WorldWideScience

Sample records for formally finite type

  1. Finite anticanonical transformations in field-antifield formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Tyutin, Igor V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lavrov, Peter M. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    We study the role of arbitrary (finite) anticanonical transformations in the field-antifield formalism and the gauge-fixing procedure based on the use of these transformations. The properties of the generating functionals of the Green functions subjected to finite anticanonical transformations are considered. (orig.)

  2. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...

  3. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  4. A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Statman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.

  5. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    of Euclidean spaces. We prove that, if the distance matrix is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points. In connection with an open problem raised...

  6. Type I supergravity effective action from pure spinor formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Geova

    2009-01-01

    Using the pure spinor formalism, we compute the tree-level correlation functions for three strings, one closed and two open, in N = 1 D = 10 superspace. Expanding the superfields in components, the respective terms of the effective action for the type I supergravity are obtained. All terms found agree with the effective action known in the literature. This result gives one more consistency test for the pure spinor formalism.

  7. On Algebraic Study of Type-2 Fuzzy Finite State Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam K. Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Theories of fuzzy sets and type-2 fuzzy sets are powerful mathematical tools for modeling various types of uncertainty. In this paper we introduce the concept of type-2 fuzzy finite state automata and discuss the algebraic study of type-2 fuzzy finite state automata, i.e., to introduce the concept of homomorphisms between two type-2 fuzzy finite state automata, to associate a type-2 fuzzy transformation semigroup with a type-2 fuzzy finite state automata. Finally, we discuss several product of type-2 fuzzy finite state automata and shown that these product is a categorical product.

  8. A systematic study of finite BRST-BV transformations within W-X formulation of the standard and the Sp(2)-extended field-antifield formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalin, Igor A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Bering, Klaus [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno (Czech Republic); Lavrov, Peter M. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Finite BRST-BV transformations are studied systematically within the W-X formulation of the standard and the Sp(2)-extended field-antifield formalism. The finite BRST-BV transformations are introduced by formulating a new version of the Lie equations. The corresponding finite change of the gauge-fixing master action X and the corresponding Ward identity are derived. (orig.)

  9. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  10. Construction of Non-Perturbative, Unitary Particle-Antiparticle Amplitudes for Finite Particle Number Scattering Formalisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a unitary, Lorentz invariant two-particle scattering amplitude, we show how to use an identification and replacement process to construct a unique, unitary particle-antiparticle amplitude. This process differs from conventional on-shell Mandelstam s,t,u crossing in that the input and constructed amplitudes can be off-diagonal and off-energy shell. Further, amplitudes are constructed using the invariant parameters which are appropriate to use as driving terms in the multi-particle, multichannel nonperturbative, cluster decomposable, relativistic scattering equations of the Faddeev-type integral equations recently presented by Alfred, Kwizera, Lindesay and Noyes. It is therefore anticipated that when so employed, the resulting multi-channel solutions will also be unitary. The process preserves the usual particle-antiparticle symmetries. To illustrate this process, we construct a J=0 scattering length model chosen for simplicity. We also exhibit a class of physical models which contain a finite quantum mass parameter and are Lorentz invariant. These are constructed to reduce in the appropriate limits, and with the proper choice of value and sign of the interaction parameter, to the asymptotic solution of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem, including the forward scattering singularity , the essential singularity in the phase, and the Bohr bound-state spectrum

  11. Solutions of the finite type of Sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guosong

    1998-01-01

    We use the technique of differential geometry to prove that the solutions of finite type of the sine-Gordon equation φ xx - φ yy = sin φ cosφ can be obtained from a system of ordinary differential equations

  12. The structure of the Hamiltonian in a finite-dimensional formalism based on Weyl's quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, T.S.; Madivanane, S.

    1982-01-01

    Any discussion on finite-dimensional formulation of quantum mechanics involves the Sylvester matrix (finite Fourier transform). In the usual formulation, a remarkable relation exists that gives the Fourier transform as the exponential of the Hamiltonian of a simple harmonic oscillator. In this paper, assuming that such a relation holds also in the finite dimensional case, we extract the logarithm of the Sylvester matrix and in some cases this can be interpreted as the Hamiltonian of the truncated oscillator. We calculate the Hamiltonian matrix explicitly for some special cases of n = 3,4. (author)

  13. Comment on ''Canonical formalism for Lagrangians with nonlocality of finite extent''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep

    2003-01-01

    The paper by Woodward [Phys. Rev. A 62, 052105 (2000)] claimed to have proved that Lagrangian theories with a nonlocality of finite extent are necessarily unstable. In this Comment we propose that this conclusion is false

  14. Correlation functions in finite temperature field theories: formalism and applications to quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelis, Francois

    1998-12-01

    The general framework of this work is thermal field theory, and more precisely the perturbative calculation of thermal Green's functions. In a first part, I consider the problems closely related to the formalism itself. After two introductory chapters devoted to set up the framework and the notations used afterwards, a chapter is dedicated to a clarification of certain aspects of the justification of the Feynman rules of the real time formalism. Then, I consider in the chapter 4 the problem of cutting rules in the real time formalisms. In particular, after solving a controversy on this subject, I generalize these cutting rules to the 'retarded-advanced' version of this formalism. Finally, the last problem considered in this part is that of the pion decay into two photons in a thermal bath. I show that the discrepancies found in the literature are due to peculiarities of the analytical properties of the thermal Green's functions. The second part deals with the calculations of the photons or dilepton (virtual photon) production rate by a quark gluon plasma. The framework of this study is the effective theory based on the resummation of hard thermal loops. The first aspects of this study is related to the production of virtual photons, where we show that important contributions arise at two loops, completing the result already known at one loop. In the case of real photon production, we show that extremely strong collinear singularities make two loop contributions dominant compared to one loop ones. In both cases, the importance of two loop contributions can be interpreted as weaknesses of the hard thermal loop approximation. (author)

  15. A comparison of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of finite temperature field theory for 2,3, and 4-point Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.

    1991-07-01

    The predictions of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of Finite Temperature Field Theory is compared. Retarded and advanced amplitudes are constructed in the real-time formalism which are linear combinations of the usual time-ordered thermo-field dynamics amplitudes. These amplitudes can be easily compared to the various analytically continued amplitudes of the imaginary-time formalism. Explicit calculation of the 2,3 and 4-point Green's functions in φ 3 field theory is done in the one and two-loop approximations, and the compatibility of the two formalisms is shown. (author) 17 refs., 12 figs

  16. Subshifts of finite type and self-similar sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kan; Dajani, Karma

    2017-02-01

    Let K\\subset {R} be a self-similar set generated by some iterated function system. In this paper we prove, under some assumptions, that K can be identified with a subshift of finite type. With this identification, we can calculate the Hausdorff dimension of K as well as the set of elements in K with unique codings using the machinery of Mauldin and Williams (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 309 811-29). We give three different applications of our main result. Firstly, we calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of points of K with multiple codings. Secondly, in the setting of β-expansions, when the set of all the unique codings is not a subshift of finite type, we can calculate in some cases the Hausdorff dimension of the univoque set. Motivated by this application, we prove that the set of all the unique codings is a subshift of finite type if and only if it is a sofic shift. This equivalent condition was not mentioned by de Vries and Komornik (2009 Adv. Math. 221 390-427, theorem 1.8). Thirdly, for the doubling map with asymmetrical holes, we give a sufficient condition such that the survivor set can be identified with a subshift of finite type. The third application partially answers a problem posed by Alcaraz Barrera (2014 PhD Thesis University of Manchester).

  17. Finite-dimensional approximation for operator equations of Hammerstein type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buong, N.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish convergence rate for a method of finite-dimensional approximation to solve operator equation of Hammerstein type in real reflexive Banach space. In order to consider a numerical example an iteration method is proposed in Hilbert space. (author). 25 refs

  18. On the classification of links up to finite type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habegger, Nathan; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste

    We use an action, of 2l-component string links on l-component string links, defined by the first author and Xiao-Song Lin, to lift the indeterminacy of finite type link invariants. The set of links up to this new indeterminacy is in bijection with the orbit space of the restriction of this action...

  19. Finite automata, their algebras and grammars towards a theory of formal expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Büchi, J Richard

    1989-01-01

    The author, who died in 1984, is well-known both as a person and through his research in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science. In the first part of the book he presents the new classical theory of finite automata as unary algebras which he himself invented about 30 years ago. Many results, like his work on structure lattices or his characterization of regular sets by generalized regular rules, are unknown to a wider audience. In the second part of the book he extends the theory to general (non-unary, many-sorted) algebras, term rewriting systems, tree automata, and pushdown automata. Essentially Büchi worked independent of other rersearch, following a novel and stimulating approach. He aimed for a mathematical theory of terms, but could not finish the book. Many of the results are known by now, but to work further along this line presents a challenging research program on the borderline between universal algebra, term rewriting systems, and automata theory. For the whole book and aga...

  20. Formalizing and proving a typing result for security protocols in Isabelle/HOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Andreas Viktor; Modersheim, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    or the positive output of a verification tool. However several of these works have used a typed model, where the intruder is restricted to "well-typed" attacks. There also have been several works that show that this is actually not a restriction for a large class of protocols, but all these results so far...... are again pen-and-paper proofs. In this work we present a formalization of such a typing result in Isabelle/HOL. We formalize a constraint-based approach that is used in the proof argument of such typing results, and prove its soundness, completeness and termination. We then formalize and prove the typing...... result itself in Isabelle. Finally, to illustrate the real-world feasibility, we prove that the standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake satisfies the main condition of the typing result....

  1. A Unified Formal Description of Arithmetic and Set Theoretical Data Types

    OpenAIRE

    Tarau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We provide a "shared axiomatization" of natural numbers and hereditarily finite sets built around a polymorphic abstraction of bijective base-2 arithmetics. The "axiomatization" is described as a progressive refinement of Haskell type classes with examples of instances converging to an efficient implementation in terms of arbitrary length integers and bit operations. As an instance, we derive algorithms to perform arithmetic operations efficiently directly with hereditarily finite sets. The s...

  2. Curci-Ferrari-type condition in Hamiltonian formalism: A free spinning relativistic particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.

    2013-03-01

    The Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restriction emerges in the description of a free spinning relativistic particle within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism when the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for this system are derived from the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and its supersymmetric generalization (SUSY-HC) within the framework of the superfield formalism. We show that the above CF condition, which turns out to be the secondary constraint of our present theory, remains time-evolution invariant within the framework of Hamiltonian formalism. This time-evolution invariance i) physically justifies the imposition of the (anti-)BRST invariant CF-type condition on this system, and ii) mathematically implies the linear independence of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory.

  3. Expansion in finite simple groups of Lie type

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Expander graphs are an important tool in theoretical computer science, geometric group theory, probability, and number theory. Furthermore, the techniques used to rigorously establish the expansion property of a graph draw from such diverse areas of mathematics as representation theory, algebraic geometry, and arithmetic combinatorics. This text focuses on the latter topic in the important case of Cayley graphs on finite groups of Lie type, developing tools such as Kazhdan's property (T), quasirandomness, product estimates, escape from subvarieties, and the Balog-Szemerédi-Gowers lemma. Applications to the affine sieve of Bourgain, Gamburd, and Sarnak are also given. The material is largely self-contained, with additional sections on the general theory of expanders, spectral theory, Lie theory, and the Lang-Weil bound, as well as numerous exercises and other optional material.

  4. A generalized nodal finite element formalism for discrete ordinates equations in slab geometry Part I: Theory in the continuous moment case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.P.; Valle, E. del.

    1995-01-01

    A generalized nodal finite element formalism is presented, which covers virtually all known finit difference approximation to the discrete ordinates equations in slab geometry. This paper (Part 1) presents the theory of the so called open-quotes continuous moment methodsclose quotes, which include such well-known methods as the open-quotes diamond differenceclose quotes and the open-quotes characteristicclose quotes schemes. In a second paper (hereafter referred to as Part II), the authors will present the theory of the open-quotes discontinuous moment methodsclose quotes, consisting in particular of the open-quotes linear discontinuousclose quotes scheme as well as of an entire new class of schemes. Corresponding numerical results are available for all these schemes and will be presented in a third paper (Part III). 12 refs

  5. Construction of stable explicit finite-difference schemes for Schroedinger type differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    A family of conditionally stable, forward Euler finite difference equations can be constructed for the simplest equation of Schroedinger type, namely u sub t - iu sub xx. Generalization of this result to physically realistic Schroedinger type equations is presented.

  6. Root Fernando-Kac subalgebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Milev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\mathfrak{g}$ be a finite-dimensional Lie algebra and $M$ be a $\\mathfrak{g}$-module. The Fernando-Kac subalgebra of $\\mathfrak{g}$ associated to $M$ is the subset $\\mathfrak{g}[M]\\subset\\mathfrak{g}$ of all elements $g\\in\\mathfrak{g}$ which act locally finitely on $M$. A subalgebra $\\mathfrak{l}\\subset\\mathfrak{g}$ for which there exists an irreducible module $M$ with $\\mathfrak{g}[M]=\\mathfrak{l}$ is called a Fernando-Kac subalgebra of $\\mathfrak{g}$. A Fernando-Kac subalgebra of $\\mat...

  7. Finite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Azzam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of using a skirted foundation system to study the behavior of foundations with structural skirts adjacent to a sand slope and subjected to earthquake loading. The effect of the adopted skirts to safeguard foundation and slope from collapse is studied. The skirts effect on controlling horizontal soil movement and decreasing pore water pressure beneath foundations and beside the slopes during earthquake is investigated. This technique is investigated numerically using finite element analysis. A four story reinforced concrete building that rests on a raft foundation is idealized as a two-dimensional model with and without skirts. A two dimensional plain strain program PLAXIS, (dynamic version is adopted. A series of models for the problem under investigation were run under different skirt depths and lactation from the slope crest. The effect of subgrade relative density and skirts thickness is also discussed. Nodal displacement and element strains were analyzed for the foundation with and without skirts and at different studied parameters. The research results showed a great effectiveness in increasing the overall stability of the slope and foundation. The confined soil footing system by such skirts reduced the foundation acceleration therefore it can be tended to damping element and relieved the transmitted disturbance to the adjacent slope. This technique can be considered as a good method to control the slope deformation and decrease the slope acceleration during earthquakes.

  8. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  9. Mapping Spaces, Centralizers, and p-Local Finite Groups of Lie Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Isabelle

    We study the space of maps from the classifying space of a finite p-group to theBorel construction of a finite group of Lie type G in characteristic p acting on itsbuilding. The first main result is a description of the homology with Fp-coefficients,showing that the mapping space, up to p...... between a finite p-group and theuncompleted classifying space of the p-local finite group coming from a finite groupof Lie type in characteristic p, providing some of the first results in this uncompletedsetting.......-completion, is a disjoint union indexedover the group homomorphism up to conjugation of classifying spaces of centralizersof p-subgroups in the underlying group G. We complement this description bydetermining the actual homotopy groups of the mapping space. These resultstranslate to descriptions of the space of maps...

  10. Non local separable interactions in the description of some nuclear properties. Recoil and finite range effects in the CRC formalism for the study of heavy ion transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Some simplifications given by the nonlocal separable interactions (NLSI) allowed an exhaustive study of the three body problem to be performed. This work is intended to show that NLSI are also useful in studying the properties of nuclei. Some satisfactory results obtained in the infinite nuclear matter and also in the Hartree-Fock study of some 3s-1d nuclei are then given. A coupled reaction formalism has been developed for the analysis of heavy ion induced reactions. The recoil and finite range effects, which are necessary tools in heavy-ion induced reactions, have been introduced from the work of Coker et al. for the ( 3 He,t) reaction [fr

  11. Complexity of a kind of interval continuous self-map of finite type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lidong; Chu Zhenyan; Liao Gongfu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We find the Hausdorff dimension for an interval continuous self-map f of finite type is s element of (0,1) on a non-wandering set. → f| Ω(f) has positive topological entropy. → f| Ω(f) is chaotic such as Devaney chaos, Kato chaos, two point distributional chaos and so on. - Abstract: An interval map is called finitely typal, if the restriction of the map to non-wandering set is topologically conjugate with a subshift of finite type. In this paper, we prove that there exists an interval continuous self-map of finite type such that the Hausdorff dimension is an arbitrary number in the interval (0, 1), discuss various chaotic properties of the map and the relations between chaotic set and the set of recurrent points.

  12. Complexity of a kind of interval continuous self-map of finite type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lidong, E-mail: wld@dlnu.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Institute of Mathematics, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Chu Zhenyan, E-mail: chuzhenyan8@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China) and Institute of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Liao Gongfu, E-mail: liaogf@email.jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > We find the Hausdorff dimension for an interval continuous self-map f of finite type is s element of (0,1) on a non-wandering set. > f|{sub {Omega}(f)} has positive topological entropy. > f|{sub {Omega}(f)} is chaotic such as Devaney chaos, Kato chaos, two point distributional chaos and so on. - Abstract: An interval map is called finitely typal, if the restriction of the map to non-wandering set is topologically conjugate with a subshift of finite type. In this paper, we prove that there exists an interval continuous self-map of finite type such that the Hausdorff dimension is an arbitrary number in the interval (0, 1), discuss various chaotic properties of the map and the relations between chaotic set and the set of recurrent points.

  13. Diagnosis of three types of constant faults in read-once contact networks over finite bases

    KAUST Repository

    Busbait, Monther I.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We study the depth of decision trees for diagnosis of three types of constant faults in read-once contact networks over finite bases containing only indecomposable networks. For each basis and each type of faults, we obtain a linear upper bound

  14. Sensitivity analysis on hot channel of PWR type reactors using matricial formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Edisson Savio G.; Andrade Lima, Fernando Roberto de; Lira, Carlos Alberto B.O.

    1995-01-01

    The matricial formalism of the perturbation theory is applied in a simplified model to study the hot channel of PWR reactors. Mass, linear momentum and energy conservation equations and appropriated heat transfer and fluid mechanics correlations describe the discretized system. After calculating system's thermalhydraulic properties, the matricial formalism is applied and the sensitivity coefficients are determined for each case of interest. Comparisons between perturbative method and direct results of the model have shown good agreement which demonstrates that the matricial formalism is an important tool for discretized system analysis. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  15. The analysis of crystallographic symmetry types in finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Atikah Mohd; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Adam, Nooraishikin; Zamri, Siti Norziahidayu Amzee

    2014-06-01

    Undeniably, it is human nature to prefer objects which are considered beautiful. Most consider beautiful as perfection, hence they try to create objects which are perfectly balance in shape and patterns. This creates a whole different kind of art, the kind that requires an object to be symmetrical. This leads to the study of symmetrical objects and pattern. Even mathematicians and ethnomathematicians are very interested with the essence of symmetry. One of these studies were conducted on the Malay traditional triaxial weaving culture. The patterns derived from this technique are symmetrical and this allows for further research. In this paper, the 17 symmetry types in a plane, known as the wallpaper groups, are studied and discussed. The wallpaper groups will then be applied to the triaxial patterns of food cover in Malaysia.

  16. CDE Perspectives of Providing New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Education Using Formal Vignettes and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Neesha; Johnson, Kim; Cullen, Karen; Hamm, Terri; Bisordi, Jean; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the 4 Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D) nurse certified diabetes educators' (CDEs) perspectives of teaching parents of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) early diabetes management skills using formal vignettes and a human patient simulator/human patient simulation (HPS) to augment/enhance the teaching-learning process. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Four CDEs were interviewed by phone about their teaching experiences. Meticulous notes were taken. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The vignettes (and use of HPS) provided structure, especially for parents who were struggling to learn. Certified diabetes educators described a short learning curve to master the use of the HPS manikin. Human patient simulation-enhanced education was described as helpful for teaching multiple caregivers about diabetes. Certified diabetes educators also described factors that affect parent learning, mechanical issues with the HPS, and additional space requirements for HPS-enhanced education. Conclusion Vignettes and HPS-enhanced education can successfully be used to educate parents of children with new-onset T1DM and were preferred by the CDEs when compared with previous teaching strategies. The results of this study support the use of both vignette-based and HPS-enhanced education when a child is newly diagnosed with T1DM. Further studies need to be done to see if these effects persist with different populations, during different stages of the disease, and for individuals with other chronic illnesses.

  17. Model tests and elasto-plastic finite element analysis on multicavity type PCRV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Y.; Yamazaki, M.; Kotani, K.; Matsuzaki, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Multicavity type PCRV models were tested to investigate elastic stress distributions, cracking and failure mode of the models, and to determine the adequacy and relative accuracy of finite element structural analyses. The behavior of the models under pressure was investigated, and it was found that the predictions of the analyses showed a good agreement with the test results

  18. Diagnosis of three types of constant faults in read-once contact networks over finite bases

    KAUST Repository

    Busbait, Monther I.

    2016-03-24

    We study the depth of decision trees for diagnosis of three types of constant faults in read-once contact networks over finite bases containing only indecomposable networks. For each basis and each type of faults, we obtain a linear upper bound on the minimum depth of decision trees depending on the number of edges in networks. For bases containing networks with at most 10 edges, we find sharp coefficients for linear bounds.

  19. Towards pure spinor type covariant description of supermembrane - an approach from the double spinor formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Yuri; Kazama, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    In a previous work, we have constructed a reparametrization invariant worldsheet action from which one can derive the super-Poincare covariant pure spinor formalism for the superstring at the fully quantum level. The main idea was the doubling of the spinor degrees of freedom in the Green-Schwarz formulation together with the introduction of a new compensating local fermionic symmetry. In this paper, we extend this 'double spinor' formalism to the case of the supermembrane in 11 dimensions at the classical level. The basic scheme works in parallel with the string case and we are able to construct the closed algebra of first class constraints which governs the entire dynamics of the system. A notable difference from the string case is that this algebra is first order reducible and the associated BRST operator must be constructed accordingly. The remaining problems which need to be solved for the quantization will also be discussed

  20. Finite-time stability of neutral-type neural networks with random time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Syed; Saravanan, S.; Zhu, Quanxin

    2017-11-01

    This paper is devoted to the finite-time stability analysis of neutral-type neural networks with random time-varying delays. The randomly time-varying delays are characterised by Bernoulli stochastic variable. This result can be extended to analysis and design for neutral-type neural networks with random time-varying delays. On the basis of this paper, we constructed suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional together and established a set of sufficient linear matrix inequalities approach to guarantee the finite-time stability of the system concerned. By employing the Jensen's inequality, free-weighting matrix method and Wirtinger's double integral inequality, the proposed conditions are derived and two numerical examples are addressed for the effectiveness of the developed techniques.

  1. Evolution equation of Lie-type for finite deformations, time-discrete integration, and incremental methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-35 ISSN 0001-5970 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : solid mechanics * finite deformations * evolution equation of Lie-type * time-discrete integration Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.694, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00707-014-1162-9#page-1

  2. Formalizing Informal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.

  3. Mechanical strength calculation of the disk type windings with elastic couplings by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivkova, G.N.; Spirchenko, Yu.V.; Chvartatskij, P.V.

    1981-01-01

    Stressed-deformed state of toroidal field coils of the disc type with elastic couplings of the tokamaks has been investigated with provision for the effect of the central core pliability by means of the two-dimensional version of the finite element method. Numerical solution of the finite element method is performed by means of the ES 1040 computer according to the computer code permitting taking account of boundary conditions of elastic support. The calculation has been performed using as the example the project of T-20 facility coil of the disc type. Consideration of pliability of the central core of the facility inductor is accomplished by the introduction of additional rigidities to the complete matrix of rigidity. Scheme of the structure distretization includes 141 units, 211 elements. The accuracy of solution depends on the reduction accuracy of the volume load to unit forces and on the number of finite elements. Analysis of the solution convergence is performed by the comparison of solutions obtained for three different schemes of the disk discretization without regard for the inductor pliability. The comparative analysis of the results shows that transfer epures for all the three discretization versions practically coincide and stresses differ not more than by 10%. On the whole the above investigation has demonstrated good convergence of the problem solution [ru

  4. Preliminary research on finite difference method to solve radon field distribution over sandstone-type uranium ore body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bihong; Shuang Na; Liu Qingcheng

    2006-01-01

    The principle of finite difference method is introduced, and the radon field distribution over sandstone-type uranium deposit is narrated. The radon field distribution theory equation is established. To solve radon field distribution equation using finite difference algorithm is to provide the value computational method for forward calculation about radon field over sandstone-type uranium mine. Study on 2-D finite difference method on the center of either high anomaly radon fields in view of the character of radon field over sandstone-type uranium provide an algorithm for further research. (authors)

  5. Finite volume schemes with equilibrium type discretization of source terms for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botchorishvili, Ramaz; Pironneau, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    We develop here a new class of finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes for scalar conservation laws with stiff source terms. The schemes are of equilibrium type, hence with uniform bounds on approximate solutions, valid in cell entropy inequalities and exact for some equilibrium states. Convergence is investigated in the framework of kinetic schemes. Numerical tests show high computational efficiency and a significant advantage over standard cell centered discretization of source terms. Equilibrium type schemes produce accurate results even on test problems for which the standard approach fails. For some numerical tests they exhibit exponential type convergence rate. In two of our numerical tests an equilibrium type scheme with 441 nodes on a triangular mesh is more accurate than a standard scheme with 5000 2 grid points

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Doorframe Structure of Single Oblique Pole Type in Container Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X. F.; Wu, F. Q.; Tang, G.; Hu, X.

    2017-07-01

    Compared with the composite type, the single oblique pole type has more advantages, such as simple structure, thrift steel and high safe overhead clearance. The finite element model of the single oblique pole type is established in nodes by ANSYS, and more details are considered when the model is simplified, such as the section of Girder and Boom, torque in Girder and Boom occurred by Machinery house and Trolley, density according to the way of simplification etc. The stress and deformation of ten observation points are compared and analyzed, when the trolley is in nine dangerous positions. Based on the result of analysis, six dangerous points are selected to provide reference for the detection and evaluation of container crane.

  7. Thermodynamic formalism and circle homeophormisms with a break-type singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhalilov, A A

    2002-01-01

    A renormalization group (RG) transformation on the space of circle homeomorphisms with break-type singularity point and with the rotation number $\\rho =\\genfrac{\\sqrt{5}-1}{2}$ (``golden mean'') has a unique periodic trajectory $\\{T_{1},T_{2}\\}$ with period two. For homeomorphisms $T$ which are $C^{1}-$conjugate to $T_{1}$ $($ or $T_{2})$ the behavior of Holder's exponents of singular invariant measure are studied. Limit distributions of entrance times are also studied.

  8. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  9. The formal specification of abstract data types and their implementation in Fortran 90: implementation issues concerning the use of pointers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, D.; Kilpatrick, P. L.; Schreiner, E. W.; Scott, N. S.; Diercksen, G. H. F.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we continue our investigation into the development of computational-science software based on the identification and formal specification of Abstract Data Types (ADTs) and their implementation in Fortran 90. In particular, we consider the consequences of using pointers when implementing a formally specified ADT in Fortran 90. Our aim is to highlight the resulting conflict between the goal of information hiding, which is central to the ADT methodology, and the space efficiency of the implementation. We show that the issue of storage recovery cannot be avoided by the ADT user, and present a range of implementations of a simple ADT to illustrate various approaches towards satisfactory storage management. Finally, we propose a set of guidelines for implementing ADTs using pointers in Fortran 90. These guidelines offer a way gracefully to provide disposal operations in Fortran 90. Such an approach is desirable since Fortran 90 does not provide automatic garbage collection which is offered by many object-oriented languages including Eiffel, Java, Smalltalk, and Simula.

  10. Vibration Finite Element Analysis of SC10 Dry-type Transformer Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Sheng Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the popularization and application of dry-type power transformer, its work when the vibration noise problem widely concerned, on the basis of time-varying electromagnetic field and structural mechanics equation, this paper established a finite element analysis model of dry-type transformer, through the electromagnetic field – Structural mechanics field – sound field more than physical field coupling calculation analysis, obtained in no load and the vibration modes of the core under different load and frequency. According to the transformer vibration mechanism, compared with the experimental data, verified the accuracy of the calculation results, as the core of how to provide the theory foundation and to reduce the noise of the experiment.

  11. Finite element modelling of different CANDU fuel bundle types in various refuelling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M. R.; Ionescu, D. V.; Olteanu, G.; Florea, S.; Radut, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a finite element model for static strength analysis of the CANDU standard with 37 elements fuel bundle and the SEU43 with 43 elements fuel bundle design for various refuelling conditions. The computer code, ANSYS7.1, is used to simulate the axial compression in CANDU type fuel bundles subject to hydraulic drag loads, deflection of fuel elements, stresses and displacements in the end plates. Two possible situations for the fuelling machine side stops are considered in our analyses, as follows: the last fuel bundle is supported by the two side stops and a side stop can be blocked therefore, the last fuel bundle is supported by only one side stop. The results of the analyses performed are briefly presented and also illustrated in a graphical form. The finite element model developed in present study is verified against test results for endplate displacement and element bowing obtained from strength tests with fuel bundle string and fuelling machine side-stop simulators. Comparison of ANSYS model predictions with these experimental results led to a very good agreement. Despite the difference in hydraulic load between SEU43 and CANDU standard fuel bundles strings, the maximum stress in the SEU43 endplate is about the same with the maximum stress in the CANDU standard endplate. The comparative assessment reveals that SEU43 fuel bundle is able to withstand high flow rate without showing a significant geometric instability. (authors)

  12. Numerical model for the analysis of unbounded prestressed structures using the hybrid type finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.A.; Gastal, F.P.S.L.; Filho, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Unbounded prestressed concrete has a growing importance all over the world and may be an useful technique for the structures involved in the construction of nuclear facilities. The absence of bonding means no strain compatibility so that equations developed for reinforced concrete are no longer valid. Practical estimates about the ultimate stress in the unbounded tendons may be obtained with empirical or numerical methods only. In order to contribute to the understanding on the behaviour of unbounded prestressed concrete members, a numerical model has been developed using a hybrid type finite element formulation for planar frame structures. Instead of short elements, as in the conventional finite element formulation, long elements may be used, improving computational efficiency. A further advantage is that the curvature variation within the element is obtained with higher accuracy if compared to the traditional formulation. This feature is important for unbounded tendons since its stresses depend on the whole member deformation. Second order effects in the planar frame are considered with either Updated or Partially Updated Lagrangian approaches. Instantaneous and time dependent behaviour as well as cyclic loads are considered too. Comparison with experimental results for prestressed concrete beams shows the adequacy of the proposed model. (authors)

  13. Accounting for straight parts effects on elbow's flexibilities in a beam type finite element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.

    1983-01-01

    An extension of Von Karman's theory is applied to the calculations of the flexibility factor of a pipe bend terminated by a straight part or a flange. This analysis is restricted to the linear elastic deformation behaviour under in plane bending. Analytical solutions are given for the propagation of ovalization in the elbow and in the straight part. Considering the response of the piping structures, we note that the ovalization of the piping systems are reduced significantly when the straight parts or flanges effects are included. This results are presented in terms of global as well local flexibility factors. They have been compared to numerical results obtained by shell type finite elements method. A complete piping system is analyzed, for economical reasons, with a beam type approach. Also, we show how it is possible to take into account an elbow's flexibilities the straight parts effects by means of flexibilities factors introduced in a beam type elements. We have implemented this method in the computer program TEDEL. In some specific geometrical features, we compare solutions using shell type elements and our formulation. (orig.)

  14. Accounting for straight parts effects on elbow's flexibilities in a beam type finite element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.; Vaghi, H.; Ricard, A.

    1983-08-01

    An extension of Von Karman's theory is applied to the calculations of the flexibility factor of a pipe bend terminated by a straight part or a flange. This analysis is restricted to the linear elastic deformation behaviour under in plane bending. Analytical solutions are given for the propagation of ovalization in the elbow and in the straight part. Considering the response of the piping structures, we note that the ovalization of the piping systems are reduced significantly when the straight parts or flanges effects are included. The results are presented in terms of global as well local flexibility factors. They have been compared to numerical results obtained by shell type finite element method. A complete piping system is analyzed, for economical reasons, with a beam type approach. Also, we show how it is possible to take into account on elbow's flexibilities the straight parts effects by means of flexibilities factors introduced in a beam type element. We have implemented this method in the computer program TEDEL. In some specific geometrical features, we compare solutions using shell type elements and our formulation

  15. The classification of finite simple groups groups of characteristic 2 type

    CERN Document Server

    Aschbacher, Michael; Smith, Stephen D; Solomon, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The book provides an outline and modern overview of the classification of the finite simple groups. It primarily covers the "even case", where the main groups arising are Lie-type (matrix) groups over a field of characteristic 2. The book thus completes a project begun by Daniel Gorenstein's 1983 book, which outlined the classification of groups of "noncharacteristic 2 type". However, this book provides much more. Chapter 0 is a modern overview of the logical structure of the entire classification. Chapter 1 is a concise but complete outline of the "odd case" with updated references, while Chapter 2 sets the stage for the remainder of the book with a similar outline of the "even case". The remaining six chapters describe in detail the fundamental results whose union completes the proof of the classification theorem. Several important subsidiary results are also discussed. In addition, there is a comprehensive listing of the large number of papers referenced from the literature. Appendices provide a brief but ...

  16. On the construction of elliptic Chudnovsky-type algorithms for multiplication in large extensions of finite fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ballet, Stéphane; Bonnecaze, Alexis; Tukumuli, Mila

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We indicate a strategy in order to construct bilinear multiplication algorithms of type Chudnovsky in large extensions of any finite field. In particular, using the symmetric version of the generalization of Randriambololona specialized on the elliptic curves, we show that it is possible to construct such algorithms with low bilinear complexity. More precisely, if we only consider the Chudnovsky-type algorithms of type symmetric elliptic, we show that the symmetric bil...

  17. Finite temperature field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    1997-01-01

    This book discusses all three formalisms used in the study of finite temperature field theory, namely the imaginary time formalism, the closed time formalism and thermofield dynamics. Applications of the formalisms are worked out in detail. Gauge field theories and symmetry restoration at finite temperature are among the practical examples discussed in depth. The question of gauge dependence of the effective potential and the Nielsen identities are explained. The nonrestoration of some symmetries at high temperature (such as supersymmetry) and theories on nonsimply connected space-times are al

  18. Finite Element Model for Thermal-Structural analysis of CLIC Lab Module type 0#2

    CERN Document Server

    Moilanen, Antti; Vamvakas, Alex; Vainola, Jukka Ilmari; Doebert, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Temperature changes lead to unwanted thermo-mechanical deformations in the components of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) module. There are several sources and sinks of heat around the CLIC two-beam module. Heat is generated in the components that produce, transfer, and extract radio frequency (RF) power. Excess heat is removed from the components by cooling water as well as dissipated to air by convection from the outer surfaces of the components. The ambient temperature might also vary along the tunnel during the operation of CLIC. Due to tight assembling and alignment tolerances, it is necessary to minimize the thermo-mechanical deformations in the components. In this paper, the steps of thermal-structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of CLIC lab module type 0#2 are described from geometry model simplification to setting up the simulation. The description is accompanied by useful hints for CATIA and ANSYS users performing similar modelling tasks. A reliable computer simulation is important for studying ...

  19. Getting to Yes at the Beach or in the Office? : The Role of Location Formality and Negotiation Type on Negotiation Process and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Alain; van der Wijst, Per

    2017-01-01

    The negotiation location plays an important role in negotiations. The present study examined to what extent the negotiation process and outcomes are influenced by the formality of the location and negotiation type. It was hypothesized that negotiations in a beach setting would yield better

  20. Finite element type of stress analysis for parts based on S235 JR steel welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Babis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The determination of static and/or variable stress, in case of complex shaped welded structures is hard to achieve. One solution, though, is the use of finite element method, implemented by means of various specialized software. Nowadays, this method has become very popular due to its high precision of data obtained through both research and finite element analysis. Hence, the present paper deals with the modelling of the pull-out behaviour of concave and convex welded joints through finite element method.

  1. Finite-time blow-up for quasilinear degenerate Keller-Segel systems of parabolic-parabolic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashira, Takahiro; Ishida, Sachiko; Yokota, Tomomi

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with the quasilinear degenerate Keller-Segel systems of parabolic-parabolic type in a ball of RN (N ≥ 2). In the case of non-degenerate diffusion, Cieślak-Stinner [3,4] proved that if q > m + 2/N, where m denotes the intensity of diffusion and q denotes the nonlinearity, then there exist initial data such that the corresponding solution blows up in finite time. As to the case of degenerate diffusion, it is known that a solution blows up if q > m + 2/N (see Ishida-Yokota [13]); however, whether the blow-up time is finite or infinite has been unknown. This paper gives an answer to the unsolved problem. Indeed, the finite-time blow-up of energy solutions is established when q > m + 2/N.

  2. Interchange instability with line-typing and finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, J.C.; Hartman, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Finite Larmor radius and end effects are included in a treatment of the low-β interchange instability. Higher order modes are shown to be destabilized by incomplete line-tying through an external plasma

  3. Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer

  4. Finite element method for computational fluid dynamics with any type of elements; Finite Element Methode zur numerischen Stroemungsberechnung mit beliebigen Elementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steibler, P.

    2000-07-01

    The unsteady, turbulent flow is to be calculated in a complex geometry. For this purpose a stabilized finite element formulation in which the same functions for velocity and pressure are used is developed. Thus the process remains independent of the type of elements. This simplifies the application. Above all, it is easier to deal with the boundary conditions. The independency from the elements is also achieved by the extended uzawa-algorithm which uses quadratic functions for velocity and an element-constant pressure. This method is also programmed. In order to produce the unstructured grids, an algorithm is implemented which produces meshes consisting of triangular and tetrahedral elements with flow-dependent adaptation. With standard geometries both calculation methods are compared with results. Finally the flow in a draft tube of a Kaplan turbine is calculated and compared with results from model tests. (orig.) [German] Die instationaere, turbulente Stroemung in einer komplexen Geometrie soll berechnet werden. Dazu wird eine Stabilisierte Finite Element Formulierung entwickelt, bei der die gleichen Ansatzfunktionen fuer Geschwindigkeiten und Druck verwendet werden. Das Verfahren wird damit unabhaengig von der Form der Elemente. Dies vereinfacht die Anwendung. Vor allem wird der Umgang mit den Randbedingungen erleichert. Die Elementunabhaengigkeit erreicht man auch mit dem erweiterten Uzawa-Algorithmus, welcher quadratische Ansatzfunktionen fuer die Geschwindigkeiten und elementweisen konstanten Druck verwendet. Dieses Verfahren wird ebenso implementiert. Zur Erstellung der unstrukturierten Gitter wird ein Algorithmus erzeugt, der Netze aus Dreiecks- und Tetraederelementen erstellt, welche stroemungsabhaengige Groessen besitzen koennen. Anhand einiger Standardgeometrien werden die beiden Berechnungsmethoden mit Ergebnissen aus der Literatur verglichen. Als praxisrelevantes Beispiel wird abschliessend die Stroemung in einem Saugrohr einer Kaplanturbine berechnet

  5. Nonlinear finite element modeling of vibration control of plane rod-type structural members with integrated piezoelectric patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chróścielewski, Jacek; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Eremeyev, Victor A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses modeling and finite element analysis of the transient large-amplitude vibration response of thin rod-type structures (e.g., plane curved beams, arches, ring shells) and its control by integrated piezoelectric layers. A geometrically nonlinear finite beam element for the analysis of piezolaminated structures is developed that is based on the Bernoulli hypothesis and the assumptions of small strains and finite rotations of the normal. The finite element model can be applied to static, stability, and transient analysis of smart structures consisting of a master structure and integrated piezoelectric actuator layers or patches attached to the upper and lower surfaces. Two problems are studied extensively: (i) FE analyses of a clamped semicircular ring shell that has been used as a benchmark problem for linear vibration control in several recent papers are critically reviewed and extended to account for the effects of structural nonlinearity and (ii) a smart circular arch subjected to a hydrostatic pressure load is investigated statically and dynamically in order to study the shift of bifurcation and limit points, eigenfrequencies, and eigenvectors, as well as vibration control for loading conditions which may lead to dynamic loss of stability.

  6. Newton-type methods for the mixed finite element discretization of some degenerate parabolic equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radu, F.A.; Pop, I.S.; Knabner, P.; Bermúdez de Castro, A.; Gómez, D.; Quintela, P.; Salgado, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some iterative approaches for solving the nonlinear algebraic systems encountered as fully discrete counterparts of some degenerate (fast diffusion) parabolic problems. After regularization, we combine a mixed finite element discretization with the Euler implicit scheme. For

  7. Superfield formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional superfields, is a clear signature of the presence of the (anti-)BRST invariance in the original. 4D theory. Keywords. Non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory; Dirac fields; (anti-)Becchi–Roucet–Stora–. Tyutin invariance; superfield formalism; ...

  8. Formalization of the Resolution Calculus for First-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2018-01-01

    between unsatisfiable sets of clauses and finite semantic trees is formalized in Herbrand’s theorem. I discuss the difficulties that I had formalizing proofs of the lifting lemma found in the literature, and I formalize a correct proof. The completeness proof is by induction on the size of a finite...

  9. Method and system employing finite state machine modeling to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Harley, Ronald Gordon; Habetler, Thomas G.; He, Dawei

    2016-08-09

    A system is for a plurality of different electric load types. The system includes a plurality of sensors structured to sense a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; and a processor. The processor acquires a voltage and current waveform from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric load types; calculates a power or current RMS profile of the waveform; quantizes the power or current RMS profile into a set of quantized state-values; evaluates a state-duration for each of the quantized state-values; evaluates a plurality of state-types based on the power or current RMS profile and the quantized state-values; generates a state-sequence that describes a corresponding finite state machine model of a generalized load start-up or transient profile for the corresponding electric load type; and identifies the corresponding electric load type.

  10. Finite element prediction of the swift effect based on Taylor-type polycrystal plasticity models

    OpenAIRE

    Duchene, Laurent; Delannay, L.; Habraken, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the main concepts of the stress-strain interpolation model that has been implemented in the non-linear finite element code Lagamine. This model consists in a local description of the yield locus based on the texture of the material through the full constraints Taylor’s model. The prediction of the Swift effect is investigated: the influence of the texture evolution is shown up. The LAMEL model is also investigated for the Swift effect prediction. Peer reviewed

  11. Beyond formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  12. Extension of Nelson's stochastic quantization to finite temperature using thermo field dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of Nelson's stochastic quantum mechanics to finite temperature. Utilizing the formulation of Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD), we can show that Ito's stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particle positions reproduce the TFD-type Schroedinger equation which is equivalent to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In our formalism, the drift terms in the Ito's stochastic equation have the temperature dependence and the thermal fluctuation is induced through the correlation of the non-tilde and tilde particles. We show that our formalism satisfies the position-momentum uncertainty relation at finite temperature. -- Highlights: → Utilizing TFD, we extend Nelson's stochastic method to finite temperature. → We introduce stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particles. → Our stochastic equations can reproduce the TFD-type Schroedinger equation. → Our formalism satisfies the uncertainly relation at finite temperature.

  13. Finite element modelling of Plantar Fascia response during running on different surface types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Salleh, A. F.; Rusli, W. M. R.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Daud, R.

    2017-10-01

    Plantar fascia is a ligament found in human foot structure located beneath the skin of human foot that functioning to stabilize longitudinal arch of human foot during standing and normal gait. To perform direct experiment on plantar fascia seems very difficult since the structure located underneath the soft tissue. The aim of this study is to develop a finite element (FE) model of foot with plantar fascia and investigate the effect of the surface hardness on biomechanical response of plantar fascia during running. The plantar fascia model was developed using Solidworks 2015 according to the bone structure of foot model that was obtained from Turbosquid database. Boundary conditions were set out based on the data obtained from experiment of ground reaction force response during running on different surface hardness. The finite element analysis was performed using Ansys 14. The results found that the peak of stress and strain distribution were occur on the insertion of plantar fascia to bone especially on calcaneal area. Plantar fascia became stiffer with increment of Young’s modulus value and was able to resist more loads. Strain of plantar fascia was decreased when Young’s modulus increased with the same amount of loading.

  14. Application of the perturbation theory-differential formalism-for sensitivity analysis in steam generators of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.M.G.; Andrade Lima, F.R. de; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1987-06-01

    An homogeneous model which simulates the stationary behavior of steam generators of PWR type reactors and uses the differential formalism of perturbation theory for analysing sensibility of linear and non-linear responses, is presented. The PERGEVAP computer code to calculate the temperature distribution in the steam generator and associated importance function, is developed. The code also evaluates effects of the thermohydraulic parameter variation on selected functionals. The obtained results are compared with results obtained by GEVAP computer code . (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Study of adsorption of zinc in clay smectite type Bofe in system of finite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.S.; Mota, J.D.; Lima, W.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays are demonstrably excellent adsorbents, both for their physical and chemical characteristics and the wide coverage and low cost. Among the various groups of clay minerals, the smectite are noted for having large surface areas. The initial objective of this study was to characterize the clay Bofe through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Spectrometry by Energy Dispersive (EDX) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). To evaluate the adsorption of metal ions zinc (synthetic sewage), we used a system in finite bath, following a factorial design 2 2 , taking as input variables: pH and initial concentrations of zinc (Zn2 +) and output variables: percentage removal and removal capacity. The characterization results showed that Bofe clay belongs to the family of smectite and therefore has great potential for adsorption. (author)

  16. Use of δN formalism-difficulties in generating large local-type non-Gaussianity during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the generation of non-Gaussianity in density perturbation through the super-horizon evolution during inflation by using the so-called δN formalism. We first provide a general formula for the nonlinearity parameter generated during inflation. We find that it is proportional to the slow-roll parameters, multiplied by the model-dependent factors that may enhance non-Gaussianity to the observable ranges. Then we discuss three typical examples to illustrate how difficult it is to generate sizable non-Gaussianity through the super-horizon evolution during inflation. The first example is the double inflation model, which shows that temporal violation of slow-roll conditions is not enough for the generation of non-Gaussianity. The second example is the ordinary hybrid inflation model, which illustrates the importance of taking into account perturbations on small scales. Finally, we discuss the Kadota-Stewart model. This model gives an example in which we have to choose rather unnatural initial conditions even if large non-Gaussianity can be generated.

  17. Fourier series and δ-subharmonic functions of finite γ-type in a half-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyutin, K G

    2001-01-01

    Let γ(r) be a growth function and let v(z) be a proper δ-subharmonic function in the sense of Grishin in a complex half-plane, that is v=v 1 -v 2 , where v 1 and v 2 are proper subharmonic functions (limsup z→t v i (z)≤0, for each real t, i=1,2), let λ=λ + -λ - be the full measure corresponding to v and let T(r,v) be its Nevanlinna characteristic. The class Jδ(γ) of functions of finite γ-type is defined as follows: v element of Jδ(γ) if T(r,v)≤Aγ(Br)/r for some positive constants A and B. The Fourier coefficients of v are defined in the standard way. The central result of the paper is the equivalence of the following properties: (1) v element of Jδ(γ); (2) N(r)≤A 1 γ(B 1 r)/r, where N(r)=N(r,λ + ) or N(r)=N(r,λ - ), and |c k (r,v)|≤A 2 γ(B 2 r). It is proved in addition that Jδ(γ)=JS(γ)-JS(γ), where JS(γ) is the class of proper subharmonic functions of finite γ-type

  18. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  19. Study of structural attachments of a pool type LMFBR vessel through seismic analysis of a simplified three dimensional finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified three dimensional finite element model of a pool type LMFBR in conjunction with the computer program ANSYS is developed and scoping results of seismic analysis are produced. Through this study various structural attachments of a pool type LMFBR like the reactor vessel skirt support, the pump support and reactor shell-support structure interfaces are studied. This study also provides some useful results on equivalent viscous damping approach and some improvements to the treatment of equivalent viscous damping are recommended. This study also sets forth pertinent guidelines for detailed three dimensional finite element seismic analysis of pool type LMFBR

  20. Type I parametric down conversion of highly focused Gaussian beams in finite length crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Jáuregui, R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the correlations in wave vector space of photon pairs generated by type I spontaneous parametric down conversion using a Gaussian pump beam. The analysis covers both moderate focused and highly focused regimes, paying special attention to the angular spectrum and the conditional angular spectrum. Simple analytic expressions are derived that allow a detailed study of the dependence of these spectra on the waist of the source and the length of the nonlinear crystal. These expressions are in good agreement with numerical expectations and reported experimental results. They are used to make a systematic search of optimization parameters that improve the feasibility of using highly focused Gaussian beams to generate idler and signal photons with predetermined mean values and spread of their transverse wave vectors. (papers)

  1. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods i...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions.......Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...

  2. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  3. Thermodynamics in finite time: A chemically driven engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrechen, M.J.; Berry, R.S.; Andresen, B.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to processes whose relaxation parameters are chemical rate coefficients within the working fluid. The direct optimization formalism used previously for heat engines with friction and finite heat transfer rates: termed the tricycle method: is extended to heat engines driven by exothermic reactions. The model is a flow reactor coupled by a heat exchanger to an engine. Conditions are established for the achievement of maximum power from such a system. Emphasis is on how the chemical kinetics control the finite-time thermodynamic extrema; first order, first order reversible, and second order reaction kinetics are analyzed. For the types of reactions considered here, there is always a finite positive flow rate in the reactor that yields maximum engine power. Maximum fuel efficiency is always attained in these systems at the uninteresting limit of zero flow rate

  4. A modified Gurson-type plasticity model at finite strains: formulation, numerical analysis and phase-field coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakheel, Fadi; Wriggers, Peter; Miehe, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The modeling of failure in ductile materials must account for complex phenomena at the micro-scale, such as nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids, as well as the final rupture at the macro-scale, as rooted in the work of Gurson (J Eng Mater Technol 99:2-15, 1977). Within a top-down viewpoint, this can be achieved by the combination of a micro-structure-informed elastic-plastic model for a porous medium with a concept for the modeling of macroscopic crack discontinuities. The modeling of macroscopic cracks can be achieved in a convenient way by recently developed continuum phase field approaches to fracture, which are based on the regularization of sharp crack discontinuities, see Miehe et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 294:486-522, 2015). This avoids the use of complex discretization methods for crack discontinuities, and can account for complex crack patterns. In this work, we develop a new theoretical and computational framework for the phase field modeling of ductile fracture in conventional elastic-plastic solids under finite strain deformation. It combines modified structures of Gurson-Tvergaard-Needelman GTN-type plasticity model outlined in Tvergaard and Needleman (Acta Metall 32:157-169, 1984) and Nahshon and Hutchinson (Eur J Mech A Solids 27:1-17, 2008) with a new evolution equation for the crack phase field. An important aspect of this work is the development of a robust Explicit-Implicit numerical integration scheme for the highly nonlinear rate equations of the enhanced GTN model, resulting with a low computational cost strategy. The performance of the formulation is underlined by means of some representative examples, including the development of the experimentally observed cup-cone failure mechanism.

  5. Correlation functions in finite temperature field theories: formalism and applications to quark-gluon plasma; Fonctions de correlations en theorie des champs a temperature finie: aspects formels et applications au plasma de quarks et de gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelis, Francois [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France)

    1998-12-01

    The general framework of this work is thermal field theory, and more precisely the perturbative calculation of thermal Green`s functions. In a first part, I consider the problems closely related to the formalism itself. After two introductory chapters devoted to set up the framework and the notations used afterwards, a chapter is dedicated to a clarification of certain aspects of the justification of the Feynman rules of the real time formalism. Then, I consider in the chapter 4 the problem of cutting rules in the real time formalisms. In particular, after solving a controversy on this subject, I generalize these cutting rules to the `retarded-advanced` version of this formalism. Finally, the last problem considered in this part is that of the pion decay into two photons in a thermal bath. I show that the discrepancies found in the literature are due to peculiarities of the analytical properties of the thermal Green`s functions. The second part deals with the calculations of the photons or dilepton (virtual photon) production rate by a quark gluon plasma. The framework of this study is the effective theory based on the resummation of hard thermal loops. The first aspects of this study is related to the production of virtual photons, where we show that important contributions arise at two loops, completing the result already known at one loop. In the case of real photon production, we show that extremely strong collinear singularities make two loop contributions dominant compared to one loop ones. In both cases, the importance of two loop contributions can be interpreted as weaknesses of the hard thermal loop approximation. (author) 366 refs., 109 figs.

  6. The Determining Finite Automata Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of formal languages widely uses finite state automata both in implementation of automata-based approach to programming, and in synthesis of logical control algorithms.To ensure unambiguous operation of the algorithms, the synthesized finite state automata must be deterministic. Within the approach to the synthesis of the mobile robot controls, for example, based on the theory of formal languages, there are problems concerning the construction of various finite automata, but such finite automata, as a rule, will not be deterministic. The algorithm of determinization can be applied to the finite automata, as specified, in various ways. The basic ideas of the algorithm of determinization can be most simply explained using the representations of a finite automaton in the form of a weighted directed graph.The paper deals with finite automata represented as weighted directed graphs, and discusses in detail the procedure for determining the finite automata represented in this way. Gives a detailed description of the algorithm for determining finite automata. A large number of examples illustrate a capability of the determinization algorithm.

  7. Implementation of the Vanka-type multigrid solver for the finite element approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations on GPU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Petr; Klement, V.; Oberhuber, T.; Žabka, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 200, March (2016), s. 50-56 ISSN 0010-4655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * mixed finite elements * multigrid * Vanka-type smoothers * Gauss–Seidel * red–black coloring * parallelization * GPU Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.936, year: 2016

  8. Formal Verification -26 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by testing of the components and successful testing leads to the software being ... Formal verification is based on formal methods which are mathematically based ..... scenario under which a similar error could occur. There are various other ...

  9. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  10. Finite difference methods for reducing numerical diffusion in TEACH-type calculations. [Teaching Elliptic Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    A methodological evaluation for two-finite differencing schemes for computer-aided gas turbine design is presented. The two computational schemes include; a Bounded Skewed Finite Differencing Scheme (BSUDS); and a Quadratic Upwind Differencing Scheme (QSDS). In the evaluation, the derivations of the schemes were incorporated into two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Teaching Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically (TEACH) computer code. Assessments were made according to performance criteria for the solution of problems of turbulent, laminar, and coannular turbulent flow. The specific performance criteria used in the evaluation were simplicity, accuracy, and computational economy. It is found that the BSUDS scheme performed better with respect to the criteria than the QUDS. Some of the reasons for the more successful performance BSUDS are discussed.

  11. Starobinsky cosmological model in Palatini formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland); Borowiec, Andrzej [Wroclaw University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    We classify singularities in FRW cosmologies, which dynamics can be reduced to the dynamical system of the Newtonian type. This classification is performed in terms of the geometry of a potential function if it has poles. At the sewn singularity, which is of a finite scale factor type, the singularity in the past meets the singularity in the future. We show that such singularities appear in the Starobinsky model in f(R) = R + γR{sup 2} in the Palatini formalism, when dynamics is determined by the corresponding piecewise-smooth dynamical system. As an effect we obtain a degenerate singularity. Analytical calculations are given for the cosmological model with matter and the cosmological constant. The dynamics of model is also studied using dynamical system methods. From the phase portraits we find generic evolutionary scenarios of the evolution of the universe. For this model, the best fit value of Ω{sub γ} = 3γH{sub 0}{sup 2} is equal 9.70 x 10{sup -11}. We consider a model in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We show that after transition to the Einstein frame we obtain both the form of the potential of the scalar field and the decaying Lambda term. (orig.)

  12. Formalized Linear Algebra over Elementary Divisor Rings in Coq

    OpenAIRE

    Cano , Guillaume; Cohen , Cyril; Dénès , Maxime; Mörtberg , Anders; Siles , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a Coq formalization of linear algebra over elementary divisor rings, that is, rings where every matrix is equivalent to a matrix in Smith normal form. The main results are the formalization that these rings support essential operations of linear algebra, the classification theorem of finitely pre-sented modules over such rings and the uniqueness of the Smith normal form up to multiplication by units. We present formally verified algorithms comput-in...

  13. Photon propagators at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    We have used the real time formalism to compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the photon self energies in spinor and scalar QED. We show that, for a real photon, only the transverse components develop the temperature-dependent masses, while, for an external static electromagnetic field applied to the finite temperature system, only the static electric field is screened by thermal fluctuations. After showing how to compute systematically the imaginary parts of the finite temperature Green functions, we have attempted to give a microscopic interpretation of the imaginary parts of the self energies. (author)

  14. Industrial use of formal methods formal verification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based.  The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow

  15. The role of formal specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.

    1994-01-01

    The role of formal requirements specification is discussed under the premise that the primary purpose of such specifications is to facilitate clear and unambiguous communications among the communities of interest for a given project. An example is presented in which the failure to reach such an understanding resulted in an accident at a chemical plant. Following the example, specification languages based on logical formalisms and notations are considered. These are rejected as failing to serve the communications needs of diverse communities. The notion of a specification as a surrogate for a program is also considered and rejected. The paper ends with a discussion of the type of formal notation that will serve the communications role and several encouraging developments are noted

  16. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    Over recent decades, institutions exhibiting high degrees of formality have come in for severe criticism. From the private to the public sector, and across a whole spectrum of actors spanning from practitioners to academics, formal organization is viewed with increasing doubt and skepticism....... In a “Schumpetarian world” (Teece et al., 1997: 509) of dynamic competition and incessant reform, formal organization appears as well suited to survival as a fish out of water. Indeed, formal organization, and its closely overlapping semantic twin bureaucracy, are not only represented as ill suited to the realities...... is that formal organization is an obstacle to be overcome. For that very reason, critics, intellectuals and reformers alike have urged public and private organizations to break out of the stifling straightjacket of formality, to dispense with bureaucracy, and to tear down hierarchies. This could either be done...

  17. Integrating semi-formal and formal requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Olivé, Antoni; Dubois, Eric; Pastor, Joan Antoni; Huyts, Sander

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the integration of informal, semiformal and formal requirements specification techniques. We present a framework for requirements specification called TRADE, within which several well-known semiformal specification techniques are placed. TRADE is based on an analysis of

  18. Finite-temperature confinement transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetitsky, B.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of lattice gauge theory at finite temperature is introduced. The framework of universality predictions for critical behavior is outlined, and recent analytic work in this direction is reviewed. New Monte Carlo information for the SU(4) theory are represented, and possible results of the inclusion of fermions in the SU(3) theory are listed

  19. Ward identities at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOlivo, J.C.; Torres, M.; Tututi, E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ward identities for QED at finite temperature are derived using the functional real-time formalism. They are verified by an explicit one-loop calculation. An effective causal vertex is constructed which satisfy the Ward identity with the associated retarded self-energy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. On low frequency dynamics of CuO finite chains in YBa2Cu3O7-δ type high-tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasyuk, I.V.; Kotsur, S.S.; Ivankiv, A.L.; Dublenich, Yu.I.

    1992-01-01

    A problem of vibration spectrum of a crystal, featuring availability of sublattices with sufficient anharmonicity of single-ion potential is considered. Dynamics of Cu (1) O (1) finite chains in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ type crystals is studies on the basis of pseudo-spin model. Dependences of chains vibration spectra with small number of fragments on theory parameters are obtained. It is shown that in low-energy spectrum part there is a transition (from the main state), which energy decreases with increase of chain fragments number. Intensities of vibration transitions between the levels are calculated

  1. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  2. Methodological imperfection and formalizations in scientific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlichny, G.

    1987-01-01

    Any mathematical formalization of scientific activity allows for imperfections in the methodology that is formalized. These can be of three types, dirty, rotten, and dammed. Restricting mathematical attention to those methods that cannot be construed to be imperfect drastically reduces the class of objects that must be analyzed, and related all other objects to these more regular ones. Examples are drawn from empirical logic

  3. Behavior of supersymmetry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Shoichi.

    1984-11-01

    Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is investigated by using the real-time formalism. We derive the Ward-Takahashi identities of the composite fields by using the path integral formalism. We also calculate the one-loop correction to fermion and boson masses, and discuss the connection of the perturbative result with that obtained from the effective potential. Our result shows that supersymmetry is broken explicitly even in the real-time formalism. (author)

  4. Foundation and Mathematical Uses of Higher Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses `1),' to which S. Feferman has contributed so profoundly. We study mathematical strong, but nevertheless PRA-reducible, systems in all finite types, emphasizing the need of third order variables already for a faithful formalization of continuous functions between Polish spaces...

  5. Geometry and Formal Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, George A.

    This paper presents a method of encoding geometric line-drawings in a way which allows sets of such drawings to be interpreted as formal languages. A characterization of certain geometric predicates in terms of their properties as languages is obtained, and techniques usually associated with generative grammars and formal automata are then applied…

  6. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  7. Formality in Brackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Nyqvist, Anette

    Ethnographic work in formal organizations involves learning to recognize the many layers of front stage and back stage of organized life, and to bracket formality. It means to be alert to the fact that what is formal and front stage for one some actors, and in some situations, may in fact be back...... stage and informal for others. Walking the talk, donning the appropriate attire, wearing the proper suit, may be part of what is takes to figure out the code of formal organizational settings – an entrance ticket to the backstage, as it were. Oftentimes, it involves a degree of mimicry, of ‘following...... suits’ (Nyqvist 2013), and of doing ‘ethnography by failure’ (Garsten 2013). In this paper, we explore the layers of informality and formality in our fieldwork experiences among financial investors and policy experts, and discuss how to ethnographically represent embodied fieldwork practices. How do we...

  8. Supersymmetry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.W. de.

    1986-01-01

    The consequences of the incorporation of finite temperature effects in fields theories are investigated. Particularly, we consider the sypersymmetric non-linear sigma model, calculating the effective potencial in the large N limit. Initially, we present the 1/N expantion formalism and, for the O(N) model of scalar field, we show the impossibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Next, we study the same model at finite temperature and in the presence of conserved charges (the O(N) symmetry's generator). We conclude that these conserved charges explicitly break the symmetry. We introduce a calculation method for the thermodynamic potential of the theory in the presence of chemical potentials. We present an introduction to Supersymmetry in the aim of describing some important concepts for the treatment at T>0. We show that Suppersymmetry is broken for any T>0, in opposition to what one expects, by the solution of the Hierachy Problem. (author) [pt

  9. Formalizing a Paraconsistent Logic in the Isabelle Proof Assistant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We present a formalization of a so-called paraconsistent logic that avoids the catastrophic explosiveness of inconsistency in classical logic. The paraconsistent logic has a countably infinite number of non-classical truth values. We show how to use the proof assistant Isabelle to formally prove...... theorems in the logic as well as meta-theorems about the logic. In particular, we formalize a meta-theorem that allows us to reduce the infinite number of truth values to a finite number of truth values, for a given formula, and we use this result in a formalization of a small case study....

  10. Necessity of Integral Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yong

    2011-01-01

    To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 445], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 3845]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schrödinger differential equation (i.e., differential formalism for wave function) shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schrödinger integral equation (i.e., integral formalism for wave function), in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion: There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description. (general)

  11. Finite-Larmor-radius stability theory of EBT plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Cheng, C.Z.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    An eikonal ballooning-mode formalism is developed to describe curvature-driven modes of hot electron plasmas in bumpy tori. The formalism treats frequencies comparable to the ion-cyclotron frequency, as well as arbitrary finite Larmor radius and field polarization, although the detailed analysis is restricted to E/sub parallel/ = 0. Moderate hot-electron finite-Larmor-radius effects are found to lower the background beta core limit, whereas strong finite-Lamor-radius effects produce stabilization

  12. Root-cause analysis of the better performance of the coarse-mesh finite-difference method for CANDU-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent assessment results indicate that the coarse-mesh finite-difference method (FDM) gives consistently smaller percent differences in channel powers than the fine-mesh FDM when compared to the reference MCNP solution for CANDU-type reactors. However, there is an impression that the fine-mesh FDM should always give more accurate results than the coarse-mesh FDM in theory. To answer the question if the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors was just a coincidence (cancellation of errors) or caused by the use of heavy water or the use of lattice-homogenized cross sections for the cluster fuel geometry in the diffusion calculation, three benchmark problems were set up with three different fuel lattices: CANDU, HWR and PWR. These benchmark problems were then used to analyze the root cause of the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors. The analyses confirm that the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors is mainly caused by the use of lattice-homogenized cross sections for the sub-meshes of the cluster fuel geometry in the diffusion calculation. Based on the analyses, it is recommended to use 2 x 2 coarse-mesh FDM to analyze CANDU-type reactors when lattice-homogenized cross sections are used in the core analysis. (authors)

  13. Root-cause analysis of the better performance of the coarse-mesh finite-difference method for CANDU-type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W. [Candu Energy Inc., 2285 Speakman Dr., Mississauga, ON L5B 1K (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Recent assessment results indicate that the coarse-mesh finite-difference method (FDM) gives consistently smaller percent differences in channel powers than the fine-mesh FDM when compared to the reference MCNP solution for CANDU-type reactors. However, there is an impression that the fine-mesh FDM should always give more accurate results than the coarse-mesh FDM in theory. To answer the question if the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors was just a coincidence (cancellation of errors) or caused by the use of heavy water or the use of lattice-homogenized cross sections for the cluster fuel geometry in the diffusion calculation, three benchmark problems were set up with three different fuel lattices: CANDU, HWR and PWR. These benchmark problems were then used to analyze the root cause of the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors. The analyses confirm that the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors is mainly caused by the use of lattice-homogenized cross sections for the sub-meshes of the cluster fuel geometry in the diffusion calculation. Based on the analyses, it is recommended to use 2 x 2 coarse-mesh FDM to analyze CANDU-type reactors when lattice-homogenized cross sections are used in the core analysis. (authors)

  14. Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    frequency bands at certain times. Gabor theory can be formulated for both functions on the real line and for discrete signals of finite length. The two theories are largely the same because many aspects come from the same underlying theory of locally compact Abelian groups. The two types of Gabor systems...... can also be related by sampling and periodization. This thesis extends on this theory by showing new results for window construction. It also provides a discussion of the problems associated to discrete Gabor bases. The sampling and periodization connection is handy because it allows Gabor systems...... on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite...

  15. Results in finite temperature quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    First, three quantities of physical interest are calculated. The first two quantities are the self energy of the electron at order α and the self mass of the electron at order α 2 due to its interaction with a thermal bath of photons. The third quantity of physical interest is the thermal contribution to the self mass of the axion. Second, some formal developments are presented. First among these is the proof of an extension to the familiar optical theorem to cover processes taking place at finite temperature. Then an example of the application of the theorem is given for a simple field theory involving two types of scalar particles. The example illustrates that the relationship between the forward scattering amplitude and the total cross section is more complex at finite temperature than at zero temperature. Third, a method for calculating the wave function renormalization constant at finite temperature for an electron in a thermal bath of photons is presented. This method is compared with methods invented by other authors

  16. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  17. Integrated formal operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, G.; Dearholt, W.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Tyler, R.; Wrye, J.

    1994-01-05

    The concept of formal operations (that is, a collection of business practices to assure effective, accountable operations) has vexed the Laboratory for many years. To date most attempts at developing such programs have been based upon rigid, compliance-based interpretations of a veritable mountain of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, directives, notices, and standards. These DOE dictates seldom take the broad view but focus on highly specialized programs isolated from the overall context of formal operations. The result is a confusing array of specific, and often contradictory, requirements that produce a patchwork of overlapping niche programs. This unnecessary duplication wastes precious resources, dramatically increases the complexity of our work processes, and communicates a sense of confusion to our customers and regulators. Coupled with the artificial divisions that have historically existed among the Laboratory`s formal operations organizations (quality assurance, configuration management, records management, training, etc.), this approach has produced layers of increasingly vague and complex formal operations plans, each of which interprets its parent and adds additional requirements of its own. Organizational gridlock ensues whenever an activity attempts to implement these bureaucratic monstrosities. The integrated formal operations plan presented is to establish a set of requirements that must be met by an integrated formal operations program, assign responsibilities for implementation and operation of the program, and specify criteria against which the performance of the program will be measured. The accountable line manager specifies the items, processes, and information (the controlled elements) to which the formal operations program specified applies. The formal operations program is implemented using a graded approach based on the level of importance of the various controlled elements and the scope of the activities in which they are involved.

  18. Finite-Horizon $H_\\infty $ Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Redundant Channels via An Observer-Type Event-Triggered Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenying; Wang, Zidong; Ho, Daniel W C

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the finite-horizon consensus problem for a class of discrete time-varying multiagent systems with external disturbances and missing measurements. To improve the communication reliability, redundant channels are introduced and the corresponding protocol is constructed for the information transmission over redundant channels. An event-triggered scheme is adopted to determine whether the information of agents should be transmitted to their neighbors. Subsequently, an observer-type event-triggered control protocol is proposed based on the latest received neighbors' information. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a time-varying controller based on the observed information to achieve the consensus performance in a finite horizon. By utilizing a constrained recursive Riccati difference equation approach, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the consensus performance, and the controller parameters are also designed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the desired reliability of redundant channels and the effectiveness of the event-triggered control protocol.

  19. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  20. Influence of Number of Implants and Attachment Type on Stress Distribution in Mandibular Implant-Retained Overdentures: Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. El-Anwar

    2017-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Caps deformation and stresses are negligible in cases of using locator attachment in comparison to ball attachments. This may indicate longer lifetime and less repair/maintenance operations in implant overdentures retained by locator attachments. Although the study revealed that bone was insensitive to a number of implants or attachment type, it may be recommended to use two implants in the canine region than using four, where the locator attachments were found to be better.

  1. Emergence of a few distinct structures from a single formal structure type during high-throughput screening for stable compounds: The case of RbCuS and RbCuSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Zhang, Xiuwen; DeVries Vermeer, Michael J.; Cantwell, Jacqueline; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Zunger, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical sorting of stable and synthesizable "missing compounds" from those that are unstable is a crucial step in the discovery of previously unknown functional materials. This active research area often involves high-throughput (HT) examination of the total energy of a given compound in a list of candidate formal structure types (FSTs), searching for those with the lowest energy within that list. While it is well appreciated that local relaxation methods based on a fixed list of structure types can lead to inaccurate geometries, this approach is widely used in HT studies because it produces answers faster than global optimization methods (that vary lattice vectors and atomic positions without local restrictions). We find, however, a different failure mode of the HT protocol: specific crystallographic classes of formal structure types each correspond to a series of chemically distinct "daughter structure types" (DSTs) that have the same space group but possess totally different local bonding configurations, including coordination types. Failure to include such DSTs in the fixed list of examined candidate structures used in contemporary high-throughput approaches can lead to qualitative misidentification of the stable bonding pattern, not just quantitative inaccuracies. In this work, we (i) clarify the understanding of the general DST-FST relationship, thus improving current discovery HT approaches, (ii) illustrate this failure mode for RbCuS and RbCuSe (the latter being a yet unreported compound and is predicted here) by developing a synthesis method and accelerated crystal-structure determination, and (iii) apply the genetic-algorithm-based global space-group optimization (GSGO) approach which is not vulnerable to the failure mode of HT searches of fixed lists, demonstrating a correct identification of the stable DST. The broad impact of items (i)-(iii) lies in the demonstrated predictive ability of a more comprehensive search strategy than what is currently

  2. Finite discrete field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Manoelito M. de

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the physical meaning and the geometric interpretation of implementation in classical field theories. The origin of infinities and other inconsistencies in field theories is traced to fields defined with support on the light cone; a finite and consistent field theory requires a light-cone generator as the field support. Then, we introduce a classical field theory with support on the light cone generators. It results on a description of discrete (point-like) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant (1 + 1)-dimensional dynamics in a (3 = 1) spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. We apply this formalism to Classical electrodynamics and to the General Relativity Theory. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete field. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging process. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problem of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum theory. (author)

  3. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  4. Calculation of the magnetic flux density distribution in type-II superconductors with finite thickness and well-defined geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkl, A.; Kronmueller, H.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of the critical current density j c (r) in hard type-II superconductors depends strongly on their sample geometry. Rules are given for the construction of j c (r). Samples with homogeneous thickness are divided into cakelike regions with a unique current direction. The spatial magnetic flux density distribution and the magnetic polarization of such a cakelike unit cell with homogeneous current density are calculated analytically. The magnetic polarization and magnetic flux density distribution of a superconductor in the mixed state is then given by an adequate superposition of the unit cell solutions. The theoretical results show good agreement with magneto-optically determined magnetic flux density distributions of a quadratic thin superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film. The current density distribution is discussed for several sample geometries

  5. Quantum Chromodynamic at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    A formal expression to the Gibbs free energy of topological defects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD)by using the semiclassical approach in the context of field theory at finite temperature and in the high temperature limit is determined. This expression is used to calculate the free energy of magnetic monopoles. Applying the obtained results to a method in which the free energy of topological defects of a theory may indicate its different phases, its searched for informations about phases of QCD. (author) [pt

  6. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-03-01

    We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks

  7. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  8. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  9. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty, ...

  10. Criteria for logical formalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013

  11. IDEF3 Formalization Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES engineering management information systems method formalization 60 information engineering process modeling 16 PRICE...CODE information systems requirements definition methods knowlede acquisition methods systems engineering 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ji. SECURITY... Management , Inc., Santa Monica, California. CORYNEN, G. C., 1975, A Mathematical Theory of Modeling and Simula- tion. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department

  12. The Benefits of Formalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Based on unique panel data consisting of both formal and informal firms, this paper uses a matched double difference approach to examine the relationship between legal status and firm level outcomes in micro, small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Controlling for determinin...

  13. Formalizing physical security procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, C.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    Although the problems of physical security emerged more than 10,000 years before the problems of computer security, no formal methods have been developed for them, and the solutions have been evolving slowly, mostly through social procedures. But as the traffic on physical and social networks is now

  14. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  15. Analysis of stress- strain distribution of dowel and glue line in L-type furniture joint by means of finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mossayeb dalvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study 3D stress-strain distribution of dowel and glue line on L-type joints made of plywood doweled was investigated. Members of joints made of 11-ply hardwood plywood (Hornbeam, Beech and Alder that were 19 mm in thickness. In this study effect of beech dowels in three levels diameters (6, 8 and 10 mm and penetration of depth (9, 13 and 17 mm on bending moment capacity of L-type joints under compression loading was investigated as experimental test, then stress-strain distribution of wood dowel and glue line in specimens were simulated by means of ANSYS 15 software with finite element method (FEM.Results have shown that bending moment resistance increased with increasing dowel diameter from 6 to 8 mm, but downward trend was observed with increasing 8 to 10 mm in dowel diameter. Bending moment resistance increased with increasing penetration depth. Also, result obtained of simulation by means of ANSYS software have shown that stress-strain in dowel and glue line increased with increasing diameter of dowel and Increasing stress in joints made of diameter dowel 10 mm due to fracture in joints and decrease in resistance once. According to results obtained of model analysis, the ultimate stress of dowel and glue line occurred in the area that joints were contacted.

  16. The variation of the unitary stresses occurring in the working part in relation to the type of soil, using the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorescu, E.; Chiorescu, D.

    2017-08-01

    Agriculture brings a major contribution to the sustainable development of the economy, providing food to people. Because of the continuous growth of the population, there is an ever increasing need of food worldwide. For this reason, it is necessary to study the contact between the soil and the active tool of the cultivators, in relation to the type of soil and its parameters. The physical-mechanical characteristics of the soils are influenced by the moving velocity of the working part, as well as by the humidity of the soil. The humidity triggers the change of the friction coefficient at the soil-steel contact, being of significant importance for the decrease of the working resistance of the working tools and responsible for increasing exploitation costs. The model used for the soil has a non-linear plastic behavior of the Drucker Prager type, being different from the Mises model. The programming software Ansys was used for the simulation with the finite element method, allowing the study of the behavior of the active working part, the normal stress being analyzed in real conditions, at various depths and velocities for a soil with a clay-sandy texture.

  17. Finite and profinite quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vourdas, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an introduction to finite quantum systems, a field at the interface between quantum information and number theory, with applications in quantum computation and condensed matter physics. The first major part of this monograph studies the so-called `qubits' and `qudits', systems with periodic finite lattice as position space. It also discusses the so-called mutually unbiased bases, which have applications in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Quantum logic and its applications to quantum gates is also studied. The second part studies finite quantum systems, where the position takes values in a Galois field. This combines quantum mechanics with Galois theory. The third part extends the discussion to quantum systems with variables in profinite groups, considering the limit where the dimension of the system becomes very large. It uses the concepts of inverse and direct limit and studies quantum mechanics on p-adic numbers. Applications of the formalism include quantum optics and ...

  18. A comparison of 1D analytical model and 3D finite element analysis with experiments for a rosen-type piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukazouha, F; Poulin-Vittrant, G; Tran-Huu-Hue, L P; Bavencoffe, M; Boubenider, F; Rguiti, M; Lethiecq, M

    2015-07-01

    This article is dedicated to the study of Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs), which offer promising solutions to the increasing need for integrated power electronics modules within autonomous systems. The advantages offered by such transformers include: immunity to electromagnetic disturbances; ease of miniaturisation for example, using conventional micro fabrication processes; and enhanced performance in terms of voltage gain and power efficiency. Central to the adequate description of such transformers is the need for complex analytical modeling tools, especially if one is attempting to include combined contributions due to (i) mechanical phenomena owing to the different propagation modes which differ at the primary and secondary sides of the PT; and (ii) electrical phenomena such as the voltage gain and power efficiency, which depend on the electrical load. The present work demonstrates an original one-dimensional (1D) analytical model, dedicated to a Rosen-type PT and simulation results are successively compared against that of a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics software) and experimental results. The Rosen-type PT studied here is based on a single layer soft PZT (P191) with corresponding dimensions 18 mm × 3 mm × 1.5 mm, which operated at the second harmonic of 176 kHz. Detailed simulational and experimental results show that the presented 1D model predicts experimental measurements to within less than 10% error of the voltage gain at the second and third resonance frequency modes. Adjustment of the analytical model parameters is found to decrease errors relative to experimental voltage gain to within 1%, whilst a 2.5% error on the output admittance magnitude at the second resonance mode were obtained. Relying on the unique assumption of one-dimensionality, the present analytical model appears as a useful tool for Rosen-type PT design and behavior understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermo field theory versus imaginary time formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Nishino, H.; Grigjanis, R.

    1983-11-01

    We calculate a two-loop diagram at finite temperature to compare Thermo Field Theory (=Th.F.Th.) with the conventional imaginary time formalism (=Im.T.F.). The summation over the Matsubara frequency in Im.T.F. is carried out at two-loop level, and the result is shown to coincide with that of Th.F.Th. We confirm that in Im.T.F. the temperature dependent divergences cancel out at least in the calculation of effective potential of phi 4 theory, as in Th.F.Th. (author)

  20. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  1. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  2. Finite type invariants and fatgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry

    2010-01-01

    –Murakami–Ohtsuki of the link invariant of Andersen–Mattes–Reshetikhin computed relative to choices determined by the fatgraph G; this provides a basic connection between 2d geometry and 3d quantum topology. For each fixed G, this invariant is shown to be universal for homology cylinders, i.e., G establishes an isomorphism...

  3. Chiral anomalies in QED and QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Chiral anomalies (a) for QED and QCD at finite temperature are analyzed in imaginary- and real-time formalisms. Both triangle diagrams and functional methods are used. It is found that the expressions for a in terms of finite-temperature fields are formally similar to that for the zero-temperature anomaly as a function of zero-temperature fields, thereby generalizing previous work by other authors. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  5. Formal Analysis of Domain Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bharadwaj, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the application of formal methods, in particular, precise formal notations and automatic analysis tools for the creation and analysis of requirements specifications (i.e...

  6. Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages.

  7. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics...... style of the VCM: Vienna Development Nethd. The role of formal definitions in international standardiaation efforts is briefly mentioned....

  8. Topical Roots of Formal Dialectic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    Formal dialectic has its roots in ancient dialectic. We can trace this influence in Charles Hamblin's book on fallacies, in which he introduced his first formal dialectical systems. Earlier, Paul Lorenzen proposed systems of dialogical logic, which were in fact formal dialectical systems avant la

  9. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  10. Formalized informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2011-01-01

    and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning......This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers...... of school subjects within defined learning goals and curricula, along with various implementations of ICT in the pedagogical everyday practice (Levinsen & Sørensen 2008). However, another research strand - the topic of this paper - emerged during the project's life cycle as a consequence of ongoing changes...

  11. Formally analysing the concepts of domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.

    2011-01-01

    The types of police inquiries performed these days are incredibly diverse. Often data processing architectures are not suited to cope with this diversity since most of the case data is still stored as unstructured text. In this paper Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is showcased for its exploratory

  12. Formal demography of families and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; van Imhoff, E.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Family and household demography’ differs from traditional demography in that it explicitly recognizes and studies relationships between individuals. Formal demography focuses on the definition and measurement of families and households, and modeling of types, number, and composition of families and

  13. Spinor formalism and complex-vector formalism of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han-ying, G.; Yong-shi, W.; Gendao, L.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper, using E. Cartan's exterior calculus, we give the spinor form of the structure equations, which leads naturally to the Newman--Penrose equations. Furthermore, starting from the spinor spaces and the el (2C) algebra, we construct the general complex-vector formalism of general relativity. We find that both the Cahen--Debever--Defrise complex-vector formalism and that of Brans are its special cases. Thus, the spinor formalism and the complex-vector formalism of general relativity are unified on the basis of the uni-modular group SL(2C) and its Lie algebra

  14. Finite temperature approach to confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gave, E.; Jengo, R.; Omero, C.

    1980-06-01

    The finite temperature treatment of gauge theories, formulated in terms of a gauge invariant variable as in a Polyakov method, is used as a device for obtaining an effective theory where the confinement test takes the form of a correlation function. The formalism is discussed for the abelian CPsup(n-1) model in various dimensionalities and for the pure Yang-Mills theory in the limit of zero temperature. In the latter case a class of vortex like configurations of the effective theory which induce confinement correspond in particular to the instanton solutions. (author)

  15. Groebner Finite Path Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Leamer, Micah J.

    2004-01-01

    Let K be a field and Q a finite directed multi-graph. In this paper I classify all path algebras KQ and admissible orders with the property that all of their finitely generated ideals have finite Groebner bases. MS

  16. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  17. Formal System Verification - Extension 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    vision of truly trustworthy systems has been to provide a formally verified microkernel basis. We have previously developed the seL4 microkernel...together with a formal proof (in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL) of its functional correctness [6]. This means that all the behaviours of the seL4 C...source code are included in the high-level, formal specification of the kernel. This work enabled us to provide further formal guarantees about seL4 , in

  18. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  19. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  20. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra

  1. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Mario, E-mail: berta@caltech.edu [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover (Germany); Scholz, Volkher B., E-mail: scholz@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  2. Scattering amplitudes over finite fields and multivariate functional reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Several problems in computer algebra can be efficiently solved by reducing them to calculations over finite fields. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the reconstruction of multivariate polynomials and rational functions from their evaluation over finite fields. Calculations over finite fields can in turn be efficiently performed using machine-size integers in statically-typed languages. We then discuss the application of the algorithm to several techniques related to the computation of scattering amplitudes, such as the four- and six-dimensional spinor-helicity formalism, tree-level recursion relations, and multi-loop integrand reduction via generalized unitarity. The method has good efficiency and scales well with the number of variables and the complexity of the problem. As an example combining these techniques, we present the calculation of full analytic expressions for the two-loop five-point on-shell integrands of the maximal cuts of the planar penta-box and the non-planar double-pentagon topologies in Yang-Mills theory, for a complete set of independent helicity configurations.

  3. Scattering amplitudes over finite fields and multivariate functional reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics,School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-07

    Several problems in computer algebra can be efficiently solved by reducing them to calculations over finite fields. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the reconstruction of multivariate polynomials and rational functions from their evaluation over finite fields. Calculations over finite fields can in turn be efficiently performed using machine-size integers in statically-typed languages. We then discuss the application of the algorithm to several techniques related to the computation of scattering amplitudes, such as the four- and six-dimensional spinor-helicity formalism, tree-level recursion relations, and multi-loop integrand reduction via generalized unitarity. The method has good efficiency and scales well with the number of variables and the complexity of the problem. As an example combining these techniques, we present the calculation of full analytic expressions for the two-loop five-point on-shell integrands of the maximal cuts of the planar penta-box and the non-planar double-pentagon topologies in Yang-Mills theory, for a complete set of independent helicity configurations.

  4. Collaborative Systems – Finite State Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the finite state machines are defined and formalized. There are presented the collaborative banking systems and their correspondence is done with finite state machines. It highlights the role of finite state machines in the complexity analysis and performs operations on very large virtual databases as finite state machines. It builds the state diagram and presents the commands and documents transition between the collaborative systems states. The paper analyzes the data sets from Collaborative Multicash Servicedesk application and performs a combined analysis in order to determine certain statistics. Indicators are obtained, such as the number of requests by category and the load degree of an agent in the collaborative system.

  5. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met...

  6. Leibniz' First Formalization of Syllogistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    of letters just those which belong to the useful, i.e., valid, modes. The set of codes of valid modes turns out to be a so-called "regular" language (in the sense of formal-language-theory). Leibniz' formalization of syllogistics in his Dissertatio thus contains an estimation of the computational complexity...

  7. Seniority in projection operator formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of seniority can be introduced in projection operator formalism through the use of the operator Q, which has been defined by de-Shalit and Talmi. The usefulness of seniority concept in projection operator formalism is discussed. An example of four nucleons in j=3/2 configuration is given for illustrative purposes

  8. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  9. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  10. Study on prestressed concrete reactor vessel structures. II-5: Crack analysis by three dimensional finite elements method of 1/20 multicavity type PCRV subjected to internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite elements analysis is reported of the nonlinear behavior of PCRV subjected to internal pressure by comparing calculated results with test results. As the first stage, an analysis considering the nonlinearity of cracking in concrete was attempted. As a result, it is found possible to make an analysis up to three times the design pressure (50 kg/sqcm), and calculated results agree well with test results.

  11. New procedure for departure formalities

    CERN Multimedia

    HR & GS Departments

    2011-01-01

    As part of the process of simplifying procedures and rationalising administrative processes, the HR and GS Departments have introduced new personalised departure formalities on EDH. These new formalities have applied to students leaving CERN since last year and from 17 October 2011 this procedure will be extended to the following categories of CERN personnel: Staff members, Fellows and Associates. It is planned to extend this electronic procedure to the users in due course. What purpose do departure formalities serve? The departure formalities are designed to ensure that members of the personnel contact all the relevant services in order to return any necessary items (equipment, cards, keys, dosimeter, electronic equipment, books, etc.) and are aware of all the benefits to which they are entitled on termination of their contract. The new departure formalities on EDH have the advantage of tailoring the list of services that each member of the personnel must visit to suit his individual contractual and p...

  12. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... ome/transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and con- ... genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including ..... or genes located adjacent to, or near, them. ...... types of markers, e.g., clinical markers (eye color), genomic.

  13. Mathematic-Graphical Formalization of Switch Point Control Circuit Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Zdansky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes authors designed method then enables mathematic – graphical formalization of system’s functional specification. The result of this method is algebraic system – finite automata that is written in transition table. This transition table is possible to overwrite to graphic form (state diagram or to mathematic form (transition and output function. This method is described by example of switch point control circuit.

  14. Formalizing the Process of Constructing Chains of Lexical Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorij Chetverikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formalizing the Process of Constructing Chains of Lexical Units The paper investigates mathematical aspects of describing the construction of chains of lexical units on the basis of finite-predicate algebra. Analyzing the construction peculiarities is carried out and application of the method of finding the power of linear logical transformation for removing characteristic words of a dictionary entry is given. Analysis and perspectives of the results of the study are provided.

  15. Quantum formalism for classical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.

  16. Formal verification - Robust and efficient code: Introduction to Formal Verification

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In general, FV means "proving that certain properties hold for a given system using formal mathematics". This definition can certainly feel daunting, however, as we will learn, we can reap benefits from the paradigm without digging too deep into ...

  17. Formal verification of algorithms for critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John M.; Von Henke, Friedrich

    1993-01-01

    We describe our experience with formal, machine-checked verification of algorithms for critical applications, concentrating on a Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm for synchronizing the clocks in the replicated computers of a digital flight control system. First, we explain the problems encountered in unsynchronized systems and the necessity, and criticality, of fault-tolerant synchronization. We give an overview of one such algorithm, and of the arguments for its correctness. Next, we describe a verification of the algorithm that we performed using our EHDM system for formal specification and verification. We indicate the errors we found in the published analysis of the algorithm, and other benefits that we derived from the verification. Based on our experience, we derive some key requirements for a formal specification and verification system adequate to the task of verifying algorithms of the type considered. Finally, we summarize our conclusions regarding the benefits of formal verification in this domain, and the capabilities required of verification systems in order to realize those benefits.

  18. Finite Product of Semiring of Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We formalize that the image of a semiring of sets [17] by an injective function is a semiring of sets.We offer a non-trivial example of a semiring of sets in a topological space [21]. Finally, we show that the finite product of a semiring of sets is also a semiring of sets [21] and that the finite product of a classical semiring of sets [8] is a classical semiring of sets. In this case, we use here the notation from the book of Aliprantis and Border [1].

  19. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  20. Tsallis thermostatistics for finite systems: a Hamiltonian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.; Moreira, Andrã© A.; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Almeida, Murilo P.

    2003-05-01

    The derivation of the Tsallis generalized canonical distribution from the traditional approach of the Gibbs microcanonical ensemble is revisited (Phys. Lett. A 193 (1994) 140). We show that finite systems whose Hamiltonians obey a generalized homogeneity relation rigorously follow the nonextensive thermostatistics of Tsallis. In the thermodynamical limit, however, our results indicate that the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is always recovered, regardless of the type of potential among interacting particles. This approach provides, moreover, a one-to-one correspondence between the generalized entropy and the Hamiltonian structure of a wide class of systems, revealing a possible origin for the intrinsic nonlinear features present in the Tsallis formalism that lead naturally to power-law behavior. Finally, we confirm these exact results through extensive numerical simulations of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain of anharmonic oscillators.

  1. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  2. El Salvador - Formal Technical Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...

  3. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  4. Helicity formalism and spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Piovano, U.

    1990-01-01

    The helicity formalism and the technique to compute amplitudes for interaction processes involving leptons, quarks, photons and gluons are reviewed. Explicit calculations and examples of exploitation of symmetry properties are shown. The formalism is then applied to the discussion of several hadronic processes and spin effects: the experimental data, when related to the properties of the elementary constituent interactions, show many not understood features. Also the nucleon spin problem is briefly reviewed. (author)

  5. Dynamical study of the Darrieus-type turbine runners by using finite element method; Estudo da dinamica de turbinas hidraulicas mare-motrizes do tipo Darrieus atraves do metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Manoel Jose dos Santos; Mesquita, Andre Luiz Amarante [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Turbomaquinas]. E-mail: gtdem@ufpa.br

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this work is describe the implementation of a finite element model for dynamic response analysis of Darrieus-type turbine runners. A fluid-structure coupling is be used to put in evidence some aspects of the rotor-water interaction. The rotating system fixed to the rotor will be used when writing the equations governing the system. A procedure using the ANSYS Parametric Design Language is discussed and some results obtained for the free-free configuration are shown. (author)

  6. Thermal operator representation of finite temperature graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.; Das, Ashok; Espinosa, Olivier; Perez, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    Using the mixed space representation (t,p→) in the context of scalar field theories, we prove in a simple manner that the Feynman graphs at finite temperature are related to the corresponding zero temperature diagrams through a simple thermal operator, both in the imaginary time as well as in the real time formalisms. This result is generalized to the case when there is a nontrivial chemical potential present. Several interesting properties of the thermal operator are also discussed

  7. Using of Finite Automation at Programming PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning with systematic advances at programming programmable logic controllers (PLC, which comes out from algebraic description of behaviour of sequential circuit, in the way of finite automaton. This kind of access is streamlining the work of a programmer and enabling to use formalisms in the of whole process of system development, that is from process of analysing demands to process of verification and validation created program. The paper considers about using of ladder diagram at programming PLC.

  8. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  9. A piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element spatial discretization of the Sn transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Teresa S.; Warsa, James S.; Chang, Jae H.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretization that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems. (author)

  10. A Piecewise Bi-Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Sn Transport Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T.S.; Chang, J.H.; Warsa, J.S.; Adams, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretizations that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems.

  11. A Piecewise Bi-Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Sn Transport Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, T S; Chang, J H; Warsa, J S; Adams, M L

    2010-12-22

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretizations that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems.

  12. Picture languages formal models for picture recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1979-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.

  13. Finite Element Modeling in 3D of the Impact of Superfluid Helium Filled Micro-channels on the Heat Transfer through LHC Type Cable Insulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bielert, E; ten Kate, H

    2012-01-01

    For a future luminosity upgrade of CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, a drastically improved heat removal in the inner triplet quadrupole magnets is required. One of the necessary improvements involves the cable insulation. A porous all-polyimide insulation scheme has been proposed recently. Essentially the insulation features a network of micro channels filled with superfluid helium that significantly increases the heat transfer through the insulation layer. A three dimensional Finite Element model required to simulate and study the enhanced heat transfer through the micro channels is presented here. The thermal coupling between heated cable and helium as well as the heat flux through the micro-channels are investigated. The model is validated by comparison of results with published measured data. Finally a sensitivity analysis is performed concerning the stability of the cables in magnet windings.

  14. A finite landscape?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, B.S.; Douglas, M.R.

    2006-06-01

    We present evidence that the number of string/M theory vacua consistent with experiments is finite. We do this both by explicit analysis of infinite sequences of vacua and by applying various mathematical finiteness theorems. (author)

  15. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  16. Abstract Level Parallelization of Finite Difference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Vollebregt

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A formalism is proposed for describing finite difference calculations in an abstract way. The formalism consists of index sets and stencils, for characterizing the structure of sets of data items and interactions between data items (“neighbouring relations”. The formalism provides a means for lifting programming to a more abstract level. This simplifies the tasks of performance analysis and verification of correctness, and opens the way for automaticcode generation. The notation is particularly useful in parallelization, for the systematic construction of parallel programs in a process/channel programming paradigm (e.g., message passing. This is important because message passing, unfortunately, still is the only approach that leads to acceptable performance for many more unstructured or irregular problems on parallel computers that have non-uniform memory access times. It will be shown that the use of index sets and stencils greatly simplifies the determination of which data must be exchanged between different computing processes.

  17. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  18. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  19. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  20. Compton scattering at finite temperature: thermal field dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraev, F.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Compton scattering is a classical problem of quantum electrodynamics and has been studied in its early beginnings. Perturbation theory and Feynman diagram technique enables comprehensive analysis of this problem on the basis of which famous Klein-Nishina formula is obtained [1, 2]. In this work this problem is extended to the case of finite temperature. Finite-temperature effects in Compton scattering is of practical importance for various processes in relativistic thermal plasmas in astrophysics. Recently Compton effect have been explored using closed-time path formalism with temperature corrections estimated [3]. It was found that the thermal cross section can be larger than that for zero-temperature by several orders of magnitude for the high temperature realistic in astrophysics [3]. In our work we use a main tool to account finite-temperature effects, a real-time finite-temperature quantum field theory, so-called thermofield dynamics [4, 5]. Thermofield dynamics is a canonical formalism to explore field-theoretical processes at finite temperature. It consists of two steps, doubling of Fock space and Bogolyubov transformations. Doubling leads to appearing additional degrees of freedom, called tilded operators which together with usual field operators create so-called thermal doublet. Bogolyubov transformations make field operators temperature-dependent. Using this formalism we treat Compton scattering at finite temperature via replacing in transition amplitude zero-temperature propagators by finite-temperature ones. As a result finite-temperature extension of the Klein-Nishina formula is obtained in which differential cross section is represented as a sum of zero-temperature cross section and finite-temperature correction. The obtained result could be useful in quantum electrodynamics of lasers and for relativistic thermal plasma processes in astrophysics where correct account of finite-temperature effects is important. (author)

  1. Parquet theory of finite temperature boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author uses the parquet summation for the two-body vertex as the framework for a perturbation theory of finite-temperature homogeneous boson systems. The present formalism is a first step toward a full description of the thermodynamic behavior of a finite temperature boson system through parquet summation. The current approximation scheme focuses on a system below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature and considers only the contribution from Bogoliubov excitations out of a boson condensate. Comparison with the finite temperature variational theory by Campbell et al. shows strong similarities between variational theory and the current theory. Numerical results from a 4 He system and a nuclear system are discussed

  2. Generalised BRST symmetry and gaugeon formalism for perturbative quantum gravity: Novel observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the novel features of Yokoyama gaugeon formalism are stressed out for the theory of perturbative quantum gravity in the Einstein curved spacetime. The quantum gauge transformations for the theory of perturbative gravity are demonstrated in the framework of gaugeon formalism. These quantum gauge transformations lead to renormalised gauge parameter. Further, we analyse the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism which embeds more acceptable Kugo–Ojima subsidiary condition. Further, the BRST symmetry is made finite and field-dependent. Remarkably, the Jacobian of path integral under finite and field-dependent BRST symmetry amounts to the exact gaugeon action in the effective theory of perturbative quantum gravity. -- Highlights: •We analyse the perturbative gravity in gaugeon formalism. •The generalisation of BRST transformation is also studied in this context. •Within the generalised BRST framework we found the exact gaugeon modes in the theory

  3. Formal Women-only Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesèche, Florence; Josserand, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    /organisations and the wider social group of women in business. Research limitations/implications: The authors focus on the distinction between external and internal formal women-only networks while also acknowledging the broader diversity that can characterise such networks. Their review provides the reader with an insight...... member level, the authors suggest that such networks can be of value for organisations and the wider social group of women in management and leadership positions.......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the emerging literature on formal women-only business networks and outline propositions to develop this under-theorised area of knowledge and stimulate future research. Design/methodology/approach: The authors review the existing literature on formal...

  4. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer...... trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  5. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  6. Lorentz Violation, Möller Scattering, and Finite Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesandro F. Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz and CPT symmetries may be violated in new physics that emerges at very high energy scale, that is, at the Planck scale. The differential cross section of the Möller scattering due to Lorentz violation at finite temperature is calculated. Lorentz-violating effects emerge from an interaction vertex due to a CPT-odd nonminimal coupling in the covariant derivative. The finite temperature effects are determined using the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD formalism.

  7. Formal languages, automata and numeration systems introduction to combinatorics on words

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidabl

  8. In vitro fatigue tests and in silico finite element analysis of dental implants with different fixture/abutment joint types using computer-aided design models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Yasufumi; Machado, Lucas S; Matsumoto, Shuji; Tovar, Nick; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Imazato, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fatigue resistance of dental fixtures with two different fixture-abutment connections by in vitro fatigue testing and in silico three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) using original computer-aided design (CAD) models. Dental implant fixtures with external connection (EX) or internal connection (IN) abutments were fabricated from original CAD models using grade IV titanium and step-stress accelerated life testing was performed. Fatigue cycles and loads were assessed by Weibull analysis, and fatigue cracking was observed by micro-computed tomography and a stereomicroscope with high dynamic range software. Using the same CAD models, displacement vectors of implant components were also analyzed by 3D FEA. Angles of the fractured line occurring at fixture platforms in vitro and of displacement vectors corresponding to the fractured line in silico were compared by two-way ANOVA. Fatigue testing showed significantly greater reliability for IN than EX (pimplant fixture platforms. FEA demonstrated that crack lines of both implant systems in vitro were observed in the same direction as displacement vectors of the implant fixtures in silico. In silico displacement vectors in the implant fixture are insightful for geometric development of dental implants to reduce complex interactions leading to fatigue failure. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formal models, languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangarajan, K; Mukund, M

    2006-01-01

    A collection of articles by leading experts in theoretical computer science, this volume commemorates the 75th birthday of Professor Rani Siromoney, one of the pioneers in the field in India. The articles span the vast range of areas that Professor Siromoney has worked in or influenced, including grammar systems, picture languages and new models of computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (150 KB). Contents: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (A Atanasiu et al.); Hexagonal Contextual Array P Systems (K S Dersanambika et al.); Con

  10. Formal systems for persuasion dialogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Henry

    This article reviews formal systems that regulate persuasion dialogues. In such dialogues two or more participants aim to resolve a difference of opinion, each trying to persuade the other participants to adopt their point of view. Systems for persuasion dialogue have found application in various

  11. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  12. A formalization of computational trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven - Ozcelebi, C.; Holenderski, M.J.; Ozcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Computational trust aims to quantify trust and is studied by many disciplines including computer science, social sciences and business science. We propose a formal computational trust model, including its parameters and operations on these parameters, as well as a step by step guide to compute trust

  13. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  14. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  15. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  16. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan

    2009-01-01

    . Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate...... the repository, and describe the challenges they address. © 2009 ACM. (146 refs.)...

  17. Comparison of reconstruction plate screw fixation and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation in treatment of Tile B1 type pubic symphysis diastasis: a finite element analysis and 10-year clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-He; Hong, Jian-Jun; Guo, Xiao-Shan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng

    2015-09-22

    The objective of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties and clinical outcomes of Tile B1 type pubic symphysis diastasis (PSD) treated by percutaneous cannulated screw fixation (PCSF) and reconstruction plate screw fixation (RPSF). Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to compare the biomechanical properties between PCSF and RPSF. CT scan data of one PSD patient were used for three-dimensional reconstructions. After a validated pelvic finite element model was established, both PCSF and RPSF were simulated, and a vertical downward load of 600 N was loaded. The distance of pubic symphysis and stress were tested. Then, 51 Tile type B1 PSD patients (24 in the PCSF group; 27 in the RPSF group) were reviewed. Intra-operative blood loss, operative time, and the length of the skin scar were recorded. The distance of pubic symphysis was measured, and complications of infection, implant failure, and revision surgery were recorded. The Majeed scoring system was also evaluated. The maximum displacement of the pubic symphysis was 0.408 and 0.643 mm in the RPSF and PCSF models, respectively. The maximum stress of the plate in RPSF was 1846 MPa and that of the cannulated screw in PCSF was 30.92 MPa. All 51 patients received follow-up at least 18 months post-surgery (range 18-54 months). Intra-operative blood loss, operative time, and the length of the skin scar in the PCSF group were significantly different than those in the RPSF group. No significant differences were found in wound infection, implant failure, rate of revision surgery, distance of pubic symphysis, and Majeed score. PCSF can provide comparable biomechanical properties to RPSF in the treatment of Tile B1 type PSD. Meanwhile, PCSF and RPSF have similar clinical and radiographic outcomes. Furthermore, PCSF also has the advantages of being minimally invasive, has less blood loss, and has shorter operative time and skin scar.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF A PONTOON-TYPE VLFS DURING UNSTEADY EXTERNAL LOADS IN WAVE CONDITION USING A HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT-BOUNDARY ELEMENT (FE-ME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroelastic behaviour of a pontoon-type VLFS subjected to unsteady external loads in wave condition is investigated in the context of the time-domain modal expansion theory, in which the boundary element method (BEM based on time domain Kelvin sources is used for hydrodynamic forces and the finite element method (FEM is adopted for solving the deflections of the VLFS. In this analysis, the interpolation-tabulation scheme is applied to assess rapidly and accurately the free-surface Green function in finite water depth, and the boundary integral equation of a quarter VLFS model is further established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The VLFS is modelled as an equivalent solid plate based on the Mindlin plate theory. The coupled plate-water model is performed to determine the wave-induced responses and transient behaviour under external loads such as a huge mass impact onto the structure and moving loads of an airplane, respectively. These results are verified with existing numerical results and experimental test. Then, the developed numerical tools are used in the study of the combined action taking into account of the mass drop/airplane landing as well as forward or reverse incident wave action. The deflections of the runway, the time history of vertical positions and the trajectory of the airplane are also presented through a systematic time-domain simulation, which illustrates the usefulness of the presently developed numerical solutions.

  19. Critical formalism or digital biomorphology. The contemporary architecture formal dilema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Villanueva Cajide

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the dawn of digital media the architecture’s formal possibilities reached a level unknown before. The Guggenheim Museo branch in Bilbao appears in 1993 as the materialisation of the possibilities of the use of digital tools in architecture’s design, starting the development of a digital based architecture which currently has reached an exhaustion level that is evident in the repetition biomorphologic shapes emerged from the digital determinism to which some contemporary architectural practices have converged. While the digitalisation of the architectural process is irreversible and desirable, it is necessary to rethink the terms of this collaboration beyond the possibilities of the digital tools themselves. This article proposes to analyse seven texts written in the very moment when digitalisation became a real possibility, between Gehry’s conception of the Guggenheim Museum in 1992 and the Congress on Morphogenesis hold in the Architectural Association in 2004, in order to explore the possibility of reversing the process that has led to the formal exhaustion of digital architecture, from the acceptance of incorporating strategies coming from a contemporary critical formalism.

  20. Diffusion models for mixtures using a stiff dissipative hyperbolic formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Grec , Bérénice; Pavan , Vincent

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we are interested in a system of uid equations for mixtures with a sti relaxation term of Maxwell-Stefan diusion type. We use the formalism developed by Chen, Levermore, Liu in [4] to obtain a limit system of Fick type where the species velocities tend to align to a bulk velocity when the relaxation parameter remains small.

  1. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  2. Finite quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate the relation between finiteness of a four-dimensional quantum field theory and global supersymmetry. To this end we consider the most general quantum field theory and analyse the finiteness conditions resulting from the requirement of the absence of divergent contributions to the renormalizations of the parameters of the theory. In addition to the gauge bosons, both fermions and scalar bosons turn out to be a necessary ingredient in a non-trivial finite gauge theory. In all cases discussed, the supersymmetric theory restricted by two well-known constraints on the dimensionless couplings proves to be the unique solution of the finiteness conditions. (Author)

  3. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  4. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  5. Polynomials formalism of quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the recently suggested perturbation formalism based on the method of quantum number polynomials are considered in the context of the general anharmonicity problem. Using a biatomic molecule by way of example, it is demonstrated how the theory can be extrapolated to the case of vibrational-rotational interactions. As a result, an exact expression for the first coefficient of the Herman-Wallis factor is derived. In addition, the basic notions of the formalism are phenomenologically generalized and expanded to the problem of spin interaction. The concept of magneto-optical anharmonicity is introduced. As a consequence, an exact analogy is drawn with the well-known electro-optical theory of molecules, and a nonlinear dependence of the magnetic dipole moment of the system on the spin and wave variables is established [ru

  6. Methodology of formal software evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszynski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Sydkraft AB, the major Swedish utility, owner of ca 6000 MW el installed in nuclear (NPP Barsebaeck and NPP Oskarshamn), fossil fuel and hydro Power Plants is facing modernization of the control systems of the plants. Standards applicable require structured, formal methods for implementation of the control functions in the modem, real time software systems. This presentation introduces implementation methodology as discussed presently at the Sydkraft organisation. The approach suggested is based upon the process of co-operation of three parties taking part in the implementation; owner of the plant, vendor and Quality Assurance (QA) organisation. QA will be based on tools for formal software validation and on systematic gathering by the owner of validated and proved-by-operation control modules for the concern-wide utilisation. (author)

  7. Stroh formalism and Rayleigh waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Introduces a powerful and elegant mathematical method for the analysis of anisotropic elasticity equationsThe reader can grasp the essentials as quickly as possibleCan be used as a textbook, which presents compactly introduction and applications of the Stroh formalismAppeals to the people not only in mathematics but also in mechanics and engineering sciencePrerequisites are only basic linear algebra, calculus and fundamentals of differential equations

  8. Variational formalism for spin particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.

    1977-11-01

    The geometrical formulation of Hamilton's principle presented in a previous paper has been related to the usual one in terms of Lagrangian functions. The exact conditions for their equivalence are obtained and a method is given for the construction of a Lagrangian function. The formalism is extended to spin particles and a local Lagrangian is constructed in this case, too. However, this function cannot be extended to a global one. (D.P.)

  9. Review of the helicity formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, F.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez, E.

    1972-01-01

    Our purpose in these notes has been to present a brief and general review of the helicity formalism. We begin by discussing Lorentz invariance, spin and helicity ideas, in section 1 . In section 2 we deal with the construction of relativistic states and scattering amplitudes in the helicity basis and we study their transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Finally we present some more sophisticated topics like kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes, kinematical constraints and crossing relations 3, 4, 5 respectively. (Author) 8 refs

  10. Ashtekar formalism with real variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalau, W.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-12-01

    A new approach to canonical gravity is presented which is based on the Ashtekar formalism. But, in contrast to Ashtekar's variables, this formulation does not need complex quantities nor does it lead to second class constraints. This is achieved using SO(3,1) as a gauge group instead of complexified SO(3). Because of the larger group additional first class constraints are needed which turn out to be cubic and quartic in the momenta. (author). 13 refs

  11. Great Computational Intelligence in the Formal Sciences via Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    specified Turing-solvable but timewise-demanding games of perfect information, yield human-level performance. This is certainly a mouthful, but didn’t we...the ω− rule is a finite form which still preserves negation-completeness for PA. The disadvantage is that proof-verification and discovery both fail...first such formal, and machine-verified, proofs, to our knowledge. One of 12The three-volume set is available online and free in the Univ. of

  12. Formal languages, automata and numeration systems, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between words, computability, algebra and arithmetic has now proved its relevance and fruitfulness. Indeed, the cross-fertilization between formal logic and finite automata (such as that initiated by J.R. Büchi) or between combinatorics on words and number theory has paved the way to recent dramatic developments, for example, the transcendence results for the real numbers having a "simple" binary expansion, by B. Adamczewski and Y. Bugeaud. This book is at the heart of this interplay through a unified exposition. Objects are considered with a perspective that comes both from t

  13. Stochastic formulation of quantum field at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that, based on an extension of the stochastic quantization method of Nelson, it is possible to obtain finite temperature fields in both the imaginary and real time formalisms which are usually quantized by using the functional integral technique

  14. Clifford algebra in finite quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-12-01

    We consider the most general power counting renormalizable and gauge invariant Lagrangean density L invariant with respect to some non-Abelian, compact, and semisimple gauge group G. The particle content of this quantum field theory consists of gauge vector bosons, real scalar bosons, fermions, and ghost fields. We assume that the ultimate grand unified theory needs no cutoff. This yields so-called finiteness conditions, resulting from the demand for finite physical quantities calculated by the bare Lagrangean. In lower loop order, necessary conditions for finiteness are thus vanishing beta functions for dimensionless couplings. The complexity of the finiteness conditions for a general quantum field theory makes the discussion of non-supersymmetric theories rather cumbersome. Recently, the F = 1 class of finite quantum field theories has been proposed embracing all supersymmetric theories. A special type of F = 1 theories proposed turns out to have Yukawa couplings which are equivalent to generators of a Clifford algebra representation. These algebraic structures are remarkable all the more than in the context of a well-known conjecture which states that finiteness is maybe related to global symmetries (such as supersymmetry) of the Lagrangean density. We can prove that supersymmetric theories can never be of this Clifford-type. It turns out that these Clifford algebra representations found recently are a consequence of certain invariances of the finiteness conditions resulting from a vanishing of the renormalization group β-function for the Yukawa couplings. We are able to exclude almost all such Clifford-like theories. (author)

  15. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  16. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  17. Supersymmetric theories and finiteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helayel-Neto, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    We attempt here to present a short survey of the all-order finite Lagrangian field theories known at present in four-and two-dimensional space-times. The question of the possible relevance of these ultraviolet finite models in the formulation of consistent unified frameworks for the fundamental forces is also addressed to. (author)

  18. Finite Markov processes and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifescu, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A self-contained treatment of finite Markov chains and processes, this text covers both theory and applications. Author Marius Iosifescu, vice president of the Romanian Academy and director of its Center for Mathematical Statistics, begins with a review of relevant aspects of probability theory and linear algebra. Experienced readers may start with the second chapter, a treatment of fundamental concepts of homogeneous finite Markov chain theory that offers examples of applicable models.The text advances to studies of two basic types of homogeneous finite Markov chains: absorbing and ergodic ch

  19. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  20. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  1. Finite fields and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Gary L

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a brief and accessible introduction to the theory of finite fields and to some of their many fascinating and practical applications. The first chapter is devoted to the theory of finite fields. After covering their construction and elementary properties, the authors discuss the trace and norm functions, bases for finite fields, and properties of polynomials over finite fields. Each of the remaining chapters details applications. Chapter 2 deals with combinatorial topics such as the construction of sets of orthogonal latin squares, affine and projective planes, block designs, and Hadamard matrices. Chapters 3 and 4 provide a number of constructions and basic properties of error-correcting codes and cryptographic systems using finite fields. Each chapter includes a set of exercises of varying levels of difficulty which help to further explain and motivate the material. Appendix A provides a brief review of the basic number theory and abstract algebra used in the text, as well as exercises rel...

  2. On the spectral properties of random finite difference operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, H.; Souillard, B.

    1980-01-01

    We study a class of random finite difference operators, a typical example of which is the finite difference Schroedinger operator with a random potential which arises in solid state physics in the tight binding approximation. We obtain with probability one, in various situations, the exact location of the spectrum, and criterions for a given part in the spectrum to be pure point or purely continuous, or for the static electric conductivity to vanish. A general formalism is developped which transforms the study of these random operators into that of the asymptotics of a multiple integral constructed from a given recipe. Finally we apply our criterions and formalism to prove that, with probability one, the one-dimensional finite difference Schroedinger operator with a random potential has pure point spectrum and developps no static conductivity. (orig.)

  3. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the verification procedures should be algorithmically synthesizable. Autonomous control plays an important role in many safety-critical systems. This implies that a malfunction in the control system can have catastrophic consequences, e.g., in space applications where a design flaw can result in large economic...... losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due...

  4. Measuring the effect of formalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelen, K.; Mohn, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present an ongoing research activity concerned with measuring the effect of an increased level of formalization in software development. We summarize the experiences from a first experimental development. Based on these experiences, we discuss a number of technical issues; in particular, problems connected to metrics based on fault reports. First of all, what is a fault? Secondly, how should the fault counting be integrated in the development process? Thirdly, any reasonable definition of fault depends on a notion of satisfaction. Hence, we must address the question: What does it mean for a specification or an implementation to satisfy a requirement imposed by a more high-level specification? (author)

  5. Formalization in Component Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Knudsen, John; Makowski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    We present a unifying conceptual framework for components, component interfaces, contracts and composition of components by focusing on the collection of properties or qualities that they must share. A specific property, such as signature, functionality behaviour or timing is an aspect. Each aspect...... may be specified in a formal language convenient for its purpose and, in principle, unrelated to languages for other aspects. Each aspect forms its own semantic domain, although a semantic domain may be parameterized by values derived from other aspects. The proposed conceptual framework is introduced...

  6. Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of Azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoki; Kitahara, Takeshi; Mori, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetric formal synthesis of azadirachtin, a potent insect antifeedant, was accomplished in 30 steps to Ley's synthetic intermediate (longest linear sequence). The synthesis features: 1) rapid access to the optically active right-hand segment starting from the known 5-hydroxymethyl-2-cyclopentenone scaffold; 2) construction of the B and E rings by a key intramolecular tandem radical cyclization; 3) formation of the hemiacetal moiety in the C ring through the α-oxidation of the six-membered lactone followed by methanolysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The formal de Rham complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharinov, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a formal construction generalizing the classic de Rham complex to a wide class of models in mathematical physics and analysis. The presentation is divided into a sequence of definitions and elementary, easily verified statements; proofs are therefore given only in the key case. Linear operations are everywhere performed over a fixed number field {F} = {R},{C}. All linear spaces, algebras, and modules, although not stipulated explicitly, are by definition or by construction endowed with natural locally convex topologies, and their morphisms are continuous.

  8. Noncommutativity and Duality through the Symplectic Embedding Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton M.C. Abreu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to review the gauge embedding of either commutative and noncommutative (NC theories using the symplectic formalism framework. To sum up the main features of the method, during the process of embedding, the infinitesimal gauge generators of the gauge embedded theory are easily and directly chosen. Among other advantages, this enables a greater control over the final Lagrangian and brings some light on the so-called ''arbitrariness problem''. This alternative embedding formalism also presents a way to obtain a set of dynamically dual equivalent embedded Lagrangian densities which is obtained after a finite number of steps in the iterative symplectic process, oppositely to the result proposed using the BFFT formalism. On the other hand, we will see precisely that the symplectic embedding formalism can be seen as an alternative and an efficient procedure to the standard introduction of the Moyal product in order to produce in a natural way a NC theory. In order to construct a pedagogical explanation of the method to the nonspecialist we exemplify the formalism showing that the massive NC U(1 theory is embedded in a gauge theory using this alternative systematic path based on the symplectic framework. Further, as other applications of the method, we describe exactly how to obtain a Lagrangian description for the NC version of some systems reproducing well known theories. Naming some of them, we use the procedure in the Proca model, the irrotational fluid model and the noncommutative self-dual model in order to obtain dual equivalent actions for these theories. To illustrate the process of noncommutativity introduction we use the chiral oscillator and the nondegenerate mechanics.

  9. Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.

  10. Psychologist in non-formal education

    OpenAIRE

    Pavićević Miljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Learning is not limited to school time. It starts at birth and continues throughout the entire life. Equally important as formal education there are also non-formal and informal education. Any kind of learning outside the traditional school can be called informal. However, it is not easy to define non-formal education because it is being described differently, for example as an education movement, process, system… Projects and programs implemented under the name of non-formal education are of...

  11. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  12. Quantum fields at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    These lectures are an elementary introduction to standard many-body techniques applied to the study of quantum fields at finite temperature and density: perturbative expansion, linear response theory, quasiparticles and their interactions, etc... We emphasize the usefulness of the imaginary time formalism in a wide class of problems, as opposed to many recent approaches based on real time. Properties of elementary excitations in an ultrarelativistic plasma at high temperature or chemical potential are discussed, and recent progresses in the study of the quark-gluon plasma are briefly reviewed

  13. Formal Proofs for Nonlinear Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Magron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formally verified global optimization framework. Given a semialgebraic or transcendental function f and a compact semialgebraic domain K, we use the nonlinear maxplus template approximation algorithm to provide a certified lower bound of f over K.This method allows to bound in a modular way some of the constituents of f by suprema of quadratic forms with a well chosen curvature. Thus, we reduce the initial goal to a hierarchy of semialgebraic optimization problems, solved by sums of squares relaxations. Our implementation tool interleaves  semialgebraic approximations with sums of squares witnesses to form certificates. It is interfaced with Coq and thus benefits from the trusted arithmetic available inside the proof assistant. This feature is used to produce, from the certificates, both valid underestimators and lower bounds for each approximated constituent.The application range for such a tool is widespread; for instance Hales' proof of Kepler's conjecture yields thousands of multivariate transcendental inequalities. We illustrate the performance of our formal framework on some of these inequalities as well as on examples from the global optimization literature.

  14. Canonical formalism for relativistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penafiel-Nava, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of a canonical formalism appropriate for a dynamical theory of isolated relativistic multiparticle systems involving scalar interactions is studied. It is shown that a single time-parameter structure satisfying the requirements of Poincare invariance and simultaneity of the constituents (global tranversality) can not be derived from a homogeneous Lagrangian. The dynamics is deduced initially from a non-homogeneous but singular Lagrangian designed to accommodate the global tranversality constraints with the equaltime plane associated to the total momentum of the system. An equivalent standard Lagrangian is used to generalize the parametrization procedure which is referred to an arbitrary geodesic in Minkowski space. The equations of motion and the definition of center of momentum are invariant with respect to the choice of geodesic and the entire formalism becomes separable. In the original 8N-dimensional phase-space, the symmetries of the Lagrangian give rise to a canonical realization of a fifteen-generator Lie algebra which is projected in the 6N dimensional hypersurface of dynamical motions. The time-component of the total momentum is thus reduced to a neutral element and the canonical Hamiltonian survives as the only generator for time-translations so that the no-interaction theorem becomes inapplicable

  15. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  16. Generalized Bondi-Sachs equations for characteristic formalism of numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhoujian; He, Xiaokai

    2013-11-01

    The Cauchy formalism of numerical relativity has been successfully applied to simulate various dynamical spacetimes without any symmetry assumption. But discovering how to set a mathematically consistent and physically realistic boundary condition is still an open problem for Cauchy formalism. In addition, the numerical truncation error and finite region ambiguity affect the accuracy of gravitational wave form calculation. As to the finite region ambiguity issue, the characteristic extraction method helps much. But it does not solve all of the above issues. Besides the above problems for Cauchy formalism, the computational efficiency is another problem. Although characteristic formalism of numerical relativity suffers the difficulty from caustics in the inner near zone, it has advantages in relation to all of the issues listed above. Cauchy-characteristic matching (CCM) is a possible way to take advantage of characteristic formalism regarding these issues and treat the inner caustics at the same time. CCM has difficulty treating the gauge difference between the Cauchy part and the characteristic part. We propose generalized Bondi-Sachs equations for characteristic formalism for the Cauchy-characteristic matching end. Our proposal gives out a possible same numerical evolution scheme for both the Cauchy part and the characteristic part. And our generalized Bondi-Sachs equations have one adjustable gauge freedom which can be used to relate the gauge used in the Cauchy part. Then these equations can make the Cauchy part and the characteristic part share a consistent gauge condition. So our proposal gives a possible new starting point for Cauchy-characteristic matching.

  17. Formal analysis of design process dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design

  18. Formal Analysis of Design Process Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design

  19. Formal Symplectic Groupoid of a Deformation Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander V.

    2005-08-01

    We give a self-contained algebraic description of a formal symplectic groupoid over a Poisson manifold M. To each natural star product on M we then associate a canonical formal symplectic groupoid over M. Finally, we construct a unique formal symplectic groupoid ‘with separation of variables’ over an arbitrary Kähler-Poisson manifold.

  20. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing

  1. Formal Testing of Correspondence Carrying Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.; Maharaj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays formal software development is characterised by use of multitude formal specification languages. Test case generation from formal specifications depends in general on a specific language, and, moreover, there are competing methods for each language. There is a need for a generic approach to

  2. Lifelong Learning to Empowerment: Beyond Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexis; Balasubramanian, K.; Atieno, Rosemary; Onyango, James

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of lifelong learning vis-à-vis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and stresses the need for an approach blending formal education, non-formal and informal learning. The role of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in moving beyond formal education and the importance of integrating pedagogy, andragogy and…

  3. Matching biomedical ontologies based on formal concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyi; Zhang, Songmao; Li, Weizhuo; Chen, Guowei

    2018-03-19

    The goal of ontology matching is to identify correspondences between entities from different yet overlapping ontologies so as to facilitate semantic integration, reuse and interoperability. As a well developed mathematical model for analyzing individuals and structuring concepts, Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) has been applied to ontology matching (OM) tasks since the beginning of OM research, whereas ontological knowledge exploited in FCA-based methods is limited. This motivates the study in this paper, i.e., to empower FCA with as much as ontological knowledge as possible for identifying mappings across ontologies. We propose a method based on Formal Concept Analysis to identify and validate mappings across ontologies, including one-to-one mappings, complex mappings and correspondences between object properties. Our method, called FCA-Map, incrementally generates a total of five types of formal contexts and extracts mappings from the lattices derived. First, the token-based formal context describes how class names, labels and synonyms share lexical tokens, leading to lexical mappings (anchors) across ontologies. Second, the relation-based formal context describes how classes are in taxonomic, partonomic and disjoint relationships with the anchors, leading to positive and negative structural evidence for validating the lexical matching. Third, the positive relation-based context can be used to discover structural mappings. Afterwards, the property-based formal context describes how object properties are used in axioms to connect anchor classes across ontologies, leading to property mappings. Last, the restriction-based formal context describes co-occurrence of classes across ontologies in anonymous ancestors of anchors, from which extended structural mappings and complex mappings can be identified. Evaluation on the Anatomy, the Large Biomedical Ontologies, and the Disease and Phenotype track of the 2016 Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative campaign

  4. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  5. Building ontologies with basic formal ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Arp, Robert; Spear, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    In the era of "big data," science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of particular relevance to biomedicine, covering theoretical components of ontologies, best practices for ontology design, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use. After defining an ontology as a representation of the types of entities in a given domain, the book distinguishes between different kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and shows how applied ontology draws on more traditional ideas from metaphysics. It presents the core features of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), now u...

  6. Supersymmetry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Finite-temperature supersymmetry (SUSY) is characterized by unbroken Ward identities for SUSY variations of ensemble averages of Klein-operator inserted imaginary time-ordered products of fields. Path-integral representations of these products are defined and the Feynman rules in superspace are given. The finite-temperature no-renormalization theorem is derived. Spontaneously broken SUSY at zero temperature is shown not to be restored at high temperature. (orig.)

  7. Formal analysis of physical theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Chiara, M.L.; Toraldo di Francia, G.

    1979-01-01

    The rules of inference that are made use of in formalization are considered. It is maintained that a physical law represents the universal assertion of a probability, and not the assessment of the probability of a universal assertion. The precision of the apparatus used to collect the experimental evidence is introduced as an essential part of the theoretical structure of physics. This approach allows the author to define the concept of truth in a satisfactory way, abandoning the unacceptable notion of approximate truth. It is shown that a considerable amount of light can be shed on a number of much debated problems arising in the logic of quantum mechanics. It is stressed that the deductive structure of quantum theory seems to be essentially founded on a kind of mixture of different logics. Two different concepts of truth are distinguished within quantum theory, an empirical truth and quantum-logical truth. (Auth.)

  8. Formal Support for Development of Knowledge-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Reif, Wolfgang; Ten Teije, Annette

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an approach for developing reliable knowledge-based systems. Its main contributions are: Specification is done at an architectural level that abstracts from a specific implementation formalism. The model of expertise of CommonKADS distinguishs different types of knowledge and

  9. Formal description of the OSI session layer: session service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; van Eijk, P.H.J.; Vissers, C.A.; Diaz, M.

    1989-01-01

    The LOTOS formal description of the OSI session service is presented on basis of specification samples from the full description, giving account of how specification styles and session service architectural elements are reflected in the description. Both information (data types) and process

  10. Generic Formal Framework for Compositional Analysis of Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Hyun Kim, Jin; Thi Xuan Phan, Linh

    We present a compositional framework for the specification and analysis of hierarchical scheduling systems (HSS). Firstly we provide a generic formal model, which can be used to describe any type of scheduling system. The concept of Job automata is introduced in order to model job instantiation...

  11. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  12. Finite density aspects of leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenegger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Leptogenesis takes place in the early universe at high temperatures and densities and a deviation from equilibrium in the decay of heavy Majorana neutrinos is a fundamental requirement for the generation of the asymmetry. The equations, commonly used for its description, are largely based on classical Boltzmann equations (BEs) while the source of CP-violation is a quantum interference phenomenon. In view of this clash, it is desirable to study such processes in terms of non-equilibrium quantum field theory. On the other hand, it is simpler to solve BEs rather than the corresponding quantum field theoretical ones. Therefore, we derive modified BEs from first principles in the Kadanoff-Baym (KB) formalism. The results, found for a simple toy model, can be applied to popular phenomenological scenarios by analogy. This approach uncovers structural differences of the corrected equations and leads to different results for the form of the finite density contributions to the CP-violating parameter. In the case of degenerate heavy neutrino masses, corresponding to the popular scenario of resonant leptogenesis, it allows to explicitly distinguish between regimes where BEs are applicable or inapplicable.

  13. Thermal photon production in Au + Au collisions: Viscous corrections in two different hydrodynamic formalisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Ramos, J., E-mail: jperalta@ift.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nakwacki, M.S., E-mail: sole@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    We calculate the spectra of produced thermal photons in Au + Au collisions taking into account the nonequilibrium contribution to photon production due to finite shear viscosity. The evolution of the fireball is modeled by second-order as well as by divergence-type 2+1 dissipative hydrodynamics, both with an ideal equation of state and with one based on Lattice QCD that includes an analytical crossover. The spectrum calculated in the divergence-type theory is considerably enhanced with respect to the one calculated in the second-order theory, the difference being entirely due to differences in the viscous corrections to photon production. Our results show that the differences in hydrodynamic formalisms are an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of the value of {eta}/s from measured photon spectra. The uncertainty in the value of {eta}/s associated with different hydrodynamic models used to compute thermal photon spectra is larger than the one occurring in matching hadron elliptic flow to RHIC data.

  14. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  15. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  16. Formal representation of complex SNOMED CT expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markó Kornél

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Definitory expressions about clinical procedures, findings and diseases constitute a major benefit of a formally founded clinical reference terminology which is ontologically sound and suited for formal reasoning. SNOMED CT claims to support formal reasoning by description-logic based concept definitions. Methods On the basis of formal ontology criteria we analyze complex SNOMED CT concepts, such as "Concussion of Brain with(out Loss of Consciousness", using alternatively full first order logics and the description logic ℰℒ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8hmHuKae8NeHWeaaa@37B1@. Results Typical complex SNOMED CT concepts, including negations or not, can be expressed in full first-order logics. Negations cannot be properly expressed in the description logic ℰℒ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8hmHuKae8NeHWeaaa@37B1@ underlying SNOMED CT. All concepts concepts the meaning of which implies a temporal scope may be subject to diverging interpretations, which are often unclear in SNOMED CT as their contextual determinants are not made explicit. Conclusion The description of complex medical occurrents is ambiguous, as the same situations can be described as (i a complex occurrent C that has A and B as temporal parts, (ii a simple occurrent A' defined as a kind of A followed by some B, or (iii a simple occurrent B' defined as a kind of B preceded by some A. As negative statements in SNOMED CT cannot be exactly represented without

  17. Applications of the Decoherence Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd Andrew

    In this work the decoherence formalism of quantum mechanics is explored and applied to a number of interesting problems in quantum physics. The boundary between quantum and classical physics is examined, and demonstration made that quantum histories corresponding to classical equations of motion become more probable for a broad class of models, including linear and nonlinear models of Brownian motion. The link between noise, dissipation, and decoherence is studied. This work is then applied to systems which classically exhibit dissipative chaotic dynamics. A theory is explicated for treating these systems, and the ideas are applied to a particular model of the forced, damped Duffing oscillator, which is chaotic for certain parameter values. Differences between classical and quantum chaos are examined, particularly differences arising in the structure of fractal strange attractors, and the conceptual difficulties in framing standard notions of chaos in a quantum system. A brief discussion of previous work on quantum chaos is included, and the differences between Hamiltonian and dissipative chaos pointed out; a somewhat different interpretation of quantum chaos from the standard one is suggested. A class of histories for quantum systems, in phase space rather than configuration space, is studied. Different ways of representing projections in phase space are discussed, and expressions for the probability of phase space histories are derived; conditions for such histories to decohere are also estimated in the semiclassical limit.

  18. Finite-dimensional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinsilver, Philip; Schott, Rene

    2009-01-01

    We discuss topics related to finite-dimensional calculus in the context of finite-dimensional quantum mechanics. The truncated Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is called a TAA algebra after Tekin, Aydin and Arik who formulated it in terms of orthofermions. It is shown how to use a matrix approach to implement analytic representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra in univariate and multivariate settings. We provide examples for the univariate case. Krawtchouk polynomials are presented in detail, including a review of Krawtchouk polynomials that illustrates some curious properties of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as well as presenting an approach to computing Krawtchouk expansions. From a mathematical perspective, we are providing indications as to how to implement infinite terms Rota's 'finite operator calculus'.

  19. What Determines Firms’ Decisions to Formalize?

    OpenAIRE

    Neil McCulloch; Günther G. Schulze; Janina Voss

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the decision of small and micro firms to formalize, i.e. to obtain business and other licenses in rural Indonesia. We use the rural investment climate survey (RICS) that consists of non-farm rural enterprises, most of them microenterprises, and analyze the effect of formalization on tax payments, corruption, access to credit and revenue, taking into account the endogeneity of the formalization decision to such benefits and costs. We show, contrary to most of the liter...

  20. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION, OVEREDUCATION AND WAGES

    OpenAIRE

    SANDRA NIETO; RAÚL RAMOS

    2013-01-01

    Why do overeducated workers participate in non-formal education activities? Do not they suffer from an excess of education? Using microdata from the Spanish sample of the 2007 Adult Education Survey, we have found that overeducated workers participate more than the rest in non-formal education and that they earn higher wages than overeducated workers who did not participate. This result can be interpreted as evidence that non-formal education allows overeducated workers to acquire new abiliti...

  1. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo

    2014-12-01

    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  2. Fundamentals of the Pure Spinor Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Hoogeveen, Joost

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents recent developments within the pure spinor formalism, which has simplified amplitude computations in perturbative string theory, especially when spacetime fermions are involved. Firstly the worldsheet action of both the minimal and the non-minimal pure spinor formalism is derived from first principles, i.e. from an action with two dimensional diffeomorphism and Weyl invariance. Secondly the decoupling of unphysical states in the minimal pure spinor formalism is proved

  3. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  4. Thermo field dynamics: a quantum field theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, F.; Marinaro, M.; Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of the theory of thermo field dynamics (TFD) is presented. TFD is introduced and developed by Umezawa and his coworkers at finite temperature. The most significant concept in TFD is that of a thermal vacuum which satisfies some conditions denoted as thermal state conditions. The TFD permits to reformulate theories at finite temperature. There is no need in an additional principle to determine particle distributions at T ≠ 0. Temperature and other macroscopic parameters are introduced in the definition of the vacuum state. All operator formalisms used in quantum field theory at T=0 are preserved, although the field degrees of freedom are doubled. 8 refs

  5. A Mathematical Formalization Proposal for Business Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BAILESTEANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic sciences have known a spectacular evolution in the last century; beginning to use axiomatic methods, applying mathematical instruments as a decision-making tool. The quest to formalization needs to be addressed from various different angles, reducing entry and operating formal costs, increasing the incentives for firms to operate formally, reducing obstacles to their growth, and searching for inexpensive approaches through which to enforce compliancy with government regulations. This paper proposes a formalized approach to business growth, based on mathematics and logics, taking into consideration the particularities of the economic sector.

  6. Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1993-01-01

    The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.

  7. Point kinetics model with one-dimensional (radial) heat conduction formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    A point-kinetics model with one-dimensional (radial) heat conduction formalism has been developed. The heat conduction formalism is based on corner-mesh finite difference method. To get average temperatures in various conducting regions, a novel weighting scheme has been devised. The heat conduction model has been incorporated in the point-kinetics code MRTF-FUEL. The point-kinetics equations are solved using the method of real integrating factors. It has been shown by analysing the simulation of hypothetical loss of regulation accident in NAPP reactor that the model is superior to the conventional one in accuracy and speed of computation. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  9. A finite quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, A.

    1984-05-01

    In case the graviton has a very small non-zero mass, the existence of six additional massive gravitons with very big masses leads to a finite quantum gravity. There is an acausal behaviour on the scales that is determined by the masses of additional gravitons. (author)

  10. Finite lattice extrapolation algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, M.; Schuetz, G.

    1987-08-01

    Two algorithms for sequence extrapolation, due to von den Broeck and Schwartz and Bulirsch and Stoer are reviewed and critically compared. Applications to three states and six states quantum chains and to the (2+1)D Ising model show that the algorithm of Bulirsch and Stoer is superior, in particular if only very few finite lattice data are available. (orig.)

  11. Finite unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Mondragon, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  12. Finite unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1993-01-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  13. Finiteness and GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how to obtain phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A very interesting feature of the models with three families is that they predict the top quark mass to be around 178 GeV. 16 refs

  14. Robust RBF Finite Automata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šorel, Michal; Šíma, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, - (2004), s. 93-110 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB2030007; GA MŠk LN00A056 Keywords : radial basis function * neural network * finite automaton * Boolean circuit * computational power Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.641, year: 2004

  15. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  16. NaDeA: A Natural Deduction Assistant with a Formalization in Isabelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We present a new software tool for teaching logic based on natural deduction. Its proof system is formalized in the proof assistant Isabelle such that its definition is very precise. Soundness of the formalization has been proved in Isabelle. The tool is open source software developed in TypeScript...

  17. NaDeA: A Natural Deduction Assistant with a Formalization in Isabelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a new software tool for teaching logic based on natural deduction. Its proof system is formalized in the proof assistant Isabelle such that its definition is very precise. Soundness of the formalization has been proved in Isabelle. The tool is open source software developed in TypeScript...

  18. Transforming Existing Procedural Business Processes into a Constraint-Based Formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Eline de Haan; Floor Vermeer; Jeroen van Grondelle; Slinger Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Many organizations use business process management to manage and model their processes. Currently, flow-based process formalisms, such as BPMN, are considered the standard for modeling processes. However, recent literature describes several limitations of this type of formalism that can be solved by

  19. A finite range coupled channel Born approximation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Koshel, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The computer code OUKID calculates differential cross sections for direct transfer nuclear reactions in which multistep processes, arising from strongly coupled inelastic states in both the target and residual nuclei, are possible. The code is designed for heavy ion reactions where full finite range and recoil effects are important. Distorted wave functions for the elastic and inelastic scattering are calculated by solving sets of coupled differential equations using a Matrix Numerov integration procedure. These wave functions are then expanded into bases of spherical Bessel functions by the plane-wave expansion method. This approach allows the six-dimensional integrals for the transition amplitude to be reduced to products of two one-dimensional integrals. Thus, the inelastic scattering is treated in a coupled channel formalism while the transfer process is treated in a finite range born approximation formalism. (Auth.)

  20. Finite Algorithms for Robust Linear Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1990-01-01

    The Huber M-estimator for robust linear regression is analyzed. Newton type methods for solution of the problem are defined and analyzed, and finite convergence is proved. Numerical experiments with a large number of test problems demonstrate efficiency and indicate that this kind of approach may...

  1. Finite element analysis of tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner

    2010-01-01

    Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...

  2. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements.Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal management concerning MSMEs, calculated the correlation among semi-formality, competitiveness, and development, and finally, proposed a cluster design to deal with the state of affairs. It should be noted that this type of analysis has never been undertaken in the country.

  3. Atom-surface interaction: Zero-point energy formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction energy between an atom and a surface formed by a polar medium is derived with use of a new approach based on the zero-point energy formalism. It is shown that the energy depends on the separation Z between the atom and the surface. With increasing Z, the energy decreases according to 1/Z 3 , while with decreasing Z the energy saturates to a finite value. It is also shown that the energy is affected by the velocity of the atom, but this correction is small. Our result for large Z is consistent with the work of Manson and Ritchie [Phys. Rev. B 29, 1084 (1984)], who follow a more traditional approach to the problem

  4. Yang-Feldman formalism on noncommutative Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, C.

    2006-12-15

    We examine quantum field theory on noncummutative spacetime. For this we choose an approach which lives explicitly on the noncommutative Minkowski space, namely the Yang-Feldman formalism. Here the ansatz is to try to solve the field equation of the quantum fields. In this setting we first take a look at an additional mass term, and use this to discuss possible IR cutoffs. We find classes of IR cutoffs which indeed yield the expected limit. Furthermore, we look at interacting models, namely the {phi}{sup 3} model in four and six dimensions, the {phi}{sup 4} model and the Wess-Zumino model. For these we calculate dispersion relations. We see that there exist huge differences in the orders of magnitude between logarithmically and quadratically divergent models. Integrals which are made finite by twisting factors are calculated rigorously in the sense of the theory of oscillatory integrals. (orig.)

  5. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be

  6. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  7. Formalizing Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism to disambiguate the evaluation of music information retrieval systems. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, and assumptions of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism to discuss...

  8. 37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that will be conducted under the rules of this subpart are rate adjustment hearings and royalty fee...

  9. Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…

  10. Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Mir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation. (general)

  11. Formal balancing of chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Abraham; Rao, S.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we recall and extend the main results of Van der Schaft, Rao, Jayawardhana (2015) concerning the use of Kirchhoff’s Matrix Tree theorem in the explicit characterization of complex-balanced reaction networks and the notion of formal balancing. The notion of formal balancing corresponds

  12. The simplest formal argument for fitness optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Formal Darwinism Project aims to provide a formal argument linking population genetics to fitness optimization, which of necessity includes defining fitness. This bridges the gulf between those biologists who assume that natural selection leads to something close to fitness optimization and those biologists who believe ...

  13. Opinion dynamics model based on quantum formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artawan, I. Nengah, E-mail: nengahartawan@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Physics, Udayana University (Indonesia); Trisnawati, N. L. P., E-mail: nlptrisnawati@gmail.com [Biophysics, Department of Physics, Udayana University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Opinion dynamics model based on quantum formalism is proposed. The core of the quantum formalism is on the half spin dynamics system. In this research the implicit time evolution operators are derived. The analogy between the model with Deffuant dan Sznajd models is discussed.

  14. A computational formalization for partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We formalize a partial evaluator for Eugenio Moggi's computational metalanguage. This formalization gives an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization, including a proper treatment of call unfolding. It also enables us to express the essence of `control...

  15. Rapid Prototyping of Formally Modelled Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Didier; Buffo, Mathieu; Titsworth, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents various kinds of prototypes, used in the prototyping of formally modelled distributed systems. It presents the notions of prototyping techniques and prototype evolution, and shows how to relate them to the software life-cycle. It is illustrated through the use of the formal modelling language for distributed systems CO-OPN/2.

  16. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  17. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  18. On Fitting a Formal Method into Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gmehlich, Rainer; Grau, Katrin; Hallerstede, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    . The interaction between the two proved to be crucial for the success of the case study. The heart of the problem was tracing informal requirements from Problem Frames descriptions to formal Event-B models. To a large degree, this issue dictated the approach that had to be used for formal modelling. A dedicated...

  19. A Conceptual Formalization of Crosscutting in AOSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Conejero, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a formalization of crosscutting based on a conceptual framework for AOSD. Crosscutting is clearly distinguished from the related concepts scattering and tangling. The definitions of these concepts are formalized and visualized with matrices and matrix operations. This allows more precise

  20. Rare events in finite and infinite dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikoff, Maria G.

    Thermal noise introduces stochasticity into deterministic equations and makes possible events which are never seen in the zero temperature setting. The driving force behind the thesis work is a desire to bring analysis and probability to bear on a class of relevant and intriguing physical problems, and in so doing, to allow applications to drive the development of new mathematical theory. The unifying theme is the study of rare events under the influence of small, random perturbations, and the manifold mathematical problems which ensue. In the first part, we apply large deviation theory and prefactor estimates to a coherent rotation micromagnetic model in order to analyze thermally activated magnetic switching. We consider recent physical experiments and the mathematical questions "asked" by them. A stochastic resonance type phenomenon is discovered, leading to the definition of finite temperature astroids. Non-Arrhenius behavior is discussed. The analysis is extended to ramped astroids. In addition, we discover that for low damping and ultrashort pulses, deterministic effects can override thermal effects, in accord with very recent ultrashort pulse experiments. Even more interesting, perhaps, is the study of large deviations in the infinite dimensional context, i.e. in spatially extended systems. Inspired by recent numerical investigations, we study the stochastically perturbed Allen Cahn and Cahn Hilliard equations. For the Allen Cahn equation, we study the action minimization problem (a deterministic variational problem) and prove the action scaling in four parameter regimes, via upper and lower bounds. The sharp interface limit is studied. We formally derive a reduced action functional which lends insight into the connection between action minimization and curvature flow. For the Cahn Hilliard equation, we prove upper and lower bounds for the scaling of the energy barrier in the nucleation and growth regime. Finally, we consider rare events in large or infinite

  1. Learning in later life: participation in formal, non-formal and informal activities in a nationally representative Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the participation of Spanish older people in formal, non-formal and informal learning activities and presents a profile of participants in each kind of learning activity. We used data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish people between 60 and 75 years old ( n  = 4,703). The data were extracted from the 2007 Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje (EADA, Survey on Adult Population Involvement in Learning Activities). Overall, only 22.8 % of the sample participated in a learning activity. However, there was wide variation in the participation rates for the different types of activity. Informal activities were far more common than formal ones. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that education level and involvement in social and cultural activities were associated with likelihood of participating, regardless of the type of learning activity. When these variables were taken into account, age did not predict decreasing participation, at least in non-formal and informal activities. Implications for further research, future trends and policies to promote older adult education are discussed.

  2. Finite-Time Approach to Microeconomic and Information Exchange Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Finite-time approach allows one to optimize regimes of processes in macrosystems when duration of the processes is restricted. Driving force of the processes is difference of intensive variables: temperatures in thermodynamics, values in economics, etc. In microeconomic systems two counterflow fluxes appear due to the only driving force. They are goods and money fluxes. Another possible case is two fluxes with the same direction. The processes of information exchange can be described by this formalism.

  3. Industrial Practice in Formal Methods : A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicarregui, Juan C.; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant chal...... challenges remain in providing usable tools that can be integrated into established development processes; in education and training; in taking formal methods from first use to second use, and in gathering and evidence to support informed selection of methods and tools.......We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant...

  4. SBME : Exploring boundaries between formal, non-formal, and informal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahoumian, Armineh; Parchoma, Gale; Saunders, Murray; Hanson, Jacky; Dickinson, Mike; Pimblett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In medical education learning extends beyond university settings into practice. Non-formal and informal learning support learners’ efforts to meet externally set and learner-identified objectives. In SBME research, boundaries between formal, non-formal, and informal learning have not been widely explored. Whether SBME fits within or challenges these categories can make a contribution. Formal learning is described in relation to educational settings, planning, assessment, and accreditation. In...

  5. Improving Learner Outcomes in Lifelong Education: Formal Pedagogies in Non-Formal Learning Contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…

  6. A Formal Model of Trust Chain based on Multi-level Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiangying

    2013-01-01

    Trust chain is the core technology of trusted computing. A formal model of trust chain based on finite state automata theory is proposed. We use communicating sequential processes to describe the system state transition in trust chain and by combining with multi-level security strategy give the definition of trust system and trust decision theorem of trust chain transfer which is proved meantime. Finally, a prototype system is given to show the efficiency of the model.

  7. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum chromodynamics; finite temperature; chiral perturbation theory; QCD sum rules. PACS Nos 11.10. ..... at finite temperature. The self-energy diagrams of figure 2 modify it to ..... method of determination at present. Acknowledgement.

  8. The finite element response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Martin, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    A new technique is developed with an alternative formulation of the response matrix method implemented with the finite element scheme. Two types of response matrices are generated from the Galerkin solution to the weak form of the diffusion equation subject to an arbitrary current and source. The piecewise polynomials are defined in two levels, the first for the local (assembly) calculations and the second for the global (core) response matrix calculations. This finite element response matrix technique was tested in two 2-dimensional test problems, 2D-IAEA benchmark problem and Biblis benchmark problem, with satisfatory results. The computational time, whereas the current code is not extensively optimized, is of the same order of the well estabilished coarse mesh codes. Furthermore, the application of the finite element technique in an alternative formulation of response matrix method permits the method to easily incorporate additional capabilities such as treatment of spatially dependent cross-sections, arbitrary geometrical configurations, and high heterogeneous assemblies. (Author) [pt

  9. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  10. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  11. Semantic Network and Frame Knowledge Representation Formalisms in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Pshtiwan Qader

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Choosing a suitable method to represent the knowledge concerning the real world is one of the major issues involved in Artificial Intelligence. The purpose of this research is to consider the important beneficial roles of semantic network and frame formalisms for knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence. The basic properties of the above methods for appropriate structuring and arranging the knowledge are presented. Some types of relationships, the conceptual graph...

  12. Monopole-fermion systems in the complex isotropic tetrad formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Ershov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of fermions of arbitrary isospin with regular magnetic monopoles and dyons of the group SU(2) and also with point gravitating monopoles and dyons of the Wu-Yang type described by the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied using the Newman-Penrose complex isotropic tetrad formalism. Formulas for the bound-state spectrum and explicit expressions for the zero modes are obtained and the Rubakov-Callan effect for black holes is discussed

  13. Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.

  14. Probabilistic finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Wing, Kam Liu

    1987-01-01

    In the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), finite element methods have been efficiently combined with second-order perturbation techniques to provide an effective method for informing the designer of the range of response which is likely in a given problem. The designer must provide as input the statistical character of the input variables, such as yield strength, load magnitude, and Young's modulus, by specifying their mean values and their variances. The output then consists of the mean response and the variance in the response. Thus the designer is given a much broader picture of the predicted performance than with simply a single response curve. These methods are applicable to a wide class of problems, provided that the scale of randomness is not too large and the probabilistic density functions possess decaying tails. By incorporating the computational techniques we have developed in the past 3 years for efficiency, the probabilistic finite element methods are capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Sample results for an elastic-plastic ten-bar structure and an elastic-plastic plane continuum with a circular hole subject to cyclic loadings with the yield stress on the random field are given.

  15. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  16. Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.

  17. Formal Analysis Of Use Case Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Klimek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Use case diagrams play an important role in modeling with UML. Careful modeling is crucialin obtaining a correct and efficient system architecture. The paper refers to the formalanalysis of the use case diagrams. A formal model of use cases is proposed and its constructionfor typical relationships between use cases is described. Two methods of formal analysis andverification are presented. The first one based on a states’ exploration represents a modelchecking approach. The second one refers to the symbolic reasoning using formal methodsof temporal logic. Simple but representative example of the use case scenario verification isdiscussed.

  18. Towards Formal Implementation of PUS Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, D.

    2009-05-01

    As an effort to promote the reuse of on-board and ground systems ESA developed a standard for packet telemetry and telecommand - PUS. It defines a set of standard service models with the corresponding structures of the associated telemetry and telecommand packets. Various missions then can choose to implement those standard PUS services that best conform to their specific requirements. In this paper we propose a formal development (based on the Event-B method) of reusable service patterns, which can be instantiated for concrete application. Our formal models allow us to formally express and verify specific service properties including various telecommand and telemetry packet structure validation.

  19. SELF-EFFICACY OF FORMALLY AND NON-FORMALLY TRAINED PUBLIC SECTOR TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem ANWAR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to compare the formally and non-formally trained in-service public sector teachers’ Self-efficacy. Five hypotheses were developed describing no difference in the self-efficacy of formally and non-formally trained teachers to influence decision making, influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and create positive school climate. Teacher Efficacy Instrument (TSES developed by Bandura (2001 consisting of thirty 9-point items was used in the study. 342 formally trained and 255 non-formally trained respondents’ questionnaires were received out of 1500 mailed. The analysis of data revealed that the formally trained public sector teachers are high in their self-efficacy on all the five categories: to influence decision making, to influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and self-efficacy to create positive school climate.

  20. A simple application of the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    As a simple application of the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism, useful for beginners, the vacuum symmetry (Schwarzschild) solution is found. The calculations also show that all spherically symmetric metrics are Petrov type D. (author)

  1. Counting Semisimple Orbits of Finite Lie Algebras by Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Fulman, Jason

    1999-01-01

    The adjoint action of a finite group of Lie type on its Lie algebra is studied. A simple formula is conjectured for the number of split semisimple orbits of a given genus. This conjecture is proved for type A, and partial results are obtained for other types. For type A a probabilistic interpretation is given in terms of card shuffling.

  2. Scalar formalism for quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostler, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    A set of Feynman rules, similar to the rules of scalar electrodynamics, is derived for a full quantum electrodynamics based on the relativistic Klein--Gordon--type wave equation ]Pi/sub μ/Pi/sub μ/+m 2 +ie sigma x (E +iB)]phi = 0, Pi/sub μ/ equivalent-i partial/sub μ/-eA/sub μ/, for spin- 1/2 particles [J. Math. Phys. 23, 1179 (1982); J. Math. Phys. 24, 2366 (1983)]. In this equation, phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor and sigma/sub a/, a = 1,2,3, are the usual 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. The irreducible self-energy parts are compared to those of conventional quantum electrodynamics

  3. Bridging In-school and Out-of-school Learning: Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim

    2007-04-01

    The present paper thoroughly examines how one can effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. The first part discusses the difficulty in defining out-of-school learning. It proposes to distinguish three types of learning: formal, informal, and non-formal. The second part raises the question of whether out-of-school learning should be dealt with in the in-school system, in view of the fact that we experience informal learning anyway as well as considering the disadvantages and difficulties teachers are confronted with when planning and carrying out scientific fieldtrips. The voices of the teachers, the students, and the non-formal institution staff are heard to provide insights into the problem. The third part discusses the cognitive and affective aspects of non-formal learning. The fourth part presents some models explaining scientific fieldtrip learning and based on those models, suggests a novel explanation. The fifth part offers some recommendations of how to bridge in and out-of-school learning. The paper closes with some practical ideas as to how one can bring the theory described in the paper into practice. It is hoped that this paper will provide educators with an insight so that they will be able to fully exploit the great potential that scientific field trips may offer.

  4. Toward a formal ontology for narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciotti, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the rationale and the first draft of a formal ontology for modeling narrative texts are presented. Building on the semiotic and structuralist narratology, and on the work carried out in the late 1980s by Giuseppe Gigliozzi in Italy, the focus of my research are the concepts of character and of narrative world/space. This formal model is expressed in the OWL 2 ontology language. The main reason to adopt a formal modeling approach is that I consider the purely probabilistic-quantitative methods (now widespread in digital literary studies inadequate. An ontology, on one hand provides a tool for the analysis of strictly literary texts. On the other hand (though beyond the scope of the present work, its formalization can also represent a significant contribution towards grounding the application of storytelling methods outside of scholarly contexts.

  5. A hydrodynamic formalism for Brownian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.; Rosales, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A formal hydrodynamic approach to Brownian motion is presented and the corresponding equations are derived. Hydrodynamic quantities are expressed in terms of the physical variables characterizing the Brownian systems. Contact is made with the hydrodynamic model of Quantum Mechanics. (author)

  6. Infinitesimal Deformations of a Formal Symplectic Groupoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Given a formal symplectic groupoid G over a Poisson manifold ( M, π 0), we define a new object, an infinitesimal deformation of G, which can be thought of as a formal symplectic groupoid over the manifold M equipped with an infinitesimal deformation {π_0 + \\varepsilon π_1} of the Poisson bivector field π 0. To any pair of natural star products {(ast,tildeast)} having the same formal symplectic groupoid G we relate an infinitesimal deformation of G. We call it the deformation groupoid of the pair {(ast,tildeast)} . To each star product with separation of variables {ast} on a Kähler-Poisson manifold M we relate another star product with separation of variables {hatast} on M. We build an algorithm for calculating the principal symbols of the components of the logarithm of the formal Berezin transform of a star product with separation of variables {ast} . This algorithm is based upon the deformation groupoid of the pair {(ast,hatast)}.

  7. Does Formal Environmental Knowledge Inform the Everyday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How do senior secondary biology learners from three schools in Lesotho use this ... environmental literacy as a goal of science education is mentioned. ..... formal schooling context) or actions informed by informal information, which we ...

  8. Towards a Formal Treatment of Implicit Invocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dingel, J

    1997-01-01

    .... A formal computational model for implicit invocation is presented. We develop a verification framework for implicit invocation that is based on Jones' rely/guarantee reasoning for concurrent systems Jon83,St(phi)91...

  9. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    McKenney, S., & Visscher-Voerman, I. (2013). Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers. Educational Designer, 2(6). Available online: http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume2/issue6/article20/index.htm

  10. Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joann S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.

  11. Statistical Survey of Non-Formal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Nývlt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available focused on a programme within a regular education system. Labour market flexibility and new requirements on employees create a new domain of education called non-formal education. Is there a reliable statistical source with a good methodological definition for the Czech Republic? Labour Force Survey (LFS has been the basic statistical source for time comparison of non-formal education for the last ten years. Furthermore, a special Adult Education Survey (AES in 2011 was focused on individual components of non-formal education in a detailed way. In general, the goal of the EU is to use data from both internationally comparable surveys for analyses of the particular fields of lifelong learning in the way, that annual LFS data could be enlarged by detailed information from AES in five years periods. This article describes reliability of statistical data aboutnon-formal education. This analysis is usually connected with sampling and non-sampling errors.

  12. Towards a Formal Model of Social Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    , transform, analyse, and report social data from social media platforms such as Facebook and twitter. Formal methods, models and tools for social data are largely limited to graph theoretical approaches informing conceptual developments in relational sociology and methodological developments in social...... network analysis. As far as we know, there are no integrated modeling approaches to social data across the conceptual, formal and software realms. Social media analytics can be undertaken in two main ways - ”Social Graph Analytics” and ”Social Text Analytics” (Vatrapu, in press/2013). Social graph......, we exemplify the semantics of the formal model with real-world social data examples. Third, we briefly present and discuss the Social Data Analytics Tool (SODATO) that realizes the conceptual model in software and provisions social data for computational social science analysis based on the formal...

  13. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  14. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  15. Film for Non-Formal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Janet

    1979-01-01

    Looks at educational factors in using television or cinema film for non-formal education in developing nations. Styles of presentation in films are discussed, and suggestions are made for assessing effectiveness. (JEG)

  16. Formal solutions of inverse scattering problems. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The formal solutions of certain three-dimensional inverse scattering problems presented in papers I and II of this series [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1819 (1969); 17 1175 (1976)] are obtained here as fixed points of a certain nonlinear mapping acting on a suitable Banach space of integral kernels. When the scattering data are sufficiently restricted, this mapping is shown to be a contraction, thereby establishing the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence on the data of these formal solutions

  17. Formalization of Many-Valued Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....

  18. Young People, Entrepreneurship And Non Formal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen; Diroescu, Raluca; Podlasek-Ziegler, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The book was published by SALTO-Youth Participation, a Resource Centre of the European Commission. It looks into the relationship between youth work (non-formal learning) and entrepreneurship. The book explores the theoretical developments in the field, the ethical dilemmas and tensions, and proposes practice-oriented information: illustrative examples, strategies for action and methods of non-formal education. Structured in 24 chapters, the book is an opportunity to open up debates and quest...

  19. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon; Karl, Robert; List, Jenny; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Peskin, Michael E.; Tian, Junping

    2018-03-01

    Future e+e- colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e+e- data, based on the effective field theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e+e- colliders.

  20. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, Tim; Peskin, Michael E.; Jung, Sunghoon; Tian, Junping

    2017-08-01

    Future e + e - colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e + e - data, based on the Effective Field Theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e + e - colliders.

  1. A computational formalization for partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatcliff, John; Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    We formalize a partial evaluator for Eugenio Moggi's computational metalanguage. This formalization gives an evaluation-order independent view of binding-time analysis and program specialization, including a proper treatment of call unfolding. It also enables us to express the essence of `control......-based binding-time improvements' for let expressions. Specically, we prove that the binding-time improvements given by `continuation-based specialization' can be expressed in the metalanguage via monadic laws....

  2. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  3. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Caglioni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Formal ontologies have proved to be a very useful tool to manage interoperability among data, systems and knowledge. In this paper we will show how formal ontologies can evolve from a crisp, deterministic framework (ontologies of hard knowledge to new probabilistic, fuzzy or possibilistic frameworks (ontologies of soft knowledge. This can considerably enlarge the application potential of formal ontologies in geographic analysis and planning, where soft knowledge is intrinsically linked to the complexity of the phenomena under study.  The paper briefly presents these new uncertainty-based formal ontologies. It then highlights how ontologies are formal tools to define both concepts and relations among concepts. An example from the domain of urban geography finally shows how the cause-to-effect relation between household preferences and urban sprawl can be encoded within a crisp, a probabilistic and a possibilistic ontology, respectively. The ontology formalism will also determine the kind of reasoning that can be developed from available knowledge. Uncertain ontologies can be seen as the preliminary phase of more complex uncertainty-based models. The advantages of moving to uncertainty-based models is evident: whether it is in the analysis of geographic space or in decision support for planning, reasoning on geographic space is almost always reasoning with uncertain knowledge of geographic phenomena.

  4. Optical Finite Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.

    1986-01-01

    A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.

  5. Combinatorics of finite sets

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Coherent treatment provides comprehensive view of basic methods and results of the combinatorial study of finite set systems. The Clements-Lindstrom extension of the Kruskal-Katona theorem to multisets is explored, as is the Greene-Kleitman result concerning k-saturated chain partitions of general partially ordered sets. Connections with Dilworth's theorem, the marriage problem, and probability are also discussed. Each chapter ends with a helpful series of exercises and outline solutions appear at the end. ""An excellent text for a topics course in discrete mathematics."" - Bulletin of the Ame

  6. Formal characterizations of FA-based string processors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngassam_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7434 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ngassam_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Formal Characterizations of FA...-based String Processors Ernest Ketcha Ngassam1,2,?, Bruce W. Watson3, and Derrick G. Kourie3 1SAP Meraka UTD, Pretoria, South Africa 2School of Computing University of South Africa Pretoria 0001 ernest.ngassam@sap.com 3Department of Computer Science...

  7. Boundary value problems of finite elasticity local theorems on existence, uniqueness, and analytic dependence on data

    CERN Document Server

    Valent, Tullio

    1988-01-01

    In this book I present, in a systematic form, some local theorems on existence, uniqueness, and analytic dependence on the load, which I have recently obtained for some types of boundary value problems of finite elasticity. Actually, these results concern an n-dimensional (n ~ 1) formal generalization of three-dimensional elasticity. Such a generalization, be­ sides being quite spontaneous, allows us to consider a great many inter­ esting mathematical situations, and sometimes allows us to clarify certain aspects of the three-dimensional case. Part of the matter presented is unpublished; other arguments have been only partially published and in lesser generality. Note that I concentrate on simultaneous local existence and uniqueness; thus, I do not deal with the more general theory of exis­ tence. Moreover, I restrict my discussion to compressible elastic bodies and I do not treat unilateral problems. The clever use of the inverse function theorem in finite elasticity made by STOPPELLI [1954, 1957a, 1957b]...

  8. Multisymplectic unified formalism for Einstein-Hilbert gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaset, Jordi; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2018-03-01

    We present a covariant multisymplectic formulation for the Einstein-Hilbert model of general relativity. As it is described by a second-order singular Lagrangian, this is a gauge field theory with constraints. The use of the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism is particularly interesting when it is applied to these kinds of theories, since it simplifies the treatment of them, in particular, the implementation of the constraint algorithm, the retrieval of the Lagrangian description, and the construction of the covariant Hamiltonian formalism. In order to apply this algorithm to the covariant field equations, they must be written in a suitable geometrical way, which consists of using integrable distributions, represented by multivector fields of a certain type. We apply all these tools to the Einstein-Hilbert model without and with energy-matter sources. We obtain and explain the geometrical and physical meaning of the Lagrangian constraints and we construct the multimomentum (covariant) Hamiltonian formalisms in both cases. As a consequence of the gauge freedom and the constraint algorithm, we see how this model is equivalent to a first-order regular theory, without gauge freedom. In the case of the presence of energy-matter sources, we show how some relevant geometrical and physical characteristics of the theory depend on the type of source. In all the cases, we obtain explicitly multivector fields which are solutions to the gravitational field equations. Finally, a brief study of symmetries and conservation laws is done in this context.

  9. Finiteness of corner vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jiten C.; Biswas, Sougata; Panda, Swapnendu

    2018-04-01

    Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of steady internal viscous incompressible flows was thought to be infinite. However, the already existing and most recent geometric theories on incompressible viscous flows that express vortical structures in terms of critical points in bounded domains indicate a strong opposition to this notion of infiniteness. In this study, we endeavor to bridge the gap between the two opposing stream of thoughts by diagnosing the assumptions of the existing theorems on such vortices. We provide our own set of proofs for establishing the finiteness of the sequence of corner vortices by making use of the continuum hypothesis and Kolmogorov scale, which guarantee a nonzero scale for the smallest vortex structure possible in incompressible viscous flows. We point out that the notion of infiniteness resulting from discrete self-similarity of the vortex structures is not physically feasible. Making use of some elementary concepts of mathematical analysis and our own construction of diametric disks, we conclude that the sequence of corner vortices is finite.

  10. Correspondence between imaginary-time and real-time finite-temperature field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobes, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is known that one-particle-irreducible graphs found using the imaginary-time formalism of finite-temperature field theory differ in general with those of the real-time formalism. Here it is shown that within the real-time formalism one can consider a sum of graphs, motivated by causality arguments, which at least in a number of simple examples agree with the corresponding analytically continued imaginary-time result. The occurrence of multiple statistical factors in this sum of graphs is discussed

  11. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  12. Abstract sets and finite ordinals an introduction to the study of set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Keene, G B

    2007-01-01

    This text unites the logical and philosophical aspects of set theory in a manner intelligible both to mathematicians without training in formal logic and to logicians without a mathematical background. It combines an elementary level of treatment with the highest possible degree of logical rigor and precision.Starting with an explanation of all the basic logical terms and related operations, the text progresses through a stage-by-stage elaboration that proves the fundamental theorems of finite sets. It focuses on the Bernays theory of finite classes and finite sets, exploring the system's basi

  13. Fourier Series Formalization in ACL2(r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong K. Chau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We formalize some basic properties of Fourier series in the logic of ACL2(r, which is a variant of ACL2 that supports reasoning about the real and complex numbers by way of non-standard analysis. More specifically, we extend a framework for formally evaluating definite integrals of real-valued, continuous functions using the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Our extended framework is also applied to functions containing free arguments. Using this framework, we are able to prove the orthogonality relationships between trigonometric functions, which are the essential properties in Fourier series analysis. The sum rule for definite integrals of indexed sums is also formalized by applying the extended framework along with the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the sum rule for differentiation. The Fourier coefficient formulas of periodic functions are then formalized from the orthogonality relations and the sum rule for integration. Consequently, the uniqueness of Fourier sums is a straightforward corollary. We also present our formalization of the sum rule for definite integrals of infinite series in ACL2(r. Part of this task is to prove the Dini Uniform Convergence Theorem and the continuity of a limit function under certain conditions. A key technique in our proofs of these theorems is to apply the overspill principle from non-standard analysis.

  14. Elementary introduction to finite difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An elementary description is given of the basic vocabulary and concepts associated with finite difference modeling. The material discussed is biased toward the types of large computer programs used at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Particular attention is focused on truncation error and how it can be affected by zoning patterns. The principle of convergence is discussed, and convergence as a tool for improving calculational accuracy and efficiency is emphasized

  15. Finite element simulation of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bergheau, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces the finite element method applied to the resolution of industrial heat transfer problems. Starting from steady conduction, the method is gradually extended to transient regimes, to traditional non-linearities, and to convective phenomena. Coupled problems involving heat transfer are then presented. Three types of couplings are discussed: coupling through boundary conditions (such as radiative heat transfer in cavities), addition of state variables (such as metallurgical phase change), and coupling through partial differential equations (such as electrical phenomena).? A re

  16. Finite energy electroweak dyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimm, Kyoungtae [Seoul National University, Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Konkuk University, Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.M. [Konkuk University, Administration Building 310-4, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    The latest MoEDAL experiment at LHC to detect the electroweak monopole makes the theoretical prediction of the monopole mass an urgent issue. We discuss three different ways to estimate the mass of the electroweak monopole. We first present the dimensional and scaling arguments which indicate the monopole mass to be around 4 to 10 TeV. To justify this we construct finite energy analytic dyon solutions which could be viewed as the regularized Cho-Maison dyon, modifying the coupling strength at short distance. Our result demonstrates that a genuine electroweak monopole whose mass scale is much smaller than the grand unification scale can exist, which can actually be detected at the present LHC. (orig.)

  17. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  18. Finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, M.R.; Williamson, R.; Masson, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems. While FEM is commonly used to solve solid mechanics equations, it can be applied to a large range of BVPs from many different fields. FEM has been used for reactor fuels modelling for many years. It is most often used for fuel performance modelling at the pellet and pin scale, however, it has also been used to investigate properties of the fuel material, such as thermal conductivity and fission gas release. Recently, the United Stated Department Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation Program has begun using FEM as the basis of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT Project that is developing a multi-dimensional, multi-physics fuel performance capability that is massively parallel and will use multi-scale material models to provide a truly predictive modelling capability. (authors)

  19. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts of ...... systems, discrete time systems, timed languages, and real-time operating systems....... of two invited talks were carefully selected from 36 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. All current aspects of formal method for modeling and analyzing timed systems are addressed; among the timed systems dealt with are timed automata, timed Petri nets, max-plus algebras, real-time......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts...

  20. Formal Analysis of Graphical Security Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi

    , software components and human actors interacting with each other to form so-called socio-technical systems. The importance of socio-technical systems to modern societies requires verifying their security properties formally, while their inherent complexity makes manual analyses impracticable. Graphical...... models for security offer an unrivalled opportunity to describe socio-technical systems, for they allow to represent different aspects like human behaviour, computation and physical phenomena in an abstract yet uniform manner. Moreover, these models can be assigned a formal semantics, thereby allowing...... formal verification of their properties. Finally, their appealing graphical notations enable to communicate security concerns in an understandable way also to non-experts, often in charge of the decision making. This dissertation argues that automated techniques can be developed on graphical security...

  1. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: http://cern.ch/project-plc-formalmethods [2]: http://cern.ch/plcverif

  2. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  3. First order formalism for quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Neto, N.P.

    1987-05-01

    We develop a first order formalism for the quantization of gravity. We take as canonical variables both the induced metric and the extrinsic curvature of the (d - 1) -dimensional hypersurfaces obtained by the foliation of the d - dimensional spacetime. After solving the constraint algebra we use the Dirac formalism to quantize the theory and obtain a new representation for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, defined in the functional space of the extrinsic curvature. We also show how to obtain several different representations of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by considering actions differing by a total divergence. In particular, the intrinsic and extrinsic time approaches appear in a natural way, as do equivalent representations obtained by functional Fourier transforms of appropriate variables. We conclude with some remarks about the construction of the Hilbert space within the first order formalism. 10 refs

  4. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    and requirements of software extensions targeting Overture. The tools developed in this PhD project have successfully supported three case studies from externally funded projects. The feedback received from the case study work has further helped improve the code generation infrastructure and the tools built using...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...... of the steps involved in realising the formal specification. This PhD dissertation investigates ways to improve the automation of the steps involved in realising and validating a system based on a formal specification. The approach aims to develop properly designed software tools which support the integration...

  5. Towards Formal Verification of a Separation Microkernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Andrew; Sanan, David; Hinchey, Mike

    2013-08-01

    The best approach to verifying an IMA separation kernel is to use a (fixed) time-space partitioning kernel with a multiple independent levels of separation (MILS) architecture. We describe an activity that explores the cost and feasibility of doing a formal verification of such a kernel to the Common Criteria (CC) levels mandated by the Separation Kernel Protection Profile (SKPP). We are developing a Reference Specification of such a kernel, and are using higher-order logic (HOL) to construct formal models of this specification and key separation properties. We then plan to do a dry run of part of a formal proof of those properties using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  6. Rapidly converging path integral formalism. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, I.; Gromes, D.; Marquard, U.

    1990-01-01

    The action to be used in the path integral formalism is expanded in a systematic way in powers of the time spacing ε in order to optimize the convergence to the continuum limit. This modifies and extends the usual formalism in a transparent way. The path integral approximation to the Green function obtained by this method approaches the continuum Green function with a higher power of ε than the usual one. The general theoretical derivations are exemplified analytically for the harmonic oscillator and by Monte Carlo methods for the anharmonic oscillator. We also show how curvilinear coordinates and curved spaces can naturally be treated within this formalism. Work on field theory is in progress. (orig.)

  7. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  8. Discrete Wigner formalism for qubits and noncontextuality of Clifford gates on qubit stabilizer states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Love, Peter

    2017-12-01

    We show that qubit stabilizer states can be represented by non-negative quasiprobability distributions associated with a Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism where Clifford gates are positive state-independent maps. This is accomplished by generalizing the Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism to three generators instead of two—producing an exterior, or Grassmann, algebra—which results in Clifford group gates for qubits that act as a permutation on the finite Weyl phase space points naturally associated with stabilizer states. As a result, a non-negative probability distribution can be associated with each stabilizer state's three-generator Wigner function, and these distributions evolve deterministically to one another under Clifford gates. This corresponds to a hidden variable theory that is noncontextual and local for qubit Clifford gates while Clifford (Pauli) measurements have a context-dependent representation. Equivalently, we show that qubit Clifford gates can be expressed as propagators within the three-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism whose semiclassical expansion is truncated at order ℏ0 with a finite number of terms. The T gate, which extends the Clifford gate set to one capable of universal quantum computation, requires a semiclassical expansion of the propagator to order ℏ1. We compare this approach to previous quasiprobability descriptions of qubits that relied on the two-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism and find that the two-generator Weyl symbols of stabilizer states result in a description of evolution under Clifford gates that is state-dependent, in contrast to the three-generator formalism. We have thus extended Wigner non-negative quasiprobability distributions from the odd d -dimensional case to d =2 qubits, which describe the noncontextuality of Clifford gates and contextuality of Pauli measurements on qubit stabilizer states.

  9. Axial anomaly at finite temperature and finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zhixin; Su Rukeng; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U(1) axial anomaly in a hot fermion medium is investigated by using the real time Green's function method. After calculating the lowest order triangle diagrams, we find that finite temperature as well as finite fermion density does not affect the axial anomaly. The higher order corrections for the axial anomaly are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Infinitesimal deformations of a formal symplectic groupoid

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Given a formal symplectic groupoid $G$ over a Poisson manifold $(M, \\pi_0)$, we define a new object, an infinitesimal deformation of $G$, which can be thought of as a formal symplectic groupoid over the manifold $M$ equipped with an infinitesimal deformation $\\pi_0 + \\epsilon \\pi_1$ of the Poisson bivector field $\\pi_0$. The source and target mappings of a deformation of $G$ are deformations of the source and target mappings of $G$. To any pair of natural star products $(\\ast, \\tilde\\ast)$ ha...

  11. Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a compact and self-contained review of the recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to the evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of the standard and extended Keldysh techniques in a single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds. In the end, we briefly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.

  12. Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact and self-contained review of the recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to the evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of the standard and extended Keldysh techniques in a single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds. In the end, we briefly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.

  13. Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Qadi, Abderrahim El; Aboutajedine, Driss; Ennouary, Yassine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by ...

  14. A formalization of the flutter shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendero, Yohann; Rougé, Bernard; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-09-01

    Acquiring good quality images of moving objects by a digital camera remains a valid question. If the velocity of the photographed object is not known, it is virtually impossible to tune an optimal exposure time. For this reason the recent Agrawal et al. flutter shutter apparatus has generated much interest. In this communication, we propose a mathematical formalization of a general flutter shutter method, also permitting non-binary shutter sequences. Thanks to this formalization, the question of the optimal flutter shutter code can be defined and solved. The method gives analytic formulas for the best attainable SNR for the restored image. It also gives a way to compute optimal flutter shutter codes.

  15. Formal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross-country stud......A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent cross...

  16. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, Tim; Peskin, Michael E. [Stanford Univ., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Fujii, Keisuke; Ogawa, Tomohisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jung, Sunghoon [Stanford Univ., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Karl, Robert; List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tian, Junping [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP)

    2017-08-15

    Future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e{sup +}e{sup -} data, based on the Effective Field Theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders.

  17. A Mathematical Account of the NEGF Formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Decebal Horia; Moldoveanu, Valeriu; Pillet, Claude-Alain

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to put on solid mathematical grounds the so-called non-equilibrium Green’s function transport formalism for open systems. In particular, we derive the Jauho–Meir–Wingreen formula for the time-dependent current through an interacting sample coupled to non-interacting......The main goal of this paper is to put on solid mathematical grounds the so-called non-equilibrium Green’s function transport formalism for open systems. In particular, we derive the Jauho–Meir–Wingreen formula for the time-dependent current through an interacting sample coupled to non...

  18. Towards formalization of inspection using petrinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.; Naeem, M.; Bahadur, F.; Wahab, A.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving better quality software has always been a challenge for software developers. Inspection is one of the most efficient techniques, which ensure the quality of software during its development. To the best of our knowledge, current inspection techniques are not realized by any formal approach. In this paper, we propose an inspection technique, which is not only backed by the formal mathematical semantics of Petri nets, but also supports inspecting concurrent processes. We also use a case study of an agent based distributed processing system to demonstrate the inspection of concurrent processes. (author)

  19. Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, M.; Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: y.v.nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    We present a compact and self-contained review of the recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to the evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of the standard and extended Keldysh techniques in a single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds. In the end, we briefly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.

  20. Educación no formal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  1. MOOC & B-Learning: Students' Barriers and Satisfaction in Formal and Non-Formal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…

  2. Augmenting Reality and Formality of Informal and Non-Formal Settings to Enhance Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanagustin, Mar; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Santos, Patricia; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Blat, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Visits to museums and city tours have been part of higher and secondary education curriculum activities for many years. However these activities are typically considered "less formal" when compared to those carried out in the classroom, mainly because they take place in informal or non-formal settings. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies…

  3. The Interrelatedness of Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: Evidence from Labour Market Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…

  4. Digital Resource Developments for Mathematics Education Involving Homework across Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Slaviša; Passey, Don

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore further an under-developed area--how drivers of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment conceptions and practices shape the creation and uses of technologically based resources to support mathematics learning across informal, non-formal and formal learning environments. The paper considers: the importance of…

  5. Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2008-01-01

    This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…

  6. Lending Policies of Informal, Formal, and Semi-formal Lenders: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  7. Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas.

  8. Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas

  9. Mean-field theory of spin-glasses with finite coordination number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, I.; Sompolinsky, H.

    1987-01-01

    The mean-field theory of dilute spin-glasses is studied in the limit where the average coordination number is finite. The zero-temperature phase diagram is calculated and the relationship between the spin-glass phase and the percolation transition is discussed. The present formalism is applicable also to graph optimization problems.

  10. INTERCULTURAL ISSUES IN FORMAL PARTNERSHIPS - DIAGNOSIS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MANOLESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, collaboration, information and resource sharing with different (and sometimes even competing organizations have been viewed as key for success building. Encouraged by the European and national institutions, formal partnerships, whether temporary or permanent, such as grant writing agreements, clusters, regional working groups or networks have become more widespread in the socio-economic environment. This paper aims to investigate the most important intercultural issues in various types of formal partnerships built in Romanian public and private organizations and to identify solutions to these problems. In order to provide a solid, research-based approach to our study, we studied the evaluation reports of programs and projects involving partnerships and conducted interviews with people involved in the development and implementation of joint activities. The application of results is straightforward: the organizations will raise their awareness of the importance of an intercultural analysis when participating in a formal partnership and will take into account the implementation of appropriate methods in order to overcome intercultural challenges.

  11. Scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostler, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The gauge field theory of an N-dimensional multiplet of spin- 1/2 particles is investigated using the Klein--Gordon-type wave equation ]Pi x (1+isigma) x Pi+m 2 ]Phi = 0, Pi/sub μ/equivalentpartial/partialix/sub μ/-eA/sub μ/, investigated before by a number of authors, to describe the fermions. Here Phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor, and sigma repesents a Lorentz spin tensor whose components sigma/sub μ//sub ν/ are ordinary 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. Feynman rules for the scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory are derived starting from the conventional field theory of the multiplet and converting it to the new description. The equivalence of the new and the old formalism for arbitrary radiative processes is thereby established. The conversion to the scalar formalism is accomplished in a novel way by working in terms of the path integral representation of the generating functional of the vacuum tau-functions, tau(2,1, xxx 3 xxx)equivalent , where Psi/sub in/ is a Heisenberg operator belonging to a 4N x 1 Dirac wave function of the multiplet. The Feynman rules obtained generalize earlier results for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics

  12. Towards a formal taxonomy of hybrid uncertainty representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.; Rocha, L.

    1997-02-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of methods in addition to probability theory to represent information and uncertainty, including fuzzy sets and systems, fuzzy measures, rough sets, random sets, possibility distributions, imprecise probabilities, etc. We can identify these fields collectively as General Information Theory. The components of GIT represent information according to different axiomatic bases, and are thus capable of capturing different semantic aspects of uncertainty. Traditionally, these semantic criteria include such categories as fuzziness, vagueness, nonspecificity, conflict, and randomness. So it is clear that there is a pressing need for the GIT community to synthesize these methods, searching out larger formal frameworks within which to place these various components with respect to each other. Ideally, syntactic (mathematical) generalization can both aid and be aided by the semantic analysis available in terms of the conceptual categories outlined above. In this paper we present some preliminary ideas about how to formally relate various uncertainty representations together in a taxonomic lattice, capturing both syntactic and semantic generalization. Some partial and provisional results are shown. Assume a simple finite universe of discourse {Omega} = (a, b, c). We want to describe a situation in which we ask a question of the sort {open_quotes}what is the value of a variable x which takes values in {Omega}?{close_quotes}. When there is no uncertainty, we have a single alternative, say x = a. In logical terms, we would say that the proposition p: {open_quotes}the value of x is a{close_quotes} is TRUE. Our approach begins with two primitive concepts which can change our knowledge of x, each of which represents a different form of uncertainty, nonspecificity and fuxxiness.

  13. Algebraic diagrammatic construction formalism with three-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Francesco; Barbieri, Carlo

    2018-05-01

    Background: Self-consistent Green's function theory has recently been extended to the basic formalism needed to account for three-body interactions [Carbone, Cipollone, Barbieri, Rios, and Polls, Phys. Rev. C 88, 054326 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.054326]. The contribution of three-nucleon forces has so far been included in ab initio calculations on nuclear matter and finite nuclei only as averaged two-nucleon forces. Purpose: We derive the working equations for all possible two- and three-nucleon terms that enter the expansion of the self-energy up to the third order, thus including the interaction-irreducible (i.e., not averaged) diagrams with three-nucleon forces that have been previously neglected. Methods: We employ the algebraic diagrammatic construction up to the third order as an organization scheme for generating a nonperturbative self-energy, in which ring (particle-hole) and ladder (particle-particle) diagrams are resummed to all orders. Results: We derive expressions of the static and dynamic self-energy up to the third order, by taking into account the set of diagrams required when either the skeleton or nonskeleton expansions of the single-particle propagator are assumed. A hierarchy of importance among different diagrams is revealed, and a particular emphasis is given to a third-order diagram [see Fig. 2(c)] that is expected to play a significant role among those featuring an interaction-irreducible three-nucleon force. Conclusion: A consistent formalism to resum at infinite order correlations induced by three-nucleon forces in the self-consistent Green's function theory is now available and ready to be implemented in the many-body solvers.

  14. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.

  15. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel

  16. Exploring the Relationship Between Public Service Motivation and Formal and Informal Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Clerkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply public service motivation to the ongoing discussion of formal and informal volunteering and whether these are two distinct constructs or variations on the same theme. This exploratory research uses survey data of undergraduate students reporting their participation in both types of volunteering activities. Using structural equation modeling, these formal and informal volunteering activities show different influences on three dimensions of PSM. In addition to PSM, high school volunteering and religiosity have direct effects on rates of formal volunteering, which in turn positively influence the PSM dimensions of civic duty and self-sacrifice. Being an Evangelical Christian is associated with increased informal volunteering, which is positively related to the PSM compassion dimension. These results indicate that the different dimensions of PSM, and how formal and informal volunteering influences them, should be useful tools for scholars and practitioners seeking to understand these distinct types of pro-social behaviors.

  17. I. Surface properties of neutron-rich nuclei. II. Pion condensation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolehmainen, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    In part I, the energy density formalism, the Thomas-Fermi approximation, and Skyrme-type interactions were used to describe the energy density of a semi-infinite slab of neturon-rich nuclear matter at zero temperature. The existence of a drip phase at low proton fractions is allowed in addition to the more dense nuclear phase, and various bulk properties of both phases are found when the system is in equilibrium. The usual definition of the surface energy is extended to apply to the case where drip is present. Assuming a Fermi function type density profile, a constrained variational calculation is performed to determine the neutron and proton surface diffuseness parameters, the thickness of the neutron skin, and the surface energy. Results are obtained for proton fractions reanging from 0.5 (symmetric nuclear matter) to zero (pure neutron matter) for most Skyrme-type interactions in common use. The results are in close agreement with the predictions of the droplet model, as well as with the results of more exact calculations in those cases where the more exact results exist (only for symmetric or nearly symmetric matter in most cases). Significantly different asymmetry dependences for different interactions are found. In part II, several simple but increasingly complex models are used to calculate the threshold for charged pion condensation in neutron-rich nuclear matter at finite temperature. Unlike in mean field theory descriptions of pion condensation, the effects of thermal excitations of the pion field are included. The thermal pion excitations have two important effects: first, to modify the phase diagram qualitatively from that predicted by mean field theory, and second, to make the phase transition to a spatially nonuniform condensed state at finite temperature always first, rather than second, order

  18. Axial anomaly at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)

  19. Formal and informal facilitators of learning capability: the moderating effect of learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA REVILLA

    2006-01-01

    Organizations need to put in practice the most favourable conditions to facilitate learning capability. The different ways of thinking about learning in organizations distinguish two kinds of learning facilitators: formal and informal facilitators. In this paper, we suggest that organizations undertake both types of learning facilitators, but considering that informal facilitators may act as potential moderators of the effects of formal ones. We have focused on one comprehensive informal faci...

  20. Incremental guideline formalization with tool support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serban, Radu; Puig-Centelles, Anna; ten Teije, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Guideline formalization is recognized as an important component in improving computerized guidelines, which in turn leads to better informedness, lower inter-practician variability and, ultimately, to higher quality healthcare. By means of a modeling exercise, we investigate the role of guideline

  1. Maintaining formal models of living guidelines efficiently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyfang, Andreas; Martínez-Salvador, Begoña; Serban, Radu; Wittenberg, Jolanda; Miksch, Silvia; Marcos, Mar; Ten Teije, Annette; Rosenbrand, Kitty C J G M

    2007-01-01

    Translating clinical guidelines into formal models is beneficial in many ways, but expensive. The progress in medical knowledge requires clinical guidelines to be updated at relatively short intervals, leading to the term living guideline. This causes potentially expensive, frequent updates of the

  2. A New Formalism for Relational Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Larsen, Kim Skak; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1992-01-01

    We present a new formalism for relational algebra, the FC language, which is based on a novel factorization of relations. The acronym stands for factorize and combine. A pure version of this language is equivalent to relational algebra in the sense that semantics preserving translations exist...

  3. 14 CFR 201.1 - Formal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal requirements. 201.1 Section 201.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... papers. (b) Any person desiring to provide air transportation as a commuter air carrier must comply with...

  4. The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…

  5. Informal Science Learning in the Formal Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lori; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…

  6. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  7. Educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of ...

  8. A Formal Model of Identity Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camenisch, Jan; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Sommer, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Identity Mixer is an anonymous credential system developed at IBM that allows users for instance to prove that they are over 18 years old without revealing their name or birthdate. This privacy-friendly tech- nology is realized using zero-knowledge proofs. We describe a formal model of Identity...

  9. Simulation and formal analysis of visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a simulation model for visual attention is discussed and formally analysed. The model is part of the design of an agent-based system that supports a naval officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the model is

  10. A Formal Model For Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    it as a general formal model for specification and execution of declarative, event-based business processes, as a generalization of a concurrency model, the classic event structures. The model allows for an intuitive operational semantics and mapping of execution state by a notion of markings of the graphs and we...

  11. Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin ...

  12. Formalizing the Problem of Music Description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Bardeli, Rolf; Langlois, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a formalism for “the problem of music descrip- tion” results in, among other things: ambiguity in what problem a music description system must address, how it should be evaluated, what criteria define its success, and the paradox that a music description system can reproduce the “ground...

  13. A formal theory of the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Welch, J J

    2011-08-01

    Adaptation is conventionally regarded as occurring at the level of the individual organism. In contrast, the theory of the selfish gene proposes that it is more correct to view adaptation as occurring at the level of the gene. This view has received much popular attention, yet has enjoyed only limited uptake in the primary research literature. Indeed, the idea of ascribing goals and strategies to genes has been highly controversial. Here, we develop a formal theory of the selfish gene, using optimization theory to capture the analogy of 'gene as fitness-maximizing agent' in mathematical terms. We provide formal justification for this view of adaptation by deriving mathematical correspondences that translate the optimization formalism into dynamical population genetics. We show that in the context of social interactions between genes, it is the gene's inclusive fitness that provides the appropriate maximand. Hence, genic selection can drive the evolution of altruistic genes. Finally, we use the formalism to assess the various criticisms that have been levelled at the theory of the selfish gene, dispelling some and strengthening others. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Elinor

    2006-01-01

    Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…

  15. Towards a Formal Framework for Computational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl Kristian; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2006-01-01

    We define a mathematical measure for the quantitative comparison of probabilistic computational trust systems, and use it to compare a well-known class of algorithms based on the so-called beta model. The main novelty is that our approach is formal, rather than based on experimental simulation....

  16. Informal and Formal Learning of General Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach: To obtain insight in various learning processes, semi-structured…

  17. Informal and formal learning of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach To obtain insight in

  18. Revisiting the formal foundation of Probabilistic Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.; van Keulen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    One of the core problems in soft computing is dealing with uncertainty in data. In this paper, we revisit the formal foundation of a class of probabilistic databases with the purpose to (1) obtain data model independence, (2) separate metadata on uncertainty and probabilities from the raw data, (3)

  19. On the Need for Practical Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    additional research and engineering that is needed to make the current set of formal methods more practical. To illustrate the ideas, I present several exam ...either a good violin or a highly talented violinist. Light-weight techniques o er software developers good violins . A user need not be a talented

  20. The formal path integral and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R d and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.

  1. Moving interprofessional learning forward through formal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Judy

    2010-04-01

    There is increasing agreement that graduates who finish tertiary education with the full complement of skills and knowledge required for their designated profession are not 'work-ready' unless they also acquire interpersonal, collaborative practice and team-working capabilities. Health workers are unable to contribute to organisational culture in a positive way unless they too attain these capabilities. These capabilities have been shown to improve health care in terms of patient safety, worker satisfaction and health service efficiency. Given the importance of interprofessional learning (IPL) which seeks to address these capabilities, why is IPL not consistently embedded into the education of undergraduates, postgraduates and vocationally qualified personnel through formal assessment? This paper offers an argument for the formal assessment of IPL. It illustrates how the interests of the many stakeholders in IPL can benefit from, and contribute to, the integration of IPL into mainstream professional development and tertiary education. It offers practical examples of assessment in IPL which could drive learning and offer authentic, contextual teaching and learning experiences to undergraduates and health workers alike. Assessment drives learning and without formal assessment IPL will continue to be viewed as an optional topic of little relative importance for learners. In order to make the next step forward, IPL needs to be recognised and endorsed through formal assessment, both at the tertiary education level and within the workplace environment. This is supported by workforce initiatives and tertiary education policy which can be used to specify the capabilities or generic skills necessary for effective teamwork and collaborative practice.

  2. What makes industries believe in formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Danthine, A.S.; Leduc, G.; Wolper, P.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of formal methods in the design and development departments of an industrial company has far reaching and long lasting consequences. In fact it changes the whole environment of methods, tools and skills that determine the design culture of that company. A decision to replace current

  3. Confusion about entrepreneurship? Formal versus informal small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    that contributes to both business formation and the ultimate expansion or growth of the business. The entrepreneurial actions related to these business activities are analysed in this study. The differential application of these actions in the formal and informal business panels is of particular importance for this study. Although ...

  4. Formal and Applied Counseling in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe; Wegman-Rozi, Orit

    2012-01-01

    Living in Israel is intensive and demanding but also meaningful and exciting. This article addresses the gap between the narrowly defined formal status of counseling in Israel and the widespread occurrence of counseling in various settings. It is argued that several recent changes, especially in the definition of treatment, along with the…

  5. A formal model for total quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van der Made-Potuijt; H.B. Bertsch (Boudewijn); L.P.J. Groenewegen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTotal Quality Management (TQM) is a systematic approach to managing a company. TQM is systematic in the sense that it is uses facts through observation, analysis and measurable goals. There are theoretical descriptions of this management concept, but there is no formal model of it. A

  6. Electric current arising from unpolarized polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    An appreciable electric current is observed in a system consisting of a polyvinyl formal (PVF) film in a sandwich ... Electric current; open circuit voltage; water activated phenomenon; plasticization effect. 1. Introduction ... either the trapping parameters or the distribution of the ..... For this reason contact potential drop between.

  7. Formal specifications for safety grade systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.; Smith, B.T.; Wojcik, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the findings of a study into the application of formal methods to the specification of a safety system for an operating nuclear reactor. They developed a formal specification that is used to verify and validate that no unsafe condition will result from action or inaction of the system. For this reason, the specification must facilitate thinking about, talking about, and implementing the system. In fact, the specification must provide a bridge between people (designers, engineers, policy makers) and diverse implementations (hardware, software, sensors, power supplies) at all levels. For a specification to serve as an effective linkage, it must have the following properties: (1) completeness, (2) conciseness, (3) unambiguity, and (4) communicativeness. In this paper they describe the development of a specification that has three properties. This development is based on the use of formal methods, i.e., methods that add mathematical rigor to the development, analysis and operation of computer systems and to applications based thereon (Neumann). They demonstrate that a specification derived from a formal basis facilitates development of the design and its subsequent verification

  8. A Formal Model for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    here is a definite lack of formal support for modeling real- istic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The Conawa calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new construc...

  9. Formal system of communication and understanding. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsuzsanna, M

    1982-01-01

    For pt.I see IBID., no.5, p.252-8 (1982). In this article G. Pask's (1975) formal theory of dialogues and talk is summarized. Part II describes the talk-environment and modelling. The conscious systems and machine-intelligence are mainly dealt with. Finally a couple of cases with Pask's theory implemented are looked at. 7 references.

  10. Formal truncations of connected kernel equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The Connected Kernel Equations (CKE) of Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas (AGS); Kouri, Levin and Tobocman (KLT); and Bencze, Redish and Sloan (BRS) are compared against reaction theory criteria after formal channel space and/or operator truncations have been introduced. The Channel Coupling Class concept is used to study the structure of these CKE's. The related wave function formalism of Sandhas, of L'Huillier, Redish and Tandy and of Kouri, Krueger and Levin are also presented. New N-body connected kernel equations which are generalizations of the Lovelace three-body equations are derived. A method for systematically constructing fewer body models from the N-body BRS and generalized Lovelace (GL) equations is developed. The formally truncated AGS, BRS, KLT and GL equations are analyzed by employing the criteria of reciprocity and two-cluster unitarity. Reciprocity considerations suggest that formal truncations of BRS, KLT and GL equations can lead to reciprocity-violating results. This study suggests that atomic problems should employ three-cluster connected truncations and that the two-cluster connected truncations should be a useful starting point for nuclear systems

  11. Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou

    2006-01-01

    Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…

  12. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  13. Review of Tomographic Imaging using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fua’ad RAHMAT

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many types of techniques for process tomography were proposed and developed during the past 20 years. This paper review the techniques and the current state of knowledge and experience on the subject, aimed at highlighting the problems associated with the non finite element methods, such as the ill posed, ill conditioned which relates to the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements. In this paper, considerations for choice of sensors and its applications were outlined and descriptions of non finite element tomography systems were presented. The finite element method tomography system as obtained from recent works, suitable for process control and measurement were also presented.

  14. Finite flavour groups of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, Walter; Ludl, Patrick Otto

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the theory of finite groups, with regard to their application as flavour symmetries in particle physics. In a general part, we discuss useful theorems concerning group structure, conjugacy classes, representations and character tables. In a specialized part, we attempt to give a fairly comprehensive review of finite subgroups of SO(3) and SU(3), in which we apply and illustrate the general theory. Moreover, we also provide a concise description of the symmetric and alternating groups and comment on the relationship between finite subgroups of U(3) and finite subgroups of SU(3). Although in this review we give a detailed description of a wide range of finite groups, the main focus is on the methods which allow the exploration of their different aspects. (topical review)

  15. On finite quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpoot, S.; Taylor, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The properties that make massless versions of N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory and a class of N = 2 supersymmetric theories finite are: (I) a universal coupling for the gauge and matter interactions, (II) anomaly-free representations to which the bosonic and fermionic matter belong, and (III) no charge renormalisation, i.e. β(g) = 0. It was conjectured that field theories constructed out of N = 1 matter multiplets are also finite if they too share the above properties. Explicit calculations have verified these theories to be finite up to two loops. The implications of the finiteness conditions for N = 1 finite field theories with SU(M) gauge symmetry are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo; Kronbichler, Martin; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Today's large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Teamwork in Multi-Agent Systems A Formal Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara Maria

    2010-01-01

    What makes teamwork tick?. Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!. Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehe

  19. Mimetic finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

  20. Concepciones acerca de la maternidad en la educación formal y no formal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Calderón, Kathia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos resultados de la investigación desarrollada en el Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, bajo el nombre "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". Utilizando un enfoque cualitativo de investigación, recurrimos a las técnicas de elaboración de dibujos, entrevistas y grupo focal como recursos para la recolección de la información. De esta manera, podemos acercarnos a las concepciones de la maternidad que utilizan los participantes de las diferentes instancias educativas (formal y no formal con quienes se trabajó. This article presents some results the research developed in the Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE, named "Construcción del concepto de maternidad en la educación formal y no formal". It begins with a theoretical analysis about social conceptions regarding motherhood in the occidental societies. Among the techniques for gathering information were thematic drawing, interview and focus group, using a qualitative approach research method. This is followed by a brief summary of main findings. The article concludes with a proposal of future working lines for the deconstruction of the motherhood concept in formal and informal education contexts.

  1. 20 CFR 702.336 - Formal hearings; new issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; new issues. 702.336 Section... Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.336 Formal hearings; new issues. (a) If, during the course of the formal hearing, the evidence presented warrants consideration of an issue or issues not previously considered...

  2. Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, MA

    2013-01-01

    This second volume in the Progress in Electromagnetic Research series examines recent advances in computational electromagnetics, with emphasis on scattering, as brought about by new formulations and algorithms which use finite element or finite difference techniques. Containing contributions by some of the world's leading experts, the papers thoroughly review and analyze this rapidly evolving area of computational electromagnetics. Covering topics ranging from the new finite-element based formulation for representing time-harmonic vector fields in 3-D inhomogeneous media using two coupled sca

  3. Finite element computation of plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivier, M.

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of the finite element method is investigated for the numerical solution of the nonlinear Grad-Shafranov equation with free boundary for the flux function of a plasma at equilibrium. This method is based on the case of variational principles and finite dimensional subspaces whose elements are piecewise polynomial functions obtained by a Lagrange type interpolation procedure over a triangulation of the domain. Two cases of plasma pressure (exponential and quadratic including a vacuum region) were examined. In both cases the nonuniqueness of the solutions was shown in exhibiting a deeper solution in the case of exponential pressure function, and a non-constant solution for a quadratic pressure function. In order to get this ''other'' solution, two linearization methods were tested with two different constraints. Different cross sections are investigated

  4. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    The use of formal methods and formal techniques in industry is steadily growing. In this survey we shall characterise what we mean by software development and by a formal method; briefly overview a history of formal specification languages - some of which are: VDM (Vienna Development Method, 1974...... need for multi-language formalisation (Petri Nets, MSC, StateChart, Temporal Logics); the sociology of university and industry acceptance of formal methods; the inevitability of the use of formal software development methods; while referring to seminal monographs and textbooks on formal methods....

  5. Y-formalism and b ghost in the non-minimal pure spinor formalism of superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Ichiro; Tonin, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We present the Y-formalism for the non-minimal pure spinor quantization of superstrings. In the framework of this formalism we compute, at the quantum level, the explicit form of the compound operators involved in the construction of the b ghost, their normal-ordering contributions and the relevant relations among them. We use these results to construct the quantum-mechanical b ghost in the non-minimal pure spinor formalism. Moreover we show that this non-minimal b ghost is cohomologically equivalent to the non-covariant b ghost

  6. The Formalization of the Problem area, Implementation and Maintenance of Business process by a group of unmanned vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kuandykov A.A; Kassenkhan A.M; Mukazhanov N.K; Kozhamzharova D.K; Kalpeeva Zh.B; Sholpanbaev A.T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the formalization of the problem domain in which there is a business process that is similar in structure.For research and formalization selected a specific type of subject area in which at random time occurs the business processes that are close on the abstract structure.

  7. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5...... formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high....

  8. Lorentz violation, gravitoelectromagnetism and Bhabha scattering at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2018-04-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) is an approach for the gravitation field that is described using the formulation and terminology similar to that of electromagnetism. The Lorentz violation is considered in the formulation of GEM that is covariant in its form. In practice, such a small violation of the Lorentz symmetry may be expected in a unified theory at very high energy. In this paper, a non-minimal coupling term, which exhibits Lorentz violation, is added as a new term in the covariant form. The differential cross-section for Bhabha scattering in the GEM framework at finite temperature is calculated that includes Lorentz violation. The Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism is used to calculate the total differential cross-section at finite temperature. The contribution due to Lorentz violation is isolated from the total cross-section. It is found to be small in magnitude.

  9. Nonparametric Identification and Estimation of Finite Mixture Models of Dynamic Discrete Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Kasahara; Katsumi Shimotsu

    2006-01-01

    In dynamic discrete choice analysis, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity is an important issue, and finite mixture models provide flexible ways to account for unobserved heterogeneity. This paper studies nonparametric identifiability of type probabilities and type-specific component distributions in finite mixture models of dynamic discrete choices. We derive sufficient conditions for nonparametric identification for various finite mixture models of dynamic discrete choices used in appli...

  10. Finite element analysis of stemming loads on pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiden, D.E.

    1979-08-01

    A computational model has been developed for calculating the loads and displacements on a pipe placed in a hole which is subsequently filled with soil. A composite soil-pipe finite element model which employs fundamental material constants in its formalism is derived. The shear modulus of the soil, and the coefficient of friction at the pipe are the important constants to be specified. The calculated loads on the pipe are in agreement with experimental data for layered and unlayered stemming designs. As a result more economical designs of the pipe string can be realized

  11. Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraut, M

    2000-03-01

    This paper explores the conceptual and methodological problems arising from several empirical investigations of professional education and learning in the workplace. 1. To clarify the multiple meanings accorded to terms such as 'non-formal learning', 'implicit learning' and 'tacit knowledge', their theoretical assumptions and the range of phenomena to which they refer. 2. To discuss their implications for professional practice. A largely theoretical analysis of issues and phenomena arising from empirical investigations. The author's typology of non-formal learning distinguishes between implicit learning, reactive on-the-spot learning and deliberative learning. The significance of the last is commonly overemphasized. The problematic nature of tacit knowledge is discussed with respect to both detecting it and representing it. Three types of tacit knowledge are discussed: tacit understanding of people and situations, routinized actions and the tacit rules that underpin intuitive decision-making. They come together when professional performance involves sequences of routinized action punctuated by rapid intuitive decisions based on tacit understanding of the situation. Four types of process are involved--reading the situation, making decisions, overt activity and metacognition--and three modes of cognition--intuitive, analytic and deliberative. The balance between these modes depends on time, experience and complexity. Where rapid action dominates, periods of deliberation are needed to maintain critical control. Finally the role of both formal and informal social knowledge is discussed; and it is argued that situated learning often leads not to local conformity but to greater individual variation as people's careers take them through a series of different contexts. This abstract necessarily simplifies a more complex analysis in the paper itself.

  12. Finite spatial volume approach to finite temperature field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Nathan

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic quantum field theory at finite temperature T=β -1 is equivalent to the same field theory at zero temperature but with one spatial dimension of finite length β. This equivalence is discussed for scalars, for fermions, and for gauge theories. The relationship is checked for free field theory. The translation of correlation functions between the two formulations is described with special emphasis on the nonlocal order parameters of gauge theories. Possible applications are mentioned. (auth)

  13. Automatic Construction of Finite Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with model generation for equational theories,i.e.,automatically generating (finite)models of a given set of (logical) equations.Our method of finite model generation and a tool for automatic construction of finite algebras is described.Some examples are given to show the applications of our program.We argue that,the combination of model generators and theorem provers enables us to get a better understanding of logical theories.A brief comparison betwween our tool and other similar tools is also presented.

  14. Sound radiation from finite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    A method to account for the effect of finite size in acoustic power radiation problem of planar surfaces using spatial windowing is developed. Cremer and Heckl presents a very useful formula for the power radiating from a structure using the spatially Fourier transformed velocity, which combined...... with spatially windowing of a plane waves can be used to take into account the finite size. In the present paper, this is developed by means of a radiation impedance for finite surfaces, that is used instead of the radiation impedance for infinite surfaces. In this way, the spatial windowing is included...

  15. Observations on finite quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Itzykson, C.

    1986-01-01

    We study the canonical transformations of the quantum mechanics on a finite phase space. For simplicity we assume that the configuration variable takes an odd prime number 4 K±1 of distinct values. We show that the canonical group is unitarily implemented. It admits a maximal abelian subgroup of order 4 K, commuting with the finite Fourier transform F, a finite analogue of the harmonic oscillator group. This provides a natural construction of F 1/K and of an orthogonal basis of eigenstates of F [fr

  16. Formal description of the jumpstart just-in-time signaling protocol using EFSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, A. H.; Baldine, Ilia; Cassada, Mark; Rouskas, George N.; Perros, Harry G.; Stevenson, Daniel S.

    2002-07-01

    We present a formal protocol description for a Just-In-Time (JIT) signaling scheme running over a core dWDM network which utilizes Optical Burst Switches (OBS). We apply an eight-tuple extended finite state machine (EFSM) model to formally specify the protocol. Using the EFSM model, we define the communication between a source client node and a destination client node through an ingress and one or multiple intermediate switches. We worked on single burst connections that means setting up the connection just before sending a single burst and then closing the connection as soon as the burst is sent. The communication between the EFSMs is handled through message transfer between protocol entities.

  17. Finite-Reynolds-number effects in turbulence using logarithmic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.

    2006-12-01

    Experimental or numerical data in turbulence are invariably obtained at finite Reynolds numbers whereas theories of turbulence correspond to infinitely large Reynolds numbers. A proper merger of the two approaches is possible only if corrections for finite Reynolds numbers can be quantified. This paper heuristically considers examples in two classes of finite-Reynolds-number effects. Expansions in terms of logarithms of appropriate variables are shown to yield results in agreement with experimental and numerical data in the following instances: the third-order structure function in isotropic turbulence, the mixed-order structure function for the passive scalar and the Reynolds shear stress around its maximum point. Results suggestive of expansions in terms of the inverse logarithm of the Reynolds number, also motivated by experimental data, concern the tendency for turbulent structures to cluster along a line of observation and (more speculatively) for the longitudinal velocity derivative to become singular at some finite Reynolds number. We suggest an elementary hydrodynamical process that may provide a physical basis for the expansions considered here, but note that the formal justification remains tantalizingly unclear. (author)

  18. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  19. The formal logic of business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of improvement areas and utilization of information and communication technologies have gained value and priority in our knowledge driven society. Rules define constraints, conditions and policies of how the business processes are to be performed but they also affect the behavior of the resource and facilitate strategic business goals achieving. They control the business and represent business knowledge. The research works about business rules show how to specify and classify business rules from the business perspective and to establish an approach to managing them that will enable faster change in business processes and other business concepts in all areas of the business. In concrete this paper deals with four approaches to business rules formalization, i. e. notation of OCL, inference rules, decision table and predicate logic and with their general evaluation. The article shows also the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches of formalization. They are the example of every mentioned approach.

  20. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  1. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  2. A Formal Framework for Workflow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, Glória

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we provide a new formal framework to model and analyse workflows. A workflow is the formal definition of a business process that consists in the execution of tasks in order to achieve a certain objective. In our work we describe a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions. Each task has associated an input/output logic operator. This logic operator can be the logical AND (•), the OR (⊗), or the XOR -exclusive-or—(⊕). Moreover, we introduce algebraic concepts in order to completely describe completely the structure of workflows. We also introduce the concept of logical termination. Finally, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition for this property to hold.

  3. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  4. Formal Definition of Measures for BPMN Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Luis; Rolón, Elvira; Genero, Marcela; García, Félix; Ruiz, Francisco; Piattini, Mario

    Business process models are currently attaining more relevance, and more attention is therefore being paid to their quality. This situation led us to define a set of measures for the understandability of BPMN models, which is shown in a previous work. We focus on understandability since a model must be well understood before any changes are made to it. These measures were originally informally defined in natural language. As is well known, natural language is ambiguous and may lead to misunderstandings and a misinterpretation of the concepts captured by a measure and the way in which the measure value is obtained. This has motivated us to provide the formal definition of the proposed measures using OCL (Object Constraint Language) upon the BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) metamodel presented in this paper. The main advantages and lessons learned (which were obtained both from the current work and from previous works carried out in relation to the formal definition of other measures) are also summarized.

  5. Formalism and physical interpretation in Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relation between a formalism and its physical interpretation arises not only when theoretical and conceptual systems are reorganized, but in the theoretical elaboration as well. The Schroedinger's work and thought are examined in this paper with this double concern. His work on the mathematical formalism is constantly sustained by a proper physical thought which takes the form of a wave intuition that guarantees him intelligibility. Concerning his interpretation of quantum mechanics, his thought remains characterized, through its evolution, by a w ave image of the world . The way he deals with space-time structure in General Relativity and favours the possibility of a direct interpretation of space-time geometrical quantities, is also studied. (author). 75 refs

  6. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-02-16

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  7. Measurements and mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavnov, D. A.

    2007-03-01

    A scheme for constructing quantum mechanics is given that does not have Hilbert space and linear operators as its basic elements. Instead, a version of algebraic approach is considered. Elements of a noncommutative algebra (observables) and functionals on this algebra (elementary states) associated with results of single measurements are used as primary components of the scheme. On the one hand, it is possible to use within the scheme the formalism of the standard (Kolmogorov) probability theory, and, on the other hand, it is possible to reproduce the mathematical formalism of standard quantum mechanics, and to study the limits of its applicability. A short outline is given of the necessary material from the theory of algebras and probability theory. It is described how the mathematical scheme of the paper agrees with the theory of quantum measurements, and avoids quantum paradoxes.

  8. Formal definition of coherency and computation of minimal cut sequences for binary dynamic and repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaux, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Preventive risk assessment of a complex system rely on a dynamic models which describe the link between the system failure and the scenarios of failure and repair events from its components. The qualitative analyses of a binary dynamic and repairable system is aiming at computing and analyse the scenarios that lead to the system failure. Since such systems describe a large set of those, only the most representative ones, called Minimal Cut Sequences (MCS), are of interest for the safety engineer. The lack of a formal definition for the MCS has generated multiple definitions either specific to a given model (and thus not generic) or informal. This work proposes i) a formal framework and definition for the MCS while staying independent of the reliability model used, ii) the methodology to compute them using property extracted from their formal definition, iii) an extension of the formal framework for multi-states components in order to perform the qualitative analyses of Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes (BDMP) models. Under the hypothesis that the scenarios implicitly described by any reliability model can always be represented by a finite automaton, this work is defining the coherency for dynamic and repairable systems as the way to give a minimal representation of all scenarios that are leading to the system failure. (author)

  9. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  10. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  11. Heuristics structure and pervade formal risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Brian H

    2014-04-01

    Lay perceptions of risk appear rooted more in heuristics than in reason. A major concern of the risk regulation literature is that such "error-strewn" perceptions may be replicated in policy, as governments respond to the (mis)fears of the citizenry. This has led many to advocate a relatively technocratic approach to regulating risk, characterized by high reliance on formal risk and cost-benefit analysis. However, through two studies of chemicals regulation, we show that the formal assessment of risk is pervaded by its own set of heuristics. These include rules to categorize potential threats, define what constitutes valid data, guide causal inference, and to select and apply formal models. Some of these heuristics lay claim to theoretical or empirical justifications, others are more back-of-the-envelope calculations, while still more purport not to reflect some truth but simply to constrain discretion or perform a desk-clearing function. These heuristics can be understood as a way of authenticating or formalizing risk assessment as a scientific practice, representing a series of rules for bounding problems, collecting data, and interpreting evidence (a methodology). Heuristics are indispensable elements of induction. And so they are not problematic per se, but they can become so when treated as laws rather than as contingent and provisional rules. Pitfalls include the potential for systematic error, masking uncertainties, strategic manipulation, and entrenchment. Our central claim is that by studying the rules of risk assessment qua rules, we develop a novel representation of the methods, conventions, and biases of the prior art. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...... semeiotics and his theory of communication, we account for the formal conditions that have to be present for the release of the significance-effect....

  13. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  14. Formal First Integrals of General Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is trying to make a complete study on the integrability for general analytic nonlinear systems by first integrals. We will firstly give an exhaustive discussion on analytic planar systems. Then a class of higher dimensional systems with invariant manifolds will be considered; we will develop several criteria for existence of formal integrals and give some applications to illustrate our results at last.

  15. Generalized formal model of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhovska, N.; Veres, O.; Hirnyak, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article dwells on the basic characteristic features of the Big Data technologies. It is analyzed the existing definition of the “big data” term. The article proposes and describes the elements of the generalized formal model of big data. It is analyzed the peculiarities of the application of the proposed model components. It is described the fundamental differences between Big Data technology and business analytics. Big Data is supported by the distributed file system Google File System ...

  16. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part...... and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  17. A FORMALISM FOR FUZZY BUSINESS RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a formalism for fuzzy rule bases, included in our prototype system FUZZY_ENTERPRISE. This framework can be used in Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs, real-time interdisciplinary decision making systems, that often require increasing technical support to high quality decisions in a timely manner. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques.

  18. Textile materials trading center formally launched online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile materials trading center was formally launched online in Wuxi City,Jiangsu Province. This is the first third-party electronic trading platform for spot trading in China textile materials professional market. The project will strive to build the most influential textile materials trading center of East China,the whole country and even the whole world China textile materials trading center will be

  19. Toward a Formal Model of Cognitive Synergy

    OpenAIRE

    Goertzel, Ben

    2017-01-01

    "Cognitive synergy" refers to a dynamic in which multiple cognitive processes, cooperating to control the same cognitive system, assist each other in overcoming bottlenecks encountered during their internal processing. Cognitive synergy has been posited as a key feature of real-world general intelligence, and has been used explicitly in the design of the OpenCog cognitive architecture. Here category theory and related concepts are used to give a formalization of the cognitive synergy concept....

  20. On the formal series Witt transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moree, P.

    2005-01-01

    Given a formal power series f(z)∈C〚z〛f(z)∈C〚z〛 we define, for any positive integer r, its r th Witt transform, Wf(r), by Wf(r)(z)=1r∑d|rμ(d)f(zd)r/d, where μμ denotes the Möbius function. The Witt transform generalizes the necklace polynomials, M(α;n)M(α;n), that occur in the cyclotomic identity