parenchymal cysts ensued and subsequently regressed. Reviews of other reported patients indicate that pulmonary complications do occur in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV but have not resulted directly in patient mortality.

  10. Interaction of local anesthetics with a peptide encompassing the IV/S4-S5 linker of the Na+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraceto, Leonardo F; Oyama, Sérgio; Nakaie, Clóvis R; Spisni, Alberto; de Paula, Eneida; Pertinhez, Thelma A

    2006-08-20

    The peptide pIV/S4-S5 encompasses the cytoplasmic linker between helices S4-S5 in domain IV of the voltage-gated Na+ channel, residues 1644-1664. The interaction of two local anesthetics (LA), lidocaine and benzocaine, with pIV/S4-S5 has been studied by DOSY, heteronuclear NMR 1H-15N-HSQC spectroscopy and computational methods. DOSY indicates that benzocaine, a neutral ester, exhibits stronger interaction with pIV/S4-S5 than lidocaine, a charged amine-amide. Weighted average chemical shifts, Deltadelta(1H-15N), show that benzocaine affects residues L1653, M1655 and S1656 while lidocaine slightly perturbs residues I1646, L1649 and A1659, L1660, near the N- and C-terminus, respectively. Computational methods confirmed the stability of the benzocaine binding and the existence of two binding sites for lidocaine. Even considering that the approach of studying the peptide in the presence of a co-solvent (TFE/H2O, 30%/70% v/v) has an inherently limited implication, our data strongly support the existence of multiple LA binding sites in the IV/S4-S5 linker, as suggested in the literature. In addition, we consider that LA can bind to the S4-S5 linker with diverse binding modes and strength since this linker is part of the receptor for the "inactivation gate particle". Conditions for devising new functional studies, aiming to better understand Na+ channel functionality as well as the various facets of LA pharmacological activity are proposed in this work.

  11. Bionic self-sufficient greenhouses and cattle breeding. Agrosphere IV; Bionisch autarkische glastuinbouw en veeteelt. Agrosphere IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [VERWOL Klimaatplafonds, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Agrosphere-IV is a concept in which cattle breeding and greenhouse culture are combined in an artificial cycle which functions similar to the cycles on earth. In this article attention is paid to the combination of greenhouses for the production of paprikas (peppers) or tomatoes and breeding of pigs (porkers) [Dutch] Met de ontwikkeling van Agrosphere-IV is een vierde biosfeerconcept benoemd. Waar huidige agroconcepten nog uitgaan van samenvoeging van traditionele veeteelt- en glastuinbouwconcepten betreft het hier een directe koppeling van veeteelt en glastuinbouw. De koppeling heeft plaats via uitgekiende luchtstromen en hergebruik van de afvalstromen en vormt zo een bionisch autarkisch systeem.

  12. Court Culture during the Reign of Christian IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    coronation in 1596, reaching a climax with the "great wedding" (of crown prince Christian) in 1634 and at last colapsing during the military and political crisis in the last years of his long reign (1588/96-1648). Danish court culture during the reign of Christian IV decidedly was on an European level...

  13. Solar Neutrino Measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Marti, Ll; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, T; Nakayama, S; Orii, A; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Sonoda, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Takenaga, Y; Tasaka, S; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Yokozawa, T; Akutsu, R; Irvine, T; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; Nishimura, Y; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Richard, E; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Blaszczyk, F d M; Gustafson, J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Raaf, 32 J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, 32 L R; Berkman, S; Tobayama, S; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Carminati, G; Griskevich, N J; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Weatherly, P; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Park, R G; Akiri, T; Albert, J B; Himmel, A; Li, Z; O'Sullivan, E; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Nakamura, T; Jang, J S; Choi, K; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Friend, M; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Nakano, Y; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Yano, T; Cao, S V; Hayashino, T; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Jiang, M; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Patel, N D; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Wendell, R A; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Muto, F; Suzuki, T; Mijakowski, P; Frankiewicz, K; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Li, X; Palomino, J L; Santucci, G; Taylor, I; Vilela, C; Wilking, M J; Yanagisawa, C; Fukuda, D; Ishino, H; Kayano, T; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Takeuchi, J; Yamaguchi, R; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Ito, K; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Suda, Y; Yokoyama, M; Nantais, C M; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Tanaka, H A; Konaka, A; Chen, S; Sui, H; Wan, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.49 MeV. Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308+-0.020(stat.) + 0.039-0.040(syst.)) x 106/(cm2sec) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6+-1.6(stat.)+-0.6(syst.))%. The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2 theta_12 = 0.327+0.026-0.031, all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SKIV) measures this angle to be sin2 the...

  14. Morquio syndrome (MPV IV-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhi Gulbir

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A child, of normal intelligence, belonging to a nonconsanguineous marriage was diagnosed as MPS type IV the so called Morquio syndrome. Despite mild corneal cloudiness no other ophthalmological abnormalities were observed. Reilly granules in the leukocytes and abnormal mucopolysaccharides in urine confirmed the diagnosis.

  15. Rorschach correlates of the DSM-IV histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, M A; Hilsenroth, M J; Fowler, J C

    1998-04-01

    Rorschach assessment data have long been rationally linked to the psychiatric condition of hysteria. This study represents the first empirical attempt to explore the associations among select Rorschach variables, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) criteria, and two self-report measures of hysteria. We correlated four Rorschach variables with total symptom scores for DSM-IV Cluster B Personality Disorders (Borderline, Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Histrionic). We found two Rorschach variables, FC + CF + C and T (Exner, 1993), to be significantly and meaningfully correlated with both the DSM-IV HPD total score (number of criteria) and the individual HPD criteria. Although not significantly associated with the HPD total score, Denial (DEN; Lerner & Lerner, 1980) was associated with one individual HPD criterion. Furthermore, DEN was significantly correlated with the MMPI-2 Hysteria (Hy) scale. The results are reviewed in terms of their clinical utility and the insights they offer into the psychological characteristics of the DSM-IV HPD.

  16. Study of the cerium(IV)-picrate system in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, B; Tipler, M; McKay, B

    1966-07-01

    A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study has been made of the reaction between hexanitratocerate and picrate in dry acetonitrile. Several cerium(IV)-picrate complexes are formed; the formation constant for the first is estimated to be 4 from spectrophotometric measurements. The catalytic effect of picrate on hydroquinone oxidation by nitratocerate is postulated to be due to more rapid electron transfer by cerium picrate complexes.

  17. Clinical Utility of Cancellation on the WISC-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined empirical evidence for clinical utility of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV) cancellation subtest by comparing data from 597 clinical and 597 matched control children. The results of dependent t and sequential logistic regression analyses demonstrated that (a) children with intellectual…

  18. Psychodiagnosis for Counselors: The DSM-IV. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    This digest notes that there has been an increase in the number of graduate community mental health counseling programs requiring course work in abnormal behavior, psychopathology, and psychodiagnosis and that, as a result of this increase, utilization of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) also has…

  19. Counsellors Respond to the DSM-IV-TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Gaete, Joaquin; Sametband, Ines N.; French, Jared; Eeson, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) is an administrative fact for many counsellors. This psychiatric approach to formulating client concerns runs counter to those used by counsellors of many approaches (e.g., systemic, feminist). Using an online survey of counsellors (N = 116), invited contributions to a website…

  20. WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Dawn; McTaggart, Breanne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Janzen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) are two index scores that can be calculated for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Canadian Edition (WISC-IV[superscript CDN]). The GAI comprises the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning subtests and reflects reasoning abilities. The CPI includes the…

  1. Clinical Utility of Cancellation on the WISC-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined empirical evidence for clinical utility of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV) cancellation subtest by comparing data from 597 clinical and 597 matched control children. The results of dependent t and sequential logistic regression analyses demonstrated that (a) children with intellectual…

  2. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  3. Sargent-IV Project. Development of new methodologies for safety analysis of Generation IV reactors; Proyecto SARGEB-IV. Desarrollo de nuevas metodologias de analisis de seguridad para reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The main result of this paper is the proposal for the addition of new ingredients in the safety analysis methodologies for Generation-IV reactors that integrates the features of probabilistic safety analysis within deterministic. This ensures a higher degree of integration between the classical deterministic and probabilistic methodologies.

  4. 76 FR 31327 - Draft National Coastal Condition Report IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), and coastal... conterminous U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The NCCR IV data were collected from 3,144 sites from 2003... West Coast) and comparisons of these waters with near-shore condition, trends in regional...

  5. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Implementation and Training Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Dorothy Z.; Clapp, Elizabeth J.

    This is the final paper in a series of three on SYS IV, a computer-based management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) which tests students, routes students to lessons, stores detailed records of online student activity, and keeps summary records of student activities. An introduction describes how the system simultaneously…

  6. serodiagnosis of dermatophilosis iv. antigenic selection for optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Vol.9 No. I (1998). 82. SERODIAGNOSIS OF DERMATOPHILOSIS IV. ... culture filtrate and the precipitate formed was allowed to settle at 4°C for 48 hours before ..... Nif. J. BNtechn. Vol.9 No. I (1998). 91. IO. Kwapinski, J. B. G. and Simmt:ns G.

  7. Lamstatin - a novel inhibitor of lymphangiogenesis derived from collagen IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckmann, Markus; Moir, Lyn Margaret; Heckman, Caroline Akemi; Black, Judith Lee; Oliver, Brian Gregory; Burgess, Janette Kay

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic system is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and immunity. Its dysfunction in disease (such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis) can lead to chylous effusions, oedema or dissemination of malignant cells. Collagen IV has six a chains, of which some of the non-collagenous-1 doma

  8. Transient C IV Broad Absorption Lines in radio detected QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Vivek, M; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    We study the transient (i.e. emerging or disappearing) C IV broad absorption line (BAL) components in 50 radio detected QSOs using multi-epoch spectra available in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10. We report the detectionof 6 BALQSOs having at least one distinct transient C IV absorption component. Based on the structure function analysis of optical light curves, we suggest that the transient absorption is unlikely to be triggered by continuum variations. Transient absorption components usually have low C IV equivalent widths ( 10000 \\kms) and typically occur over rest-frame timescales > 800 days. The detection rate of transient C IV absorption seen in our sample is higher than that reported in the literature. Using a control sample of QSOs, we show that this difference is most likely due to the longer monitoring time-scale of sources in our sample while the effect of small number statistics cannot be ignored. Thus, in order to establish the role played by radio jets in driving the BAL outflows, we need a larger...

  9. Coefficient of work-hardening in stage-IV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1994-04-15

    Full Text Available The theory of work hardening in stage IV depends on the relation between the relative misorientation Psi of neighbouring subgrains and the plastic strain gamma (Psi = B gamma exp). The value of the constant B is suggested to be better related...

  10. Rhenium(IV) compounds inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lillo, José; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Lappano, Rosamaria; Madeo, Antonio; Alberto, Marta E; Russo, Nino; Maggiolini, Marcello; De Munno, Giovanni

    2011-05-14

    The anticancer properties of a series of mononuclear Re(IV) compounds of formula ReCl(4)L (where L is bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; bpym = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; dmbpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were investigated for the first time. All compounds displayed potent in vitro antiproliferative activity against selected cancer cells.

  11. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  12. WAIS-IV Subtest Covariance Structure: Conceptual and Statistical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Charles; Bergman, Maria A.; Hebert, Katina R.

    2012-01-01

    D. Wechsler (2008b) reported confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) with standardization data (ages 16-69 years) for 10 core and 5 supplemental subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). Analyses of the 15 subtests supported 4 hypothesized oblique factors (Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning,…

  13. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  14. WAIS-IV profile of cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Natalie M; Goldberg, Joel O; Heinrichs, R Walter; Miles, Ashley A; Ammari, Narmeen; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie

    2013-08-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) has been used extensively to study impairment across a range of cognitive domains in schizophrenia. However, cognitive performance among those with the illness has yet to be examined using the newest edition of this measure. Hence, the current study aims first, to provide WAIS-IV normative data for Canadian individuals with schizophrenia of low average intelligence; second, to examine schizophrenia performance on all WAIS-IV subtest, index and general intelligence scores relative to healthy comparison subjects; and third, to revalidate the pattern of impairment identified in this clinical group using the WAIS-III, where processing speed (PS) was most affected, followed by working memory (WM), perceptual reasoning (PR) and verbal comprehension (VC). The WAIS-IV was administered to outpatients with schizophrenia and their performance compared with age, gender, and education matched controls. WAIS-IV schizophrenia performance data are provided. Analyses revealed significant impairment on several tasks, including the new Cancellation subtest and the VC supplemental subtest, Comprehension. At the index score level, group differences in PS were significantly larger than those observed in all other cognitive domains. Impairments were also observed in WM amid relatively preserved performance in VC, thereby confirming the pattern of impairment identified using the WAIS-III.

  15. Deconstructing the DSM-IV-TR: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warelow, Philip; Holmes, Colin A

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines and offers a critique of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), underlying principles and assumptions, and the nature and consequences of its nosological framework. The reason for this critique is to look at the rationale for some of the diagnostic categories and also why some categories are retained, including some of the long-standing diagnostic groups, such as schizophrenia. It is not the intention here to rehearse the problems of biological psychiatric thinking, nor argue the strengths and weaknesses of the DSM-IV-TR in its definitions and descriptions of particular syndromes and illnesses. The ideas presented here derive from a range of previous research that argued that the DSM-IV-TR colludes in a system of psychiatric care in which all people, by virtue of characteristically human foibles and idiosyncrasies, are potentially classifiable into a variety of diagnostic mental health categories. In the present study, it was argued that because of resource constraints, professional dispute, and public concern, the major criterion for attracting a formal diagnosis is not classifiability according to the DSM-IV-TR, but rather, that of 'social risk', defined in terms of risk to oneself and/or others and embodying obvious social control functions. Here, we expand and develop some of these ideas, and relate them more specifically to insights offered by critical or deconstructive psychology and the development of the forthcoming the DSM-V.

  16. 25 CFR 36.13 - Standard IV-Curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard IV-Curriculum development. 36.13 Section 36.13... § 36.13 Standard IV—Curriculum development. (a) Each school shall implement an organized program of curriculum development involving certified and non-certified staff and shall provide the opportunity for...

  17. Recurrent angioedema associated with pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2017-01-01

    -converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI-AAE) is well known, but other pharmaceutical agents also affect the degradation of bradykinin and substance P. We present a middle-aged man with recurrent episodes of severe AE of the oral cavity, hypopharynx and larynx due to pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV....

  18. Tetrakis(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)uranium(IV): synthesis and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Williams, Ursula J; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of the sterically saturated uranium(IV) complex U[N(SiMe3)2]4 (1) is demonstrated from the one-electron oxidation of U[N(SiMe3)2]3 with a variety of oxidants in THF. A high yielding synthesis of 1 directly from UI3(THF)4 is provided.

  19. Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlschroder, Mechthild; Esquivel, Rianne N

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili are ancient proteinaceous structures present on the cell surface of species in nearly all bacterial and archaeal phyla. These filaments, which are required for a diverse array of important cellular processes, are assembled employing a conserved set of core components. While type IV pilins, the structural subunits of pili, share little sequence homology, their signal peptides are structurally conserved allowing for in silico prediction. Recently, in vivo studies in model archaea representing the euryarchaeal and crenarchaeal kingdoms confirmed that several of these pilins are incorporated into type IV adhesion pili. In addition to facilitating surface adhesion, these in vivo studies also showed that several predicted pilins are required for additional functions that are critical to biofilm formation. Examples include the subunits of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Ups pili, which are induced by exposure to UV light and promote cell aggregation and conjugation, and a subset of the Haloferax volcanii adhesion pilins, which play a critical role in microcolony formation while other pilins inhibit this process. The recent discovery of novel pilin functions such as the ability of haloarchaeal adhesion pilins to regulate swimming motility may point to novel regulatory pathways conserved across prokaryotic domains. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the functional roles played by archaeal type IV adhesion pili and their subunits, with particular emphasis on their involvement in biofilm formation.

  20. Nascent transcription affected by RNA polymerase IV in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Karl F; Talbot, Joy-El R B; Deans, Natalie C; McClish, Allison E; Hollick, Jay B

    2015-04-01

    All eukaryotes use three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) to create cellular RNAs from DNA templates. Plants have additional RNAPs related to Pol II, but their evolutionary role(s) remain largely unknown. Zea mays (maize) RNA polymerase D1 (RPD1), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), is required for normal plant development, paramutation, transcriptional repression of certain transposable elements (TEs), and transcriptional regulation of specific alleles. Here, we define the nascent transcriptomes of rpd1 mutant and wild-type (WT) seedlings using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to identify the broader targets of RPD1-based regulation. Comparisons of WT and rpd1 mutant GRO-seq profiles indicate that Pol IV globally affects transcription at both transcriptional start sites and immediately downstream of polyadenylation addition sites. We found no evidence of divergent transcription from gene promoters as seen in mammalian GRO-seq profiles. Statistical comparisons identify genes and TEs whose transcription is affected by RPD1. Most examples of significant increases in genic antisense transcription appear to be initiated by 3'-proximal long terminal repeat retrotransposons. These results indicate that maize Pol IV specifies Pol II-based transcriptional regulation for specific regions of the maize genome including genes having developmental significance.

  1. Printed-Circuit-Board Soldering Training for Group IV Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooprich, E. A.; Matlock, E. W.

    As part of a larger program to determine which Navy skills can be learned by lower aptitude personnel, and which methods and techniques would be most effective, an experimental course in printed circuit board soldering was given to 186 Group IV students in 13 classes. Two different training approaches--one stressing instructor guidance and the…

  2. 顶级体验 NIKE TIEMPO LEGEND IV ELITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sexxxxxy

    2011-01-01

    NIKE(耐克)在7月1日推出了LEGEND系列的最新战靴TIEMPO LEGEND IV ELITE,这款首创了真皮加飞线鞋面的足球鞋拥有怎样的性能表现,一直是我们非常想了解的。

  3. WAIS-IV Subtest Covariance Structure: Conceptual and Statistical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Charles; Bergman, Maria A.; Hebert, Katina R.

    2012-01-01

    D. Wechsler (2008b) reported confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) with standardization data (ages 16-69 years) for 10 core and 5 supplemental subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). Analyses of the 15 subtests supported 4 hypothesized oblique factors (Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning,…

  4. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  5. 76 FR 36095 - Defense Transportation Regulation, Part IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... ID: DOD-2010- OS-0034, published April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16445-16446). DOD has completed their review... III Domestic Small Shipments (dS2) and Nontemporary Storage (NTS) draft business rules. Responses can.../part-iv/phaseiii.cfm . All identified changes have been incorporated into the final dS2 and...

  6. Liquid Propellant Blast Yields for Delta IV Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    exterior shells shown in a layered construction. Unfortunately, the 3D model is too computationally intensive to run on a PC, and may even be too large to...Research Triangle Institute, Cocoa Beach, FL, 30 July 2004. LIQUID PROPELLANT BLAST YIELDS FOR DELTA IV HEAVY VEHICLES Ron R. Lambert ACTA Lompoc, CA

  7. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  8. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B. [Department of Electronics, Computer and Communications Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108 (Philippines); Department of Physics and Centre for Energy Research, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Sheppard, Charles J. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dyk, E. Ernest van [Department of Physics and Centre for Energy Research, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  9. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt; Kinemuchi, Karen; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Myers, Adam D.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S.

    2015-08-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In 2014 April, the CPWS administered a voluntary demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV, which began observations in 2014 July. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the United States or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Approximately 65% were faculty or research scientists and 31% were postdocs or graduate students. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the U.S. astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the International Astronomical Union (16%). Approximately equal fractions of men and women report holding positions of leadership in the collaboration. When binned by academic age and career level, men and women also assume leadership roles at approximately equal rates, in a way that increases steadily for both genders with increasing seniority. In this sense, SDSS-IV has been successful in recruiting leaders that are representative of the collaboration. That said, it is clear that more progress needs to be made toward achieving gender balance and increasing diversity in the field of astronomy, and there is still room for improvement in the membership and leadership of SDSS-IV. For example, at the highest level of SDSS-IV leadership, women disproportionately assume roles related to education and

  10. Characterization of human and mouse peroxiredoxin IV: evidence for inhibition by Prx-IV of epidermal growth factor- and p53-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Chun, A C; Kok, K H; Zhou, Y; Fung, P C; Kung, H F; Jeang, K T; Jin, D Y

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize human and mouse Prx-IV. We identified mouse peroxiredoxin IV (Prx-IV) by virtue of sequence homology to its human ortholog previously called AOE372. Mouse Prx-IV conserves an amino-terminal presequence coding for signal peptide. The amino acid sequences of mature mouse and human Prx-IV share 97.5% identity. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Prx-IV is more closely related to Prx-I/-II/-III than to Prx-V/-VI. Previously, we mapped the mouse Prx-IV gene to chromosome X by analyzing two sets of multiloci genetic crosses. Here we performed further comparative analysis of mouse and human Prx-IV genomic loci. Consistent with the mouse results, human Prx-IV gene localized to chromosome Xp22.135-136, in close proximity to SAT and DXS7178. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing the complete human Prx-IV locus was identified. The size of 7 exons and the sequences of the splice junctions were confirmed by PCR analysis. We conclude that mouse Prx-IV is abundantly expressed in many tissues. However, we could not detect Prx-IV in the conditioned media of NIH-3T3 and Jurkat cells. Mouse Prx-IV was specifically found in the nucleus-excluded region of cultured mouse cells. Intracellularly, overexpression of mouse Prx-IV prevented the production of reactive oxygen species induced by epidermal growth factor or p53. Taken together, mouse Prx-IV is likely a cytoplasmic or organellar peroxiredoxin involved in intracellular redox signaling.

  11. Biological role of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidysheva, Elena; Boudko, Sergei; Vranka, Janice; Zientek, Keith; Maddox, Kerry; Moser, Markus; Fässler, Reinhard; Ware, Jerry; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2014-01-07

    Collagens constitute nearly 30% of all proteins in our body. Type IV collagen is a major and crucial component of basement membranes. Collagen chains undergo several posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for proper collagen function. One of these modifications, prolyl 3-hydroxylation, is accomplished by a family of prolyl 3-hydroxylases (P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3). The present study shows that P3H2-null mice are embryonic-lethal by embryonic day 8.5. The mechanism of the unexpectedly early lethality involves the interaction of non-3-hydroxylated embryonic type IV collagen with the maternal platelet-specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This interaction results in maternal platelet aggregation, thrombosis of the maternal blood, and death of the embryo. The phenotype is completely rescued by producing double KOs of P3H2 and GPVI. Double nulls are viable and fertile. Under normal conditions, subendothelial collagens bear the GPVI-binding sites that initiate platelet aggregation upon blood exposure during injuries. In type IV collagen, these sites are normally 3-hydroxylated. Thus, prolyl 3-hydroxylation of type IV collagen has an important function preventing maternal platelet aggregation in response to the early developing embryo. A unique link between blood coagulation and the ECM is established. The newly described mechanism may elucidate some unexplained fetal losses in humans, where thrombosis is often observed at the maternal/fetal interface. Moreover, epigenetic silencing of P3H2 in breast cancers implies that the interaction between GPVI and non-3-hydroxylated type IV collagen might also play a role in the progression of malignant tumors and metastasis.

  12. Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne eEsquivel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are ancient proteinaceous structures present on the cell surface of species in nearly all bacterial and archaeal phyla. These filaments are involved in a diverse array of critical cellular processes. While the core components of the pilus biosynthesis machinery are highly conserved, type IV pilins, the structural subunits of pili, share little sequence homology. However, the conserved structure of the signal peptides of these pilus subunits has allowed the development of prediction programs that accurately detect the processing sites recognized by bacterial and archaeal prepilin peptidases. Using these programs, the genomes of organisms from both prokaryotic domains have been shown to encode a diverse set of putative type IV pilins. Recently, in vivo studies in model archaea representing the euryarchaeal and crenarchaeal kingdoms confirmed that several of these pilins are incorporated into type IV adhesion pili. In addition to facilitating surface adhesion, these in vivo studies also showed that several predicted pilins are required for additional functions that are critical to biofilm formation. Examples include the subunits of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Ups pili, which are induced by exposure to UV light and promote cell aggregation and conjugation, and a subset of the Haloferax volcanii adhesion pilins, which play a critical role in microcolony formation while other pilins inhibit this process. The recent discovery of novel pilin functions such as the ability of haloarchaeal adhesion pilins to regulate swimming motility rather than being unique to organisms that inhabit high salt environments may point to novel prokaryotic regulatory pathways. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the functional roles played by archaeal type IV adhesion pili and their subunits, with particular emphasis on their involvement in biofilm formation.

  13. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  14. Importance of platinum(II)-assisted platinum(IV) substitution for the oxidation of guanosine derivatives by platinum(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunhee; Vastag, Livia; Larrabee, Yuri C; Personick, Michelle L; Schaberg, Kurt B; Fowler, Benjamin J; Sandwick, Roger K; Rawji, Gulnar

    2008-02-18

    Guanosine derivatives with a nucleophilic group at the 5' position (G-5') are oxidized by the Pt (IV) complex Pt( d, l)(1,2-(NH 2) 2C 6H 10)Cl 4 ([Pt (IV)(dach)Cl 4]). The overall redox reaction is autocatalytic, consisting of the Pt (II)-catalyzed Pt (IV) substitution and two-electron transfer between Pt (IV) and the bound G-5'. In this paper, we extend the study to improve understanding of the redox reaction, particularly the substitution step. The [Pt (II)(NH 3) 2(CBDCA-O,O')] (CBDCA = cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylate) complex effectively accelerates the reactions of [Pt (IV)(dach)Cl 4] with 5'-dGMP and with cGMP, indicating that the Pt (II) complex does not need to be a Pt (IV) analogue to accelerate the substitution. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis showed that the [Pt (IV)(dach)Cl 4]/[Pt (II)(NH 3) 2(CBDCA-O,O')]/cGMP reaction mixture contained two Pt (IV)cGMP adducts, [Pt (IV)(NH 3) 2(cGMP)(Cl)(CBDCA-O,O')] and [Pt (IV)(dach)(cGMP)Cl 3]. The LC/MS studies also indicated that the trans, cis-[Pt (IV)(dach)( (37)Cl) 2( (35)Cl) 2]/[Pt (II)(en)( (35)Cl) 2]/9-EtG mixture contained two Pt (IV)-9-EtG adducts, [Pt (IV)(en)(9-EtG)( (37)Cl)( (35)Cl) 2] and [Pt (IV)(dach)(9-EtG)( (37)Cl)( (35)Cl) 2]. These Pt (IV)G products are predicted by the Basolo-Pearson (BP) Pt (II)-catalyzed Pt (IV)-substitution scheme. The substitution can be envisioned as an oxidative addition reaction of the planar Pt (II) complex where the entering ligand G and the chloro ligand from the axial position of the Pt (IV) complex are added to Pt (II) in the axial positions. From the point of view of reactant Pt (IV), an axial chloro ligand is thought to be substituted by the entering ligand G. The Pt (IV) complexes without halo axial ligands such as trans, cis-[Pt(en)(OH) 2Cl 2], trans, cis-[Pt(en)(OCOCF 3) 2Cl 2], and cis, trans, cis-[Pt(NH 3)(C 6H 11NH 2)(OCOCH 3) 2Cl 2] ([Pt (IV)(a,cha)(OCOCH 3) 2Cl 2], satraplatin) did not react with 5'-dGMP. The bromo complex, [Pt (IV

  15. FH3, a domain found in formins, targets the fission yeast formin Fus1 to the projection tip during conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J; Nielsen, O; Egel, R;

    1998-01-01

    of the late G2 cells in a vegetatively growing population. Expression of both FH3-GFP fusions also affected cytokinesis. Overexpression of the spindle pole body component Sad1 altered the distribution of both Sad1 and the FH3-GFP domain. Together these data suggest that proteins at multiple sites can interact...... is required for conjugation, and is localized to the projection tip in cells of mating pairs. We replaced genomic fus1+ with green fluorescent protein (GFP)- tagged versions that lacked either the FH1, FH2, or FH3 domain. Deletion of any FH domain essentially abolished mating. FH3, but neither FH1 nor FH2...

  16. Estimation of K-WAIS-IV Premorbid Intelligence in South Korea: Development of the KPIE-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Geon; Lee, Eun-Ho; Hwang, Soon-Taeg; Park, Kwangbai; Chey, Jeanyung; Hong, Sang-Hwang; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2015-01-01

    The accurate estimation of premorbid intellectual functioning in patients with known or suspected cognitive impairment is crucial for clinicians. However, there is no reliable method for estimating premorbid intelligence in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korea Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (KPIE) as an estimate of the premorbid intellectual functioning. Data from the Korean WAIS-IV standardization sample were used to generate several Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) estimation formulas using demographic variables and current WAIS-IV subtest performance. The standardization sample (N = 1216) was randomly divided into two groups: the first group was used to develop the formulas and the second group was used to validate the prediction equations. Age, education, gender, region of the country, and select subtest raw scores (Vocabulary, Information, Matrix Reasoning, and Visual Puzzle) were used as predictor variables. Five KPIE-4 equations were generated. Estimated FSIQ derived from the KPIE-4 equation is highly correlated with K-WAIS-IV FSIQ. The resulting formulas for estimating premorbid FSIQ were highly significant and precise in predicting FSIQ scores of participants in the K-WAIS-IV normative sample. These equations provide a means for clinicians to estimate intellectual functioning in adults, and can be utilized as a method of estimating individuals premorbid functioning.

  17. Glomerular basement membrane injuries in IgA nephropathy evaluated by double immunostaining for α5(IV) and α2(IV) chains of type IV collagen and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yukinari; Yamanaka, Nobuaki; Ishikawa, Arimi; Kataoka, Mitue; Arai, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Kyoko; Kuwahara, Naomi; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The glomerulus contains well-developed capillaries, which are at risk of injury due to high hydrostatic pressure, hyperfiltration, hypertension and inflammation. However, the pathological alterations of the injured glomerular basement membrane (GBM), the main component of the glomerular filtration barrier, are still uncertain in cases of glomerulonephritis. We examined the alterations of the GBM in 50 renal biopsy cases with IgA nephropathy (31.8 ± 17.6 years old) using double immunostaining for the α2(IV) and α5(IV) chains of type IV collagen, and examining the ultrastructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM). The GBM of IgA nephropathy cases showed various morphological and qualitative alterations. In the TEM findings, thinning, gaps, rupture, thickening with a lamellar and reticular structure and double contours were detected in the GBM. Double immunostaining for α5(IV) and α2(IV) showed thickening of the GBM with reduced α5(IV) and increased α2(IV), or mosaic images of α5(IV) and α2(IV), and holes, fractures, spiny projections and rupture of α5(IV) in the GBM. In addition, LV-SEM showed an etched image and multiple holes in a widening and wavy GBM. These findings might be associated with the development of a brittle GBM in IgA nephropathy. Glomerular basement membrane alterations were frequently noted in IgA nephropathy, and were easily evaluated by double immunostaining for α2(IV) and α5(IV) of type IV collagen and LV-SEM. The application of these analyses to human renal biopsy specimens may enhance our understanding of the alterations of the GBM that occur in human glomerular diseases.

  18. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R; Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P

    2004-01-01

    Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction has an important influence on the geochemistry of modern environments, and Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, most notably those in the Geobacteraceae family, can play an important role in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with organic or metal contaminants. Microorganisms with the capacity to conserve energy from Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction are phylogenetically dispersed throughout the Bacteria and Archaea. The ability to oxidize hydrogen with the reduction of Fe(III) is a highly conserved characteristic of hyperthermophilic microorganisms and one Fe(III)-reducing Archaea grows at the highest temperature yet recorded for any organism. Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to oxidize a wide variety of organic compounds, often completely to carbon dioxide. Typical alternative electron acceptors for Fe(III) reducers include oxygen, nitrate, U(VI) and electrodes. Unlike other commonly considered electron acceptors, Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, the most prevalent form of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in most environments, are insoluble. Thus, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganisms face the dilemma of how to transfer electrons derived from central metabolism onto an insoluble, extracellular electron acceptor. Although microbiological and geochemical evidence suggests that Fe(III) reduction may have been the first form of microbial respiration, the capacity for Fe(III) reduction appears to have evolved several times as phylogenetically distinct Fe(III) reducers have different mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction. Geobacter species, which are representative of the family of Fe(III) reducers that predominate in a wide diversity of sedimentary environments, require direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them. In contrast, Shewanella and Geothrix species produce chelators that solubilize Fe(III) and release electron-shuttling compounds that transfer electrons from the cell surface to

  19. Reduced serum dipeptidyl peptidase-IV after metformin and pioglitazone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, James M; Croom, Dallas K; Minnick, Dana T

    2004-11-05

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) regulates metabolism by degrading incretins involved in nutritional regulation. Metformin and pioglitazone improve insulin sensitivity whereas glyburide promotes insulin secretion. Zucker diabetic rats were treated with these antidiabetic agents for 2 weeks and DPP-IV activity and expression were determined. Serum DPP-IV activity increased whereas tissue activity decreased as the rats aged. Treatment of rats with metformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide did not alter DPP-IV mRNA expression in liver or kidney. Metformin and pioglitazone significantly (PMetformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide had no effect on serum DPP-IV activity in vitro, indicating these are not competitive DPP-IV inhibitors. We propose the in vivo inhibitory effects observed with metformin and pioglitazone on serum DPP-IV activity results from reduced DPP-IV secretion.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTENUATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION WITH IV DEXMEDETOMIDINE VS. IV LIGNOCAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation is one of the most commonly performed procedures, where the role of the anaesthesiologists in patient care is noteworthy. Endotracheal intubation is translaryngeal placement of endotracheal tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth. General anaesthesia procedures involve stressful events at various stages. The most stressful situations are seen during the period of induction, intubation and extubation. A 25% to 50% increase in mean arterial pressure and heart rate is seen during induction followed by laryngoscopy and intubation peaking at 1-2 minutes and returning to baseline within 10-15 minutes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES A comparative study of attenuation of cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and intubation with IV dexmedetomidine vs IV lignocaine, to compare changes in HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP in patients premedicated with dexmedetomidine and lidocaine and to observe for any significant difference in the anaesthetic requirement and intraoperative complications if any in both the groups. METHODOLOGY A total of 60 patients undergoing elective surgeries were selected. Group D consists of 30 patients, who received IV dexmedetomidine loading dose, 1 mcg/kg diluted in 50 mL NS for 10 minutes prior to laryngoscopy. Group –L consists of 30 patients who received plain preservative-free Lidocaine 2%, 1.5 mg/kg body weight IV bolus ninety seconds prior to laryngoscopy. RESULTS Dexmedetomidine in a bolus dose of 1 ug/kg IV attenuates heart rate response to laryngoscopy and intubation effectively than plain preservative-free lignocaine. The basal values of heart rate were reached within 1 min after intubation in case of dexmedetomidine group. Dexmedetomidine blunts the increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure effectively than Plain preservative-free Lignocaine.

  1. Functionalization of group IV semiconductors; Funktionalisierung von Gruppe IV-Halbleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeb, Marco Andreas

    2011-01-15

    The present work is focused on the structural and electronic properties of thermally and photochemically grafted alkene molecules. The semiconductor substrates used in this work are the group IV-semiconductors silicon, diamond, and silicon carbide. On silicon, functionalization via the commonly known hydrosilylation reaction was performed. During thermal treatment in vacuum-distilled 1-octadecene, the alkene molecules covalently added to the substrate via Si-C bond formation, resulting in self-assembled organic monolayers. The reaction resulted in smooth and homogeneous alkyl-terminated surfaces. Static water contact angles were determined to be 113 . Photoelectron spectroscopy was performed and showed no evidence of surface oxidation. The high packing of the organic layers is indicated by the asymmetric methylene vibrational mode, which has been redshifted by -4 cm{sup -1} with respect to the liquid alkene mode position. The average molecular tilt-angle of the alkyl-molecules, relative to the surface normal, has been identified to be 34 . The transport properties have been determined to be dominated by tunneling processes. On diamond, first results on the thermal functionalization of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated surfaces are demonstrated. Thermal functionalization with octadecene showed high selectivity, while hydrogenated diamond surfaces were found to be inert to the thermally induced reaction with alkenes. In contrast, alkene molecules were successfully grafted to oxygen-terminated sites via covalent C-O-C bonds. Reaction temperatures as high as 160 C were necessary to initiate the functionalization process.Wetting experiments on the alkyl-modified surfaces revealed contact angle values of 103 . The high quality of the monolayers on oxygenated surfaces was confirmed by IR-spectroscopy. In addition, polarized IR-measurements indicated a tilt angle of 23 . On silicon carbide, thermal and UV-induced alkoxylation were studied. Hydrofluoric acid treatment

  2. Outcome of surgical treatment of type IV capitellum frac-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea constitute less than 1% of all elbow fractures and a shear fracture involving the capitellum and extending medially into most of the trochlea is rarely reported. Type IV capitellum fracture is still controversial in regard to its ra-diographic appearance, surgical approach and osteosynthesis. We report 10 cases of type IV capitellum fracture with a view to elucidating its clinical features and treatment outcome. Methods: We treated 10 patients of type IV capitellum fracture with a mean age of 32 years. A uniform surgical approach and postoperative rehabilitation were followed. Results: Nine patients presented to us after a mean of 4 days of injury and one patient was nonunion after 6 months of injury who had been treated conservatively by a bone setter. Double arc sign was absent in 6 cases. Intraopera-tively 6 capitellotrochlear fragments were devoid of soft Chin J Traumatol 2012;15(4:201-205 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1008-1275.2012.04.002 Punjab Civil Medical Services-I Mukerian, Punjab, In-dia (Singh AP Department of Orthopaedics, UCMS & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India (Dhammi IK and Garg V Swami Premanand Hospital, Mukerian, Punjab, India (Singh AP *Corresponding author: Tel: 98-72069734, Email: docajaypal@gmail.com C oronal shear fractures of distal end of humeral articular surface involve the capitellum and trochlea. These fractures are difficult to assess accurately on plain radiographs and the limited amount of subchondral bone available for stable internal fixation makes the operative treatment equally difficult. 1 Joint stiffness, instability and osteoarthrosis are complications resulting from treatment failures. 2 The major classification systems are proposed by Bryan and Dubberley et al. 3,4 Type IV fracture is a fracture involving the capitellum and extends to more than lateral half of the trochlea. 1 We report an analysis of ten cases of type IV capi-tissue attachments. By

  3. Metallicity of the Intergalactic Medium Using Pixel Statistics. IV. Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Dow-Hygelund, Corey; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2008-12-01

    We have studied the abundance of oxygen in the IGM by analyzing O VI, C IV, Si IV, and H I pixel optical depths derived from a set of high-quality VLT and Keck spectra of 17 QSOs at 2.1lesssim zlesssim 3.6. Comparing ratios τO VI/τC IV(τC IV) to those in realistic, synthetic spectra drawn from a hydrodynamical simulation and comparing to existing constraints on [Si/C] places strong constraints on the ultraviolet background (UVB) model using weak priors on allowed values of [Si/O]: for example, a quasar-only background yields [ Si/O ] ≈ 1.4, which is highly inconsistent with the [ Si/O ] ≈ 0 expected from nucleosynthetic yields and with observations of metal-poor stars. Assuming a fiducial quasar+galaxy UVB consistent with these constraints yields a primary result that [ O/C ] = 0.66 +/- 0.06 +/- 0.2; this result pertains to gas with overdensity δ gtrsim 2. Consistent results are obtained by similarly comparing τO VI/τH I(τH I) and τO VI/τSi IV(τSi IV) to simulation values, and also by directly ionization-correcting τO VI/τH I as a function of τH I into [O/H] as a function of density. Subdividing the sample reveals no evidence for evolution, but low- and high-τH I samples are inconsistent, suggesting either density dependence of [O/C] or—more likely—prevalence of collisionally ionized gas at high density. Based on public data obtained from the ESP archive of observations from the UVES spectrograph at the VLT, Paranal, Chile, and on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The W. M. Keck Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, Morten A; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2013-01-01

    The 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP_7S) assessed in plasma represents systemic collagen type IV formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis.......The 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP_7S) assessed in plasma represents systemic collagen type IV formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis....

  5. Lasing Towards the VUV in the NIJI-IV FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, K; Ohgaki, H; Mikado, T; Sugiyama, S; Yamazaki, T

    2000-01-01

    The lasing wavelength in the NIJI-IV free electron laser (FEL) reached 212 nm in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range. Adoption of Al sub 2 O sub 3 /SiO sub 2 multilayer mirrors to the laser cavity, whose light absorption loss is sufficiently small even below 220 nm, compared with HfO sub 2 /SiO sub 2 usually used in the UV, was essential to shorten the wavelength in the deep UV range. The laser gain was estimated to be approx 2% around 214 nm with a peak beam current of approx 4A (average beam current of approx 20 mA) from the measured loss of the cavity degraded after the lasing experiments which agreed well with an analytic gain calculation. Lasing in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range is also expected even on the compact storage ring NIJI-IV with possible enhancement of the laser gain.

  6. Band gap scaling laws in group IV nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongze; Fu, Xiaonan; Guo, Yangyang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu

    2017-03-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the band gap properties of nanotubes formed by group IV elements have been investigated systemically. Our results reveal that for armchair nanotubes, the energy gaps at K points in the Brillouin zone decrease as 1/r scaling law with the radii (r) increasing, while they are scaled by ‑1/r 2 + C at Γ points, here, C is a constant. Further studies show that such scaling law of K points is independent of both the chiral vector and the type of elements. Therefore, the band gaps of nanotubes for a given radius can be determined by these scaling laws easily. Interestingly, we also predict the existence of indirect band gap for both germanium and tin nanotubes. Our new findings provide an efficient way to determine the band gaps of group IV element nanotubes by knowing the radii, as well as to facilitate the design of functional nanodevices.

  7. Structural and Electronic Properties of IV-VI Semiconductor Nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsmann, Roman; Bechstedt, Friedhelm

    2008-03-01

    The characterization of nanostructure properties versus dimension and surface passivation is of increasing importance for the nanotechnology. Especially the stoichiometry, geometry, and the electronic states of IV-VI semiconductor nanodots are of special interest [1,2]. We use ab initio methods to calculate structural and electronic properties of colloidal IV-VI semiconductor nanodots as a function of the dot diameter. A method to passivate the non-directional dangling bonds at the nanodot surfaces is derived and used to study the confinement effect on the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) states. In addition we take the influence of relativistic (spin-orbit coupling -- SOC ) and excitonic effects into account. While the SOC leads to a considerable decrease of the HOMO-LUMO gap, excitonic effects play a minor role. [1] JACS 128, 10337 (2006) [2] JACS 129, 11354 (2007)

  8. Validation of the Portuguese DSM-IV-MR-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Youth problem gambling is viewed as an emergent public health issue in many countries, and is also an emerging area of public concern in Portugal. However, there is currently no Portuguese instrument that focuses specifically on the measurement of problem gambling among young people. Consequently, the present study aimed to validate the DSM-IV-MR-J for use among Portuguese adolescents and to examine its' psychometric properties. A cross-cultural adaption of this instrument to the Portuguese language was performed using the translation and back translation method. The final version of the instrument was administered to 753 Portuguese high school and first year college students. The findings revealed an acceptable internal reliability and replicated the one-factor structure of this scale. Based on these findings, the Portuguese DSM-IV-MR-J appears to be a valid and reliable instrument, and provides a much needed psychometric tool for the development of more research on youth gambling in Portugal.

  9. DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.

  10. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  11. Chile; Staff Report for the 2015 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that the GDP growth of Chile has remained lackluster over the past year. The main force behind the economic slowdown in 2014 has been the sharp fall in private investment, mainly the consequence of the end of the mining boom, but also reflecting the uncertainty and adjustment costs associated with the structural reform agenda. The IMF staff expects growth to increase modestly to 2.5 percent in 2015, mainly thanks to strong fiscal support. Private d...

  12. Cyprus; Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that after four years of strong growth, economic activity in Cyprus has tailed off since late 2001, affected by the global economic slowdown. The authorities estimate growth for 2002 to have declined to 2.3 percent, with falling tourist arrivals and weakening consumer and business confidence. Inflation has risen to 2.9 percent year-over-year in December on account of indirect tax increases, but core inflation remains low. The current account defici...

  13. Nonoperative management for patients with grade IV blunt hepatic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago Thiago

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The treatment of complex liver injuries remains a challenge. Nonoperative treatment for such injuries is increasingly being adopted as the initial management strategy. We reviewed our experience, at a University teaching hospital, in the nonoperative management of grade IV liver injuries with the intent to evaluate failure rates; need for angioembolization and blood transfusions; and in-hospital mortality and complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis conducted at a single large trauma centre in Brazil. All consecutive, hemodynamically stable, blunt trauma patients with grade IV hepatic injury, between 1996 and 2011, were analyzed. Demographics and baseline characteristics were recorded. Failure of nonoperative management was defined by the need for surgical intervention. Need for angioembolization and transfusions, in-hospital death, and complications were also assessed Results Eighteen patients with grade IV hepatic injury treated nonoperatively during the study period were included. The nonoperative treatment failed in only one patient (5.5% who had refractory abdominal pain. However, no missed injuries and/or worsening of bleeding were observed during the operation. None of the patients died nor need angioembolization. No complications directly related to the liver were observed. Unrelated complications to the liver occurred in three patients (16.7%; one patient developed a tracheal stenosis (secondary to tracheal intubation; one had pleural effusion; and one developed an abscess in the pleural cavity. The hospital length of stay was on average 11.56 days. Conclusions In our experience, nonoperative management of grade IV liver injury for stable blunt trauma patients is associated with high success rates without significant complications.

  14. Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

    2013-04-30

    Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanocrystalline Zirconium (IV Tungstate Semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline zirconium (IV tungstate is prepared by chemical coprecipitation method using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as the templating agent. Elemental composition is determined by EDS. The characteristic bonding position is identified using FTIR. XRD is used to find the theoritical value of size and phase identification using JCPDS. Morphology is examined using SEM and HRTEM. UV absorption at 260 nm corresponds to an energy gap of 4.48 eV, characteristic of semiconducting nanoparticles.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanocrystalline Zirconium (IV) Tungstate Semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj, S.; Beena, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconium (IV) tungstate is prepared by chemical coprecipitation method using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as the templating agent. Elemental composition is determined by EDS. The characteristic bonding position is identified using FTIR. XRD is used to find the theoritical value of size and phase identification using JCPDS. Morphology is examined using SEM and HRTEM. UV absorption at 260 nm corresponds to an energy gap of 4.48 eV, characteristic of semiconducting nanopar...

  17. Titan IV - An integrated spacecraft/booster view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Samuel W.

    1992-03-01

    The Titan IV launch vehicle is briefly described focusing on the integration process which starts with spacecraft environmental and mechanical interface requirements definition and progresses through physical mating of the spacecraft and launch vehicle, launch countdown, launch, and orbit insertion. An approach to payload integration is presented where teamwork between the government and contractor organizations provides the framework necessary for the efficient incorporation of mission unique requirements.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Zirconium (IV) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shobhana; Jain, Asha; Saxena, Sanjiv [Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2012-08-15

    Heteroleptic complexes of zirconium (IV) derived from bulky Schiff base ligands containing a sulphur atom and oximes of heterocyclic β-diketones of the general formula ZrLL' (where L'H{sub 2}=RCNH(C{sub 6}H{sub 4})SC : C(OH)N(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})N : CCH{sub 3}, R=-C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, -C{sub 6}H{sub 4}Cl(p) and L'H{sub 2}=R'C : (NOH)C : C(OH)N(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})N : CCH{sub 3}, R' = -CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, -C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, -C{sub 6}H{sub 4}Cl (p) were prepared by the reactions of zirconium tetrachloride with disodium salts of Schiff bases (L Na{sub 2}) and oximes of heterocyclic β-diketones (L' Na{sub 2}) in 1:1:1 molar ratio in dry refluxing THF. The structures of these monomeric zirconium (IV) complexes were elucidated with the help of elemental analysis, molecular weight measurements, spectroscopic (IR, NMR and mass) studies. A distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry may be suggested for these heteroleptic zirconium (IV) complexes. The ligands (bulky Schiff base ligands containing a sulphur atom and oximes of heterocyclic β-diketones) and their heteroleptic complexes of zirconium (IV) were screened against A. flavus, P. aeruginesa and E. coli.

  19. Accidental IV administration of epinephrine instead of midazolam at colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration errors appear to be a major source of iatrogenic harm to hospitalized patients. They often, particularly in the case of epinephrine, have catastrophic consequences both for the patient and the well-meaning provider. The following incident is a medication error case report which illustrates one way that incorrect medication may be administered. IV epinephrine was accidentally administered instead of midazolam at colonoscopy.

  20. Measured Stark widths and shifts in the O IV spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeniže Stevan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stark widths (W and shifts (d of 5 prominent triply ionized oxygen (O IV spectral lines in 3 multiplets have been measured in oxygen plasma at 42 000 K electron temperature using a linear, low-pressure, pulsed arc discharge as an optically thin plasma source. Obtained W and d values have been compared to available experimental and theoretical data. We found a good agreement among our experimental W and d values and theoretical expectations.

  1. Campylobacteremia in stage IV gliosarcoma with bevacizumab treatment

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    Ping Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary campylobacter enteritis with secondary bacteremia was diagnosed in an immunocompromised patient with stage IV gliosarcoma. She developed mild diarrhea followed by systemic symptoms with transient generalized weakness and fever. She was treated with azithromycin and had a full recovery and without relapse through 2 months of follow-up. Her diagnosis was confirmed by a positive stool culture for Campylobacter sp. and blood culture for Campylobacter jejuni/coli.

  2. The Goodpasture autoantigen. Structural delineation of two immunologically privileged epitopes on alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, R; Sun, M J; Hudson, B G; Neilson, E G

    1996-04-12

    The family of type IV collagen comprises six chains numbered alpha1 through alpha6. The alpha3(IV) NC1 domain is the primary target antigen for autoantibodies from patients with anti-basement membrane disease and Goodpasture syndrome. Earlier peptide studies suggested that the last 36 amino acids of the alpha3 NC1 domain probably contains one recognition site for Goodpasture autoantibodies, and an algorithm analysis of secondary structure from a later study predicted a second possible upstream epitope near the triple helix junction. We have used several analytic approaches to evaluate the likelihood of two immunologic epitopes for the Goodpasture antigen. In our first set of studies, peptide antibodies directed against these two putative regions co-inhibited Goodpasture autoantibodies binding to denatured human alpha3(IV) NC1 monomer by nearly 80%, with the helix-junction region of the alpha3 NC1 domain contributing 26% of the binding sites and the C-terminal region contributing the remaining 50%. Second, both of these candidate regions are normally sequestered within the associated alpha3(IV) NC1 hexamer but become more visible for binding by anti-peptide antibodies upon their dissociation, a property that is shared by the Goodpasture autoantibodies. Third, segment deletions of recombinant alpha3 NC1 domain further confirmed the presence of two serologic binding sites. Finally, we looked more closely at the C-terminal binding region of the alpha3(IV) NC1 domain. Since the lysines in that region have been previously advanced as possible contact sites, we created several substitutions within the C-terminal epitope of the alpha3 NC1 domain. Substitution of lysines to alanines revealed lysines 219 and 229 as essential for antibody binding to this distal site; no lysines were present in the NC1 part of the helix-NC1 junction region. Substitutions involving arginine and cysteines to alanines in the same C-terminal region did not produce significant reductions in

  3. The Status of the Construction of MICE Step IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snopok, P. [Fermilab; Overton, E. [Sheffield U.

    2014-07-01

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment will provide the demononstration ionization cooling. The experiment is being built in a series of Steps. Step IV, which consists of a tracking spectrometer upstream and downstream of an absorber/focus-coil module will be completed in early in 2015. In this configuration, the emittance of the muon beam upstream and downstream of the absorbed will be measured precisely allowing the emittance reduction and the factors that determine the ionization-cooling effect to be studied in detail. Each tracking spectrometer consists of a scintillating-fibre tracker placed within a 4 T field provided by the superconducting spectrometer solenoid. The muon beam is transported to the absorber/focus-coil module: a 22 liter volume of liquid hydrogen placed inside a superconducting focusing coil. The properties of lithium hydride, and possibly other absorber materials, will also be studied. All the components of Step IV have been manufactured and integration of the experiment in the MICE Hall at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is underway. The construction and performance of Step IV will be described. A full study of ionization cooling will be carried out with Step V of the experiment which will include a short 201 MHz linac module in which beam transport is achieved with a superconducting “coupling-coil”. The status of the preparation of the components of Step V of the experiment will be described briefly.

  4. Terminal ileum gangrene secondary to a type IV paraesophageal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching Tsai; Hsiao, Po Jen; Chiu, Chih Chien; Chan, Jenq Shyong; Lin, Yee Fung; Lo, Yuan Hung; Hsiao, Chia Jen

    2016-02-28

    Type IV paraesophageal hernia (PEH) is very rare, and is characterized by the intrathoracic herniation of the abdominal viscera other than the stomach into the chest. We describe a 78-year-old woman who presented at our emergency department because of epigastric pain that she had experienced over the past 24 h. On the day after admission, her pain became severe and was accompanied by right chest pain and dyspnea. Chest radiography revealed an intrathoracic intestinal gas bubble occupying the right lower lung field. Emergency explorative laparotomy identified a type IV PEH with herniation of only the terminal ileum through a hiatal defect into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, we also present a review of similar cases in the literature published between 1980 and 2015 in PubMed. There were four published cases of small bowel herniation into the thoracic cavity during this period. Our patient represents a rare case of an individual diagnosed with type IV PEH with incarceration of only the terminal ileum.

  5. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eGeiger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  6. Dibutylammonium bis(hydrogen methylphosphonato-κOtriphenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidiane Diop

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title organotin salt, (C8H20N[Sn(C6H53(CH4O3P2], contains two dibutylammonium cations and two stannate(IV anions consisting each of two monodentately bonding methyl hydrogenphosphate groups attached to an Sn(C6H5 unit. The overall coordination environment of the two SnIV atoms is trigonal–bipyramidal defined by three phenyl C atoms in equatorial positions and two methyl hydrogenphosphate O atoms at the apical sites. In the crystal, the stannate(IV anions are linked to each other via pairs of short O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to an infinite chain extending parallel to the b-axis direction. Neighbouring chains are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the butylammonium cations, giving a two-dimensional structure parallel to the ab plane. The crystal under investigation was found to be twinned by reticular merohedry with twin fractions of 0.5342 (7:0.4658 (7.

  7. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard; Zabel, Thomas; Sigg, Hans

    2015-07-01

    The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  8. Selective solid-phase extraction of trace thorium(IV) using surface-grafted Th(IV)-imprinted polymers with pyrazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Canrong; Wang, Hongqing; Wang, Yuyuan; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2010-04-15

    A new pyrazole derivative 1-phenyl-3-methylthio-4-cyano-5-acrylicacidcarbamoyl-pyrazole (PMTCAACP) was synthesized and chosen as a complexing monomer for the preparation of surface-grafted ion-imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of thorium(IV). The silica gel, modified with maleic anhydride, was prepared as a carrier material. In the ion-imprinting process, Th(IV) was complexed with PMTCAACP, and then imprinted in the polymers grafted to the surface of modified silica gel. Subsequently, the template Th(IV) ions were removed with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The obtained ion-imprinted particles for Th(IV) showed specific recognition, and rapid adsorption and desorption kinetics process. The maximum static and total dynamic adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) for Th(IV) was 64.8 and 37.4 mg/g, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficient values of the imprinted adsorbent for Th(IV)/U(VI), Th(IV)/Ce(III), Th(IV)/La(III), and Th(IV)/Zr(IV) were 72.9, 89.6, 93.8, and 137.2 times greater than non-imprinted matrix, respectively. The interference effect of common cations tested did not interfere with the recovery of Th(IV). The enhancement factor of 20.2, the detection limit of 0.43 microg/L, and the precision of 2.47% (n=7) of the method under the optimized conditions were obtained. Additionally, the calibration curve (r=0.9993) was linear in the range of 1.43-103 microg/L of thorium(IV). The prepared IIPs were shown to be promising for solid-phase extraction coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometry for determination of trace Th(IV) in real samples. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Synthesis, Characterization and Comparative Anticorrosion Study of Some Organotin(IV 4-Chlorobenzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastin Kurniasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of 3 compounds of a series of dibutyl(IV di-4-chlorobenzoate, diphenyl(IV di-4-chlorobenzoate and triphenyltin(IV 4-chlorobenzoate have successfully been performed by reacting the dibutyltin(IV dichloride, diphenyltin(IV dichloride and triphenyltin(IV chloride respectively via the dibutyltin(IV oxide, diphenyltin(IV dihydroxide and triphenyltin(IV hydroxide with 4-chlorobenzoic acid. All compounds synthesized were well characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies as well as based on the microanalytical data. The anticorrosion activity of these compounds were tested on Hot Roller Plate (HRP mild steel in DMSO-HCl solution using potentiodynamic method. The results revealed that the triphenyltin(IV 4-chlorobenzoate clearly showed the strongest inhibitor activity compared to the other derivatives, while diphenyltin(IV compounds were better than that of dibutyltin(IV analogous. The results reported here indicated that the optimal activity were depended on the ligand attached to the metal centre and might also be related to the number of carbon atoms present in the organotin(IV used.

  10. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  11. Complex formation reactions of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), thorium(IV), dioxouranyl(IV) complexes with tricine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mahmoud M A

    2007-08-01

    Equilibrium studies for the heavy metal ions La(III), Ce(III), Th(IV) and UO2(IV) (M) complexes of the zwitterionic buffer tricine (L) in aqueous solution are investigated. Stoichiometry and stability constants for the different complexes formed as well as hydrolysis products of the metal cations are determined at 25 degrees C and ionic strength 0.1 M NaNO3. The stability of the formed complexes are discussed in terms of the nature of the heavy metal cation. The solid complexes are synthesized and characterized by means of elemental analysis, FTIR, and TG analysis. The general molecular formulae of the obtained complexes is suggested to be [M(L)2](NO3)n-2(H2O)x, where n = the charge of the metal cation, x = no. of water molecules.

  12. Endogeneity in Panel Data Models with Time-Varying and Time-Fixed Regressors: To IV or not IV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    We analyse the problem of parameter inconsistency in panel data econometrics due to the correlation of exogenous variables with the error term.A common solution in this setting is to use Instrumental-Variable (IV) estimation in the spirit of Hausman-Taylor (1981). However, some potential...... Carlo simulations, where we explicitly control for the problem of IV selection in the Hausman-Taylor case. The simulation results show that the Hausman- Taylor model with perfect-knowledge about the underlying data structure (instrument orthogonality) has on average the smallest bias. However, compared...... square error (rmse) than both Hausman-Taylor models with perfect and imperfect knowledge about the underlying correlation between r.h.s variables and residual term.This indicates that it is generally more efficient.The results are roughly robust for various combinations in the time and cross...

  13. Discoidin domain receptor 1: isoform expression and potential functions in cirrhotic human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunmi; Shackel, Nicholas A; Wang, Xin M; Ajami, Katerina; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Gorrell, Mark D

    2011-03-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and is activated by collagens. Transcriptional profiling of cirrhosis in human liver using a DNA array and quantitative PCR detected elevated mRNA expression of DDR1 compared with that in nondiseased liver. The present study characterized DDR1 expression in cirrhotic and nondiseased human liver and examined the cellular effects of DDR1 expression. mRNA expression of all five isoforms of DDR1 was detected in human liver, whereas DDR1a demonstrated differential expression in liver with hepatitis C virus and primary biliary cirrhosis compared with nondiseased liver. In addition, immunoblot analysis detected shed fragments of DDR1 more readily in cirrhotic liver than in nondiseased liver. Inasmuch as DDR1 is subject to protease-mediated cleavage after prolonged interaction with collagen, this differential expression may indicate more intense activation of DDR1 protein in cirrhotic compared with nondiseased liver. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence localized intense DDR1 mRNA and protein expression to epithelial cells including hepatocytes at the portal-parenchymal interface and the luminal aspect of the biliary epithelium. Overexpression of DDR1a altered hepatocyte behavior including increased adhesion and less migration on extracelular matrix substrates. DDR1a regulated extracellular expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. These data elucidate DDR1 function pertinent to cirrhosis and indicate the importance of epithelial cell-collagen interactions in chronic liver injury.

  14. Muscle Specific Fragile X Related Protein 1 Isoforms are Sequestered in the Nucleus of Undifferentiated Myoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandjian Edouard W

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of Fragile X Mental Retardation Proteins is composed of three members: Fragile Mental Retardation 1, Fragile X Related 1 and X Related 2 proteins. These proteins are associated with mRNPs within translating ribosomes and have the capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Great attention has been given to FMRP due to its implication in human hereditary mental retardation while FXR1P and FXR2P have only recently been studied. Results Using antibodies directed against several epitopes of FXR1P, we have detected protein isoforms generated by small peptides pocket inserts. Four isoforms of MW 70, 74, 78, 80 kDa are widely distributed in mouse organs, while in striated muscles these isoforms are replaced by proteins of 82 and 84 kDa containing an extra pocket of 27 aa. Expression of these muscle isoforms is an early event during in vitro differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes and correlates with the activation of muscle-specific genes. However, while FXR1P82,84 are associated with cytoplasmic mRNPs in myotubes, they are sequestered in the nuclei of undifferentiated myoblasts. These observations suggest that, in addition to a cytoplasmic function yet to be defined, FXR1P82,84 may play a nuclear role in pre-mRNA metabolism. Conclusions The pattern of subcellular partitioning of FXR1P isoforms during myogenesis is unique among the family of the FXR proteins. The model system described here should be considered as a powerful tool for ongoing attempts to unravel structure-function relationships of the different FMR family members since the potential role(s of FXR1P as a compensatory factor in Fragile X syndrome is still elusive.

  15. Novel myristoylation of the sperm-specific hexokinase 1 isoform regulates its atypical localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hexokinase 1 variant in mammalian spermatozoa (HK1S has a unique N-terminus and this isoform atypically localizes to the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism of this process currently remains ambiguous. In this report, we show that fatty acylation underlies the specific sorting of HK1S. Employing chimeric reporter constructs, we first established that compartmentalization of HK1S does not function exclusively in sperm cells and that this feature is swappable to somatic HEK293 cells. Although the N-terminus lacks the classical consensus signature for myristoylation and the sequence-based predictions fail to predict myristoylation of HK1S, complementary experimental approaches confirmed that HK1S is myristoylated. Using live-cell confocal microscopy, we show that the mutation of a single amino acid, the myristoyl recipient Gly2, impedes the prominent feature of plasma membrane association and relocates the enzyme to the cytosol but not the nucleus. Additionally, substitutions of the putatively palmitoylated Cys5 is also reflected in a similar loss of compartmentalization of the protein. Taken together, our findings conclusively demonstrate that the N-terminal ‘MGQICQ’ motif in the unique GCS domain of HK1S acquires hydrophobicity by dual lipidic modifications, N-myristoylation and palmitoylation, to serve the requirements for membranous associations and thus its compartmentalization.

  16. Novel myristoylation of the sperm-specific hexokinase 1 isoform regulates its atypical localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujeet; Parameswaran, Sreejit; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hexokinase 1 variant in mammalian spermatozoa (HK1S) has a unique N-terminus and this isoform atypically localizes to the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism of this process currently remains ambiguous. In this report, we show that fatty acylation underlies the specific sorting of HK1S. Employing chimeric reporter constructs, we first established that compartmentalization of HK1S does not function exclusively in sperm cells and that this feature is swappable to somatic HEK293 cells. Although the N-terminus lacks the classical consensus signature for myristoylation and the sequence-based predictions fail to predict myristoylation of HK1S, complementary experimental approaches confirmed that HK1S is myristoylated. Using live-cell confocal microscopy, we show that the mutation of a single amino acid, the myristoyl recipient Gly2, impedes the prominent feature of plasma membrane association and relocates the enzyme to the cytosol but not the nucleus. Additionally, substitutions of the putatively palmitoylated Cys5 is also reflected in a similar loss of compartmentalization of the protein. Taken together, our findings conclusively demonstrate that the N-terminal ‘MGQICQ’ motif in the unique GCS domain of HK1S acquires hydrophobicity by dual lipidic modifications, N-myristoylation and palmitoylation, to serve the requirements for membranous associations and thus its compartmentalization. PMID:26581589

  17. Prospective Comparison of Pressor and Airway Responses to IV Esmolol and IV Dexmedetomidine during Emergence from General Anaesthesia and Extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Prasad Tendulkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracheal extubation causes significant hemodynamic stimulation resulting in transient increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Aim and Objectives: To compare the efficacy of Esmolol and Dexmedetomidine given intravenously to attenuate the pressor and airway response to emergence from general anaesthesia and tracheal extubation. Materials and Methods: After obtaining institutional ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 90 ASA grade I and II patients, in the age group of 20-70 years, of either sex, undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were included. At the end of surgery, patients received IV Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg (Group E two minutes prior to extubation or IV Dexmedetomidine 0.5 mcg/kg (Group D over ten minutes prior to extubation or no drug in the control group (Group C. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed before giving study drugs, before extubation and after extubation upto 15 minutes. Extubation quality was rated using 5 point cough grading. Sedation scoring was done using Modified Ramsay Sedation scale. Results: All hemodynamic parameters showed attenuation upto 15 minutes post extubation, in both Group E and Group D as compared to Group C. However, even though Injection Esmolol successfully controlled the hemodynamic response to extubation, the attenuation was more evident with Injection Dexmedetomidine, as the parameters were below the baseline values at all times after extubation, without excessive bradycardia or hypotension. None of the patients showed incidence of desaturation. The cough grading, and hence the quality of extubation, was better with Group D as compared to Group C and E. Patients in the Dexmedetomidine group, were significantly sedated as compared to Esmolol and Control group, but this aided a smooth extubation without any agitation. Conclusion: We conclude that IV Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg attenuates the pressor response, but IV Dexmedetomidine attenuates both pressor as well as the

  18. No Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcome in Stroke Patients Treated with IV Thrombolysis BMI and IV Thrombolysis Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Juliane; Michel, Patrik; Eskioglou, Elissavet; Kaegi, Georg; Stark, Robert; Fischer, Urs; Jung, Simon; Arnold, Marcel; Wertli, Maria; Held, Ulrike; Wegener, Susanne; Luft, Andreas; Sarikaya, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The impact of excess body weight on prognosis after stroke is controversial. Many studies report higher survival rates in obese patients (“obesity paradox”). Recently, obesity has been linked to worse outcomes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis, but the number and sample size of these studies were small. Here, we aimed to assess the relationship between body weight and stroke outcome after IV thrombolysis in a large cohort study. Methods In a prospective observational multicenter study, we analyzed baseline and outcome data of 896 ischemic stroke patients who underwent IV thrombolysis. Patients were categorized according to body mass index (BMI) as underweight (35 kg/m2). Using uni- and multivariate modeling, we assessed the relationship of BMI with favorable outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) and mortality 3 months after stroke as well as the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages (sICH). We also measured the incidence of patients that had an early neurological improvement of >40% on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours. Results Among 896 patients, 321 were normal weight (35.8%), 22 underweight (2.5%), 378 overweight (42.2%), 123 obese (13.7%) and 52 severely obese (5.8%). Three-month mortality was comparable in obese vs. non-obese patients (8.1% vs. 8.3%) and did not differ significantly among different BMI groups. This was also true for favorable clinical outcome, risk of sICH and early neurological improvement on NIHSS at 24 hours. These results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analyses. Conclusion BMI was not related to clinical outcomes in stroke patients treated with IVT. Our data suggest that the current weight-adapted dosage scheme of IV alteplase is appropriate for different body weight groups, and challenge the existence of the obesity paradox after stroke. PMID:27727305

  19. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of uranium (IV) phosphate-hydrogenphosphate hydrate and cerium (IV) phosphate-hydrogenphosphate hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, V.; Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N.

    2005-04-01

    A new uranium (IV) phosphate of proposed formula U 2(PO 4) 2HPO 4·H 2O, i.e. uranium phosphate-hydrogenphosphate hydrate (UPHPH), was synthesized in autoclave and/or in polytetrafluoroethylene closed containers at 150 °C by three ways: from uranium (IV) hydrochloric solution and phosphoric acid, from uranium dioxide and phosphoric acid and by transformation of the uranium hydrogenphosphate hydrate U(HPO 4) 2· nH 2O. The new product appears similar to the previously published thorium phosphate-hydrogenphosphate hydrate Th 2(PO 4) 2HPO 4·H 2O (TPHPH). From preliminary studies, it was found that UPHPH crystallizes in monoclinic system ( a=2.1148(7) nm, b=0.6611(2) nm, c=0.6990(3) nm, β=91.67(3)° and V=0.9768(10) nm). Heated under inert atmosphere, this compound is decomposed above 400 °C into uranium phosphate-triphosphate U 2(PO 4)P 3O 10, uranium diphosphate α-UP 2O 7 and diuranium oxide phosphate U 2O(PO 4) 2. Crystallized cerium (IV) phosphate-hydrogenphosphate hydrate Ce 2(PO 4) 2HPO 4·H 2O (CePHPH) was also synthesized from (NH 4) 2Ce(NO 3) 6 and phosphoric acid solutions by the same method (monoclinic system: a=2.1045(5) nm, b=0.6561(2) nm, c=0.6949(2) nm, β=91.98(1)° and V=0.9588(9) nm). When heating above 600 °C, cerium (IV) is reduced into Ce (III) and forms a mixture of CePO 4 (monazite structure) and CeP 3O 9.

  1. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  2. The measurement of low IQ with the WAIS-IV: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The WAIS-IV is reviewed for its use in the low IQ range. It has a floor that will elevate low score, does not give accurate percentile ranking and may well systematically measure higher than the WISC-IV.

  3. Preparation of UO_2 Fine Particle by Hydrolysis of Uranium(IV) Alkoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Isamu; Takahashi, Mitsuyuki; Miura, Shigeyuki

    1997-01-01

    Fine particles of uranium(IV) dioxides were obtained by hydrolysis of uranium(IV) ethoxide which was synthesized by reacting uranium tetrachloride with sodium ethoxide. The monodispersed submicrometer particles were confirmed by SEM observation.

  4. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  5. Tetracarboxylatoplatinum(IV) complexes featuring monodentate leaving groups - A rational approach toward exploiting the platinum(IV) prodrug strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Doris; Varbanov, Hristo P; Legin, Anton; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-12-01

    A series of novel symmetrically and unsymmetrically coordinated platinum(IV) complexes with monodentate carboxylato ligands was synthesized. The compounds exhibit a general coordination sphere of [Pt(en)(OCOR)2(OCOR')(OCOR″)], where the carboxylato ligands are represented by acetato and succinic acid monoester ligands. Dicarboxylatoplatinum(II) complexes were synthesized and oxidized symmetrically or unsymmetrically to obtain platinum(IV) complexes, which were subsequently carboxylated with noncyclic anhydrides. The compounds were investigated in detail by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, infrared and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray diffraction in some cases. The reduction behavior was followed by NMR spectroscopy, while stability and lipophilicity were examined by analytical reversed phase HPLC measurements. Cytotoxic properties were studied in three human cancer cell lines derived from cisplatin sensitive ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA-1), cisplatin insensitive colon carcinoma (SW480) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549). Thereby, the most lipophilic (yet water soluble) platinum(IV) complexes showed promising IC50 values in the low micromolar and even nanomolar range, demonstrating the significant advantage of using equatorially coordinated monodentate carboxylato ligands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Study on Agreement Rate Between Psychiatric Residents in Diagnosing Axis IV. In DSM-IV Classficatic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahrokhi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of environmental and psychosocial problems in psychiatric patients is essential because of their significant role in causing or exacerbating psychiatric disorders. This study was carried out to assess the consensus rate in diagnosing axis IV (environmental and psychosocial problems in DSM-IV system of classification among psychiatric residents.In this study one hundred and seventeen psychiatric patients were examined in daily morning in Razi Mental Hospital in Tabriz. The patients were evaluated individually by residents in regard to mental status and axis IV problems. The obtained datas were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods.Results of the study revealed that consensus rate among residents in assessment of environmental and psychosocial problem(s was low (ICC : 0.22. Demographic characteristics of the patients did not explain difference between residents. Sex and familiarity of residents with Azari Language were significantly important regarding diagnostic difference, so that consensus rate in female residents was more than male ones and in Azari speaking residents was more than non-Azari speaking ones. No part of mental status examination was remarkable in explaining diagnostic differences. Diagnoses in axis I and III were recognized as important elements in explaining the differences.Based on result of this study diagnosis of environmental and psychosocial problems in psychiatric patients by residents generally is not reliable and the issue warrant further attention.

  7. High resolution observations with Artemis-IV and the NRH. I. Type IV associated narrow-band bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Bouratzis, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Preka-Papadema, P; Moussas, X; Caroubalos, C; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A

    2016-01-01

    Narrow band bursts appear on dynamic spectra from microwave to decametric frequencies as fine structures with very small duration and bandwidth. They are thought to mark small scale magnetic reconnection. We analyzed 27 metric type-IV events with narrow band bursts observed by the ARTEMIS-IV radiospectrograph in 30/6/1999-1/8/2010. We examined the morphological characteristics of isolated narrow-band bursts and groups or chains of spikes. The events were recorded with the SAO (10 ms cadence) receiver of ARTEMIS-IV in the 270-450 MHz range. We measured the duration, spectral width, and frequency drift of ~12000 individual narrow-band bursts, groups, and chains. Spike sources were imaged with the NRH for the event of 21 April 2003. The mean duration of individual bursts at fixed frequency was ~100 ms, while the instantaneous relative bandwidth was ~2%. Some bursts had measurable frequency drift, positive or negative. Often spikes appeared in chains, which were closely spaced in time (column chains) or in freque...

  8. Advanced clinical interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: prevalence of low scores varies by level of intelligence and years of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Holdnack, James A; Iverson, Grant L

    2011-06-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Results indicated that healthy people obtain some low scores on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV, with prevalence rates increasing with fewer years of education and lower predicted intelligence. When applying the base rates information to the clinical sample, the TBI patients were 13 times more likely to be identified as having a low cognitive profile compared with the controls. Using the base rates information is a psychometrically advanced method for establishing criteria to determine low cognitive abilities on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

  9. Cyclic voltammetry study of Ce(IV/Ce(III redox couple and Ce(IV-F complex in sulfuric acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the electrochemical behaviors of Ce(IV/Ce(III redox couple and Ce(IV - F complex in sulfuric acid medium were studied by cyclic voltammetry using a platinum electrode. Both of the Ce(IV/Ce(III couple in Ce(IV solution and Ce(IV - F complex is a quasi-reversible process, and gives a linear correlation between the peak potentials and square root of scan rates, showing that the kinetics of the overall process is diffusion controlled. The complexation of cerium(IV and fluoride is favorable for the oxidation of Ce(III. The kinetic parameters such as diffusion coefficients, anodic transfer coefficients and rate constants were studied.

  10. Relationship of local i.v. complications and the method of intermittenti.v. access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E S; Bell, E; Staub, M A; Coyle, G

    1995-01-01

    Infiltration, infection, phlebitis, and thrombophlebitis are considered the most frequent complications of i.v. therapy. The purpose of our study was to determine if a difference existed in incidence of complications during i.v. infusions depending on whether the i.v. tubing is directly connected to the infusion device or the tubing is connected to the latex port of an i.v. lock using a needle. Background information, mehtod followed, and results obtained in the study are discussed.

  11. Distribution of basement membrane type IV collagen alpha chains in ameloblastoma: an immunofluorescence study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, K.; Siar, C. H.; Nagai, N.; Naito, I.; Sado, Y.; Nagatsuka, H; Hoh, C; Kurada, K.; Tsujigiwa, H; M. Gunduz

    2002-01-01

    Background: Type IV collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule that exists in six genetically distinct forms, alpha1(IV)-alpha6(IV) is a major structural component of basement membrane (BM) and acts as a scaffold for other BM constituents. Methods: Indirect immunofluorescence using alpha chain-specific monoclonal antibodies was employed to clarify basement membrane (BM) collagen IV distribution in two ameloblastoma, and for comparison, on oral mucosa and tooth germ. Results: Ameloblastoma BM express...

  12. The Effectiveness of Dibutyltin (IV and Di-tert-butyltin (IV Alkyl-phenyl Dithiocarbamate Compounds as Larvicide against Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of insecticides to control dengue vectors has led to the development of mosquito resistance, environmental pollution and undesirable effects on non target organisms. Thus, the potential of organotin (IV compounds has been explored to be developed as insecticides to obviate the existing problems. The aim of this study was to examine the larvicidal effect of dibutylt in (IV and di-tert-butyltin (IV alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate compounds against Aedes aegypti Linn. in laboratory. Larvicidal bioassay test of four compounds dibutyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate, di-tert-butyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate, dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate and di-tert-butyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate against third instar larvae of A. aegypti was carried out. The study indicated that dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate showed the highest larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.59 and 3.91 ppm, respectively. However, the other three compounds showed lower larvicidal effects. Dibutyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate showed moderate larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 4.45 and 11.08 ppm, respectively, followed by di-tert-butyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound with LC50 and LC90 values of 5.08 and 11.50 ppm, respectively. Di-tert-butyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound showed the least larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 8.59 and 36.74 ppm, respectively. Morphological anomalies such as elongated neck region, shortened length and destructed digestive tract in the larvae were observed and recorded during the larvicidal bioassay testing. As a conclusion, dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound is the most effective compound against the dengue vector, A. aegypti and has the potential to be explored as a larvicide. Further study is needed to ensure that this compound can be used safely as a larvicide.

  13. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  14. 75 FR 33421 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... ``Food Stamp Program: Non-Discretionary Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

  15. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  16. IV Iron: To Give or to Hold in the Presence of Infection in Adults Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Debra; Braun, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron is often given to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults undergoing hemodialysis. Evidence supports an association between IV iron and infection exits, which often create a clinical dilemma: whether to give or to hold in the presence of infection. This article presents the best available evidence regarding the risk of IV iron and infection along with nephrology nursing practice implications.

  17. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the ide

  18. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  19. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  20. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale : Fourth Edition (WMS-IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the

  1. Reliability of DSM-IV Symptom Ratings of ADHD: Implications for DSM-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanto, Mary V.; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the intrarater reliability of "DSM-IV" ADHD symptoms. Method: Two-hundred-two children referred for attention problems and 49 comparison children (all 7-12 years) were rated by parents and teachers on the identical "DSM-IV" items presented in two different formats, the SNAP-IV and Conners'…

  2. External validity of the Indonesian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth edition (WAIS-IV-ID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwartono, C.; Hidajat, L.L.; Halim, M.S.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV-ID) has been adapted and proved to be valid for its internal structure for Indonesian population. The same structure found as in the American WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-US; Suwartono, Hendriks, Hidajat, Halim, & Kessels, 2015). Despite its strong i

  3. 21 CFR 866.5360 - Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. 866.5360 Section 866.5360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5360 Cohn fraction IV immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction IV...

  4. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  5. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  6. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  7. The Combination of IV and Perineural Dexamethasone Prolongs the Analgesic Duration of Intercostal Nerve Blocks Compared with IV Dexamethasone Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot P; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Mardirosian, Rodney; Thomas, Otto J; Zhang, Xiao; McKenna, Robert; Yumul, Roya; Zhang, Vida

    2017-06-01

     The use of multiple-level, single-injection intercostal nerve blocks for pain control following video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) is limited by the analgesic duration of local anesthetics. This study examines whether the combination of perineural and intravenous (IV) dexamethasone will prolong the duration of intraoperatively placed intercostal nerve blocks following VATS compared with IV dexamethasone and a perineural saline placebo.  Prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.  Single level-1 academic trauma center.  Forty patients undergoing a unilateral VATS under the care of a single surgeon.  Patients were randomly assigned to two groups and received an intercostal nerve block containing 1) 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine and 1 ml of 0.9% saline or 2) 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine and 1 ml of a 4 mg/ml dexamethasone solution. All patients received 8 mg of IV dexamethasone.  Group 2 had lower NRS-11 scores at post-operative hours 8 (5.05, SD = 2.13 vs 3.50, SD = 2.50; p  = 0.04), 20 (4.30, SD = 2.96 vs 2.26, SD = 2.31; p  = 0.02), and 24 (4.53, SD = 1.95 vs 2.26, SD = 2.31; p  = 0.02). Equianalgesic opioid requirement was decreased in group 2 at 32 hours (5.78 mg, SD = 5.77 vs 1.67 mg, SD = 3.49; p  = 0.02). Group 2 also had greater FEV1 measured at 8, 12, 24, and 44 hours; greater FVC at 24 hours; greater PEF at 28 through 48 hours; and greater FEV1/FVC at 8 and 36 hours.  The combination of IV and perineural dexamethasone prolonged the duration of a single-injection bupivacaine intercostal nerve block as measured by NRS-11 compared with IV dexamethasone alone at 24 hours. Reduced NRS-11 at other times, reduced opioid requirements, and increased PFTs were observed in group 2.

  8. Solar Transition-Region Lines Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph: Diagnostics for the O IV and Si IV Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Mason, Helen E; Golub, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the transition-region O IV and Si IV lines observable by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is investigated for both Maxwellian and non-Maxellian conditions characterized by a kappa-distribution exhibiting a high-energy tail. The \\ion{Si}{4} lines are formed at lower temperatures than the O IV lines for all kappa. In non-Maxwellian situations with lower kappa, the contribution functions are shifted to lower temperatures. Combined with the slope of the differential emission measure, it is possible for the Si IV lines to be formed at very different regions of solar transition region than the O IV lines; possibly close to solar chromosphere. Such situations might be discernible by IRIS. It is found that photoexcitation can be important for the Si IV lines, but is negligible for the O IV lines. The usefulness of the O IV ratios for density diagnostics independently of kappa is investigated and it is found that the O IV 1404.78A /1399.77A ratio provides a good density diagnostics exc...

  9. X-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Comparison of Mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo and Mn(IV)-hydroxo Complexes and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Mn(IV) Zero-Field Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A

    2016-04-04

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in

  10. Pt(IV) complexes as prodrugs for cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi; Liu, Shu-An; Kerwood, Deborah J; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2012-02-01

    The antitumor effects of platinum(IV) complexes, considered prodrugs for cisplatin, are believed to be due to biological reduction of Pt(IV) to Pt(II), with the reduction products binding to DNA and other cellular targets. In this work we used pBR322 DNA to capture the products of reduction of oxoplatin, c,t,c-[PtCl(2)(OH)(2)(NH(3))(2)], 3, and a carboxylate-modified analog, c,t,c-[PtCl(2)(OH)(O(2)CCH(2)CH(2)CO(2)H)(NH(3))(2)], 4, by ascorbic acid (AsA) or glutathione (GSH). Since carbonate plays a significant role in the speciation of platinum complexes in solution, we also investigated the effects of carbonate on the reduction/DNA-binding process. In pH 7.4 buffer in the absence of carbonate, both 3 and 4 are reduced by AsA to cisplatin (confirmed using ((195))Pt NMR), which binds to and unwinds closed circular DNA in a manner consistent with the formation of the well-known 1, 2 intrastrand DNA crosslink. However, when GSH is used as the reducing agent for 3 and 4, ((195))Pt NMR shows that cisplatin is not produced in the reaction medium. Although the Pt(II) products bind to closed circular DNA, their effect on the mobility of Form I DNA is different from that produced by cisplatin. When physiological carbonate is present in the reduction medium, ((13))C NMR shows that Pt(II) carbonato complexes form which block or impede platinum binding to DNA. The results of the study vis-à-vis the ability of the Pt(IV) complexes to act as prodrugs for cisplatin are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Helix dynamics in LacY: helices II/IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical and biophysical studies based upon crystal structures of both a mutant and wild-type lactose permease from Escherichia coli (LacY) in an inward-facing conformation have led to a model for the symport mechanism in which both sugar- and H+-binding sites are alternatively accessible to either side of the membrane. Previous findings indicate that the face of helix II with Asp68 is important for the conformational changes that occur during turnover. As shown here, replacement of Asp68 at the cytoplasmic end of helix II, particularly with Glu, abolishes active transport, but the mutants retain the ability to bind galactopyranoside. In the x-ray structure, Asp68 and Lys131 (helix IV) lie within ∼4.2 Å of each other. Although a double mutant with Cys replacements at both position 68 and 131 cross-links efficiently, single replacements for Lys131 exhibit very significant transport activity. Site-directed alkylation studies show that sugar binding by the Asp68 mutants causes closure of the cytoplasmic cavity, like wild-type LacY; but strikingly, the probability of opening the periplasmic pathway upon sugar binding is markedly reduced. Taken together with previous mutagenesis and cross-linking studies, the findings lead to a model in which replacement of Asp68 blocks a conformational transition involving helices II and IV that is important for opening the periplasmic cavity. Evidence is also presented suggesting that movements of helices II and IV are coupled functionally with movements in the pseudo-symmetrically paired helices VIII and X. PMID:20043916

  12. Angiotensin IV possibly acts through PKMzeta in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2015-10-01

    Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. La sucesión de Enrique IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel del Val Valdivieso

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Quizá resulte superfluo señalar que el problema que se plantea a lo largo del reinado de Enrique IV, en torno a su sucesión, no es sino uno de los episodios más espectaculares de la lucha por el poder que tiene lugar en la Castilla de ese momento. No obstante se hace necesario partir de esa observación a la hora de explicar las causas y el desarrollo de esa lucha, así como el por qué de la aparición del problema sucesorio.

  14. IV Congreso Nacional de Investigaciones en Antropología

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El IV congreso nacional de investigaciones en antropología se desarrolló de acuerdo a lo previsto, entre el 1º y el 6 de agosto de 2005. La organización estuvo a cargo de un comité compuesto por tres profesores de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Román Robles, Mercedes Giesecke y Rommel Plascencia) y tres de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Gisela Cánepa, Cecilia Rivera y Alejandro Diez); a ellos se les sumaron Humberto Rodríguez del CONCYTEC y Juan José García del INC...

  15. Tribenzylchlorido(triphenylphosphine oxide-κOtin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Mun Lo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title tribenzylchloridotin–triphenylphosphine adduct, [Sn(C7H73Cl(C18H15OP], the SnIV atom is in a trans-C3SnClO trigonal–bipyramidal geometry and is displaced out of the C3Sn girdle in the direction of the axial Cl atom by 0.112 (1 in one independent molecule and by 0.167 (1 Å in the other. The phenyl ring of one of the six benzyl units was refined as equally disordered over two sets of sites.

  16. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-22

    21702-5012 63105A 63105H29 AC 072 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification ) Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Joseph...competent SIV following electroporation into CEMX174. Viral proteins produced in the infected cells corresponded to those expected for SIVmac using serum...mangabeys or African green monkeys. The major open reading frames in the FLB-10 provirus are as follows: 1. vVx The vpx protein is not necessary for

  17. [Panic disorders and agoraphobia: Freudian concepts and DSM IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi de Poderoso, Clelia; Linetzky, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This paper refers to the relationship between panic and agoraphobia, regarding Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (DSM IV), from two different points of view coming from Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry. Psychoanalysis (S. Freud) considers agoraphobia as a defensive organization to avoid anxiety, not bound to the original conflict, but to substitutive formation. The exposure to space (its unconscious significance) provokes panic attack. The psychiatric approach considers agoraphobia, meaningless by its own, as a consequence of spontaneous panic attacks. The etiology is referred to neurophysiological mechanisms. The authors reviewd D Klein's hypothesis about panic and Freud's theories on anxiety, partiularly Anxiety Neurosis.

  18. Mexico; Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund.

    2013-01-01

    This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that over the past year, Mexico has maintained macroeconomic policy continuity, while pursuing an ambitious agenda of growth-enhancing reforms. Reforms have already been approved to upgrade education, make labor markets more flexible, and foster competition in telecommunications. In 2013, the economy has begun to operate well below capacity, with real GDP growth expected to slow to 1.2 percent (down from 3.6 percent in 2012). The banking system—w...

  19. Sulfur(IV)-mediated carbon-carbon bond formation

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, William Michael

    2016-01-01

    This thesis details the development of methods for and application of the synthesis of carbon carbon bonds using organic sulfur(IV) chemistry. More specifically, the formation of C(sp2) C(sp3) and C(sp3) C(sp3) bonds is explored in detail. The necessity for this research stems from a correlation between a high proportion of sp3 centres in drug candidates, and their success in clinical trials. By facilitating the synthesis of drug candidates with higher fractions of sp3 hybridised carbon atoms...

  20. Apollonius de Perges, Coniques tome 2.2, livre IV

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi

    2009-01-01

    Book IV of the Konika consists of two parts; the first presents a theory of poles and polars, the second deals with the number of intersections and points of contact in a conic section. Previously the book was only extant as the very unreliable text of a Greek commentary by Eutocius. Roshdi Rashed here presents for the first time an edition of an Arabic translation based on a text independent of this Greek version. This is a valuable re-discovery, for which reason it is published here as a separate volume. It contains an edition princeps of the Arabic text, together with a faithful translation

  1. El soterrado cristianismo de Iván Illich

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Gómez, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Mostramos una clave cristiana subyacente en el pensamiento de Iván Illich. A partir del planteamiento del último Foucault de los cursos en el Collège de France, hemos entendido algunos elementos del primitivo cristianismo como artífices y educadores de la subjetividad. Desde esta perspectiva de un cristianismo como base que mueve a la configuración de sujeto y de las relaciones intersubjetivas, entendemos la “pedagogía” de Illich We show an underlying Christian key in thinki...

  2. Acute diaphragmatic rupture following open type IV paraesophageal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2011-06-01

    Open primary transthoracic repair is a well established treatment for large paraesophageal hernias. The rate of major post-operative complications has been reported to be low, and no cases of acute diaphragmatic injury have previously been reported. Here we present a case of open primary transthoracic repair of a type IV paraesophageal hernia that was complicated by rupture of the left diaphragm in the immediate post-operative period, and was successfully repaired with Gore DualMesh® (W.L Gore and Assoc. Flagstaff, AZ). © JSCR.

  3. The use of IV lipid emulsion for lipophilic drug toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Amy; Whelan, Megan

    2012-01-01

    IV lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy is emerging as a potential antidote for lipophilic drug toxicities in both human and veterinary medicine. ILE has already gained acceptance in human medicine as a treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity, but its mechanism of action, safety margins, and standardized dosing information remains undetermined at this time. Experimental and anecdotal use of ILE in the human and veterinary literature, theorized mechanisms of action, current dosing recommendations, potential adverse effects, and indications for use in human and veterinary emergency medicine are reviewed herein.

  4. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Holger [Brookhaven; Plate, Stephen [Brookhaven; Berg, J.Scott [Brookhaven; Tarrant, Jason [Rutherford; Bross, Alan [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  5. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Plate, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tarrant, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  6. Benzylchloridobis(quinolin-8-olato)tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Qibao Wang

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C7H7)(C9H6NO)2Cl], the SnIV ion is in a distorted octahedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn—N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn—N bond.

  7. Benzyl-chloridobis(quinolin-8-olato)tin(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qibao

    2009-07-11

    In the title compound, [Sn(C(7)H(7))(C(9)H(6)NO)(2)Cl], the Sn(IV) ion is in a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn-N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn-N bond.

  8. Benzyl­chloridobis(quinolin-8-olato)tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qibao

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C7H7)(C9H6NO)2Cl], the SnIV ion is in a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn—N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn—N bond.

  9. Comparison between different reactions of group IV hydride with H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Shaolong; ZHANG; Xuqiang; ZHANG; Qinggang; ZHANG; Yici

    2006-01-01

    The four-dimensional time-dependent quantum dynamics calculations for reactions of group IV hydride with H are carried out by employing the semirigid vibrating rotor target model and the time-dependent wave packet method. The reaction possibility, cross section and rate constants for reactions (H+SiH4 and H+GeH4) in different initial vibrational and rotational states are obtained. The common feature for such kind of reaction process is summarized. The theoretical result is consistent with available measurement, which indicates the credibility of this theory and the potential energy surface.

  10. Le Tumulus - Cromlech de Millagate IV. Etude des Restes Humains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Duday

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available El túmulo - cromlech de Millagate IV ha ofrecido restos incinerados de un solo individuo adulto, probablemente masculino. El esqueleto del tronco se encuentra poco representado respecto a la cabeza y miembros. Esto puede deberse a un proceso de destrucción diferencial por el fuego. Metodológicamente, en lo que concierne a la cuantificación relativa de las diferentes partes del cuerpo, el peso parece un mejor parámetro que el número de fragmentos.

  11. Neurogenic pulmonary edema: successful treatment with IV phentolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Danielle L; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Selassie, Leelie; Tevar, Rahul; Junker, Christopher; Seneff, Michael G

    2012-03-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant CNS insult. The cause is believed to be a surge of catecholamines that results in cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Although there are myriad case reports describing CNS events that are associated with this syndrome, few studies have identified specific treatment modalities. We present a case of NPE caused by an intracranial hemorrhage from a ruptured arteriovenous malformation. We uniquely document a rise and fall of serum catecholamine levels correlating with disease activity and a dramatic clinical response to IV phentolamine.

  12. Calysolins I-IV, resin glycosides from Calystegia soldanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Ayako; Muto, Haruka; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru

    2011-11-28

    Four new resin glycosides having intramolecular cyclic ester structures (jalapins), named calysolins I-IV (1-4), were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves, stems, and roots of Calystegia soldanella , along with one known jalapin (5) derivative. The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. They fall into two types, one having a 22-membered ring (1 and 4) and the other with a 27-membered ring (2 and 3). The sugar moieties of 1-4 were partially acylated by some organic acids. Compound 4 is the first example of a hexaglycoside of jalapin.

  13. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos Papadopoulos MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia.

  14. Tolman IV solution in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Linares, F.

    2013-11-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach is used to generate an analytic interior solution to four-dimensional effective Einstein field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This solution represents the braneworld version of the well-known Tolman IV solution in general relativity. By using this analytic solution, an exhaustive analysis of the braneworld effects on realistic stellar interiors is developed, finding strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that compactness is reduced due to bulk effects on stellar configurations.

  15. Tolman IV solution in the Randall-Sundrum Braneworld

    CERN Document Server

    Ovalle, J

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach (MGD) is used to generate an exact analytic interior solution to four-dimensional effective Einstein's field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This solution represents the braneworld version of the well known Tolman IV solution in General Relativity. By using this analytic solution, an exhaustive analysis of the braneworld effects on realistic stellar interiors is developed, finding strong evidences in favor of the hypothesis that compactness is reduced due to bulk effects on stellar configurations.

  16. Czech Republic; Staff Report for the 2004 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Czech Republic’s GDP expanded by 3.1 percent in 2003 and the first quarter of 2004, mainly supported by household consumption. Investment was also strong in 2003—driven by spending on public infrastructure—and swelled in early 2004 owing to one-off influences associated with European Union accession. The fiscal deficit continued to drift upward in 2003. The general government deficit widened relative to GDP by about 1 percentage poin...

  17. Structure of ice IV, a metastable high-pressure phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1981-12-01

    Ice IV, made metastably at pressures of about 4 to 5.5 kb, has a structure based on a rhombohedral unit cell of dimensions aR = 760±1 pm, α = 70.1±0.2°, space group R3¯c, as observed by x-ray diffraction at 1 atm, 110 K. The cell contains 12 water molecules of type 1, in general position, plus 4 of type 2, with O(2) in a special position on the threefold axis. The calculated density at 1 atm, 110 K is 1.272±0.005 g cm-3. Every molecule is linked by asymmetric H bonds to four others, the bonds forming a new type of tetrahedrally-connected network. Molecules of type 1 are linked by O(1)ṡṡṡO(1') bonds into puckered six-rings of 3¯ symmetry, through the center of each of which passes an O(2)ṡṡṡO(2') bond between a pair of type-2 molecules, along the threefold axis. The six-rings are linked laterally by type-2 molecules to form puckered sheets that are topologically similar to such sheets in ice I, but are connected to one another in a very different and novel way. One quarter of the intersheet bonds connect not directly between adjacent sheets but remotely, from one sheet to the second nearest sheet, through holes in the intervening sheet. These remote connections are the O(2)ṡṡṡO(2') bonds, passing through the O(1)-type six-rings. The sheets are stacked in a sequence based on ice Ic, modified by reversal of the puckering to form the remote connections and by internal distortion of the sheets to complete the remaining intersheet bonds. Of the four nonequivalent H bonded OṡṡṡO distance in the structure, two (279 and 281±1pm) are only moderately lengthened relative to the bonds in ice I (275 pm), whereas the O(1)ṡṡṡO(1') bond (288±1pm) and O(2)ṡṡṡO(2') bond (292±1pm) are lengthened extraordinarily. This is caused by repulsion between O(1) and O(2) at nonbonded distances of 314 and 329 pm in the molecular cluster consisting of the O(1)-type six-ring threaded by the O(2)ṡṡṡO(2') bond. The mean OṡṡṡO bond distance of

  18. Relativistic Modeling of Quark Stars with Tolman IV Type Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Malaver, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution considering Tolman IV form for the gravitational potential Z. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy density and the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as the presence of an electrical field modifies the energy density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object and generates a singular charge density.

  19. Terra e terror em Phase IV, de Saul Bass

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Os anos 1970 foram palco de uma onda de filmes do gênero eco-horror, dos quais se destaca Phase IV (1974), único longa-metragem dirigido por Saul Bass. O filme é tomado no artigo como um experimento diante da interpelação de povos não-humanos, no caso, as formigas, à humanidade, representada pelo discurso científico. Tendo em vista a atual catástrofe ambiental, propõe-se que o cinema seja um lugar privilegiado para o desenvolvimento de um aparato mítico-real capaz de lidar com o fim do mundo ...

  20. Terra e terror em Phase IV, de Saul Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fausto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Os anos 1970 foram palco de uma onda de filmes do gênero eco-horror, dos quais se destaca Phase IV (1974, único longa-metragem dirigido por Saul Bass. O filme é tomado no artigo como um experimento diante da interpelação de povos não-humanos, no caso, as formigas, à humanidade, representada pelo discurso científico. Tendo em vista a atual catástrofe ambiental, propõe-se que o cinema seja um lugar privilegiado para o desenvolvimento de um aparato mítico-real capaz de lidar com o fim do mundo humano.

  1. Adsorption and colloidal behaviour of traces of tellurium(IV) and aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y.; Yamaashi, Y.

    1985-08-01

    Various NaCl solutions containing traces of tellurium(IV) were prepared. The effects of tellurium(IV) concentration and pH on the adsorption of tellurium(IV) on filter paper were studied by filtration method. The effects of NaCl concentration, tellurium(IV) concentration and pH on the formation of a colloid were also studied by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. It was found that tellurium(IV) at concentrations below about 10sup(-10)M in neutral NaCl solutions is adsorbed on filter paper and shows colloidal behaviour. (author). 4 refs.; 7 figs.

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is sorted to the secretory granules in pancreatic islet A-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV:EC 3.4.14.5) was localized in endocrine cells of pig pancreas by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. Immunolight microscopy with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies demonstrated DP IV immunoreactivity in cells located in the peripheral part...... labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...

  3. Collagen alpha5 and alpha2(IV) chain coexpression: analysis of skin biopsies of Alport patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey-Mariaud de Serre, N; Garfa, M; Bessiéres, B; Noël, L H; Knebelmann, B

    2007-08-01

    Alport syndrome is a collagen type IV disease caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene with the X-linked form being most prevalent. The resultant alpha5(IV) collagen chain is a component of the glomerular and skin basement membranes (SBMs). Immunofluorescent determination of the alpha5(IV) chain in skin biopsies is the procedure of choice to identify patients. In 30% of patients, however, the mutant protein is still found in the SBM resulting in a normal staining pattern. In order to minimize or eliminate false results, we compared the distribution of the alpha2(IV) chain (another SBM component) and the alpha5(IV) chain by standard double label immunofluorescence (IF) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The study was performed on 55 skin biopsies of patients suspected of Alports and five normal control specimens. In normal skin, IF showed the classical linear pattern for both collagens along the basement membrane. Additionally, decreased alpha5(IV) was found in the bottom of the dermal papillary basement membrane. Confocal analysis confirmed the results and show alpha5(IV) focal interruptions. In suspected patients, both techniques showed the same rate of abnormal alpha5(IV) expression: segmental in women and absent in men. Our results show a physiological variation of alpha5(IV) location with focal interruptions and decreased expression in the bottom of the dermal basement membrane. Comparison of alpha5(IV) with alpha2(IV) expression is simple and eliminates technical artifacts.

  4. Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina; Segal, Yoav; Dorfman, Kevin D; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-07-01

    Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoiling greatly increases the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreases the permeability. Also, doubling the amount of supercoils in a network had a bigger effect than doubling the stiffness of the supercoils. Our results suggest that the formation of supercoils is a specialized mechanism by the GBM that provides with a network stiff and strong enough to withstand the high hydrostatic pressures of filtration, yet porous enough that filtration is not hindered. Clinically, understanding the effects of supercoiling gives us insight into the mechanisms of GBM failure in some disease states where the normal collagen IV structure is disrupted.

  5. Identification and characterization of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor from aronia juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozuka, Miyuki [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Human Science, Hokkaido Bunkyo University, Eniwa 061-1449 (Japan); Yamane, Takuya, E-mail: t-yamane@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshihisa [Center for Research and Development Bioresources, Research Organization for University-Community Collaborations, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Nakagaki, Takenori [Institute of Food Sciences, Nakagaki Consulting Engineer Co., Ltd, Nishi-ku, Sakai 593-8328 (Japan); Ohkubo, Iwao [Department of Nutrition, School of Nursing and Nutrition, Tenshi College, Higashi-ku, Sapporo 065-0013 (Japan); Ariga, Hiroyoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-09-25

    Aronia berries have many potential effects on health, including an antioxidant effect, effect for antimutagenesis, hepatoprotection and cardioprotection, an antidiabetic effect and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Previous human studies have shown that aronia juice may be useful for treatment of obesity disorders. In this study, we found that aronia juice has an inhibitory effect against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) (EC 3.4.14.5). DPP IV is a peptidase that cleaves the N-terminal region of incretins such as glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Inactivation of incretins by DPP IV induces reduction of insulin secretion. Furthermore, we identified that cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside as the DPP IV inhibitor in aronia juice. DPP IV was inhibited more strongly by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside than by cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The results suggest that DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside present in aronia juice. The antidiabetic effect of aronia juice may be mediated through DPP IV inhibition by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. - Highlights: • DPP IV activity is inhibited by aronia juice. • DPP IV inhibitor is cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside in aronia juice. • DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside more than cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside.

  6. PENURUNAN NILAI COD PADA PESTISIDA SIPERMETRIN DENGAN FOTOKATALIS TITANIUM(IV OKSIDA-PLATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rakhmawaty Eddy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan fotodegradasi pestisida jenis sipermetrin dengan adanya fotokatalis titanium (IV oksida-platina. Fotokatalis tersebut dibuat dengan merefluks larutan titanium(IV oksida tetraminplatina(II klorida selama 2 jam kemudian diuapkan pelarutnya dan dipanaskan selama 12 jam. Padatan fotokatalis kemudian dikalsinasi selama 3 jam pada 500 °C. Hasil sintesis titanium(IV oksida-platina 0,5% dan 1% dikarakterisasi dengan XRD, SEM, dan SEM-EDX. Kemampuan dalam mengkatalisis fotodegradasi diuji untuk pestisida sipermetrin yang dilakukan selama 4 jam. Hasil fotodegradasi dinyatakan sebagai COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand yang diukur setiap 1 jam. Penurunan COD terbesar untuk titanium(IV oksida platina 0,5% dan titanium(IV oksida-platina 1% masing-masing yaitu 77% dan 79%. Sementara TiO2 standar sebesar 68,42 %. Fotokatalis titanium(IV oksida-platina lebih baik dibanding titanium(IV oksida untuk degradasi sipermetrin.

  7. Foreign Trip Report MATGEN-IV Sep 24- Oct 26, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Caro, M S

    2007-10-30

    Gen-IV activities in France, Japan and US focus on the development of new structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) F/M steels have raised considerable interest in nuclear applications. Promising collaborations can be established seeking fundamental knowledge of relevant Gen-IV ODS steel properties (see attached travel report on MATGEN- IV 'Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors'). Major highlights refer to results on future Ferritic/Martensitic steel cladding candidates (relevant to Gen-IV materials properties for LFR Materials Program) and on thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic FeCr binary alloys, base matrix for future candidate steels (for the LLNL-LDRD project on Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors).

  8. Investigation on Concentrated V(IV)/V(V) Redox Reaction by Rotating Disc Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yue-Hua; ZHANG Hua-Min; QIAN Peng; MA Hai-Peng; YI Bao-Lian; YANG Yu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the concentrated V(IV)/V(V) couple have been studied at a glassy carbon electrode in sulfuric acid using rotating-disc electrode and cyclic voltammetry. The kinetics of the V(IV)/V(V) redox couple reaction was found to be electrochemically quasi-reversible with the slower kinetics for the V(V) reduction than that for the V(IV) oxidation. And, dependence of diffusion coefficients and kinetic parameters of V(IV) species on the V(IV) and H25O4 concentration was investigated. It is shown that the concentration of active species V(IV)centration, the diffusion coefficients of V(IV) were gradually reduced whereas its kinetics was improved considerably,espicially in the case of Ⅴ(Ⅳ)and H2SO4 up to 2 and 4 mol·L-1.

  9. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mal Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2016-06-30

    Technetium (99Tc) is a long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state1. Immobilization of Tc in mineral substrates is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels2, 3 has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms. However, experiments with Tc-magnetite under high temperature and oxic conditions showed re-oxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate Tc(VII)O4-.4, 5 Here we address this problem with large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that elevated temperatures, 1st row transition metal dopants can significantly enhance Tc retention in the order Co > Zn > Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at T=700 ºC provided quantitative confirmation of increased Tc retention in the same order predicted by theory. This work highlights the power of modern state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate bottom-up design criteria of complex oxide materials at elevated temperatures.

  10. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ananiadou

    Full Text Available Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org. We developed named entity recognition (NER tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1 bacteria names, 2 biological processes, 3 molecular functions, and 4 cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80% are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  11. SDSS-IV/MaNGA: Spectrophotometric Calibration Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew A; Law, David R; Schlegel, David J; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A; Blanton, Michael R; Cherinka, Brian; Eigenbrot, Arthur; Gunn, James E; Harding, Paul; Hogg, David W; Sánchez-Gallego, José R; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA), one of three core programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS-IV), is an integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) survey of roughly 10,000 nearby galaxies. It employs dithered observations using 17 hexagonal bundles of 2 arcsec fibers to obtain resolved spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range of 3,600-10,300A. To map the internal variations within each galaxy, we need to perform accurate {\\it spectral surface photometry}, which is to calibrate the specific intensity at every spatial location sampled by each individual aperture element of the integral field unit. The calibration must correct only for the flux loss due to atmospheric throughput and the instrument response, but not for losses due to the finite geometry of the fiber aperture. This requires the use of standard star measurements to strictly separate these two flux loss factors (throughput versus geometry), a difficult challenge with standard single-fiber spectroscopy techniques due to v...

  12. Usefulness of WISC-IV in Determining Intellectual Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Clara; Mata, Sara; Calero, M Dolores; García-Martín, M Belén; Araque-Cuenca, Arsenio

    2015-08-10

    Several studies question the usefulness of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) in determining giftedness due to the importance of speed in some of its subtests, which may penalize children of high intellectual level. This study analyzes the factor structure of the WISC-IV of gifted children based on confirmatory factor analysis. Participants were eighty-seven gifted children from Spain (6-13 years old). Score discrepancies were also examined for the main indexes: Verbal Comprehension, Processing Speed, Working Memory and Perceptual Organization. Results pointed out four models with a good fit from the five models analyzed: a two-factor model according to GAI subscales (RMSEA = .001, p = .84), a four-factor first-order model including main indexes (RMSEA = .05, p = .19), a four-factor model with g as a direct factor (RMSEA = .001, p = .84) and a four-factor model with g as an indirect higher-order factor (RMSEA = .05, p = .13). Discrepancies were found between Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed, and between Perceptual Organization and Processing Speed. Verbal Comprehension yielded the highest score, whereas the lowest scores were obtained in Processing Speed and Working Memory. These results support the use of this scale in the assessment and diagnosis of Spanish children with a high intellectual level.

  13. DISCOURSE REPRESENTATION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE SYSTEM DSM IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Téllez Vega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to highlight the construction and discursive significance that the DSM IV system gives to the homosexuality, considering that the meaning alludes to the internal content of the speech and the significance concerns the external (visible content of the speech. Research methodology focuses on the analysis of contents: discussion, critiques and description of the construction method of the diagnosis manual of mental illnesses in its fourth review. The technique applied was the analysis of contents: identification of the dominant speech, style forms and evaluation of significants. The results showed that the dominant form of the speech is institutional, by the non-discursive neosexual forms. In addition, there is no evidence of changes in the psychiatric speech because its method of construction is circular feedback, that is to say, in any place of the process, homosexuality will be considered as a disorder or as a topic of psychiatric review. The research reveals that the DSM IV system fits to the discursive construction being able-knowing, widely documented by Foucault in which dominant speech exerts power on the neo-sexualities and defines them in an exercise of knowing, registering them in a diagnosis manual.

  14. Retention of composite resin restorations in class IV preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hani

    2002-01-01

    Clinicians often utilized composite resin restorations in combination with different types of preparation to restore class IV fractures on anterior incisors. A new preparation technique called (stair-step chamfer technique) is investigated in this study to detect bond strength to tooth structure. Eighty-eight bovine teeth were divided into 4 groups. Group I had twenty-three samples with a 45 degree bevel that extended 2 millimeters beyond the fracture line. Group II had twenty-three samples with a circumferential chamfer, which extended 2 mm beyond the fracture line and half the enamel thickness in depth. Group III had twenty-three samples with a facial stair-step chamfer, which followed the anatomical contour and extended 2 mm beyond the fracture line with a lingual plain chamfer. Group IV had eighteen samples as controls, which were untreated teeth. The first three groups were prepared and restored with hybrid composite resin in conjunction with a single step bonding agent and as surface penetrating sealer, then tested for shear-bond strength on the Instron machine. The results were that there was no significant difference found between the treated teeth when tested for shear-bond strength. However, according to the site of the fracture, the stair-step chamfer technique gave significantly better results. It can be concluded that, the stir-step chamfer technique provides the clinician better environment to place a composite resin restoration resulting in good shear-bond strength and better esthetics.

  15. Characterisation and thermal decomposition of zirconium (IV) soaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.P. [Dept. of Chemistry, D.A.V. College, Muzaffarnagar (India); Singh, H. [Meerut Univ. (India); Sharma, K.R. [Meerut Univ. (India); Goel, H. [Dept. of Chemistry, D.A.V. College, Muzaffarnagar (India)

    1997-05-01

    Zirconium (IV) soaps of butyric, valeric and stearic acid were prepared and characterised by infrared spectroscopy. Thermal decomposition was studied by dynamic thermogravimetry and differential thermometry in the temperature range of 200-800 C. The order of decomposition was found to be zero for all soaps. The activation energies {Delta}E were found to be: 8.233, 8.620 and 7.181 kJ mol{sup -1} for butyrate, valerate and stearate respectively. The frequency factor, Z, entropy change {Delta}S and free energy change {Delta}G were calculated and a probable decomposition mechanism proposed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus Butter-, Valerian- und Stearinsaeure wurden die entsprechenden Zirconium(IV)seifen hergestellt und durch ihre Infrarotspektren charakterisiert. Ihre thermische Zersetzung wurde mittels dynamischer Thermogravimetrie und Differentialthermometrie im Bereich von 200-800 C untersucht. Die Zersetzungsreaktion war fuer alle untersuchten Seifen von nullter Ordnung. Fuer die Aktivierungsenergien, {Delta}E, wurden Werte von 8,233, 8,620 und 7,181 kJ mol{sup -1} fuer Butyrat, Valerat bzw. Stearat gefunden. Der Frequenzfaktor Z, die Entropieaenderung {Delta}S und die Aenderung der freien Energie {Delta}G werden berechnet, und es wird ein moeglicher Mechanismus fuer die Zersetzung angegeben. (orig.)

  16. EGFR-targeting peptide-coupled platinum(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Josef; Hager, Sonja; Koblmüller, Bettina; Klose, Matthias H M; Holste, Katharina; Fischer, Britta; Pelivan, Karla; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Kowol, Christian R; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2017-06-01

    The high mortality rate of lung cancer patients and the frequent occurrence of side effects during cancer therapy demonstrate the need for more selective and targeted drugs. An important and well-established target for lung cancer treatment is the occasionally mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As platinum(II) drugs are still the most important therapeutics against lung cancer, we synthesized in this study the first platinum(IV) complexes coupled to the EGFR-targeting peptide LARLLT (and the shuffled RTALLL as reference). Notably, HPLC-MS measurements revealed two different peaks with the same molecular mass, which turned out to be a transcyclization reaction in the linker between maleimide and the coupled cysteine moiety. With regard to the EGFR specificity, subsequent biological investigations (3-day viability, 14-day clonogenic assays and platinum uptake) on four different cell lines with different verified EGFR expression levels were performed. Unexpectedly, the results showed neither an enhanced activity nor an EGFR expression-dependent uptake of our new compounds. Consequently, fluorophore-coupled peptides were synthesized to re-evaluate the targeting ability of LARLLT itself. However, also with these molecules, flow cytometry measurements showed no correlation of drug uptake with the EGFR expression levels. Taken together, we successfully synthesized the first platinum(IV) complexes coupled to an EGFR-targeting peptide; however, the biological investigations revealed that LARLLT is not an appropriate peptide for enhancing the specific uptake of small-molecule drugs into EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.

  17. Andromeda IV, a solitary gas-rich dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Tully, R B; Makarova, L N; Sharina, M E; Begum, A; Rizzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Observations are presented of the isolated dwarf irregular galaxy And IV made with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope in the 21 cm HI line. We determine the galaxy distance of $7.17\\pm0.31$ Mpc using the Tip of Red Giant Branch method. The galaxy has a total blue absolute magnitude of -12.81 mag, linear Holmberg diameter of 1.88 kpc and an HI-disk extending to 8.4 times the optical Holmberg radius. The HI mass-to-blue luminosity ratio for And IV amounts $12.9~M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$. From the GMRT data we derive the rotation curve for the HI and fit it with different mass models. We find that the data are significantly better fit with an iso-thermal dark matter halo, than by an NFW halo. We also find that MOND rotation curve provides a very poor fit to the data. The fact that the iso-thermal dark matter halo provides the best fit to the data supports models in which star formation feedback results in the formation of a dark matter core in dwarf galaxies...

  18. Dynamics of gonococcal type IV pili during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Dirk; Clausen, Martin; Maier, Berenike

    2009-07-13

    Type IV pili are important bacterial virulence factors that mediate attachment to mammalian host cells and elicit downstream signals. When adhered to abiotic surfaces, the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae generates force by retracting these polymeric cell appendages. We recently found that single pili generate stalling forces that exceed 100 pN, but it is unclear whether bacteria generate force once they adhere to their human host cells. Here, we report that pili retract very actively during infection of human epithelial cells. The retraction velocity is bimodal and the high velocity mode persisted at higher forces in contrast to an abiotic environment. Bacteria generate considerable force during infection, but the maximum force is reduced from 120+/-40 pN on abiotic surfaces to 70+/-20 pN on epithelial cells, most likely due to elastic effects. Velocity and maximum force of pilus retraction are largely independent of the infection period within 1 h and 24 h post-infection. Thus, the force generated by type IV pili during infection is high enough to induce cytoskeletal rearrangements in the host cell.

  19. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures.

  20. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  1. WAIS-IV visual puzzles in a mixed clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Robert R; Hilsabeck, Robin C

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about which cognitive functions underlie the new Visual Puzzles subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between Visual Puzzles and common neuropsychological measures in a mixed clinical sample. A total of 44 veterans (75% men) were administered the WAIS-IV as part of a neuropsychological evaluation. Average age was 47.4 years (SD = 11.8), and average education was 13.8 years (SD = 2.3). Correlations were conducted to examine relationships between Visual Puzzles, demographic variables, and neuropsychological measures. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to determine which measures contributed the most variance to Visual Puzzles. Visual Puzzles correlated significantly with measures of visuospatial reasoning, verbal learning and recall, mental flexibility, processing speed, and naming, which accounted for 50% of the variance in Visual Puzzles performance. The results indicate that Visual Puzzles is not a pure measure of visuoperceptual reasoning, at least in a mixed clinical sample, because memory, mental flexibility, processing speed, and language abilities also contribute to successful performance of the task. Thus it may be important to consider other aspects of cognitive functioning when interpreting Visual Puzzles performance.

  2. Classification Accuracy of Sequentially Administered WAIS-IV Short Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Kreiner, David S; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Glass Umfleet, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) short form (SF) may be effective for ruling out subnormal intelligence. To create a useful SF, subtest administration should follow the order prescribed in the manual and, depending upon individual performance, be terminated after completion of 2, 3, 4, or 5 subtests. One hundred and twenty-two patients completed the WAIS-IV. In two analyses, Full-Scale IQs (FSIQs) ≤69 and ≤79 were classified as impairment. Classification accuracy statistics indicated that all SFs using both cutoff scores exceeded the base rate (i.e., 14% and 34%) of subnormal intelligence, with hit rates ranging from 84% to 95%. The FSIQ cutoff of ≤69 had poor sensitivity for detecting impaired intellectual functioning with the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-subtest SFs; specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were excellent for each SF. With the FSIQ cutoff of ≤79, sensitivity was strong to excellent for the 3-, 4-, and 5-subtest SFs as were specificity, PPV, and NPV.

  3. Enhanced resilience and esthetics in a Class IV restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the reader a better understanding of the complex restorative challenge in achieving true harmonization of the primary parameters in esthetics (i.e., color, shape, and texture) represented by the replacement of a single anterior tooth. The case presented demonstrates the restoration of a Class IV fracture taking esthetic consideration of the anatomic variations of the adjacent teeth to produce a direct composite resin in harmony with the surrounding dentition. The basic procedure includes tooth preparation, development of the body layer, internal characterization with tints, development of the artificial enamel layers, shaping and contouring, and polishing. In understanding the total morphology of a tooth and using natural teeth as the basis for morphological thinking, the clinician possesses the knowledge to create restorations with a more natural appearance. Use of a recently developed optimized-particle composite and this morphological thinking allowed the author to achieve a restoration in harmony with the surrounding dentition. Continuing technological breakthroughs allow the clinician to implement and maximize new products to attain more predictable and esthetic results as demonstrated by this methodological protocol of incremental application of composite resins and modifiers to transform the Class IV fracture into a final restoration that mimics nature.

  4. Candidates of Halpha emitting regions in Magellanic Stream IV cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Masafumi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2012-01-01

    From H\\alpha narrow band observations, we identified three H\\alpha emitting regions in the direction of Magellanic Stream IV (MS IV). They consist of three parallel filaments with 2 arcmin width and 6 -- 30 arcmin length at 12 arcmin intervals. The mean surface brightness of them is $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$. Because of their low surface brightness, the regions were not detected in previous H\\alpha surveys. In HI map, the position of the filaments overlap MS, suggesting that they are parts of MS, but there also exists a local HI structure. If the filaments associate with MS, the sizes are 30 pc $\\times$ 100 -- 500 pc. The filaments lie at the leading edge of a downstream cloud, which supports a shock heating and its propagation (shock cascade) model for the ionizing source. If they are local objects, on the other hand, Fossil Str\\"omgren Trails of more than two stars is a possible interpretation, and the sizes would be 0.1 pc $\\times$ 0.3 -- 1.5 pc at 180 pc distance. The p...

  5. WAIS-IV and WISC-IV Structural Validity: Alternate Methods, Alternate Results. Commentary on Weiss et al. (2013a) and Weiss et al. (2013b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Kush, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013a) and Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013b), this issue, report examinations of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), respectively; comparing Wechsler Hierarchical Model (W-HM) and…

  6. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  7. Advanced Clinical Interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: Prevalence of Low Scores Varies by Level of Intelligence and Years of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L.; Holdnack, James A.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients…

  8. Two mutations in the IV/S4-S5 segment of the human skeletal muscle Na+ channel disrupt fast and enhance slow inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekov, A K; Peter, W; Mitrovic, N; Lehmann-Horn, F; Lerche, H

    2001-06-29

    Fast and slow inactivation (FI, SI) of the voltage-gated Na+ channel are two kinetically distinct and structurally dissociated processes. The voltage sensor IV/S4 and the intracellular IV/S4-S5 loop have been shown to play an important role in FI mediating the coupling between activation and inactivation. Two mutations in IV/S4-S5 of the human muscle Na+ channel, L1482C/A, disrupt FI by inducing a persistent Na+ current, shifting steady-state inactivation in the depolarizing direction and accelerating its recovery. These effects were more pronounced for L1482A. In contrast, SI of L1482C/A channels was enhanced showing a more complete SI and a 3-fold slowing of its recovery. Effects on SI were more pronounced for L1482C. The results indicate an important role of the IV/S4-S5 loop not only in FI but also in SI of the Na+ channel.

  9. Advanced Clinical Interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: Prevalence of Low Scores Varies by Level of Intelligence and Years of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L.; Holdnack, James A.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients…

  10. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  11. WAIS-IV and WISC-IV Structural Validity: Alternate Methods, Alternate Results. Commentary on Weiss et al. (2013a) and Weiss et al. (2013b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Kush, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013a) and Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013b), this issue, report examinations of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), respectively; comparing Wechsler Hierarchical Model (W-HM) and…

  12. Brief Report: Interrater Reliability of Clinical Diagnosis and DSM-IV Criteria for Autistic Disorder: Results of the DSM-IV Autism Field Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Lang, Jason; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the inter-rater reliability of clinician-assigned diagnosis of autism using or not using the criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV). For experienced raters there was little difference in reliability in the two conditions. However, a clinically significant improvement in diagnostic reliability…

  13. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014 Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  14. Performance evaluation study of IHX-IV seal assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmakumar, G.; Venkatramanan, J.; Balasubramanian, V.; Prakash, V.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102 (India); Konnur, M.S.; Ram Mohan, S.; Suresh, M.; Manikandan, S.; Rajesh, V. [Fluid Control Research Institute, Palakkad - 678 623 (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The construction of the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) has commenced at IGCAR, Kalpakkam. PFBR has four intermediate Heat Exchangers (IHX) and two primary Sodium Pumps. The secondary circuits consist of two loops with each loop having one secondary pump, two intermediate heat exchangers, one surge tank and four steam generators. Primary circuit has both hot and cold sodium and is separated into hot and cold pools by Inner Vessel(IV). IHX forms the interface between the primary circuit and secondary circuit of PFBR. The IHX and pumps are supported from at the top in the roof slab and penetrate through the conical portion of inner vessel. Proper sealing arrangements are necessary to prevent leakage of hot sodium into the cold pool through the penetration. The Mechanical Seal is employed to minimize the leakage through the penetration. This seal arrangement can facilitate Differential radial and thermal expansion between IHX and IV stand pipe at the region of penetration Relative tilting between the axis of IHX and IV stand pipe Smooth installation during commissioning and easy removal during maintenance Minimizes the forces transmitted to IV The hydraulic simulation study, of the IHX - IV mechanical seal assembly was undertaken at the Fluid Control Research Institute, Palghat. The seal has two leakage paths viz. Axial and radial. The leakage depends on the contact pressure on the sealing surface and the head causing the leakage. High leakage flow may lead to damage of inner vessel and may affect the thermal efficiency of the IHX. CFD analysis of the geometry was done in detail. This was done for prototype and the model condition. The optimized design obtained using CFD was employed for experimental evaluation. In the experimental set up, the leakage characteristics was studied for varying axial and radial clearance that prevails during the various stages of operation of the seal assembly in the reactor. A 1/2 scaled

  15. Separation chemistry and clean technique of cerium(IV):A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丹; 陈继; 李德谦

    2014-01-01

    The separation method of changeable valence RE element of cerium (Ce) was reviewed in this paper. Solvent extraction is the most effective and efficient method to separate Ce(IV) from RE(III), usually accompanied with fluorine (F) and phosphor (P) from bastnaesite and monazite etc. By roast or wet-air oxidation, Ce(III) of bastnaesite and monazite was oxidized into Ce(IV), and Cyanex923 and [A336][P507] have been investigated to co-extract and recover Ce(IV), F and P from H2SO4 leaching liquor, leading to favorable conditions for the subsequent separation of Th(IV) and RE(III). The interaction of Ce(IV) and F and/or P enhances the roasting, leaching and extraction of Ce(IV) due to increasing of the stability of Ce(IV), and the formation of CeF3 and CePO4 after reductive stripping will benefit the utilization of F and P. For dealing with RE ores of high-content Ce, the clean process of oxidation roasting and Ce(IV)-F separation for Sichuan bastnaesite highlights the advantages of Ce(IV) based clean technique, which firstly demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of Ce(IV), Th(IV), F and RE(III) and prevention of environmental pollution from foun-tainhead. A preliminary flowsheet of two-step oxidation and extraction of Ce(IV) for Bayan Obo mixed ores was further proposed to process the oxidation and extraction of Ce(IV) in presence of both F and P, indicating the possibility of similar effects with clean process of Sichuan bastnaesite. Ce(IV) separation chemistry and clean technique will open up new realms for light RE resources utilization, meeting“Emission Standards of Pollutants from Rare Earths Industry”promulgated by China’s Ministry of Environment Protection (MOP) in 2011.

  16. Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, A; Netzer, K O; Boutaud, A; Gunwar, S; Hudson, B G

    1999-03-01

    Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation.

  17. Theoretical studies on vibrational spectra of mixed cyanide-halide complexes of platinum(IV) and palladium(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Hanbing; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Longgen

    2003-02-01

    The vibrational spectra of mixed cyanide-halide complexes, M(CN) 4X 22- and M(CN) 5X 2- (M=Pt and Pd; X=F, Cl, Br and I), have been systematically investigated by ab initio RHF, B3LYP and MP2 methods with LanL2DZ and SDD basis sets. The calculated vibrational frequencies of platinum complexes are evaluated via comparison with the experimental values. In the infrared frequency region, the CN stretching vibrational frequencies calculated at B3LYP level with two basis sets are in good agreement with the observed values with deviations, -16-4 cm -1 for Pt(CN) 4X 22- and -18 to -2 cm -1 for Pt(CN) 5X 2-. However, in far-infrared region, the results obtained at RHF level are better than those calculated at B3LYP and MP2 levels. For RHF/SDD method, the deviations for PtX and PtC stretching vibrational frequencies are -14-1 and -12 to -2 cm -1 in the complex Pt(CN) 4X 22-, -19 to -11 and -15-14 cm -1 in the Pt(CN) 5X 2- complex, respectively. The vibrational frequencies of palladium(IV) and some platinum(IV) complexes that have not been experimentally reported are predicted.

  18. Particulate emissions from new heavy duty vehicles (Euro IV and V); Partikeludslip fra nye tunge koeretoejer (Euronorm IV og V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.; Ohm, A.; Willumsen, E. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2008-07-01

    The new Danish act on environmental zones allows local authorities to define zones where EURO III or older heavy duty vehicles should be equipped with a particulate filter. The introduction of EURO IV and V has reduced particulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles by approximately 80 % based on the mass of particles. There is, however, substantial uncertainty about the impact on the number of ultrafine particles, since they are not covered by Euronorm standards. When passing the bill, the Danish Minister for the Environment of the time stated that all relevant knowledge about particle emission from heavy duty vehicles needed to be collected for subsequent publication. To this end, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned a literature survey. The purpose of the survey is to provide an overview of the latest knowledge in the field of particle emissions from heavy duty vehicles, with special focus on the average size of the particle emissions. Another objective of the study is to analyse the direct emissions of NO{sub 2} from heavy duty vehicles classified under EURO IV and V. (au)

  19. DPP-IV-resistant, long-acting oxyntomodulin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoprete, Alessia; Capitò, Elena; Carrington, Paul E; Pocai, Alessandro; Finotto, Marco; Langella, Annunziata; Ingallinella, Paolo; Zytko, Karolina; Bufali, Simone; Cianetti, Simona; Veneziano, Maria; Bonelli, Fabio; Zhu, Lan; Monteagudo, Edith; Marsh, Donald J; Sinharoy, Ranabir; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Pessi, Antonello

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and the development of agents, that can simultaneously achieve glucose control and weight loss, is being actively pursued. Therapies based on peptide mimetics of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are rapidly gaining favor, due to their ability to increase insulin secretion in a strictly glucose-dependent manner, with little or no risk of hypoglycemia, and to their additional benefit of causing a modest, but durable weight loss. Oxyntomodulin (OXM), a 37-amino acid peptide hormone of the glucagon (GCG) family with dual agonistic activity on both the GLP-1 (GLP1R) and the GCG (GCGR) receptors, has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight in humans, with a lower incidence of treatment-associated nausea than GLP-1 mimetics. As for other peptide hormones, its clinical application is limited by the short circulatory half-life, a major component of which is cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). SAR studies on OXM, described herein, led to the identification of molecules resistant to DPP-IV degradation, with increased potency as compared to the natural hormone. Analogs derivatized with a cholesterol moiety display increased duration of action in vivo. Moreover, we identified a single substitution which can change the OXM pharmacological profile from a dual GLP1R/GCGR agonist to a selective GLP1R agonist. The latter finding enabled studies, described in detail in a separate study (Pocai A, Carrington PE, Adams JR, Wright M, Eiermann G, Zhu L, Du X, Petrov A, Lassman ME, Jiang G, Liu F, Miller C, Tota LM, Zhou G, Zhang X, Sountis MM, Santoprete A, Capitò E, Chicchi GG, Thornberry N, Bianchi E, Pessi A, Marsh DJ, SinhaRoy R. Glucagon-like peptide 1/glucagon receptor dual agonism reverses obesity in mice. Diabetes 2009; 58: 2258-2266), which highlight the potential of GLP1R/GCGR dual agonists as a potentially superior class of therapeutics over the pure GLP1R agonists

  20. IV Magnesium Sulfate for Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Khalid; Sayyed, Rafah; Davidson, Bruce L; Al Jawala, Shahaza; Ghadier, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if IV magnesium, useful for severe pediatric asthma, reduces time to medical readiness for discharge in patients with bronchiolitis when added to supportive care. We compared a single dose of 100 mg/kg of IV magnesium sulfate vs placebo for acute bronchiolitis. Patients received bronchodilator therapy, nebulized hypertonic saline, and 5 days of dexamethasone if there was eczema and/or a family history of asthma. Time to medical readiness for discharge was the primary efficacy outcome. Bronchiolitis severity scores and need for infirmary or hospital admission and for clinic revisits within 2 weeks were secondary outcomes. Cardiorespiratory instability onset was the safety outcome. A total of 162 previously healthy infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis aged 22 days to 17.6 months (median, 3.7 months) were enrolled. Approximately one-half of patients had eczema and/or a family history of asthma; 86.4% had positive findings on nasopharyngeal virus swabs. Geometric mean time until medical readiness for discharge was 24.1 h (95% CI, 20.0-29.1) for the 78 magnesium-treated patients and 25.3 h (95% CI, 20.3-31.5) for the 82 patients receiving placebo (ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.52-1.80]; P = .91). Mean bronchiolitis severity scores over time were similar for the two groups. The frequency of clinic visits in the subsequent 2 weeks (33.8% and 27.2%, respectively) was also similar. Fifteen magnesium recipients (19.5%) vs five placebo recipients (6.2%) were readmitted to the infirmary or hospital within 2 weeks (P = .016). No acute cardiorespiratory side effects were reported. IV magnesium did not provide benefit for patients with acute bronchiolitis and may be harmful. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02145520; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Astragaloside IV enhances diabetic wound healing involving upregulation of alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Huang, Ping; Yuan, Baohong; Liu, Tao; Lan, Fang; Lu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Liangcheng; Liu, Yunjun; Yin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active compounds extracted from Astragali Radix, has been used experimentally for its potent antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. In this study, we further investigate the potential efficacy of AS-IV on impaired wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. A full-thickness skin wound was produced on the back of diabetic mice and treated with AS-IV or vehicle topically. Our results showed that AS-IV application promoted diabetic wound repair with wounds gaping narrower and exhibiting augmented reepithelialization. AS-IV enhanced the collagen deposition and the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes such as fibronectin and collagen IIIa, which implies a direct effect of AS-IV on matrix synthesis. AS-IV also improved the new blood vessel formation in wound tissue with increased numbers of endothelial cells and enhanced expression of VEGF and vWF. Moreover, the beneficial effect of AS-IV was related to the development of polarized alternatively activated macrophages, which involved in resolution of inflammation and facilitation of wound repair. All together, these findings suggest that AS-IV may play a potential effect on maintenance of cutaneous homeostasis and acceleration of diabetic wound healing.

  2. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  3. Long-term risk of complications after mid-urethral sling IVS implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Surkont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Results of short-term evaluation of multifilament microporous midurethral tape IVS differ a great deal. During the first year of implantation, erosions have been observed in 0%–26% of operated women. Long-term observations are rare. They suggest high risk of extrusion and infection even after years of implantation. [b]Objective[/b]. The purpose of the study was to evaluate long-term risk of complications after IVS implantation. Material and methods. Between 2001–2005, 72 women were operated on with the use of IVS mid-urethral tape. [b]Results[/b]. Two women had vaginal erosions during the first 3 months after the operation. Twelve women had vaginal erosions, purulent vaginal discharge, with IVS tape sticking out of the abdominal wall or vagina, and abdominal abscess. These complications were diagnosed between 9 months and 6 years after IVS implantation. The patients were operated on vaginally and open abdominally, 1–5 times because of complications after IVS implantation. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In the case of post-IVS complication, as much tape as possible should be excised. Long-term follow up on patients with IVS implantation should be recommended to the centres where IVS tape was used, even to patients after removal of the tape. Risk of erosion, extrusion and infection after midurethral multifilament microporous IVS tape implantation is too high – which is the reason it should no longer be used.

  4. Interaction of vanadium(IV) with human serum apo-transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtab, Sameena; Gonçalves, Gisela; Roy, Somnath; Tomaz, Ana Isabel; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Santos, Marino F A; Romão, Maria J; Jakusch, Tamás; Kiss, Tamás; Pessoa, João Costa

    2013-04-01

    The interaction of V(IV)O-salts as well as of a few V(IV)O(carrier)n complexes with human serum transferrin (hTF) is studied focusing on the determination of the nature and stoichiometry of the binding of V(IV)O(2+) to hTF, as well as whether the conformation of hTF upon binding to V(IV)O(2+) or to its complexes is changed. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra measured for solutions containing V(IV)O(2+) and apo-hTF, and V(IV)O-maltol and apo-hTF, clearly indicate that hTF-V(IV)O-maltol ternary species form with a V(IV)O:maltol stoichiometry of 1:1. For V(IV)O salts and several V(IV)O(carrier)n complexes (carrier ligand=maltolato, dhp, picolinato and dipicolinato) (Hdhp=1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone) the maximum number of V(IV)O(2+) bound per mole of hTF is determined to be ~2 or lower in all cases. The binding of V(IV)O to apo-hTF most certainly involves several amino acid residues of the Fe-binding site, and as concluded by urea gel electrophoresis experiments, the formation of (V(IV)O)2hTF species may occur with the closing of the hTF conformation as is the case in (Fe(III))2hTF, which is an essential feature for the transferrin receptor recognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central administration of angiotensin IV rapidly enhances novel object recognition among mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Reilley, Kate J; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin IV (Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) has demonstrated potential cognitive-enhancing effects. The present investigation assessed and characterized: (1) dose-dependency of angiotensin IV's cognitive enhancement in a C57BL/6J mouse model of novel object recognition, (2) the time-course for these effects, (3) the identity of residues in the hexapeptide important to these effects and (4) the necessity of actions at angiotensin IV receptors for procognitive activity. Assessment of C57BL/6J mice in a novel object recognition task demonstrated that prior administration of angiotensin IV (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0, but not 0.01 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly enhanced novel object recognition in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were time dependent, with improved novel object recognition observed when angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) was administered 10 or 20, but not 30 min prior to the onset of the novel object recognition testing. An alanine scan of the angiotensin IV peptide revealed that replacement of the Val(1), Ile(3), His(4), or Phe(6) residues with Ala attenuated peptide-induced improvements in novel object recognition, whereas Tyr(2) or Pro(5) replacement did not significantly affect performance. Administration of the angiotensin IV receptor antagonist, divalinal-Ang IV (20 nmol, i.c.v.), reduced (but did not abolish) novel object recognition; however, this antagonist completely blocked the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) in this task. Rotorod testing demonstrated no locomotor effects with any angiotensin IV or divalinal-Ang IV dose tested. These data demonstrate that angiotensin IV produces a rapid enhancement of associative learning and memory performance in a mouse model that was dependent on the angiotensin IV receptor.

  6. Nanomembrane-based materials for Group IV semiconductor quantum electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiewicz, D M; Savage, D E; Holt, M V; Evans, P G; Lagally, M G

    2014-02-27

    Strained-silicon/relaxed-silicon-germanium alloy (strained-Si/SiGe) heterostructures are the foundation of Group IV-element quantum electronics and quantum computation, but current materials quality limits the reliability and thus the achievable performance of devices. In comparison to conventional approaches, single-crystal SiGe nanomembranes are a promising alternative as substrates for the epitaxial growth of these heterostructures. Because the nanomembrane is truly a single crystal, in contrast to the conventional SiGe substrate made by compositionally grading SiGe grown on bulk Si, significant improvements in quantum electronic-device reliability may be expected with nanomembrane substrates. We compare lateral strain inhomogeneities and the local mosaic structure (crystalline tilt) in strained-Si/SiGe heterostructures that we grow on SiGe nanomembranes and on compositionally graded SiGe substrates, with micro-Raman mapping and nanodiffraction, respectively. Significant structural improvements are found using SiGe nanomembranes.

  7. ROLE OF PALLIATION IN STAGE IV CARCINOMA CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Palliation reduces the severity of disease symptoms, rather than reversing its progression or providing a cure. Metast atic cancer cervix (Ca Cx is incurable by surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, but these modali ties are useful for palliation. Globally about five to six lakh new cases of carcinoma cervi x are diagnosed every year. Of these, one lakh cases are diagnosed in India of which 25.0% are fro m West Bengal only. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the role of palliation in Sta ge IV Carcinoma Cervix. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: During the study period of five years from January 2 007 to December 2011, consecutive seventy five new cases of stage IV carc inoma cervix diagnosed at Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Research Institute, Kolkata, we re included in our study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical examination with relevant investigations l ike kidney function tests (KFT, biopsy, cystoscopy, CT scan etc were done for diagno sis & staging. Treatment was decided based on woman's age, general health and the locati on & type of the tumour. Treatment options were surgery, radiotherapy (RT, chemotherapy (CT an d simple palliation. In our study, combined CT+RT was done in 18.67% patients most of w ho presented with Stage IV disease. Radiation was given as brachytherapy following telet herapy. Chemotherapy was used as adjunct to RT or for palliation or as neo-adjuvant c hemotherapy (NACT, most commonly using paclitaxel (135mg/square metre, cisplatin (50mg/ squ are metre and 5- fluorouracil (600mg/ square metre. At times, chemotherapy could provide pa in relief only. Vault smear and metastatic workup was done during follow-up visits ev ery 8-12 weeks after treatment completion. RESULTS: Majority of patients belonged to the age group 42-69 years with a median age of 53 years. Bladder involvement was see n in 15(20.0% cases, bowel involvement in 14(19.0% and distant metastasis in 46(61.0% ca ses. Most cases were of Squamous

  8. Synthesis and characterization of oxovanadium (IV) dithiocarbamates with pyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doadrio, Antonio L.; Sotelo, Jose; Fernandez-Ruano, Ana [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Farmacia. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica y Bioinorganica]. E-mail: antoniov@farm.ucm.es

    2002-07-01

    We report the synthesis and study of a new series of oxovanadium (IV) dithiocarbamate adducts and derivatives with pyridine and cyclohexyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-propyl, aniline, morpholine, piperidine and di-iso-propyl amines. The complexes have been characterized by analytical, magneto chemical, IR, visible-UV spectral and thermal studies, and are assigned the formulas [VO(L){sub 2}].py, where L=cyclohexyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-propyl, aniline dithiocarbamate and [VO(OH)(L)(py){sub 2}] OH.H{sub 2}O (L=morpholine, piperidine and di-iso-propyl dithiocarbamate). The effect of the adduct formation on the p{sub V=0} bound is discussed in terms of the IR (V=O, V-S and V-N stretching frequencies) and electronic spectra (d-d transitions). (author)

  9. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME SILICON (IV COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.F DAWOOD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon(IV complexes containing mixed ligands: Shiff-bases (AH {derived from 2- or 3- amino-pyridine with 2-hydroxy- or 3-me- thoxy- or 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde} and benzalde- hyde semicarbazone (BSCH, have been prepared. The resulted complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance values, infrared and electronic spectral data. Complexes of the type [Si(BSCH2(AH]Cl4, [Si(BSC2(AnH]Cl2 and [Si(BSC2(A]Cl (where n=2 or 3, A=deprotonated Schiff-base ligands , BSC= deprotonated semicarbazone have been proposed in neutral and basic medium, respectively.

  10. Automation Of An I-V Characterization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Noriega

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an accurate I-V virtual instrument (VI that has been developed to characterize electronic devices forresearch and teaching purposes is demonstrated. The virtual instrument can be used to highlight principles ofmeasurement, instrumentation, fundamental principles of electronics, VI programming, device testing andcharacterization in wafer or discrete device level. It consists of a Keithley electrometer, model 6514, a programmablepower supply BK Precision, model 1770, a Keithley source meter, model 2400-LV, an Agilent digital multimeter, model34401, a PC computer and LabVIEW software. The instruments are interconnected using an IEEE 488 protocol. Thecharacteristic VI devices graphs are generated from measured data previous computational processing. Theinstrument is used in basic courses of physical electronics as well as in advance curses of VLSI design and inresearch work for characterization of semiconductor materials and devices. This paper describes the VI instrumentdesign, implementation and characterization experiments.

  11. DNA ligase IV as a new molecular target for temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Natsuko [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); McKinnon, Peter J. [Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Sakaki, Toshisuke; Nakase, Hiroyuki [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a methylating agent used in chemotherapy against glioblastoma. This work was designed to clarify details in repair pathways acting to remove DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by TMZ. Cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used which were deficient in DSB repair genes such as homologous recombination repair-related genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2)and radiation sensitive mutant54 (Rad54), non-homologous end joining repair-related gene DNAligase IV (Lig4). Cell sensitivity to drug treatments was assessed using colony forming assays. The most effective molecular target which was correlated with TMZ cell sensitivity was Lig4. In addition, it was found that small interference RNAs (siRNA) for Lig4 efficiently enhanced cell lethality induced by TMZ in human glioblastoma A172 cells. These findings suggest that down regulation of Lig4 might provide a useful tool for cell sensitization during TMZ chemotherapy.

  12. Phase Transitions in Layered Diguanidinium Hexachlorostannate(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szafranski, Marek; Ståhl, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    structures of all phases are built of similar layers in which the tin hexachloride anions are connected to the guanidinium cations by N-H center dot center dot center dot Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a interact primarily by Coulombic forces between the ions from ap. double H-bonded sheets. The layers, neutral...... be realized when the crystal is cooled from phase I: the reverse transition occurs in the monoclinic phase III or in the monoclinic phase IV (space group C2/m), or in the phase V of space group PT. In all phases the layered structure of the crystal is preserved, while the arrangement of the layers......), indicate a great potential of this material for applications in solid-state cooling systems....

  13. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  14. The enteroinsular axis in dipeptidyl peptidase IV-negative rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederson, Raymond; Kieffer, T J; Pauly, R

    1996-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that the incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1(7-36) amide) are degraded and rendered biologically inactive in plasma by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV). A strain of Fischer rats lacking the DPIV enzyme...... with incubation in plasma from DPIV-deficient rats. It was hypothesized that the reduced GIP response and decreased sensitivity of the pancreas to GIP are compensatory mechanisms that maintain insulin and glucose levels within a normal range despite abnormal degradation of GIP. An explanation of the lack...... of effect of the absence of DPIV on the GLP-1(7-36) response to oral glucose and insulinotropic action of this peptide must await further study....

  15. Mg II & C IV Kinematics vs. Stellar Kinematics in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Churchill, Chris; Steidel, Chuck

    2002-01-01

    Comparisons of the kinematics of Mg II absorbing gas and the stellar rotation curves in 0.5 < z < 1.0 spiral galaxies suggests that, at least in some cases, the extended gaseous envelopes may be dynamically coupled to the stellar matter. A strong correlation exists between the overall kinematic spread of Mg II absorbing gas and C IV absorption strength, and therefore kinematics of the higher-ionization gas. Taken together, the data may suggest a "halo/disk connection" between z~1 galaxies and their extended gaseous envelopes. Though the number of galaxies in our sample are few, there are no clear examples that suggest the gas is accreting/infalling isotropically about the galaxies from the intergalactic medium.

  16. Photolysis of an arylalkyl-triazenido-platinum-IV complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, T.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J.; Wokaun, A.

    1996-06-01

    The photolytic decomposition of tetrakis(1-phenyl-3-hexyl-triazenido)-platinum(IV) is studied in a variety of media, and found to proceed according to simple first order kinetics. Two excimer laser wavelengths, an excimer-laser pumped dye laser, and a broadband mercury lamp are used for excitation. As referred to the incident power, selective irradiation near the complex-specific absorption maximum is found to be most efficient for inducing the photolytic decomposition. A different influence of degassing and oxygen saturation is observed for tetrahydrofurane and for technical siloxane solvents. To elucidate the origins of the observed behaviour, decomposition products of the complex, and products of hydrosilylation reactions catalyzed by this compound, are identified by GC/MS analysis.

  17. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Chromospheric models for Altair (A7 IV-V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, R. Freire; Gouttebroze, P.; Catalano, S.; Marilli, E.; Bruhweiler, F.; Kondo, Y.; Van Der Hucht, K.; Talavera, A.

    1995-01-01

    The star, Altair (A7 IV-V), is clearly shown to have Lyman-alpha emission of chromospheric origin, while no evidence is found for the Mg II emission reported in previous investigations. We present non-Local Thermodymanic Equilibrium (non-LTE) semiempirical models incorporating partial redistribution of the chromosphere of Altair that reproduce the observed Lyman-alpha emission and the Mg II resonance absorption at 2800 A. We unambiguously establihed that chromospheres exist at spectral types as early as A7 on the main sequence, and we also demonstrate that it very unlikely that the observed emission originates in a corotating expanding wind. This result represents a new challenge for chromospheric heating theories. It may indicate that both differential rotation and convection layers, at least near the equator, exist in this fast rotating (v sin i = 220 km/s) star.

  19. Estimating WISC-IV indexes: proration versus linear scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A; Ryan, Joseph J; Bartels, Jared M; Morris, Jeri

    2008-10-01

    This investigation compared proration and linear scaling for estimating Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) verbal comprehension (VCI) and perceptual reasoning (PRI) composites from all relevant two subtest combinations. Using 57 primary school students and 41 clinical referrals, actual VCI and PRI scores were highly correlated with estimated index scores based on proration and linear scaling (all rs> or =.90). In the school sample, significant mean score differences between the actual and estimated composites were found in two comparisons; however, differences between mean scores were less than three points. No significant differences emerged in the clinical sample. Results indicate that any of the two subtest combinations produced reasonably accurate estimates of actual indexes. There was no advantage of one computational method over the other. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reducing bloodstream infection with a chlorhexidine gel IV dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanes, Annette; Bitmead, James

    The use of vascular access devices (VAD) is common in healthcare provision but there is a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Central venous catheters (CVC) are associated with the highest risk of intravenous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). 3M™ Tegaderm™ CHG IV dressing is a semi-permeable transparent adhesive dressing with an integrated gel pad containing chlorhexidine gluconate 2%. This product was reviewed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2015, recommending that Tegaderm CHG could be used for CVC and arterial line dressings in high-dependency and intensive-care settings. This article discusses issues around CRBSI, interventions to reduce the risk of CRBSI, and the use of Tegaderm CHG dressing.