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Sample records for formalin spray therapy

  1. Eradication of breast cancer with bone metastasis by autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) combined with palliative radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Ohno, Tadao

    2013-06-04

    Skeletal metastasis of breast carcinoma is refractory to intensive chemo-radiation therapy and therefore is assumed impossible to cure. Here, we report an advanced case of breast cancer with vertebra-Th7 metastasis that showed complete response to combined treatments with formalin-fixed autologous tumor vaccine (AFTV), palliative radiation therapy with 36 Gy, and adjuvant chemotherapy with standardized CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5FU), zoledronic acid, and aromatase inhibitors following mastectomy for the breast tumor. The patient has been disease-free for more than 4 years after the mammary surgery and remains well with no evidence of metastasis or local recurrence. Thus, a combination of AFTV, palliative radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy may be an effective treatment for this devastating disease.

  2. Evaluation of a polyherbal topical aerosol spray as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Selvam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal topical aerosol spray Wisprec and reg; Advanced (M/S. Natural Remedies Private Limited, India as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 41 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis were selected, and Wisprec and reg; Advanced was sprayed on mastitis affected quarters of udder two times a day along with a parenteral antibiotic till complete recovery. The rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder, swelling of udder, consistency of milk, recovery period and product satisfaction score were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of Wisprec and reg; Spray. Topical application of Wisprec and reg; Advanced Spray have shown a significant improvement (p<0.001 in alleviation of rectal temperature, pain on palpation of udder and swelling of udder, and the consistency of milk was restored to normal after 3 to 4 days of treatment. The results demonstrate that the Wisprec and reg; Advanced spray could be considered as an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a supportive therapy for clinical mastitis of dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 285-290

  3. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent...... performed equally well on all tissues tested. While several of the commercial fixatives appeared to preserve liver tissue at 200x, the preservation of kidney, intestinal villi, and smooth muscle was unacceptable. Histological distortion, cell shrinkage and vacuolization were prominent when the substitutes...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  4. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF IRRIGATION SPRAY APPLICATION FOR THE THROAT IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF INFLAMMATORY OROPHARYNX DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.L. Soldatskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx manifested with pain or discomfort in the throat, is a frequent pathology in children. Traditionally, patients with acute and exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis are prescribed gargarism. In recent years, the use of sea water-based throat sprays have been allowed for irrigation therapy. Their use as part of the complex treatment of inflammatory oropharynx diseases statistically reliably decreases the intensity of pain reaction on the 10th–24th day of treatment compared to conventional gargarism and is comparable with conventional therapy when assessing other clinical symptoms. It is therefore possible to recommend using sea water-based substance as a initial means of irrigation therapy in the complex treatment of inflammatory oropharynx diseases in children.Key words: pharyngitis, tonsillitis, throat pain, irrigation therapy, children.

  5. Nano spray drying: a novel method for preparing protein nanoparticles for protein therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sie Huey; Heng, Desmond; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-01-17

    There has been an increasing interest in the development of protein nanotherapeutics for diseases such as cancer, diabetes and asthma. Spray drying with prior micro mixing is commonly used to obtain these powders. However, the separation and collection of protein nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer setups has been known to be extremely challenging due to its typical low collection efficiency for fine particles less than 2μm. To date, there has been no feasible approach to produce these protein nanoparticles in a single step and with high yield (>70%). In this study, we explored the feasibility of the novel Nano Spray Dryer B-90 (equipped with a vibrating mesh spray technology and an electrostatic particle collector) for the production of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. A statistical experimental design method (Taguchi method based on three levels, five variables L(18) orthogonal array robust design) was implemented to study the effect of and optimize the experimental conditions of: (1) spray mesh size, (2) BSA solution concentration, (3) surfactant concentration, (4) drying air flow rate and (5) inlet temperature on: (1) size and (2) morphology (axial ratio). Particle size and morphology were predominantly influenced by the spray mesh size and surfactant concentration, respectively. The drying air flow rate and inlet temperature had minimal impact. Optimized production of smooth spherical nanoparticles (median size: 460±10nm, axial ratio: 1.03±0.00, span 1.03±0.03, yield: 72±4%) was achieved using the 4μm spray mesh at BSA concentration of 0.1% (w/v), surfactant concentration of 0.05% (w/v), drying flow rate of 150L/min and inlet temperature of 120°C. The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 thus offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of protein nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Previous Failed Antispasticity Therapy on the Efficacy and Tolerability of THC:CBD Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupts, Michael; Vila, Carlos; Jonas, Anna; Witte, Kerstin; Álvarez-Ossorio, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Sativex® (THC:CBD oromucosal spray) is indicated as add-on treatment for patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. We aimed to determine whether antispasticity treatment history influenced the efficacy and safety of add-on THC:CBD oromucosal spray in MS spasticity patients. Post hoc analysis of an enriched-design clinical trial of THC:CBD oromucosal spray versus placebo, using records of patients under previous and current ineffective antispasticity therapies. Subgroups were patients with at least 1 failed therapy attempt with either baclofen or tizanidine (Group 1) or at least 2 failed therapy attempts with both baclofen and tizanidine (Group 2). Of 241 patients in the intent-to-treat population, 162 and 57 patients met the criteria for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. In all groups, response on the spasticity 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale was significantly greater with THC:CBD oromucosal spray versus placebo, for minimal clinically important difference (MCID ≥18% improvement vs. baseline) and clinically important difference (CID, ≥30% improvement vs. baseline). THC:CBD oromucosal spray improved spasticity-related symptoms such as sleep quality and timed 10-meter walk independent of the number of prior failed therapy attempts. Tolerability was not influenced by pre-treatment history. THC:CBD oromucosal spray provided consistent relief with good tolerability in MS spasticity patients irrespective of their antispasticity pre-treatment history. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Chitosan microspheres loaded with holmium-165 produced by spray dryer for liver cancer therapy: preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Pires, Geovanna; Lira, Raphael A. de; Melo, Vitor H.S.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de, E-mail: douglas.miyamoto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. It's biocompatible, biodegradable, non toxic and has antitumor activity. Chitosan has many applications, such as their microparticles that can be used to treat prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and for liver tumor brachytherapy treatment. Our group is developing different biodegradable polymer-based microspheres loaded with holmium-165 for this purpose. The Chitosan microspheres were produced loaded with holmium (III) chloride, and not loaded with it, by Mini Spray Dryer procedure. The microspheres were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size, and X-ray diffraction. The EDS analysis confirmed the holmium chloride presence into the prepared chitosan microparticles. (author)

  8. Chitosan microspheres loaded with holmium-165 produced by spray dryer for liver cancer therapy: preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Pires, Geovanna; Lira, Raphael A. de; Melo, Vitor H.S.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. It's biocompatible, biodegradable, non toxic and has antitumor activity. Chitosan has many applications, such as their microparticles that can be used to treat prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and for liver tumor brachytherapy treatment. Our group is developing different biodegradable polymer-based microspheres loaded with holmium-165 for this purpose. The Chitosan microspheres were produced loaded with holmium (III) chloride, and not loaded with it, by Mini Spray Dryer procedure. The microspheres were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size, and X-ray diffraction. The EDS analysis confirmed the holmium chloride presence into the prepared chitosan microparticles. (author)

  9. Isotonic saline nasal irrigation is an effective adjunctive therapy to intranasal corticosteroid spray in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Shaun A; Psaltis, Alkis J; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if the addition of large-volume, low-positive pressure nasal irrigations delivered with isotonic sodium chloride (hereinafter "saline") added to intranasal corticosteroid therapy improves quality of life and objective measures of nasal breathing in patients with allergic rhinitis when compared with intranasal corticosteroid alone. A prospective, unblinded, single-arm pilot study was performed of patients with allergic rhinitis already on intranasal corticosteroid pharmacotherapy. Patients added large-volume low-pressure saline irrigation twice daily for 8 weeks to their ongoing regiment of nasal corticosteroid. Mini-Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of life Questionnaire (mRQLQ) assessment and nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIF) were performed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. A total of 40 patients were enrolled. Twice-daily nasal irrigation with isotonic saline significantly (p irrigation with isotonic saline is an effective adjunctive therapy to improve quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis already on intranasal corticosteroid therapy. This study was a part of the clinical trial NCT01030146 registered at clinicaltrials.gov.

  10. Dry powder inhaler formulation of high-payload antibiotic nanoparticle complex intended for bronchiectasis therapy: Spray drying versus spray freeze drying preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Teo, Jeanette; Chew, Jia Wei; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2016-02-29

    Inhaled nano-antibiotics have recently emerged as the promising bronchiectasis treatment attributed to the higher and more localized antibiotic exposure generated compared to native antibiotics. Antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly complexation with polysaccharides addresses the major drawbacks of existing nano-antibiotics by virtue of its high payload and cost-effective preparation. Herein we developed carrier-free dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of ciprofloxacin nanoplex by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). d-Mannitol and l-leucine were used as the drying adjuvant and aerosol dispersion enhancer, respectively. The DPI formulations were evaluated in vitro in terms of the (1) aerosolization efficiency, (2) aqueous reconstitution, (3) antibiotic release, and (4) antimicrobial activity against respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The SFD powders exhibited superior aerosolization efficiency to their SD counterparts in terms of emitted dose (92% versus 66%), fine particle fraction (29% versus 23%), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (3 μm versus 6 μm). The superior aerosolization efficiency of the SFD powders was attributed to their large and porous morphology and higher l-leucine content. While the SFD powders exhibited poorer aqueous reconstitution that might jeopardize their mucus penetrating ability, their antibiotic release profile and antimicrobial activity were not adversely affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  12. Preliminary investigations on therapy thresholds for laser dosimetry, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles for laser cartilage reshaping in the New Zealand white rabbit auricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebicki, Cara A; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laser irradiation (λ = 1.45 μm) in tandem with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) to reshape rabbit auricular cartilage using a total energy density of 14 J/cm(2). The aim of this study was to further explore and identify the dosimetry parameter space for laser output energy, CSC duration, and treatment cycles required to achieve shape change while limiting skin and cartilage injury. Ten New Zealand white rabbits were treated with the 1.45 μm diode laser combined with cryogen spray cooling (Candela Smoothbeam™, Candela Co., Wayland, MA, USA). The ear's central portion was bent around a cylindrical jig and irradiated in consecutive spots of 6 mm diameter (13 or 14 J/cm(2) per spot) along three rows encompassing the bend. CSC was delivered during irradiation in cycles consisting of 25-35 ms. At thin and thick portions of the ear, 4-7 and 6-10 treatment cycles were delivered, respectively. After surgery, ears were examined and splinted for 6 weeks. Treatment parameters resulting in acceptable (grades 1 and 2) and unacceptable (grade 3) skin injuries for thick and thin regions were identified, and shape change was observed. Confocal and histological analysis of cartilage tissue revealed several outcomes correlating to laser dosimetry, CSC duration, and treatment cycles. These outcomes included expansion of cartilage layers (thickening), partial cartilage injuries, and full-thickness cartilage injuries. We determined therapy thresholds for laser output energy, cryogen spray cooling duration, and treatment cycles in the rabbit auricular model. These parameters are a starting point for future clinical procedures aimed at correcting external ear deformities.

  13. TRPV4 is necessary for trigeminal irritant pain and functions as a cellular formalin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Kanju, Patrick; Fang, Quan; Lee, Suk Hee; Parekh, Puja K; Lee, Whasil; Moore, Carlene; Brenner, Daniel; Gereau, Robert W; Wang, Fan; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Detection of external irritants by head nociceptor neurons has deep evolutionary roots. Irritant-induced aversive behavior is a popular pain model in laboratory animals. It is used widely in the formalin model, where formaldehyde is injected into the rodent paw, eliciting quantifiable nocifensive behavior that has a direct, tissue-injury-evoked phase, and a subsequent tonic phase caused by neural maladaptation. The formalin model has elucidated many antipain compounds and pain-modulating signaling pathways. We have adopted this model to trigeminally innervated territories in mice. In addition, we examined the involvement of TRPV4 channels in formalin-evoked trigeminal pain behavior because TRPV4 is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) sensory neurons, and because we have recently defined TRPV4's role in response to airborne irritants and in a model for temporomandibular joint pain. We found TRPV4 to be important for trigeminal nocifensive behavior evoked by formalin whisker pad injections. This conclusion is supported by studies with Trpv4(-/-) mice and TRPV4-specific antagonists. Our results imply TRPV4 in MEK-ERK activation in TG sensory neurons. Furthermore, cellular studies in primary TG neurons and in heterologous TRPV4-expressing cells suggest that TRPV4 can be activated directly by formalin to gate Ca(2+). Using TRPA1-blocker and Trpa1(-/-) mice, we found that both TRP channels co-contribute to the formalin trigeminal pain response. These results imply TRPV4 as an important signaling molecule in irritation-evoked trigeminal pain. TRPV4-antagonistic therapies can therefore be envisioned as novel analgesics, possibly for specific targeting of trigeminal pain disorders, such as migraine, headaches, temporomandibular joint, facial, and dental pain, and irritation of trigeminally innervated surface epithelia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-28

    To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe

  15. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were exam...

  16. Clinical Experience of Using Nasal Drops Milt and Elimination Therapy with Nasal Spray Pshyk in Children with Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Havrylenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis in children. Attention is paid to unwarranted use of antibiotics, misuse of vasoconstrictor drops. It is emphasized that broad-spectrum antibiotics in accordance with the recommendations of EPOS 2012 should be administered after the 5th day of the disease or in the presence of severe symptoms. Saline irrigation has the highest level of evidence advisability for the administration from the first day of acute rhinosinusitis. The findings of the clinical study on therapeutic effect and tolerability of nasal drops Milt in combination with nasal spray Pshyk manufactured by Farmak сompany (Ukraine when treating children with acute rhinosinusitis are presented. It is shown that use of these drugs helps maintain and significantly improve the functional state of the nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance in children with acute rhinosinusitis as well as quickly and safely reduce the signs of inflammation in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. This makes it possible to avoid invasive treatments not only by reducing the symptoms, but also the provision of pathogenetic therapeutic effect.

  17. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  18. FORMALIN IS DELETERIOUS TO CYTOSKELETON PROTEINS - DO WE NEED TO REPLACE IT BY FORMALIN-FREE KRYOFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; KOK, LP

    1991-01-01

    Formalin is hazardous for the environment and for the laboratory personnel and deleterious to cytoskeleton proteins. The pathology and anatomy laboratory can be formalin-free when Kryofix is used as a substitute fixative. In four years experience with Kryofix, we learned that immunostaining on

  19. Numerical optimization of sequential cryogen spray cooling and laser irradiation for improved therapy of port wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanič, Matija; Jia, Wangcun; Nelson, J Stuart; Majaron, Boris

    2011-02-01

    Despite application of cryogen spray (CS) precooling, customary treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks with a single laser pulse does not result in complete lesion blanching for a majority of patients. One obvious reason is nonselective absorption by epidermal melanin, which limits the maximal safe radiant exposure. Another possible reason for treatment failure is screening of laser light within large PWS vessels, which prevents uniform heating of the entire vessel lumen. Our aim is to identify the parameters of sequential CS cooling and laser irradiation that will allow optimal photocoagulation of various PWS blood vessels with minimal risk of epidermal thermal damage. Light and heat transport in laser treatment of PWS are simulated using a custom 3D Monte Carlo model and 2D finite element method, respectively. Protein denaturation in blood and skin are calculated using the Arrhenius kinetic model with tissue-specific coefficients. Simulated PWS vessels with diameters of 30-150 µm are located at depths of 200-600 µm, and shading by nearby vessels is accounted for according to PWS histology data from the literature. For moderately pigmented and dark skin phototypes, PWS blood vessel coagulation and epidermal thermal damage are assessed for various parameters of sequential CS cooling and 532-nm laser irradiation, i.e. the number of pulses in a sequence (1-5), repetition rate (7-30 Hz), and radiant exposure. Simulations of PWS treatment in darker skin phototypes indicate specific cooling/irradiation sequences that provide significantly higher efficacy and safety as compared to the customary single-pulse approach across a wide range of PWS blood vessel diameters and depths. The optimal sequences involve three to five laser pulses at repetition rates of 10-15 Hz. Application of the identified cooling/irradiation sequences may offer improved therapeutic outcome for patients with resistant PWS, especially in darker skin phototypes. Copyright © 2011

  20. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    Abstract.—A simple enzymatic screening method has been developed to detect whether a tissue sample has been preserved with formalin or with ethanol only because such a method is a useful tool for predicting the quality of genetic test results. The method is based on enzymatic digestion at 55 C...... in museums where DNA analyses of archived specimens are performed. Wasted time and resources can be avoided through the detection of formalin-fixed specimens because these specimens yield low-quality, damaged DNA. In addition to the screening method, it is shown that formalin-preserved specimens can...

  1. Comparison of formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate flotation techniques for detection of intestinal parasites.

    OpenAIRE

    Truant, A L; Elliott, S H; Kelly, M T; Smith, J H

    1981-01-01

    Formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, Formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate flotation techniques were compared using over 250 clinical parasitology specimens. Fifty positive specimens were identified, and a variety of parasites, including amoebae, flagellates, cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes, were encountered. The Formalin-ether and Formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedures gave identical results for the detection of cysts, ova, and larvae, and these methods offered a...

  2. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  3. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  4. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It ... also used to relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Oxymetazoline nasal spray should not be used to treat ...

  5. Safety of formalin treatments on warm- and coolwater fish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jeff J.; Howe, George E.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1997-01-01

    Formalin is widely used for treating fungal infections of fish eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. The use of formalin in the United States is only allowed on salmonid and esocid eggs unless a special exemption is granted for use on other species. This study was conducted to determine the safety of formalin treatments on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species and data was used to support a request to allow the use of formalin on the eggs of warmwater and additional coolwater fish species. Non-eyed eggs of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were cultured in miniature egg hatching jars and treated for 45 min every-other-day with 1500, 4500, or 7500 μL L-1 formalin up to hatch. For all species tested, the percent hatch was greater in 1500 mu L L-1 treatment groups than in untreated controls. Walleye eggs were the least sensitive species and had a hatch of 87% in the 7500 mu L L-1 treatment. Lake sturgeon were the most sensitive species with a mean hatch of 54% in 1500 mu L L-1 treatments. Adequate margins of safety exist for standard treatments (1500 mu L L-1 for 15 min) on eggs of all species tested except lake sturgeon. Fungal infections drastically reduced or eliminated hatch in most control groups whereas most treated groups were free of infections. This confirms the efficacy of formalin as an fungicide. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  7. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Futuro Neto, H.A. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Gonçalves, W.L.S. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Tiradentes, R.V.; Gouvea, S.A.; Abreu, G.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups (N = 8 per group): sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal) and Sert + Formalin (Form); 3 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, ip, for 7 days) and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form). The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL) formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency), assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%), mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg), heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm), respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm) and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm) and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05). These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  8. Efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation ...

  9. A new substitute for formalin: Application to embalming cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizuka, Yoshinori; Nagase, Miki; Takashino, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, George

    2018-01-01

    The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump. Experienced teaching staff members in our department dissected the cadavers and examined their macroanatomical properties. The NVP-embalmed corpses showed no sign of decomposition or fungal growth. The bodies remained soft and flexible. Notably, the shoulder, elbow, wrist, phalangeal, hip, knee, cervical spine, and temporomandibular joints were highly mobile, almost equivalent to those of living individuals. The range of motion of most joints was greater in the NVP-fixed than formalin-fixed cadavers. Under the dermis, the subcutaneous fat was markedly reduced and the connective tissues were transparent, so the ligaments, cutaneous nerves, and veins were easily discernible. The abdominal wall and the visceral organs remained pliable and elastic, resembling those of fresh cadavers. The lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal tract were moveable in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and were readily isolated. NVP can be used successfully as a fixative and preservative solution for human cadavers; furthermore, NVP-embalmed bodies could be valuable for learning clinical skills and for training, and for developing innovative medical devices. Clin. Anat. 31:90-98, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  12. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  13. Detection and quantitation analysis of cocaine and metabolites in fixed liver tissue and formalin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Mariano; Cippitelli, Marcello; Froldi, Rino; Gambaro, Veniero; Tassoni, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of cocaine and its metabolites in liver tissues fixed in formalin and in the formalin solutions in which the same tissues were fixed. Toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver samples from four cases of death of cocaine abusers and on formalin solutions (10% buffered, pH 7) in which the samples were preserved. Analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluids and tissues allowed identification of cocaine and the metabolite benzoylecgonine. Liver tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for four weeks before analysis. Results only showed the presence of benzoylecgonine in the studied materials. The mean levels of recovery of benzoylecgonine in fixed tissues were 12.31% in liver and 84.47% in formalin from liver. Results indicated that benzoylecgonine has good stability, even in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation.

  14. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  15. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  16. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  17. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... stop using butorphanol nasal spray, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  18. Studi Identifikasi Kandungan Formalin pada Ikan Pindang di Pasar Tradisional dan Modern Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Sitiopan Telaumbanua, Henny Putri

    2012-01-01

    Ikan pindang adalah salah satu jenis makanan olahan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat dan harus segera dijual karena daya tahan yang terbatas dan akan cepat membusuk. Penggunaan formalin sebagai pengawet ternyata telah disalahgunakan oleh pihak-pihak yang tidak bertanggungjawab, dengan cara menggunakan formalin tersebut sebagai bahan pengawet dalam industri makanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kandungan formalin pada ikan pindang yang dijual di pasar tradisional dan modern Kota S...

  19. Evaluation of the formalin-Tween concentration technique for parasitic detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Methanitikorn Rungkanta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The formalin-Tween sedimentation method was compared with the formalin-ether sedimentation for parasitic detection. Of a total 297 fecal specimens examined, 72.1% were positive. The formalin-tween technique was effective for ascertaining helminths, particularly Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm eggs; however it has less capability for protozoa detection. This method is simple, inexpensive, less time consuming and highly sensitive when detecting the parasitic infection, particularly when focusing on helminth eggs.

  20. Identifikasi Formalin pada Bakso yang Dijual pada Beberapa Tempat di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faradila .

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKonsumsi makanan cepat saji saat ini telah menjadi kebiasaan makan bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Salah satu makanan cepat saji yang popular adalah bakso, namun saat ini sering dijumpai penggunaan bahan tambahan non pangan di dalam bakso yaitu formalin. Penggunaan formalin sudah dilarang dalam makanan berdasarkan peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No. 1168 tahun 1999, tetapi pada kenyataannya masih ada produsen makanan yang memproduksi makanan mengandung formalin. Salah satu makanan yang sering ditemukan berformalin adalah bakso. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi apakah terdapat formalin pada bakso yang dijual di Kota Padang. 42 sampel yang diidentifikasi diambil dari pedagang bakso gerobak, warung bakso, serta rumah makan franchise di beberapa lokasi dengan jumlah pedagang bakso terbanyak. Pemeriksaan kualitatif dilakukan dengan menggunakan Test Kit Formalin yang terdiri atas cairan pereaksi I dan serbuk pereaksi II. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 20 sampel dari 42 sampel yang diidentifikasi dilaboratorium positif mengandung formalin (47,6%. Bedasarkan hasil yang didapatkan dapat disimpulkan bahwa hampir separuh bakso yang dijual di Kota Padang mengandung formalin.Kata kunci: Bakso, FormalinAbstractNow a days, the consumption of fast food has become an eating pattern for Indonesian. One of the most popular fast food is meatball, but today, we often found that the producents add a non food addition ingredient in the meatball that we call formalin. The use of formalin actually has been prohibited used in food based on the Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No.1168 tahun 1999, but in fact, there are food producent that produce food with formalin. One of the food is meat ball. The objective of this research is to identifying whether there are formalin in meatballs that sold in padang. 42 samples that identified taken from mobile vendor, meatball restaurant and franchise restaurant in several locations with the greatest numbers of

  1. Efficacy and toxicity of formalin solutions containing paraformaldehyde for fish and egg treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1995-01-01

    Formalin used for fish and egg treatments at hatcheries often develops a white precipitate called paraformaldehyde when stored at low temperatures. This presents a problem for hatchery managers because most of the literature and treatment procedures claim that formalin containing paraformaldehyde is more toxic than pure formalin and is not safe for fish or egg treatments. Acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) showed that the toxicity of formalin solutions containing a moderate amount of fine paraformaldehyde was similar to that of pure formalin. In efficacy tests on fish eggs, the bottom fraction of a formalin solution containing paraformaldehyde and a sample from the clear top fraction were equally effective in controlling fungal infection on rainbow trout eggs and caused no treatment-related mortality. Chemical assays found on average a 3% difference in formaldehyde concentration between top and bottom fractions of a formalin solution containing paraformaldehyde. We recommend normal use of formalin solutions containing light to moderate amounts of fine paraformaldehyde. Allowing solutions to warm to room temperature may resolubilize moderate amounts of paraformaldehyde if the exposure to cold was not prolonged. If precipitation is heavier, clear top fractions can be decanted and used as normal because paraformaldehyde settles to the bottom of containers. Formalin solutions that have been exposed to freezing temperatures for long periods (more than 6 weeks) and have developed large amounts of paraformaldehyde solids should not be used and resolubilization by warming is not possible. Formation of paraformaldehyde in formalin solutions can be easily avoided by storing formalin at room temperature.

  2. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  3. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  4. Intravesical instillation of Formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiation for gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnam, K.; Patil, U.B.; Mariano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Our experience with the use of Formalin instillation in intractable gross hematuria secondary to radiation cystitis in patients with gynecological malignancies is reported. This study indicates coagulative effect of low concentration of Formalin with minimal side effects as a method to control hemorrhage

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub Petersen, Bodil; Zeuthen, Mette Christa; Pedersen, Sanni

    2004-01-01

    , such as quantitation of signals as in triploidy, it is possible to isolate nuclei from paraffin-embedded tissue. However, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, either in thin sections or as isolated nuclei, one encounters a range of technical problems, paralleling those met in immunohistochemistry. Variations...... nuclei and tissue sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue....

  6. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff ...

  7. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  8. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR in Formalin Fixed Tumor Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hembrough Todd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Methods A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10 of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23 were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. Results The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991. The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and

  9. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  10. Preservation of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue by a formalin-free histology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Azorides R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. Methods Parallel sections of 62 cases of breast cancer were fixed in an alcohol-based molecular fixative and in formalin. Molecular fixative samples were processed by a novel formalin-free microwave-assisted processing system that preserves DNA, RNA and proteins. Formalin-fixed samples were processed using the conventional method. Estrogen receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. HER2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, FISH, CISH and real-time PCR. Results The immunohistochemical reaction for estrogen receptor was similar in molecular- and formalin-fixed samples (Spearman Rank R = 0.83, p Conclusion The formalin-free tissue fixation and processing system is a practical platform for evaluation of biomolecular markers in breast cancer and it allows reliable DNA and RNA and protein studies.

  11. Effects of Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract on formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed-Abadi, S; Ranjbaran, M; Jafari, F; Najafi-Abedi, A; Rahmani, B; Esfandiari, B; Delfan, B; Mojabi, N; Ghahramani, M; Sahraei, H

    2012-11-01

    Stress amelioration can improve its metabolic as well as other side effects. In the present study, the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Papver rhoeas (L.) on formalin-induced pain and inflammation were investigated in male Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g). Formalin injects in the plantar portion of mice hind paw and pain was studied for 60 min. The plant extract and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally 30 min before formalin. Experiments showed that administration of extract (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) could induced analgesia in a dose-response manner in both phases of formalin test. More over, the extract inhibits inflammation induced by formalin injection. Naloxone (4 mg kg(-1)), dextromethorphan (20 mg kg(-1)) and NG-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 10 mg kg(-1)) reduced the extract analgesia in first but not late phase. Extract administration also increased plasma corticosterone level in dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Papaver rhoeas (L.) extract could inhibits acute phase of formalin test in mice by opioidergic, glutamatergic and nitricergic mechanisms. In addition, the extract can induce corticosterone plasma level which may be responsible for inhibition of inflammation and chronic phase of pain induced by formalin.

  12. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  13. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  14. Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow...... Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since...

  15. Molecular Markers for Prostate Cancer in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sequeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in developed countries. The decisive method of diagnosis is based on the results of biopsies, morphologically evaluated to determine the presence or absence of cancer. Although this approach leads to a confident diagnosis in most cases, it can be improved by using the molecular markers present in the tissue. Both miRNAs and proteins are considered excellent candidates for biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, due to their stability over long periods of time. In the last few years, a concerted effort has been made to develop the necessary tools for their reliable measurement in these types of samples. Furthermore, the use of these kinds of markers may also help in establishing tumor grade and aggressiveness, as well as predicting the possible outcomes in each particular case for the different treatments available. This would aid clinicians in the decision-making process. In this review, we attempt to summarize and discuss the potential use of microRNA and protein profiles in FFPE tissue samples as markers to better predict PCa diagnosis, progression, and response to therapy.

  16. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  17. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  18. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  19. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  20. The use of lower formalin-containing embalming solution for anatomy cadaver preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viskasari P. Kalanjati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We used cadaver embalming technique with a high concentration of formaldehyde (37% formaldehyde. However, it gives toxic effects which can endanger the technicians, lecturers and students. For that reason, the effective, efficient and safer embalming process is needed; in this article we describe the use of low formalin solution (5-7.5% formaldehyde to achieve prior purposes.Methods: Cadaver is embalmed by actively pumping low formalin-containing solution (5-7.5% via femoral arteries. Further methods are detailed in this manuscript.Results: Paler cadaver with more intact and easier to dissect specimen (drier and still moist with no fungal growth was resulted by using this low formalin technique.Conclusion: The use of low formalin-containing solution in cadaver embalming gave good quality results for anatomy teaching. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:203-7Keywords: Anatomy specimen, cadaver preparation, low formaldehyde solution

  1. Predicting the concentration of residual methanol in industrial formalin using machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Heidkamp, William

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a machine learning approach was used to develop a predictive model for residual methanol concentration in industrial formalin produced at the Akzo Nobel factory in Kristinehamn, Sweden. The MATLABTM computational environment supplemented with the Statistics and Machine LearningTM toolbox from the MathWorks were used to test various machine learning algorithms on the formalin production data from Akzo Nobel. As a result, the Gaussian Process Regression algorithm was found to pr...

  2. Hemo-De as substitute for ethyl acetate in formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Neimeister, R; Logan, A L; Gerber, B; Egleton, J H; Kleger, B

    1987-01-01

    In comparative studies, Hemo-De (PMP Medical Industries, Inc., Irving, Tex.) was found to be a suitable replacement for ethyl acetate in the Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. With essentially equivalent recovery rates for both procedures, the Formalin-Hemo-De concentration technique is considered to be the preferred technique because Hemo-De is less toxic and less flammable and does not present disposal problems, and its cost is approximately one-fourth that of ethyl acetate.

  3. Homicidal acute formalin poisoning in an infant from a rural sericulture family presenting with multisystem failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y C, Beeregowda; A, Srihari; Pradan, Shashi K; P, Susheela; Y C, Manjunatha

    2013-05-01

    Acute poisoning of formalin is rare because of its strong irritating effect and alarming odor. Although few cases of acute poisoning in adults have been reported in literature, to our knowledge, this is the first case report of formalin poisoning in an infant presenting with multisystem failure. Despite proper supportive treatment in the absence of antidote, the infant died within 13 hours after deliberate poisoning.

  4. PCR amplification and species determination of microsporidia in formalin-fixed feces after immunomagnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, S E; Gerba, C P; Enriquez, F J; Pepper, I L

    1998-01-01

    The term microsporidia is used to describe several species of opportunistic protozoan parasites. Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi have been found in stools of more than 40% of AIDS patients with diarrhea. Diagnosis of infection with these small protozoans has been difficult, and until recently their occurrence has not been well documented. Formalin is widely used to preserve clinical specimens, but due to the nature of the fixation process, subsequent analysis, especially analysis by the PCR, is difficult. This study evaluated methods used to prepare formalin-fixed fecal specimens for PCR amplification of microsporidial DNA. Two methods were devised to allow PCR detection and subsequent identification of microsporidia in formalin-fixed fecal specimens to the species level. One method involved immunomagnetic separation to concentrate microsporidial spores from fecal specimens. In the second method Chelex resin (Bio-Rad, Hercules, Calif.) was used to remove inhibitory substances, followed by a DNA concentration step. Both methods resulted in reproducible, confirmed detection of microsporidia in formalinized fecal specimens and subsequent species determination by PCR sequencing. The detection sensitivity was two in vitro culture-derived spores (Encephalitozoon intestinalis) for the direct PCR. The reproducible detection sensitivity for DNA amplification from formalin-fixed fecal samples was 200 spores for either the Chelex method or the immunomagnetic bead separation method. Thus, we developed two methods for rapid, inexpensive detection of microsporidial spores in formalin-fixed fecal specimens.

  5. Toxicological analysis of formalin-fixed or embalmed tissues: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Dona, Artemisia; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2013-12-10

    During the autopsy of forensic cases, when there is no suspicion of drug use or chemical exposure, biological fluids may not be obtained for toxicological analysis, while specimens of tissues may be collected and preserved in a formalin solution for histological examination. When specific questions arise after the burial, the only possible options are the exhumation of an embalmed body or the toxicological analysis of the formalin-fixed specimens. The drug concentrations in these specimens can be altered due to the extraction efficiency and/or the chemical activity of the formalin solutions used during chemical fixation or embalming process. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies about the determination of specific groups of drugs in formalin-fixed or embalmed specimens and their stability after chemical fixation or embalming process. The analytical aspects of this determination are also discussed. The stability of drugs in formalin environment and the possible reaction of the drugs with formaldehyde, which is a highly reactive chemical substance, should always be considered during post-mortem/post-embalming forensic analysis. The additional analysis of the formalin solution in which the tissue was preserved is considered necessary. The identification and the evaluation of the possible degradation products or chemical derivatives are extremely useful during the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perbedaan Kadar Formalin pada Tahu yang Dijual di Pasar Pusat Kota dengan Pinggiran Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Ardina Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTahu merupakan makanan yang digemari oleh masyarakat.Tahu mempunyai daya tahan sekitar 1 - 2 hari sehingga pedagang sering menambahkan formalin sebagai pengawet. Formalin merupakan bahan pengawet yang dilarang oleh pemerintah yang penggunaannya masih terdapat secara luas di masyarakat dan bila dilihat dari tekstur tahu yang dijual di pasar kota Padang, dicurigai tahu memiliki kandungan formalin.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar formalin pada tahu yang dijual di pasar pusat kota dengan pinggiran kota Padang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Padang.Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik yang telah dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni-September 2013. Jumlah sampel adalah sebanyak 36 buah yang terdiri dari 18 sampel tahu yang berasal dari pasar pusat kota dan 18 sampel tahu yang berasal dari pasar pinggiran kota Padang. Uji kualitatif formalin pada tahu dilakukan dengan metode asam kromatropat dan uji kuantitatif formalin menggunakan metode titrasi asam basa. Analisis data dilakukan secara bivariat dengan menggunakan uji t. Hasil penelitian didapatkan kadar formalin pada tahu di pasar pusat kota Padang dari 18 sampel yang diperiksa terdapat 17 sampel yang positif formalin dengan kadar paling tinggi adalah 3.65%. Kadar formalin pada tahu di pasar pinggiran kota Padang dari 18 sampel yang diperiksa terdapat 17 sampel yang positif formalin dengan kadar paling tinggi adalah 2.73%. Rata-rata kadar formalin pada pasar pusat kota adalah 1.08% dan pasar pinggiran kota adalah 0.67%.Kata Kunci: kadar formalin, tahu, pasar pusat kota Padang, pasar pinggiran kota PadangAbstractTofu is a favorite food among the community. Tofu has resistance 1 - 2 days so that merchant often add formalin as a preservative. Formalin is a preservative which is banned by the government that there is still widespread use in the community and the texture of tofu sold in the market is suspected for having

  7. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  8. Review of clinical trials: update on oral insulin spray formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzilli, Paolo; Raskin, Philip; Parkin, Christopher G

    2010-02-01

    Large clinical trials have shown that improving glycaemic control significantly reduces the risk of long-term microvascular complications in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes. Achieving optimal glycaemic control often requires the use of multiple daily insulin injections. Current approaches to insulin administration are less than optimal; many T2DM patients view insulin therapy as inconvenient and uncomfortable and may delay starting insulin therapy because of this. A new oral insulin spray formulation and delivery system provides an alternative to injectable and inhaled insulin. The system allows a liquid oral spray insulin formulation to be delivered into the mouth via an aerosolized spray. The oral insulin spray is a tasteless liquid aerosol mist formulation that is administered to the buccal mucosa using a proprietary delivery system. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is recombinant human insulin; however, the formulation behaves in a fashion more similar to the synthetic fast-acting insulin analogues. In clinical studies of healthy subjects and subjects with T1DM and T2DM, investigators have shown that the oral insulin spray was absorbed in direct relation to the amount given and had a faster onset and a shorter duration of action when compared with regular insulin given subcutaneously. In all of the studies conducted, the oral insulin spray was generally well tolerated. Some healthy individuals and subjects with T1DM experienced transient (1-2 min) mild dizziness during dosing; these symptoms were mild and self-limited. No changes in vital signs, laboratory values or physical examination results were noted. The ease of use of the insulin spray formulation may increase patient acceptance and treatment compliance, thereby potentially reducing complications and improving quality of life for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. This article provides an overview of the safety profile and proposed mechanism of action of this insulin formulation and

  9. Characteristics of intermittent fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, B.; Gulari, E.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-03-01

    The spray-tip penetrations and the drop sizes of intermittent fuel sprays were measured by using a modified pulsed optical spray sizer. The average spray tip speeds were determined from simultaneously recorded needle lift signals and obscuration traces. The speeds of a sequence of fuel pulses injected at about 1000 Hz were analyzed to elucidate penetration mechanisms. A correlation that relates penetration distance to time, pressure drop across the nozzle, fuel density, and ambient gas density was obtained. The temporal variations of drop size in penetrating pulses of sprays were measured. The concentration of drops were calculated by combining drop size and obscuration data. The Sauter mean diameter of penetrating fuel drops increased with an increase of the chamber pressure and decreased with an increase of the injection pressure.

  10. The antinociceptive effect of intrathecal escin in the rat formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ouyang, Handong; Wang, Peizong; Zeng, Weian

    2012-01-15

    This study investigated the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal escin and examined its effect on the formalin-induced activation of c-Fos and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) in the rat spinal cord. Rats were chronically implanted with lumbar intrathecal catheters, and the ability of intrathecal escin to alter nociceptive behaviours in the rat formalin test was examined. The expression of c-Fos and p-p38 MAPK in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was detected in the control and escin (40μg) groups using immunohistochemical techniques. Intrathecal escin produced a dose-dependent reduction in formalin-evoked flinching behaviour in rats during the second phase; however, no effect was observed in the first phase. In addition, immunohistochemical experiments showed that the expression of c-Fos and p-p38 MAPK in the spinal cord dorsal horn increased after an injection of formalin into the paw. Interestingly, the 40μg dose of intrathecal escin, which was the larger of the two doses that blocked formalin-induced hyperalgaesia, attenuated the formalin-induced increases in c-Fos and p-p38 MAPK in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The decrease in pain-related behaviours and c-Fos expression indicated that escin produced antinociceptive effects in the rat formalin test. Although the specific mechanisms of these effects were not investigated, the reduction in p-p38 MAPK in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord may be involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Legal and technical issues of formalin disposition in association with autopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Yoshida, K

    2001-07-01

    The Ministry of Public Welfare notified on the disposition of formalin, which was used in the histological examination in association with forensic or pathological autopsy. However, those who concerned on the issue had not known exactly how they dispose formalin. The news on the illegal disposition of formalin from our department drew attention to the legal disposition of formalin. These situations led us to investigate the legal and technical aspects of formalin disposition. We examined the legally-described methods such as oxidation, incineration and activated sludge processes and other methods such as formose, supercritical water oxidation, and wet oxidation processes. From legal point of view, we must process poisonous formaldehyde into non-poisonous products under the control of The Poisonous and Peleterious? Substances Control Law. Additionally, the products are under the control of The Sewage Water Law and Water Pollution Control Law, particularly in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). After careful investigation, we tentatively conclude that incineration method is the best at present, though the supercritical oxidation and wet oxidation processes may be better in order to cope with the worldwide movement toward the control of environmental hormones and warm climate.

  12. Assessment of alternatives to environmental toxic formalin for DNA conservation in biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Emeline; Carillo-Baraglioli, Marie-Françoise; Duranthon, Francis; Péquignot, Amandine; Pyronnet, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    One essential step of museum and clinical specimen preservation is immersion in a fixative fluid to prevent degradation. Formalin is the most largely used fixative, but its benefit is balanced with its toxic and carcinogenic status. Moreover, because formalin-fixation impairs nucleic acids recovery and quality, current museum wet collections and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded clinical samples do not represent optimal tanks of molecular information. Our study has been developed to compare formalin to two alternative fixatives (RCL2® and ethanol) in a context of molecular exploitation. Based on a unique protocol, we created mammalian fixed collections, simulated the impact of time on preservation using an artificial ageing treatment and followed the evolution of specimens' DNA quality. DNA extraction yield, purity, visual integrity and qualitative and quantitative ability to amplify the Cox1 gene were assessed. Our results show that both RCL2 and ethanol exhibit better performances than formalin. They do not impair DNA extraction yield, and more importantly, DNA alteration is delayed over the preservation step. The use of RCL2 or ethanol as fixative in biological collections may insure a better exploitation of the genetic resources they propose.

  13. Molecular identification of Taenia specimens after long-term preservation in formalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Eom, Keeseon S

    2011-06-01

    The majority of Taenia tapeworm specimens in the museum collections are usually kept in a formalin fixative for permanent preservation mainly for use in morphological examinations. This study aims to improve Taenia tapeworm identification even of one preserved in formalin for a maximum of 81 years. Taenia tapeworms were collected by the parasite collection unit of the Swiss Natural History Museum and from units in Indonesia, Japan and Korea. A small amount of formalin-fixed tissue (100 mg) was crushed in liquid nitrogen and then soaked in a Tris-EDTA buffer for 3-5h. The sample was then digested in SDS and proteinase K (20 mg/ml) for 3-5h at 56 °C. After the addition of proteinase K (20mg/ml), SDS and hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB), incubation was continued for another 3h at 65 °C. A maximum yield of genomic DNA was obtained from this additional step and the quality of genomic DNA obtained with this extraction method seemed to be independent of the duration of storage time in the formalin fixative. The molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by using PCR and DNA sequences corresponding to position 80-428 of cox1 gene. T. asiatica was detected in the isolates of Indonesia, Japan and Korea. Improvements in the genomic DNA extraction method from formalin fixed museum collections will help in the molecular identification of parasites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jürgen; Feneberg, Wolfgang; Meier, Martin; Pöllmann, Walter

    2014-09-01

    This detailed medical charts' data collection study conducted at a multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic in Germany evaluated the effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray in patients with resistant MS spasticity. Over a 15-month timeframe, THC:CBD spray was initiated in 166 patients. Mean follow-up was 9 months. In all, 120 patients remained on treatment for a response rate of 72%. THC:CBD spray was used as add-on therapy in 95 patients and as monotherapy in 25 patients to achieve best-possible therapeutic results. Among responders, the mean spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) score decreased by 57%, from 7.0 before treatment to 3.0 within 10 days of starting THC:CBD spray. The mean dosage was 4 sprays/day. Most patients who withdrew from treatment (40/46) had been receiving THC:CBD spray for less than 60 days. Main reasons for treatment discontinuation were: adverse drug reactions, mainly dizziness, fatigue and oral discomfort (23 patients; 13.9%); lack of efficacy (14 patients; 8.4%); or need for a baclofen pump (9 patients; 5.4%). No new safety signals were noted with THC:CBD spray during the evaluation period. In this routine clinical practice setting at an MS clinic in Germany, THC:CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity.

  15. Synergistic interactions between the antinociceptive effect of Rhodiola rosea extract and B vitamins in the mouse formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the pharmacological interactions between a Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract and B-vitamins such as thiamine (B1), riboflavine (B2), pyridoxine (B6), cyanocobalamin (B12) and a mixture of vitamins B1+B6+B12 was investigated in the mouse formalin test. Individual dose response curves of the Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract, as well as B-vitamins alone or in a mixture were evaluated in mice in which nociception was induced with 2% formalin intraplantarly. The antinociceptive mechanisms of the Rhodiola rosea were investigated by exploring the role of the opioid and serotonin receptors and the nitric oxide pathway. Isobolographic analysis was used to evaluate the pharmacological interactions between the Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract and each B-vitamin individually or the mixture of vitamins B1+B6+B12 by using the ED30 and a fixed 1:1 ratio combination. Administration of the Rhodiola rosea extract alone or in combination with all of the vitamins produced a significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive response. The antinociceptive effect of the Rhodiola rosea extract (ED50=81 mg/kg, p.o.) was significant and reverted in the presence of antagonists of the 5-HT1A, GABA/BDZs and opioid receptors and by blocking mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP/K(+) channels pathway. Isobolograms demonstrate that all of the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction experimental ED30 values were significantly smaller than those calculated theoretically. These results provide evidence that a Rhodiola rosea ethanol extract in combination with B-vitamins produces a significant diminution in the nociceptive response in a synergistic manner, which is controlled by various mechanisms. These findings could aid in the design of clinical studies and suggest that these combinations could be applied for pain therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  17. Thiel embalming fluid--a new way to revive formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amanda; Eisma, Roos; Lamb, Clare

    2014-09-01

    By soft fixing cadavers using the Thiel embalming method, our cadavers now exhibit a greater degree of flexibility and color retention compared to that of traditional formalin-fixed cadavers. The aim of this experiment was to discover whether Thiel embalming fluid could be used to revive and soften the muscles of formalin-fixed prosected specimens. Earlier this year, two severely dehydrated formalin-fixed forearm and hand specimens were fully submerged in a tank containing Thiel embalming fluid. After a period of six months the specimens were removed from the tank and noticeable changes were observed in flexibility, quality of the tissue, and color of the specimens. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ANALISIS KUALITATIF FORMALIN PADA AYAM YANG DIJUAL DI PASAR LAMA WILAYAH BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noverda Ayuchecaria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayam merupakan salah satu sumber protein hewani yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat. Namun ayam tersebut dengan cepat mengalami proses pembusukan. Oleh sebab itu, sebagian dari penjual ayam tersebut menggunakan bahan tambahan (kimia dan alami untuk mengawetkan, termasuk formalin. Penelitan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya kandungan formalin pada ayam potong yang dijual di Pasar Lama Wilayah Banjarmasin Jenis Penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian deskriptif. Pelaksanaannya dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia Farmasi Akademi Farmasi ISFI Banjarmasin pada bulan Mei 2016 dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 10 sampel ayam potong yang dibeli pada jam 13.00 – 14.00 yang dijual di Pasar Lama Wilayah Banjarmasin. Sampel kemudian dianalisis menggunakan pereaksi Tollens, Asam Kromatofat dan KMnO4 0,1N dilakukan dengan metode konvensional. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa 7 dari 10 sampel ayam potong tersebut positif mengandung formalin.

  19. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hykin, Sarah M; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2015-01-01

    For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens available for

  20. Effect of methyl paraben, propyl paraben and formalin preserved milk on chemical composition during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Suvartan Ranvir; Saurabh Gosewade; Harish Kumar; Raman Seth

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to check the preserving effectiveness of methyl paraben and propyl paraben in comparison with formalin in milk for analytical purpose. The pooled raw cow milk were collected from the institute cattle yard and the milk samples were preserved with methyl paraben at conc. 0.1 % , propyl paraben 0.1 % and formalin 0.4% and it was analysed for Fat, Acidity, Total Solid, Lactose and Protein. The result of this analysis shows that milk is preserved with 0.1% methyl parab...

  1. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  2. Ionic liquids in embalming and tissue preservation. Can traditional formalin-fixation be replaced safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Przemysław; Pernak, Agnieszka; Grzymisławski, Marian; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz

    2003-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) can be used for embalming and tissue preservation. ILs does not cause tissue damage and the tissue colour remains unaltered after treatment. Microscopical morphology of tissues fixed in ILs is of better quality than that of tissues fixed in formalin. Tissue preservation depends on the type of ILs. Best results were obtained with 1-methyl-3-octyloxymethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, the density of which resembles that of water. The salt is nonvaporous and when used as a formalin substitute, it eliminates health hazards in the pathological laboratory.

  3. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  4. Interaction between dexibuprofen and dexketoprofen in the orofacial formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, H F; Noriega, V; Sierralta, F; Prieto, J C

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are used to research the mechanisms of pain and to mimic human pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of interaction between dexketoprofen and dexibuprofen, by isobolographic analysis using the formalin orofacial assay in mice. This assay presents two-phase time course: an early short-lasting, phase I, starting immediately after the formalin injection producing a tonic acute pain, leaving a 15 min quiescent period, followed by a prolonged, phase II, after the formalin and representing inflammatory pain. Administration of dexketoprofen or dexibuprofen produced a dose-dependent antinociception, with different potency, either during phases I or II. The co-administration of dexketoprofen and dexibuprofen produced synergism in phase I and II. In conclusion, both dexketoprofen and dexibuprofen are able to induce antinociception in the orofacial formalin assay. Their co-administration produced a synergism, which could be related to the different degree of COX inhibition and other mechanisms of analgesics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of the spinal Na+/H+ exchanger in formalin-induced nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Godínez-Chaparro, Beatriz; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2011-08-21

    This study assessed the role of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) in the formalin-induced nociception as well as the expression of the NHE isoform 1 (NHE1) in the rat spinal cord by using immunohistochemistry. Rats received a 50μl injection of diluted formalin (0.5%). Nociceptive behavior was quantified as the number of flinches of the injected paw. Intrathecal administration of the partially selective NHE1 inhibitors DMA, EIPA (0.3-30μM/rat) and the selective NHE1 inhibitor zoniporide (0.03-3μM/rat) significantly increased formalin-induced flinching behavior in a dose-dependent manner during both phases of the test. Immunohistochemical analysis of the rat lumbar spinal cord showed that NHE1 was mainly expressed in the lamina I of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Double immunofluorescence staining showed co-localization of NHE1 with the peptide-rich sensory nerve fiber markers, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, but not with markers of neuronal cell bodies (NeuN), microglia (OX-42) or astroglia (GFAP). Collectively, these pharmacological and anatomical results suggest that spinal NHE1 plays a role in formalin-induced nociception acting as a protective protein extruding H(+). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing copper sulfate, diquat bromide, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide treatments on channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced fish egg survival is often associated with fungal infestation (Saprolegnia spp.) of the eggs. Chemical treatments have been used to limit these infestations on fish eggs and increase survival. The effect of copper sulfate (10 mg/L), diquat bromide (25 mg/L diquat cation), formalin (433 mg/...

  7. Antigenic characterization of a formalin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Martin, Javier; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Simizu, Bunsiti; Miyamura, Tatsuo

    2007-10-10

    A candidate inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains (sIPV), which are used in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), was prepared in a large-production scale. The modification of viral antigenic epitopes during the formalin inactivation process was investigated by capture ELISA assays using type-specific and antigenic site-specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). The major antigenic site 1 was modified during the formalin inactivation of Sabin 1. Antigenic sites 1-3 were slightly modified during the formalin inactivation of Sabin 2 strain. Sites 1 and 3 were altered on inactivated Sabin 3 virus. These alterations were different to those shown by wild-type Saukett strain, used in conventional IPV (cIPV). It has been previously reported that type 1 sIPV showed higher immunogenicity to type 1 cIPV whereas types 2 and 3 sIPV induced lower level of immunogenicity than their cIPV counterparts. Our results suggest that the differences in epitope structure after formalin inactivation may account, at least in part, for the observed differences in immunogenicity between Sabin and wild-type inactivated poliovaccines.

  8. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer

    2017-01-02

    Jan 2, 2017 ... Anatomy. Blood cell count. Cadaver. Formaldehyde. Formalin toxicity. Medical students. a b s t r a c t. Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and ... staff members, and workers at the Anatomy department in the Alexandria Faculty of Medicine (AFM). ...... wood workers exposed to formaldehyde.

  9. MicroRNA Expression in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Cancer Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Mogens Karsbøl; Dehlendorff, Christian; Linnemann, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer tissue samples are a readily available resource for microRNA (miRNA) biomarker identification. No established standard for reference miRNAs in FFPE tissue exists. We sought to identify stable reference miRNAs for normalization...

  10. Evaluating Quality of Aged Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples for RNA-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples offer a vast, untapped source of genomic data for biomarker discovery. However, the quality of FFPE samples is often highly variable, and conventional methods to assess RNA quality for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) are not infor...

  11. Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambugu, SN; Towett, PK; Kiama, SG

    2010-01-01

    by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant......Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced...... decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control...

  12. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    mathematically expressed as: % hatching rate. =Number of hatched eggs /Total number of eggsx100. Determination of survival rate: Percentage survival was determined by counting the total number of survived larvae after formalin treatment after one week and expressing such as a percentage of the total hatched larvae in ...

  13. PrPSc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is regularly employed in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the standard by which all other TSE diagnostic protocols are judged. While IHC affords advantages over diagnostic approaches that typically...

  14. Influence of Formalin Fixation Prior to in vitro Ultrasound Examination of Porcine Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Vogt, Katja; Jespersen, Søren Kragh

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the influence on the echosignal from porcine artery walls due to two different formalin fixationprocedures. The lumen diameter, the wall thickness and the mean echogenicitywere calculated. In general, the fixation resulted in a more rigid wall. Whileconve...

  15. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  16. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  17. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  18. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprays the correct way can take some practice. Path to improved health Prescription nasal sprays come in ... thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top. Insert the canister tip in ...

  19. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  20. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  1. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  2. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  3. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  4. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  5. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  6. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  7. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  8. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving...... samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control ("Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples" [1]). We here report the data from the analysis...

  9. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  10. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adverse effects and maximum efficacy as well as patients' compliance [1]. Transdermal dosage forms are .... learning and memory in healthy postmenopausal women stabilized on estrogen, over 26 weeks. When the ... forearm instead until the areolae were the same color again and then applied 1 spray to each forearm ...

  11. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  12. Characterizing and Diminishing Autofluorescence in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Human Respiratory Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. Sally; Richter, Anke; Becker, Steven; Moyer, Jenna E.; Sandouk, Aline; Skinner, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Tissue autofluorescence frequently hampers visualization of immunofluorescent markers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded respiratory tissues. We assessed nine treatments reported to have efficacy in reducing autofluorescence in other tissue types. The three most efficacious were Eriochrome black T, Sudan black B and sodium borohydride, as measured using white light laser confocal Λ2 (multi-lambda) analysis. We also assessed the impact of steam antigen retrieval and serum application on human tracheal tissue autofluorescence. Functionally fitting this Λ2 data to 2-dimensional Gaussian surfaces revealed that steam antigen retrieval and serum application contribute minimally to autofluorescence and that the three treatments are disparately efficacious. Together, these studies provide a set of guidelines for diminishing autofluorescence in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human respiratory tissue. Additionally, these characterization techniques are transferable to similar questions in other tissue types, as demonstrated on frozen human liver tissue and paraffin-embedded mouse lung tissue fixed in different fixatives. PMID:24722432

  13. Synergistic effect of the interaction between curcumin and diclofenac on the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paz-Campos, Marco A; Ortiz, Mario I; Chávez Piña, Aracely E; Zazueta-Beltrán, Liliana; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2014-10-15

    The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with certain plant extracts can increase antinociceptive activity, permitting the use of lower doses and thus limiting side effects. Therefore, the aim objective of the current study was to examine the effects of curcumin on the nociception and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in rats. Antinociception was assessed using the formalin test. Diluted formalin was injected subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. Nociceptive behavior was quantified as the number of flinches of the injected paw during 60 min after injection, and a reduction in formalin-induced flinching was interpreted as an antinociceptive response. Rats were treated with oral diclofenac (1-31 mg/kg), curcumin (3.1-100 mg/kg) or the diclofenac-curcumin combination (2.4-38.4 mg/kg). To determine the possibility of a pharmacokinetic interaction, the oral bioavailability of diclofenac (10 mg/kg) was studied in presence and the absence of curcumin (31 mg/kg). Diclofenac, curcumin, or diclofenac-curcumin combination produced an antinociceptive effect on the formalin test. ED30 values were estimated for the individual drugs, and an isobologram was constructed. The derived theoretical ED30 for the antinociceptive effect (19.2 mg/kg) was significantly different from the observed experimental ED30 value (9.8 mg/kg); hence, the interaction between diclofenac and curcumin that mediates the antinociceptive effect was synergistic. Notwithstanding, the interaction does not appear to involve pharmacokinetic mechanisms, as oral curcumin failed to produce any significant alteration in oral diclofenac bioavailability. Data suggest that the diclofenac-curcumin combination can interact at the systemic level and may have therapeutic advantages for the clinical treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Antinociceptive tolerance to NSAIDs in the rat formalin test is mediated by the opioid mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiklauri, Nana; Nozadze, Ivliane; Gurtskaia, Gulnaz; Tsagareli, Merab G

    2017-02-01

    In the past decade it has been shown that tolerance develops to the antinociceptive effect of repeated systemic administration of commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in acute pain models using rats. This is similar to the tolerance observed with opioid-induced analgesia. In the present study, we investigated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs diclofenac, ketorolac and xefocam in a chronic inflammatory pain model, the formalin test. Male Wistar rats receiving intraplantar formalin were tested for antinociception following intraperitoneal injection of NSAIDs in thermal paw withdrawal (Hargreaves) test and mechanical paw withdrawal (von Frey) test. Repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests were used for statistical evaluations. Treatment with each NSAID significantly elevated the thermal paw withdrawal latency and mechanical paw withdrawal threshold on the first day, followed by a progressive decrease in the analgesic effect over a 4-day period, i.e., tolerance developed. With daily intraplantar injections of formalin, there was a trend toward reduced antinociceptive effects of diclofenac and ketorolac while xefocam exhibited a significant reduction (tolerance). It is noteworthy that the NSAID tolerant groups of rats still exhibited a strong hyperalgesia during phase I formalin following administration of each NSAID, an effect not observed in non-tolerant rats. Pretreatment with naloxone completely prevented the analgesic effects of these three NSAIDs in both behavioral assays. The present findings support the notion that the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs in an inflammatory pain model is mediated via an endogenous opioid system possibly involving descending pain modulatory systems. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  16. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1989-01-01

    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitat...... subsequent sorting as it disaggregates clay concretions and faecal pellets ·but leaves even fragile organisms clean and unaffected. The ammonia in the detergent eliminates the formalin smell....

  17. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2017-07-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  18. PrPSc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Eric M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is regularly employed in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE by immunohistochemistry (IHC, the standard by which all other TSE diagnostic protocols are judged. While IHC affords advantages over diagnostic approaches that typically utilize fresh or frozen tissue, such as Western blot and ELISA, the process of fixing, staining, and analyzing individual sections by hand does not allow for rapid or high throughput screening. However, preservation of tissues in formalin is not dependent upon the availability of refrigeration. Findings Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from TSE transmission studies of scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer or transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle were cut at 5 μm thickness. Samples containing the tissue equivalent of as little as one 5 μm section can be used to readily discriminate positive from negative samples. Conclusions This approach cannot replace IHC but may be used along with IHC as both a more rapid and readily high throughput screen where fresh or frozen tissues are not available or impractical.

  19. The Effect of Experimental Parkinson on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Pain is one of the preceding claims of Parkinson's disease (PD, that its mechanisms have not been fully identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical pain responses induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in male parkinsonized rats.   Method : In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats were used and PD was established by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA toxin into the striatum. Parkinson's disease severity determined by apomorphine-induced rotation test and then the pain response of 4 groups, the control, sham and 2 weak or full Parkinson groups, were evaluated using formalin test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.   Results : In both acute and chronic phases of the formalin test, the symptoms of pain in different groups were same, but at the interphase stage, pain intensity increased more in Parkinson 's rats, especially in full PD group compared to control (p<0.01.   Conclusion: These results suggest that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway have important modulating role on chronic pain.

  20. Physiological effects of potassium chloride, formalin and handling stress on bonytail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Catherine L.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Gould, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the sublethal physiological changes in bonytail Gila elegans subjected to consecutive 750-mg/L potassium chloride (KCl) and 25-mg/L formalin treatments for the removal of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussel D. bugensis veligers. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and osmolality were measured over 24 h and at 14 d posthandling after exposing bonytail to KCl and one net stressor (capture with a net), KCl plus formalin and two net stressors, and one or two net stressors without chemicals. Elevated plasma cortisol (322–440 ng/mL) and glucose (254–399 mg/dL) concentrations were observed in all treatments compared with the concentrations in control fish (plasma cortisol, 56 ng/mL; glucose, 43 mg/dL). While there were no detectable differences in plasma osmolality among the treatment and control fish, a difference was observed between fish that were handled once versus twice. Chemical effects of stress were not observed in any of the physiological responses when the KCl treatment was compared with the one-net stressor treatment or when the KCl plus formalin treatment was compared with the two-net stressor treatment. Cumulative responses, however, were observed between one net stressor and two net stressors for plasma glucose and osmolality but not for plasma cortisol. Plasma cortisol and glucose levels remained elevated at 24 h posthandling, indicating that bonytail had not completely recovered from the handling stressors and would benefit from a recovery period in protected refugia before being released.

  1. A comparison of Thiel and formalin embalmed cadavers for thyroid surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisma, R; Mahendran, S; Majumdar, S; Smith, D; Soames, R W

    2011-06-01

    The European Working Time Directive has increased the need for surgical skills training which does not involve patients. Recent changes in the anatomy legislation now make it possible to perform surgical procedures on human cadavers. Standard formalin embalming, however does not provide a very realistic model and alternative approaches, such as Thiel soft-fix embalmed cadavers, should be explored and evaluated. Two formalin and 3 Thiel embalmed cadavers were used at a senior trainee and consultant course in thyroid surgery. The 12 participants (8 trainees and 4 consultants) were asked to score 15 aspects, such as quality of different tissues, for each type of cadaver. Some of these aspects were specific to thyroid surgery, however many are equally applicable to other specialties. All participants rated the Thiel embalmed cadavers better or equal for all aspects. Of the 180 pairs of scores 33 were excluded, 10 were equal for formalin and Thiel, while in the remaining 137 Thiel scored better. The preference was particularly pronounced in aspects that require flexibility of tissues such as flap raising. Thiel embalmed cadavers provide a more realistic model for training of thyroid surgical skills; this is expected to be similar for many other types of surgery. Copyright © 2010 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytology Preparations of Formalin Fixative Aid Detection of Giardia in Duodenal Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarelli, Nicole C; Gobara, Nariman; Hoda, Rana S; Chaump, Michael; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2017-04-01

    Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. The organism elicits no, or minimal, inflammatory changes in duodenal biopsy samples, so it can be easily overlooked. We performed this study to determine whether Giardia could be isolated from the formalin fixative of biopsy samples, and to evaluate the value of fluid analysis in the assessment for potential infection. We prospectively evaluated duodenal biopsy samples from 92 patients with a clinical suspicion of giardiasis or symptoms compatible with that diagnosis (ie, diarrhea, bloating, or abdominal pain) Biopsy samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histologic diagnoses included giardiasis (5 cases, 4%), normal findings (64 cases, 70%), peptic injury/active duodenitis (12 cases, 13%), and intraepithelial lymphocytosis with villous blunting (10 cases, 12%). Fifteen cases (13%) showed detached degenerated epithelial cells or mucus droplets in the intervillous space that resembled Giardia. Cytology slides were prepared from formalin in the biopsy container using the standard Cytospin protocol and reviewed by a cytopathologist blinded to the biopsy findings. Cytologic evaluation revealed Giardia spp. in all 5 biopsy-proven cases, and identified an additional case that was not detected by biopsy analysis. Organisms were significantly more numerous (mean: 400 trophozoites; range, 120 to 810) and showed better morphologic features in cytology preparations compared with tissue sections (mean: 129 trophozoites; range, 37 to 253 organisms; P=0.05). Our findings suggest that cytology preparations from formalin fixative can resolve diagnostically challenging cases and even enhance Giardia detection in some cases.

  3. Antinociceptive Effect of Some Biuret Derivatives on Formalin Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Adibpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of several biuret derivatives with N, N`-diphenyl, N-phenyl-N`-alkylphenyl, N,N`-bis alkylphenyl, 2-methylquinoline-4-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio and (1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio substituents on the formalin-evoked pain in mice. Methods: Antinociceptive activity of the nine biurets derivatives were assessed at different doses in mice using formalin test and the results were compared with those of indomethacin(20 mg/kg and vehicle of the compounds. Area under the pain score curve against time (AUEC up to 60 minutes was used as the measure of pain behavior. Results: A rather good analgesic effect was seen for most of the tested biuret derivatives. Significant reduction in median AUEC0-5 minutes was observed at the doses of 50 and 25 mg/kg for biurets with either benzyl and 2-methylquinoline-4-yl (C8 or phenylethyl and benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio(C9 moieties, respectively(p-value<0.0044. Antinociceptive activities of compound C7 (with bis phenylropyl substituent, C8 and C9 during the late phase of formaldehyde-induced pain were comparable to that of indomethacin. Conclusion: Unlike indomethacin, the tested biuret compounds are able to induce antinociception in both phases of formalin test and could be considered comparable to indomethacin at the selected doses.

  4. Antinociceptive effect of some biuret derivatives on formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibpour, Neda; Poornajjari, Ali; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Rezaee, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of several biuret derivatives with N, N`-diphenyl, N-phenyl-N`-alkylphenyl, N,N`-bis alkylphenyl, 2-methylquinoline-4-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio and (1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thio substituents on the formalin-evoked pain in mice. Antinociceptive activity of the nine biurets derivatives were assessed at different doses in mice using formalin test and the results were compared with those of indomethacin(20 mg/kg) and vehicle of the compounds. Area under the pain score curve against time (AUEC) up to 60 minutes was used as the measure of pain behavior. A rather good analgesic effect was seen for most of the tested biuret derivatives. Significant reduction in median AUEC0-5 minutes was observed at the doses of 50 and 25 mg/kg for biurets with either benzyl and 2-methylquinoline-4-yl (C8) or phenylethyl and benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio(C9) moieties, respectively(p-valuebiuret compounds are able to induce antinociception in both phases of formalin test and could be considered comparable to indomethacin at the selected doses.

  5. Mazindol and lidocaine are antinociceptives in the mouse formalin model: involvement of dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Takahashi, R N

    1997-07-09

    The antinociceptive potential of mazindol, an anorectic drug, and lidocaine, an amide-type local anesthetic, were investigated in the mouse formalin test with concurrent motor function assessment. In addition, the role of dopamine and opioid receptors in mediation of the antinociceptive action of these drugs was examined. The i.p. injection of mazindol (1.25-10 mg/kg) and lidocaine (10-30 mg/kg) induced significant antinociceptive responses in both phases of the test. Cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), used as positive control, also inhibited the pain responses caused by formalin. Haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), and sulpiride (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, reduced the antinociceptive actions of mazindol and cocaine, while SCH 23390, R(+)-7-chloro 8-hydroxy-3methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3 benzazepine (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.), a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, did not affect these responses. Only the antinociception associated with mazindol was reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The same pretreatments failed to modify lidocaine-induced antinociception. The drug conditions used in this study did not reveal any motor impairment in the rotarod test. These observations suggest an involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms, mainly via dopamine D2 receptors, in the antinociceptive action of mazindol in the formalin test, but the nature of mechanisms involved in the lidocaine responses remains unsolved.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA from archived tissue samples kept in formalin for forensic odontology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Kowtal, Pradnya; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sarin, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Samples used for DNA isolation to be used for forensic odontology studies are often limited. The possibility to use tissue samples stored in formalin for a prolonged period, which contains nucleic acids of questionable quality, opens exciting possibilities for genetic and molecular biology studies useful in speciality of forensic odontology. The present study defines substantial modification of existing protocols for total genomic isolation including mitochondrial DNA and proves the utility of such obtained mitochondrial DNA in microsatellite analyses. 50 dental tissue samples which were kept in neutral buffered formalin liquid bottles were taken for DNA isolation and subsequent analysis. For the isolation of total genomic DNA from tissue samples, a new protocol with substantial modifications from routine ones was adopted by us. Total genomic DNA from matched blood samples were extracted using standard phenol-chloroform extraction method. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequencing of such extracted DNA samples for mitochondrial D loop region were successful and the results were comparable with DNA extracted from normal sources of samples. The present study reports for the first time that nucleic acids extracted from human dental tissue samples under prolonged formalin fixation times can be used for forensic odontology studies using the described methodology.

  7. The nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-07-01

    Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

  8. Formalin pain increases the concentration of serotonin and its 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid metabolite in the CA1 region of hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Soleimannejad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: The hippocampal formation is involved in nociception. Prenatal serotonin depletion results in a significant decrease in the concentration of nociceptive sensitivity during the second phase of behavioral response in the formalin test.  "nMethods: A microdialysis probe was inserted via a guide cannula into the right CA1 region of the hippocampus. Extracellular serotonin (5HT and its 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA metabolite overflow were collected every 10 min during the formalin test and measured by HPLC with electrochemichal detector. "n "nResults: Compared to the sham group, formalin injection in the hind paw of the rat significantly increased 5HT after 10, 30, 40, and 50 min and increased 5HIAA after 10, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min collection time periods in hippocampal dialysate. (n=6 for each group at each sampling time. In the formalin treated rats serotonin and 5HIAA concentrations increased in the biphasic pattern in concert with the first and second phases of formalin pain. "nConclusion: The hippocampal formation might be involved in the processing of nociceptive information and serotonin-related mechanisms in the hippocampus may play a role in the biphasic behavioral responses to formalin noxious stimulation. "n   

  9. Effect of Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler Spray Characteristics and Particle Size Distribution on Drug Delivery Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Morteza; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-10-01

    A key issue in pulmonary drug delivery is improvement of the delivery device for effective and targeted treatment. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are the most popular aerosol therapy device for treating lung diseases. This article studies the effect of spray characteristics: injection velocity, spray cone angle, particle size distribution (PSD), and its mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) on drug delivery. An idealized oral airway geometry, extending from mouth to the main bronchus, was connected to a pMDI device. Inhalation flow rates of 15, 30, and 60 L/min were used and drug particle tracking was a one-way coupled Lagrangian model. The results showed that most particles deposited in the pharynx, where the airway has a reduced cross-sectional area. Particle deposition generally decreased with initial spray velocity and with increased spray cone angle for 30 and 60 L/min flow rates. However, for 15 L/min flow rate, the deposition increased slightly with an increase in the spray velocity and cone angle. The effect of spray cone angle was more significant than the initial spray velocity on particle deposition. When the MMAD of a PSD was reduced, the deposition efficiency also reduces, suggesting greater rates of particle entry into the lung. The deposition rate showed negligible change when the MMAD was more than 8 μm. Spray injection angle and velocity change the drug delivery efficacy; however, the efficiency shows more sensitivity to the injection angle. The 30 L/min airflow rate delivers spray particles to the lung more efficiently than 15 and 60 L/min airflow rate, and reducing MMAD can help increase drug delivery to the lung.

  10. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  11. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  12. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coating s * biomedical * electronic s * energy generation * functional coating s * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  13. Spray granulation for drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zhi Hui; Er, Dawn Z L; Chan, Lai Wah; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2011-12-01

    Granulation is a key unit process in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms and involves the agglomeration of fine particles with the aid of a binding agent. Fluidized bed granulation, a classic example of spray granulation, is a technique of particle agglomeration brought about by the spray addition of the binding liquid onto a stationary bed of powder particles that is transformed to a fluid-like state by the passage of air through it. The basic working principles, equipment set-up, advantages and challenges of fluidized bed granulation are introduced in this review. This is followed by an overview of the formulation and process-related variables affecting granulation performance. Technological advances, particularly in the application of process analytical tools, in the field of fluidized bed granulation research are also discussed. Fluidized bed granulation is a popular technique for pharmaceutical production, as it is a highly economical and efficient one-pot process. The research and development of process analytical technologies (PAT) has allowed greater process understanding and control to be achieved, even for the lesser known fluidized bed techniques, such as bottom spray and fluidized hot melt granulation. In view of its consistent mixing, as well as continuous and concurrent wetting and drying occurring throughout processing, fluidized bed granulation shows great potential for continuous production although more research is required to fully implement, validate and integrate the PAT tools in a production line.

  14. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  16. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  17. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An anal...

  18. Synergism between dexketoprofen and meloxicam in an orofacial formalin test was not modified by opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Claudia; Zegpi, Carlos; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan C; Miranda, Hugo F

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs for the management of acute and chronic pain. The role of the opioid system in the synergism between NSAIDs is not well characterized. Mice were injected with a 5% formalin solution (20 μl) into the upper right lip to perform an orofacial formalin test. The isobolographic method was used to determine the interaction between dexketoprofen, which is the (S)-(+) enantiomer of ketoprofen, and meloxicam co-administration. Additionally, the non-selective, opioid antagonist naltrexone, the selective δ opioid receptor (DOP) antagonist naltrindole and the selective κ opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist norbinaltorphimine were used to assess the opioid effects on this interaction. Intraperitoneal administration of dexketoprofen or meloxicam induced dose-dependent antinociception with different phase I and phase II potencies in the orofacial formalin test. Meloxicam displayed similar potencies (ED(50)) in phase I (7.20 mg/kg) and phase II (8.60 mg/kg). Dexketoprofen was more potent in phase I (19.96 mg/kg) than in phase II (50.90 mg/kg). The interactions between dexketoprofen and meloxicam were synergistic in both phases. This was determined based on the fixed ratios (1:1) of their ED(50) values, which were determined by isobolographic analysis. Furthermore, this antinociceptive activity does not seem to be modulated by opioid receptor blockers because they did not induce changes in the nature of this interaction. This finding may be relevant with regards to NSAID multi-modal analgesia where an opioid antagonist must be used.

  19. The used of formalin, borax and initial bacterial contamination on otak-otak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Kadir I

    2013-01-01

    A research has been conducted to identify the used of formalin and borax content and also study the initial bacterial contamination on otak-otak. The wrapped and unwrapped samples were irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy Further, the samples were stored at room temperature (± 30°C) and low temperature (± 4°C) up to 4 weeks. The irradiation was done at a Multipurpose Panoramic Batch Irradiator (IRPASENA) with a dose rate of 1.149 kGy/h. Those samples were stored 4 weeks at 2 different temperatures and the total bacteria were observe every week. The measured parameter were formalin and borax content in otak-otak, the amount of total aerob bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., identification of Salmonella. The results showed all samples used formalin but borax was not detected. Initial contamination of total aerob bacteria for unwrapped and wrapped samples were 4.3 x 10 7 and 2.0 x 10 7 cfu/g, respectively. Irradiation dose up to 3 kGy showed no bacterial growth on unwrapped and wrapped samples. Combination treatment of irradiation and storage at low temperature could eliminate all aerobic bacteria at the first week. Initial contamination of coliform bacteria on unwrapped and wrapped samples were 1.9 x 10 5 and 5.7 x 10 5 cfu/g, respectively. Initial contamination of E. coli on unwrapped and wrapped samples were 1.2 x 10 5 cfu/g. The total amount of Staphylococcus spp. on unwrapped and wrapped samples were 3.3 x 10 5 and 4.8 x 10 6 cfu/g, respectively. Irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy could eliminate coliform bacteria, E. coli and Staphylococcus spp in all samples observed. No Salmonella was detected in all samples observed. (author)

  20. Metformin and phenformin block the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin on the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2012-01-02

    Recent evidence has shown that systemic administration of sulfonylureas and biguanides block the diclofenac-induced antinociception, but not the effect produced by indomethacin. However, there are no reports about the peripheral interaction between analgesics and the biguanides metformin and phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether glibenclamide and glipizide and the biguanides metformin and phenformin have any effect on the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin. Diclofenac and indomethacin were administered locally in the formalin-injured rat paw, and the antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the 1% formalin test. To determine whether peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac or indomethacin was mediated by either the ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or biguanides-induced mechanisms, the effect of pretreatment with the appropriates vehicles or glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin on the antinociceptive effect induced by local peripheral diclofenac and indomethacin was assessed. Local peripheral injections of diclofenac (50-200 μg/paw) and indomethacin (200-800 μg/paw) produced a dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Local pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin blocked the diclofenac-induced antinociception. On the other hand, the pretreatment with glibenclamide and glipizide did not prevent the local antinociception produced by indomethacin. Nonetheless, metformin and phenformin reversed the local antinociception induced by indomethacin. Data suggest that diclofenac could activate the K(+) channels and biguanides-dependent mechanisms to produce its peripheral antinociceptive effects in the formalin test. Likewise, a biguanides-dependent mechanism could be activated by indomethacin consecutively to generate its peripheral antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From formalin to Thiel embalming: What changes? One anatomy department's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisma, R; Lamb, C; Soames, R W

    2013-07-01

    In 2009, the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification started Thiel embalming on a small scale to assess (i) the suitability for our current teaching in which long-lasting dissection courses are key, (ii) the potential for new collaborations and activities, and (iii) the practical implications of changing our embalming method from formalin to Thiel. Twenty six Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been used for dissection by staff and students on a taught MSc course, as a model for clinical and surgical training, and increasingly as a model for evaluation of new medical devices and procedures. Our experiences with dissection were mostly positive especially for teaching the musculoskeletal system. Internal organs handle differently from formalin-fixed organs and dissection manuals need to be adjusted to reflect this. Durability of the cadavers was not an issue, though changes are seen over time due to gradual fluid loss. We have started new collaborations related to postgraduate anatomy teaching and advanced training in surgical and clinical skills. In general, feedback is very positive and demand for cadavers outstrips our current limited supply. Thiel-embalmed cadavers were found to provide a unique opportunity for evaluation of medical products especially in areas where no suitable alternative model is available, and without the complications associated with clinical testing. This has resulted in new collaborations and research projects. As a result Thiel-embalmed cadavers are used for longer and for more activities than formalin cadavers: this requires changes in our procedures and staff roles. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Catalytic Alkylation of 2-Methylfuran with Formalin Using Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Yang, Song

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic alkylation of 2-methylfuran (2-MF) with formalin was carried out with a series of SBA-15 supported acidic ionic liquid catalysts (acidic SILCs) under mild reaction conditions. Acidic SILC with sulfonic acid groups (SO3H) and long alkyl chains was observed to have higher catalytic activity...... than commercial sulfonic acid resin catalysts for the alkylation reaction in terms of TONs/TOFs as well as selectivity (90%) toward the C11 oxygenate bis(5-methylfuran-2-yl)methane (BMFM). The reaction product was easily separated by addition of the nonpolar solvent n-heptane and additional water...

  3. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its constituent carnosol inhibit formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, F; Ali-Beig, H; Farahbakhsh, S; Mojabi, N; Rastegar-Moghadam, B; Arbabian, S; Kazemi, M; Tekieh, E; Golmanesh, L; Ranjbaran, M; Jalili, C; Noroozzadeh, A; Sahraei, H

    2013-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) extract and its major constituent, carnosol in male NMRI mice (W:25-30 g) have been evaluated in the present study. Formalin (2%, 20 microL) was injected into the plantar portion of the hind paw and resulting pain and inflammation was studied for 60 min. The plant extract, carnosol and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously 30 min before formalin injection. In a separate experiment, the effects of the extract and carnosol on plasma corticosterone levels and activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2) were investigated. Injection of different doses of ROL and carnosol reduced pain in the phase 2 of the formalin test, which was not inhibited by naloxone and/or memantine. In addition, pretreatment of the animals with ROL and/or carnosol reduces the formalin-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the extract and carnosol did not affect plasma corticosterone levels compared with the control group. Interestingly, both the extract and carnosol inhibited COX1 and COX2 activity. It could be concluded that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin injection, which may be due to inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity.

  4. Successful protein extraction from over-fixed and long-term stored formalin-fixed tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wolff

    Full Text Available One of the major breakthroughs in molecular pathology during the last decade was the successful extraction of full-length proteins from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE clinical tissues. However, only limited data are available for the protein extraction efficiency of over-fixed tissues and FFPE blocks that had been stored for more than 15 years in pathology archives. In this study we evaluated the protein extraction efficiency of FFPE tissues which had been formalin-fixed for up to 144 hours and tissue blocks that were stored for 20 years, comparing an established and a new commercial buffer system. Although there is a decrease in protein yield with increasing fixation time, the new buffer system allows a protein recovery of 66% from 144 hours fixed tissues compared to tissues that were fixed for 6 hours. Using the established extraction procedure, less than 50% protein recovery was seen. Similarly, the protein extraction efficiency decreases with longer storage times of the paraffin blocks. Comparing the two buffer systems, we found that 50% more proteins can be extracted from FFPE blocks that were stored for 20 years when the new buffer system is used. Taken together, our data show that the new buffer system is superior compared to the established one. Because tissue fixation times vary in the routine clinical setting and pathology archives contain billions of FFPE tissues blocks, our data are highly relevant for research, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  5. Lectin immunohistochemical evaluation of human bladder carcinomas. A comparison of Carnoy's and formalin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, T; Ueda, K; Ohtaguro, K; Inoue, K; Washida, H; Mori, M; Tatemoto, Y; Fukushima, S

    1993-10-01

    A lectin immunohistochemical analysis of 51 human bladder carcinomas, including 44 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (G1, 15 cases; G2, 17 cases; G3, 12 cases) and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), was performed. Tissues were obtained by cold punch biopsies, fixed in Carnoy's or 10% formalin solution, stained for binding of 10 different lectins, and evaluated under the light microscope. The lectins used were concanavalin agglutinin (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA), Dolichos biflorusa agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, II (UEA-I, II), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PEA). TCC prepared with Carnoy's fixation tended to show moderately positive Con A, UEA-I, and WGA reactions for G1, and strongly positive reactions for G2 and G3 lesions. UEA-II was mainly negative in G1, but tended to increase to become moderate in G3. DBA tended to show a moderately positive reaction in G1 and G2, but was mainly negative in G3. With formalin fixation, only RCA1 demonstrated grade specific variation, tendency to react moderately in the G1 and G2 cases, and strongly in G3. There were no further differences among the histopathological grades of TCC for other lectins. Thus, Carnoy's fixation appears superior for distinguishing between grades of lesions. SCC tended to react more strongly than TCC with all the various lectins except PEA, independent of fixation.

  6. Identifying Corneal Infections in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using Next Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Breitwieser, Florian P; Lu, Jennifer; Jun, Albert S; Asnaghi, Laura; Salzberg, Steven L; Eberhart, Charles G

    2018-01-01

    We test the ability of next-generation sequencing, combined with computational analysis, to identify a range of organisms causing infectious keratitis. This retrospective study evaluated 16 cases of infectious keratitis and four control corneas in formalin-fixed tissues from the pathology laboratory. Infectious cases also were analyzed in the microbiology laboratory using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct staining. Classified sequence reads were analyzed with two different metagenomics classification engines, Kraken and Centrifuge, and visualized using the Pavian software tool. Sequencing generated 20 to 46 million reads per sample. On average, 96% of the reads were classified as human, 0.3% corresponded to known vectors or contaminant sequences, 1.7% represented microbial sequences, and 2.4% could not be classified. The two computational strategies successfully identified the fungal, bacterial, and amoebal pathogens in most patients, including all four bacterial and mycobacterial cases, five of six fungal cases, three of three Acanthamoeba cases, and one of three herpetic keratitis cases. In several cases, additional potential pathogens also were identified. In one case with cytomegalovirus identified by Kraken and Centrifuge, the virus was confirmed by direct testing, while two where Staphylococcus aureus or cytomegalovirus were identified by Centrifuge but not Kraken could not be confirmed. Confirmation was not attempted for an additional three potential pathogens identified by Kraken and 11 identified by Centrifuge. Next generation sequencing combined with computational analysis can identify a wide range of pathogens in formalin-fixed corneal specimens, with potential applications in clinical diagnostics and research.

  7. The Antinociceptive Effects of Iranian Cobra Snake Venom using Formalin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hadi Chegeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There have been numerous reports of snake venoms being employed as analgesics in attempts to relieve severe pain associated with cancer, immune dysfunction and viral infections. This study investigates the antinociceptive effects of iranian cobra snake venom (Naja naja oxiana in comparison with morphine and lidocain on laboratorial femal mice. Materials and Methods: This study has been done on 48 NMRI female mice of 18-20 g in weight. Antinociceptive activeity of snake venom was evaluated by formalin test. In this test, the animals were divided into 6 groups (each group consisting of 8 mice: Sham, positive Control (receiving morphine at dose of 5 mg/kg, and receiving lidocain at dose of 20 mg/kg, and experimental groups receiving venom at doses of 1, 3 and 4/5 µg/mice. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of venom and drugs in mice. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The results showed that the venom of Naja naja oxiana decreased nociception meaningfully in both acute and chronic phases. We also showed that this venom revealed even a better analgesic activity in comparison with morphine and lidocain. Conclusion: This study showed that the antinociceptive effect of the venom was mediated through central nervous system and peripheral mechanisms. Although details of the mechanism remain unclear, and further studies should be considered to demonstrate its therapeutic effects.

  8. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  9. Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius exposed to formalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudã F.B. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius. A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40% (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mg.L-1 with four replicates and five fish per container (3L in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (% were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC50-96h (I estimated was 50.76 mg.L-1 with regression of y = 0.51x, and r² = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects.O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a toxicidade aguda de formalina e os efeitos histopatológicos para o peixe ornamental amazônico corredora bicuda (Corydora melanistius. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado; com dez concentrações de formalina 40% (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250mg.L-1, com quatro repetições e cinco peixes por recipiente de água (3 L em sistema estático durante 96 horas. Os peixes moribundos foram mortos e fixados em formol 10% procedendo à análise histopatológica das brânquias e do fígado. Ao final desse experimento, obtiveram-se as seguintes taxas de mortalidades em ordem crescente de exposição (%: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85

  10. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  11. Advanced Nanoscale Coatings with Plasma Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atteridge, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A secondary research charter developed as this program proceeded was the assessment of the feasibility of using cored wire filled with WE-Co powder as a feed-stock for both plasma spray and twin-wire-arc spray (TWAS...

  12. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, de P.

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is

  13. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour...... reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor...... in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species....

  14. Retrospective analysis of sheep scrapie by western blotting with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorj, Gantsetseg; Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Kimura, Kumiko; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    An abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from sheep and analyzed by western blotting. PrP(Sc) immunoreactivity against anti-PrP monoclonal antibody T2, which recognizes discontinuous PrP sequences, differed amongst individual scrapie sheep cases. This may reflect structural differences in PrP(Sc) that have been formalin-fixed prior to their extraction. This study indicates that western blotting by using FFPE tissues is useful for the retrospective analysis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in which only formalin-fixed samples are available and in conducting transmissible spongiform encephalopathies surveillance where freezing system is insufficient.

  15. The erosive potential of candy sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2009-05-23

    To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray. Candy sprays have an extremely low pH (1.9-2.3) and a neutralisable acidity varying between 0.8-1.6 ml of 0.25M NaOH. In vivo, candy sprays induced a short-term 3.0 to 5.8-fold increase in salivary flow rate with a concomitant drop in salivary pH to values between 4.4 and 5.8. All candy sprays tested have an erosive potential. This information is of use for clinicians counselling juvenile patients with dental erosion.

  16. Can direct immunofluorescence testing still be accurate if performed on biopsy specimens after brief inadvertent immersion in formalin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Joshua; Grover, Raminder; Helm, Thomas N; Beutner, Ernst H

    2011-07-01

    Direct immunofluorescence is useful in the diagnosis of autoimmune, vesiculobullous, and connective tissue diseases. Michel medium is typically indicated for transport, but clinicians may inadvertently place samples into formalin. We set out to determine the amount of time that specimens can remain in 10% buffered formalin and still retain their diagnostic properties. Biopsy samples were examined from cases with established diagnoses of bullous pemphigoid (n = 12), dermatitis herpetiformis (n = 6), and pemphigus vulgaris (n = 6) and exposed to formalin for time points ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours. We found that immunoreactants were detectable in the majority of samples when subjected to 2 minutes of formalin exposure. Dermatitis herpetiformis and pemphigoid samples retained immunogenicity for 10 minutes, whereas pemphigus showed reduced immunogenicity for all samples studied. A nonimmunologic nuclear fluorochroming pattern was noted in some of the specimens after formalin immersion. Sample size, only examining 3 disease processes, and samples already having been in Michel medium were the major limitations in the study. In direct immunofluorescence studies, formalin exposure to biopsy specimens causes two types of artifactual changes: (1) the shortest exposure (2 minutes) causes complete loss of diagnostic markers of pemphigus; and (2) prolonged exposure changes tissue to a form that allows fluorescein-labeled antibodies to give fluorochroming reactions of nuclei (which can be mistaken for in vivo antinuclear antibody reactions of lupus erythematosus). After time intervals of 10 minutes to 2 hours, direct immunofluorescence studies of proven cases of bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis retained variable levels of specific reactivity. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Liposomal Nasal Spray versus Guideline-Recommended Steroid Nasal Spray in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Comparison of Tolerability and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Eitenmüller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the tolerability and impact on quality of life of liposomal nasal spray compared to guideline-recommended steroid-based therapy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptom reduction and use of antisymptomatic medication were also examined. Methods. In this monocenter, prospective, controlled, open, and noninterventional study, 60 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were treated with liposomal nasal spray and 30 patients received steroid-based therapy. The study comprised five visits occurring at intervals of two to four weeks. Efficacy was determined according to the sinusitis symptom score documented daily. The polyp score was recorded at the initial and final visits. Tolerability was determined through the Nasal Spray Evaluation Questionnaire, and quality of life was ascertained with the SNOT-20 Score. Results. Both treatments achieved a significant reduction of sinusitis symptoms (P<0.05 and also rhinoscopic improvement (P<0.05. The majority of patients assessed the treatments as “good” or “very good,” and the quality of life improved significantly (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in symptom reduction, QoL, and endoscopic exams between both treatments. Conclusion. The treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with liposomal nasal spray results in a similar, significant reduction of symptoms and significant improvement in quality of life as guideline-recommended treatment and is therefore a comparable alternative.

  18. Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/2012 – 9/15/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline ” 5a. CONTRACT...this project. The paper, “Sea Spray Generation at Rocky Shoreline ” by Ed Andreas was accepted for publication and as of July 2016 was being...13 Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline 14 15 16 17 Edgar L Andreas 18 19 NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. 20 Lebanon, New

  19. Numerical simulation on multiphase spray cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peiliang; Liu, Hong; Cai, Chang; Gao, Jiuliang; Yin, Hongchao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work is using distilled water as working fluid to study the spray cooling heat transfer characteristics from non-boiling zone to boiling zone by CFD method. Simulation is performed using a Euler-Lagrangian method based on the air and liquid droplet two phase flow dynamics. The results of this simulation are in accordance with the experimental results of the laboratory. The simulation results show that the spray height is an important factor influencing the cooling characteristics. With the decrease of spray height, the heat transfer effect is enhanced.

  20. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  2. Investigating and comparing effects of atropine and physostigmine in peripheral pain examination due to formalin injection on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pourahmadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There areseveral neurotransmittersat feel the pain and processing nervoussystem, and until now cholinergic system has not been well studied in this field. The purpose of this research is investigating effects of atropine and physostigmine on the response of formalin pain test. We divided 50 male wistar head rats into 5 groups , first group ( saline normal injection 5 µ , second group ( 1% formalin injection into 50 µ , third group ( physostigmine injection 0/1 mg / kg , fourth group (atropine injection 2 mg / kg , fifth group ( atropine injection 2 mg / kg and physostigmine 0/1 mg/kg , after formalin injection , the animals were placed inside mirror pain machine and it was recorded pain response at the time ranges 0-5 and 15-45 . Results investigated with spss software and ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Formalin injection causes pain response in both time ranges. Atropine injection alone had no effect on pain response. Physostigmine effect alone, with a significant reduction (p< 0/05 in the number of foot motions in both stage and duration causesof licking and biting in the 15-45 minutes stage . Atropine and physostigmine injections in fifth group cause significant reduction in the number of foot motions and duration of licking and biting in the time range of 15-45 minutes.Perhaps there is a close relationship between cholinergic system and peripheral pain that can be taken through the action of muscarinic receptors.

  3. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  4. Effect of plantar subcutaneous administration of bergamot essential oil and linalool on formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Soh; Otowa, Akira; Kamio, Satomi; Sato, Kazuma; Yagi, Tomomi; Kishikawa, Yukinaga; Komatsu, Takaaki; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bergamot essential oil (BEO) or linalool, a major volatile component of BEO, on the nociceptive response to formalin. Plantar subcutaneous injection of BEO or linalool into the ipsilateral hindpaw reduced both the first and late phases of the formalin-induced licking and biting responses in mice. Plantar subcutaneous injection of BEO or linalool into the contralateral hindpaw did not yield an antinociceptive effect, suggesting that the antinociceptive effect of BEO or linalool in the formalin test occurred peripherally. Intraperitoneal and plantar subcutaneous injection pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated both BEO- and linalool-induced antinociception. Pretreatment with naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonists, also significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effects of BEO and linalool. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids in antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. These results suggest that activation of peripheral opioid receptors may play an important role in reducing formalin-induced nociception.

  5. Investigation of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue with whole-genome gene expression microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Nete Vinstrup; Brusgaard, Klaus; Tan, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    The use of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue overcomes the most prominent issues related to research on relatively rare diseases: limited sample size, availability of control tissue, and time frame. The use of FFPE pancreatic tissue in GEM may be especially challenging due to its very...

  6. Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large biobanks exist worldwide containing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and samples stored in RNAlater. However, the impact of tissue preservation on the result of a quantative proteome analysis remains poorly described.Human colon mucosal biopsies were extracted from the sigmoideum...

  7. Dose-Response Analysis of RNA-Seq Profiles in Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of archival resources has been limited to date by inconsistent methods for genomic profiling of degraded RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. RNA-sequencing offers a promising way to address this problem. Here we evaluated transcriptomic dose responses us...

  8. An Optimized Method of Metabolite Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for GC/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojakowska, Anna; Marczak, Łukasz; Jelonek, Karol; Polanski, Krzysztof; Widlak, Piotr; Pietrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens constitute a highly valuable source of clinical material for retrospective molecular studies. However, metabolomic assessment of such archival material remains still in its infancy. Hence, there is an urgent need for efficient methods enabling extraction and profiling of metabolites present in FFPE tissue specimens. Here we demonstrate the methodology for isolation of primary metabolites from archival tissues; either fresh-frozen, formalin-fixed or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of mouse kidney were analysed and compared in this work. We used gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS approach) to identify about 80 metabolites (including amino acids, saccharides, carboxylic acids, fatty acids) present in such archive material. Importantly, about 75% of identified compounds were detected in all three types of specimens. Moreover, we observed that fixation with formalin itself (and their duration) did not affect markedly the presence of particular metabolites in tissue-extracted material, yet fixation for 24h could be recommended as a practical standard. Paraffin embedding influenced efficiency of extraction, which resulted in reduced quantities of several compounds. Nevertheless, we proved applicability of FFPE specimens for non-targeted GS/MS-based profiling of tissue metabolome, which is of great importance for feasibility of metabolomics studies using retrospective clinical material.

  9. Detection of the sarin hydrolysis product in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims of the Tokyo subway terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Y; Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Niijima, H; Nakajima, M; Iwase, H; Kobayashi, M; Iwadate, K

    1998-06-01

    One of the hydrolysis products of sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) was detected in formalin-fixed brain tissues of victims poisoned in the Tokyo subway terrorist attack. Part of this procedure, used for the detection of sarin hydrolysis products in erythrocytes of sarin victims, has been described previously. The test materials were four individual cerebellums, which had been stored in formalin fixative for about 2 years. Sarin-bound acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was solubilized from these cerebellums, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and digested with trypsin. Then the sarin hydrolysis products bound to AChE were released by alkaline phosphatase digestion, subjected to trimethylsilyl derivatization (TMS), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Peaks at m/z 225 and m/z 240, which are indicative of TMS-methylphosphonic acid, were observed within the retention time range of authentic methylphosphonic acid. However, no isopropyl methylphosphonic acid was detected in the formalin-fixed cerebellums of these 4 sarin victims, probably because the isopropoxy group of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid underwent chemical hydrolysis during storage. This procedure will be useful for the forensic diagnosis of poisoning by protein-bound, highly toxic agents, such as sarin, which are easily hydrolysed. This appears to be the first time that intoxication by a nerve agent has been demonstrated by analyzing formalin-fixed brains obtained at autopsy.

  10. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m 3 Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes

  11. Effects of hypobaric pressure on human skin: implications for cryogen spray cooling (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Svaasand, Lars O; Nelson, J Stuart

    2005-02-01

    Clinical results have demonstrated that dark purple port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks respond favorably to laser induced photothermolysis after the first three to five treatments. Nevertheless, complete blanching is rarely achieved and the lesions stabilize at a red-pink color. In a feasibility study (Part I), we showed that local hypobaric pressure on PWS human skin prior to laser irradiation induced significant lesion blanching. The objective of the present study (Part II) is to investigate the effects of hypobaric pressures on the efficiency of cryogen spray cooling (CSC), a technique that assists laser therapy of PWS and other dermatoses. Experiments were carried out within a suction cup and vacuum chamber to study the effect of hypobaric pressure on the: (1) interaction of cryogen sprays with human skin; (2) spray atomization; and (3) thermal response of a model skin phantom. A high-speed camera was used to acquire digital images of spray impingement on in vivo human skin and spray cones generated at different hypobaric pressures. Subsequently, liquid cryogen was sprayed onto a skin phantom at atmospheric and 17, 34, 51, and 68 kPa (5, 10, 15, and 20 in Hg) hypobaric pressures. A fast-response temperature sensor measured sub-surface phantom temperature as a function of time. Measurements were used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem to calculate surface temperatures, heat flux, and overall heat extraction at the skin phantom surface. Under hypobaric pressures, cryogen spurts did not produce skin indentation and only minimal frost formation. Sprays also showed shorter jet lengths and better atomization. Lower minimum surface temperatures and higher overall heat extraction from skin phantoms were reached. The combined effects of hypobaric pressure result in more efficient cryogen evaporation that enhances heat extraction and, therefore, improves the epidermal protection provided by CSC. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  13. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  14. Effect of probenecid on the pain-related behaviour and morphological markers in orofacial formalin test of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Bohár, Zsuzsanna; Nagy-Grócz, Gábor; Vámos, Enikő; Tar, Lilla; Pődör, Borbála; Tajti, János; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László; Párdutz, Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Probenecid has been widely used in the treatment of gout, but evidence suggests that it may also have antinociceptive effects in different inflammatory and pain conditions. We examined the potential modulatory effects of probenecid on behavioural and morphological markers in the orofacial formalin test of the rat. One hour after pre-treatment with vehicle or probenecid (1 mmol/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 50μl 1.5% formalin solution or physiological saline was injected subcutaneously into the right whisker pad of rats. The rubbing activity directed to the injected whisker pad was then measured for a period of 45 minutes. Four hours after formalin injection, the caudal part of spinal trigeminal nucleus was removed and subjected to c-Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunohistochemistry and to interleukin-1β and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Western blot. There was a significant decrease in formalin-induced biphasic behavioural response and c-Fos and nNOS immunoreactivity in the rats that were pre-treated with probenecid. However there were no alterations in expression of interleukin-1β or NQO1 after formalin administration. Our results suggest that probenecid has an anti-nociceptive effect in the trigeminal inflammatory pain model. This effect may be through influencing the release of prostaglandin E2 or desensitizing the transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 or the transient receptor potential channel subtype V member 2 or the effect may be through modulating kynurenic acid levels in the central nervous system. Thus, probenecid might be a potential candidate for the treatment of trigeminal activation related pain conditions.

  15. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  17. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  19. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  20. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-04-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  1. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  2. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  3. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  4. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  5. Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C

    2007-09-22

    An oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop oral burning sensation, stinging or white lesions, probably burns. To investigate the oral side-effects of oromucosal cannabis spray in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A small open observational study. A series of nine patients with MS who had been using a marijuana oromucosal spray for at least four weeks, were asked to attend for oral examination. Patients were asked whether they had ever experienced symptoms (dryness; bad taste; stinging) associated with use of the spray. A standard oral examination was carried out using a dental light, and the presence of any mucosal lesions recorded. Where mucosal lesions were present, patients were advised to discontinue the spray and re-attend after four weeks for re-examination. For ethical reasons, biopsies were not undertaken at the first visit. Of nine patients invited to participate, eight attended. All admitted to a stinging sensation on using the oromucosal cannabis spray, and four had visible oral mucosal white lesions in the floor of the mouth. Although the white lesions observed were almost certainly burns, resolving or improving on discontinuation of use of the medication, the high alcohol concentration of the oromucosal cannabis spray raises concern in relation to chronic oral use.

  6. Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  7. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  8. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  9. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  10. Fluorocitrate, an inhibitor of glial metabolism, inhibits the up-regulation of NOS expression, activity and NO production in the spinal cord induced by formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Cai; Chen, Wei-Na; Li, Shu-Qin; Cai, Jin-Song; Li, Wen-Bin; Xian, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Min; Li, Qing-Jun

    2009-02-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that nitric oxide plays an important role in nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. In order to explore the involvement of glia in the NO-mediated nociceptive transmission, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluorocitrate (FC), an inhibitor of glial metabolism, on NOS expression and activity and NO production in the spinal cord during the process of peripheral inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia induced by formalin test in rats. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into sham, formalin, formalin + normal saline (NS), and formalin + FC groups. The NOS expression, NOS activity and NO production was detected by NADPH-d histochemistry staining, NOS and NO assay kit, respectively. It was found that formalin test significantly up-regulated NOS expression and activity and NO production in the laminae I-II of the dorsal horn and the grey matter around the central canal in the lumbar spinal cord at 1 h after the formalin test. Selective inhibition of glia metabolism with intrathecal administration of FC (1 nmol) significantly inhibited the up-regulation in NOS expression and activity and NO production normally induced by the formalin test, which was represented with decreases in the number and density of the NADPH-d positive cells in the dorsal horn and grey matter around the central canal, and decrease in density of NADPH-d positive neuropil in the dorsal horn in formalin + FC group compared with formalin group. The results suggested that glia may be involved in the NO-mediated nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  12. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  13. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2017-12-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  14. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  15. Pre-Analytical Considerations for Successful Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS: Challenges and Opportunities for Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue (FFPE Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Arreaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer drug discovery, it is important to investigate the genetic determinants of response or resistance to cancer therapy as well as factors that contribute to adverse events in the course of clinical trials. Despite the emergence of new technologies and the ability to measure more diverse analytes (e.g., circulating tumor cell (CTC, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, etc., tumor tissue is still the most common and reliable source for biomarker investigation. Because of its worldwide use and ability to preserve samples for many decades at ambient temperature, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue (FFPE is likely to be the preferred choice for tissue preservation in clinical practice for the foreseeable future. Multiple analyses are routinely performed on the same FFPE samples (such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, RNAseq, DNAseq, TILseq, Methyl-Seq, etc.. Thus, specimen prioritization and optimization of the isolation of analytes is critical to ensure successful completion of each assay. FFPE is notorious for producing suboptimal DNA quality and low DNA yield. However, commercial vendors tend to request higher DNA sample mass than what is actually required for downstream assays, which restricts the breadth of biomarker work that can be performed. We evaluated multiple genomics service laboratories to assess the current state of NGS pre-analytical processing of FFPE. Significant differences in pre-analytical capabilities were observed. Key aspects are highlighted and recommendations are made to improve the current practice in translational research.

  16. Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation by open spray cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkız Uyar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although gingival hyperpigmentation is not a medical problem, people who have moderate or severe gingival pigmentation, particularly patients having a gummy smile, frequently request cosmetic treatment. For gingival depigmentation, different treatment modalities have been reported such as surgical treatment, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with gingival melanin pigmentation were included in the study. We applied liquid nitrogen to the hyperpigmented area for 5-10 seconds using open spray technique with a cryogun. Clinical observations for intensity of pigmentation were recorded at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Clinical parameters, such as bleeding, swelling, redness, and healing, were evaluated immediately after the cryotherapy and 24 hours, and 1 week after the treatment. We used a numeric pain scale to evaluate the pain level. Results: Three months after the treatment, the mean gingival melanin pigmentation score decreased from 41.62±16.58 to 19.28±11.85. The difference between pretreatment and posttreatment mean scores was found to be statistically significant.Discussion: Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely by open spray cryotherapy in dermatology clinics.

  17. Automated array-CGH optimized for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nederlof Petra M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH is a rapidly evolving technology that still lacks complete standardization. Yet, it is of great importance to obtain robust and reproducible data to enable meaningful multiple hybridization comparisons. Special difficulties arise when aCGH is performed on archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue due to its variable DNA quality. Recently, we have developed an effective DNA quality test that predicts suitability of archival samples for BAC aCGH. Methods In this report, we first used DNA from a cancer cell-line (SKBR3 to optimize the aCGH protocol for automated hybridization, and subsequently optimized and validated the procedure for FFPE breast cancer samples. We aimed for highest throughput, accuracy, and reproducibility applicable to FFPE samples, which can also be important in future diagnostic use. Results Our protocol of automated array-CGH on archival FFPE ULS-labeled DNA showed very similar results compared with published data and our previous manual hybridization method. Conclusion This report combines automated aCGH on unamplified archival FFPE DNA using non-enzymatic ULS labeling, and describes an optimized protocol for this combination resulting in improved quality and reproducibility.

  18. Genomic DNA extraction methods using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Keerti; Mahas, Ahmed; Kent, Michael N; Naik, Sameep; Markey, Michael

    2015-10-01

    As new technologies come within reach for the average cytogenetic laboratory, the study of chromosome structure has become increasingly more sophisticated. Resolution has improved from karyotyping (in which whole chromosomes are discernible) to fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, with which specific megabase regions are visualized), array-based CGH (aCGH, examining hundreds of base pairs), and next-generation sequencing (providing single base pair resolution). Whole genome next-generation sequencing remains a cost-prohibitive method for many investigators. Meanwhile, the cost of aCGH has been reduced during recent years, even as resolution has increased and protocols have simplified. However, aCGH presents its own set of unique challenges. DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to hybridize to arrays and provide meaningful results is required. This is especially difficult for DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Here, we compare three different methods for acquiring DNA of sufficient length, purity, and "amplifiability" for aCGH and other downstream applications. Phenol-chloroform extraction and column-based commercial kits were compared with adaptive focused acoustics (AFA). Of the three extraction methods, AFA samples showed increased amplicon length and decreased polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failure rate. These findings support AFA as an improvement over previous DNA extraction methods for FFPE tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA extraction from fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dzamko, Nicolas; Halliday, Glenda; Huang, Yue

    2013-10-01

    Both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human brain tissues are invaluable resources for molecular genetic studies of central nervous system diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. To identify the optimal method for DNA extraction from human brain tissue, we compared methods on differently-processed tissues. Fragments of LRRK2 and MAPT (257 bp and 483 bp/245 bp) were amplified for evaluation. We found that for FFPE samples, the success rate of DNA extraction was greater when using a commercial kit than a laboratory-based method (successful DNA extraction from 76% versus 33% of samples). PCR amplicon size and storage period were key factors influencing the success rate of DNA extraction from FFPE samples. In the fresh-frozen samples, the DNA extraction success rate was 100% using either a commercial kit (QIAamp DNA Micro) or a laboratory-based method (sample boiling in 0.1 mol/L NaOH, followed by proteinase K digestion, and then DNA extraction using Chelex-100) regardless of PCR amplicon length or tissue storage time. Although the present results demonstrate that PCR-amplifiable genomic DNA can be extracted from both fresh-frozen and FFPE samples, fresh brain tissue is recommended for DNA extraction in future neuropathological studies.

  20. Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zongming; Yan, Kun; Rosenberg, Avraham; Jin, Zhicheng; Crain, Barbara; Athas, Grace; Heide, Richard S Vander; Howard, Timothy; Everett, Allen D; Herrington, David; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-04-01

    Evaluate combination of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formalin-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at room temperature (RT). FF and FFPE aortas (3 months and 15 years) were extracted at RT, heat alone, or a combination of heat and high pressure. Protein yields were compared, and digested peptides from the extracts were analyzed with MS. Combined heat and elevated pressure increased protein yield from human FF or FFPE aorta compared to matched tissues with heat alone (1.5-fold) or at RT (8.3-fold), resulting in more proteins identified and with more sequence coverage. The length of storage did adversely affect the quality of proteins from FF tissue. For long-term storage, aorta was preserved better with FFPE than FF alone. Periostin and MGF-E8 were demonstrated suitable for MRM assays from FFPE aorta. Combination of heat and high pressure is an effective method to extract proteins from FFPE aorta for downstream proteomics. This method opens the possibility for use of archival and often rare FFPE aortas and possibly other tissues available to proteomics for biomarker discovery and quantification. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antinociceptive action of NOP and opioid receptor agonists in the mouse orofacial formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A; Ruzza, C; Bianco, S; Trapella, C; Calo', G

    2017-08-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) modulates several biological functions, including pain transmission via selective activation of a specific receptor named NOP. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antinociceptive properties of NOP agonists and their interaction with opioids in the trigeminal territory. The orofacial formalin (OFF) test in mice was used to investigate the antinociceptive potential associated to the activation of NOP and opioid receptors. Mice subjected to OFF test displayed the typical biphasic nociceptive response and sensitivity to opioid and NSAID drugs. Mice knockout for the NOP gene displayed a robust pronociceptive phenotype. The NOP selective agonist Ro 65-6570 (0.1-1mgkg -1 ) and morphine (0.1-10mgkg -1 ) elicited dose dependent antinociceptive effects in the OFF with the alkaloid showing larger effects; the isobologram analysis of their actions demonstrated an additive type of interaction. The mixed NOP/opioid receptor agonist cebranopadol elicited potent (0.01-0.1mgkg -1 ) and robust antinociceptive effects. In the investigated dose range, all drugs did not modify the motor performance of the mice in the rotarod test. Collectively the results of this study demonstrated that selective NOP agonists and particularly mixed NOP/opioid agonists are worthy of development as innovative drugs to treat painful conditions of the trigeminal territory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical validation of a melanoma diagnostic gene signature using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, M Bryan; Flake, Darl D; Adams, Doug; Gutin, Alexander; Kolquist, Kathryn A; Wenstrup, Richard J; Roa, Benjamin B

    2015-01-01

    These studies were to validate the analytical performance of a gene expression signature that differentiates melanoma and nevi, using RNA expression from 14 signature genes and nine normalization genes that generates a melanoma diagnostic score (MDS). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were evaluated in these studies. The overall SD of the assay was determined to be 0.69 MDS units. Individual amplicons within the signature had an average amplification efficiency of 92% and a SD less than 0.5 CT. The MDS was reproducible across a 2000-fold dilution range of input RNA. Melanin, an inhibitor of PCR, does not interfere with the signature. These studies indicate this signature is robust and reproducible and is analytically validated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

  5. Enrichment of PrPSc in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues prior to analysis by Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Eric M

    2011-07-01

    Diagnosis of prion disease is primarily through immunodetection of the infectious agent. Typically, 2 distinct procedures are recommended for a definitive diagnosis, with immunohistochemistry and Western blot providing the most information as to the specific isolate in question. In the past, these approaches required formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and fresh or frozen tissue, respectively; however, methods have been developed that allow for use of fixed tissue for Western blot. The present study describes a method of enriching PrP(Sc) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues prior to Western blot analysis for the detection of PrP(Sc). With this modified procedure, 5 times the previously reported sample size may be used for analysis, greatly enhancing the sensitivity of this procedure.

  6. Biomedical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples: The Holy Grail for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczo, Boglarka; Guttman, Andras

    2018-04-02

    More than a century ago in 1893, a revolutionary idea about fixing biological tissue specimens was introduced by Ferdinand Blum, a German physician. Since then, a plethora of fixation methods have been investigated and used. Formalin fixation with paraffin embedment became the most widely used types of fixation and preservation method, due to its proper architectural conservation of tissue structures and cellular shape. The huge collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sample archives worldwide holds a large amount of unearthed information about diseases that could be the Holy Grail in contemporary biomarker research utilizing analytical omics based molecular diagnostics. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the omics options for FFPE tissue sample analysis in the molecular diagnostics field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  8. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Yusof, Mohd. Izwan; Salleh, Mohd. Zaki; Lay Kek, Teh; Ahmat, Norizan; Nik Azmin, Nik Fatini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in...

  9. Opioid Mechanism Involvement in the Synergism Produced by the Combination of Diclofenac and Caffeine in the Formalin Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Ramos, Jos? Mar?a; D?az-Reval, M. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics can be administered in combination with caffeine for improved analgesic effectiveness in a process known as synergism. The mechanisms by which these combinations produce synergism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the administration of diclofenac combined with caffeine produced antinociceptive synergism and whether opioid mechanisms played a role in this event. The formalin model was used to evaluate the antinociception produced by the oral ...

  10. Plasma cell lesions of the head and neck: immunofluorescent determination of clonality from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Keren, D F

    1983-12-01

    An immunofluorescent technique was used on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue to characterize and diagnose plasma cell lesions of the head and neck. Infiltrates were classified as either monoclonal or polyclonal with rhodamine and fluorescein staining of light chains and heavy chains. In the cases in which histopathologic diagnoses were relatively certain, immunofluorescence provided good correlation. In those cases in which histopathologic diagnoses were equivocal, immunofluorescence distinguished between reactive and neoplastic infiltrates through the determination of clonality of the infiltrates.

  11. Generating Exome Enriched Sequencing Libraries from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue DNA for Next Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosy, Beth A.; Craig, Brian D.; Hetrick, Kurt N.; Witmer, P. Dane; Ling, Hua; Griffith, Sean M.; Myers, Ben; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    This unit describes a protocol for generating exome enriched sequencing libraries using DNA extracted from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) samples. Utilizing commercially available kits, we present a low input FFPE workflow starting with 50ng of DNA. This procedure includes a repair step to address damage caused by FFPE preservation that improves sequence quality. Subsequently, libraries undergo an in-solution targeted selection for exons, followed by sequencing using the Illumina next generation short read sequencing platform. PMID:28075488

  12. Influence of short-term fixation with mixed formalin or ethanol solution on the mechanical properties of human cortical bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone specimens obtained for biomechanical experiments are fresh-frozen for storage to slow down tissue degradation and autolysis in long-term storage. Alternatively, due to infectious risks related to the fresh tissues, fixative agents are commonly used. However, fixatives will likely change the mechanical properties of bone. Existing studies on this issue gave controversial results that are hardly comparable due to a variety of measurement approaches. For this reason, the influence of ethanol and a formalin-based fixative agent was evaluated on the mechanical properties of human cortical bone specimens by means of four-point-bending tests. 127 prismatic specimens with rectangular cross sections (2.5 x 2.5 x 20 mm3 were obtained from different regions of two fresh human femora (medial, lateral, dorsal, ventral. Specimens were either fixed in ethanol or in a mixed formalin solution or frozen following a given scheme. After two weeks of storage the samples were re-hydrated in isotonic saline and subsequently tested mechanically. The elastic bending modulus and ultimate bending strength were computed considering the actual dimensions of each specific specimen. For statistical analysis a one-way-ANOVA and an LSD post-hoc-test were performed. For ultimate bending strength no significant differences due to formalin or ethanol fixation, as compared to unfixed-fresh bone specimens could be found. And only for few cases significant differences in elastic bending modulus were observed when the two bones were evaluated separately. Since more differences of significant level due to the anatomical region of the samples were determined, the original location seems to have more influence on the evaluated mechanical properties than the method of (chemical fixation. Consequently, ethanol and the mixed formalin solution can be recommended as a fixation agent for samples in biomechanical testing, if these samples are rinsed in isotonic saline prior to static

  13. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozy...

  14. Estradiol-induced antinociceptive responses on formalin-induced nociception are independent of COX and HPA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deirtra A; Barr, Gordon A; Amador, Nicole; Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Kemen, Lynne; Kreiter, Christopher M; Jenab, Shirzad; Inturrisi, Charles E; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2011-07-01

    Estrogen modulates pain perception but how it does so is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine if estradiol reduces nociceptive responses in part via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/COX-2 activity. The first study examined the effects of estradiol (20%) or vehicle with concurrent injection nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on formalin-induced nociceptive responding (flinching) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The drugs were ibuprofen (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor), SC560 (COX-1 inhibitor), or NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor). In a second study, estradiol's effects on formalin-induced nociception were tested in adrenalectomized (ADX), OVX, and ADX+OVX rats. Serum levels of prostaglandins (PG) PGE(2) and corticosterone were measured. Estradiol significantly decreased nociceptive responses in OVX rats with effects during both the first and the second phase of the formalin test. The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) did not alter nociception at the doses used here. Adrenalectomy neither altered flinching responses in female rats nor reversed estradiol-induced antinociceptive responses. Estradiol alone had no effect on corticosterone (CORT) or prostaglandin levels after the formalin test, dissociating the effects of estradiol on behavior and these serum markers. Ibuprofen and NS398 significantly reduced PGE2 levels. CORT was not decreased by OVX surgery or by estradiol below that of ADX. Only IBU significantly increased corticosterone levels. Taken together, our results suggest that estradiol-induced antinociception in female rats is independent of COX activity and HPA axis activation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii from the formalin-fixed tissues of Q fever patients with acute hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rock Jang

    Full Text Available Serologic diagnosis is one of the most widely used diagnostic methods for Q fever, but the window period in antibody response of 2 to 3 weeks after symptom onset results in significant diagnostic delay. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Q fever PCR from formalin-fixed liver tissues in Q fever patients with acute hepatitis.We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data in patients with Q fever hepatitis who underwent liver biopsy during a 17-year period, and whose biopsied tissues were available. We also selected patients who revealed granuloma in liver biopsy and with no Q fever diagnosis within the last 3 years as control. Acute Q fever hepatitis was diagnosed if two or more of the following clinical, serologic, or histopathologic criteria were met: (1 an infectious hepatitis-like clinical feature such as fever (≥ 38°C with elevated hepatic transaminase levels; (2 exhibition of a phase II immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies titer by IFA of ≥ 1:128 in single determination, or a four-fold or greater rise between two separate samples obtained two or more weeks apart; (3 histologic finding of biopsy tissue showing characteristic fibrin ring granuloma.A total of 11 patients with acute Q fever hepatitis were selected and analyzed. Of the 11 patients, 3 (27% had exposure to zoonotic risk factors and 7 (63% met the serologic criteria. Granulomas with either circumferential or radiating fibrin deposition were observed in 10 cases on liver biopsy and in 1 case on bone marrow biopsy. 8 (73% revealed positive Coxiella burnetii PCR from their formalin-fixed liver tissues. In contrast, none of 10 patients with alternative diagnosis who had hepatic granuloma revealed positive C. burnetii PCR from their formalin-fixed liver tissues.Q fever PCR from formalin-fixed liver tissues appears to be a useful adjunct for diagnosing Q fever hepatitis.

  16. Recruitment of hypothalamic orexin neurons after formalin injections in adult male rats exposed to a neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jane Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life physiological stressors, such as infection, is thought to contribute to the onset of psychopathology in adulthood. In animal models, injections of the bacterial immune challenge, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during the neonatal period has been shown to alter both neuroendocrine function and behavioural pain responses in adulthood. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests a role for the lateral hypothalamic peptide orexin in stress and nociceptive processing. However, whether neonatal LPS exposure affects the reactivity of the orexin system to formalin-induced inflammatory pain in later life remains to be determined. Male Wistar rats (n=13 were exposed to either LPS or saline (0.05mg/kg, i.p on postnatal days (PND 3 and 5. On PND 80-97, all rats were exposed to a subcutaneous hindpaw injection of 2.25% formalin. Following behavioural testing, animals were perfused and brains processed for Fos-protein and orexin immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with LPS during the neonatal period exhibited decreased licking behaviours during the interphase of the formalin test, the period typically associated with the active inhibition of pain, and increased grooming responses to formalin in adulthood. Interestingly, these behavioural changes were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of Fos-positive orexin cells in the dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus in LPS-exposed animals. Similar increases in Fos-protein were also observed in stress and pain sensitive brain regions that receive orexinergic inputs. These findings highlight a potential role for orexin in the behavioural responses to pain and provide further evidence that early life stress can prime the circuitry responsible for these responses in adulthood.

  17. The effect of oral administration of Withania somnifera root on formalin-induced pain in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khalili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Introduction: Hyperalgesia is considered as one the marked signs of subchronic diabetes mellitus that could affect the life style of the patients. With c onsidering the potential anti-diabetic effect of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (WS( ashwagandha, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect of WS on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into control, WS-treated control, diabetic, sodium salicylate (SS-treated control and diabetic and WS-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin (STZ was used at a single dose. The treatment groups received oral administration of ashwagandha -mixed rat pellet (6.25% for two months.  Results: The results showed that diabetic rats exhibited a higher score of pain at both phases of the formalin test and WS-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score at both phases of the test (p<0.05. Meanwhile, SS administration significantly reduced pain score only at chronic phase of the test in the diabetic group (p<0.01.   Discussion: Taken together, these results indicate that two-month administration of ashwagandha could attenuate nociceptive score in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus and this may be considered as a potential treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy.

  18. The effect of oral administration of Withania somnifera root on formalin-induced pain in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khalili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Hyperalgesia is considered as one the marked signs of subchronic diabetes mellitus that could affect the life style of the patients. With c onsidering the potential anti-diabetic effect of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (WS( ashwagandha, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect of WS on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into control, WS-treated control, diabetic, sodium salicylate (SS-treated control and diabetic and WS-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin (STZ was used at a single dose. The treatment groups received oral administration of ashwagandha -mixed rat pellet (6.25% for two months.  Results: The results showed that diabetic rats exhibited a higher score of pain at both phases of the formalin test and WS-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score at both phases of the test (p<0.05. Meanwhile, SS administration significantly reduced pain score only at chronic phase of the test in the diabetic group (p<0.01.   Discussion: Taken together, these results indicate that two-month administration of ashwagandha could attenuate nociceptive score in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus and this may be considered as a potential treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy.  

  19. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  20. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P; Kanui, T I

    2017-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37.5 μg/kg or 50 μg/kg, respectively, caused a highly significant reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor antagonist methysergide maleate. When performing antagonistic reactions, the administration of the antagonist was followed immediately by that of the agonist. The study indicates that for experimental purposes, intrathecal route of drug administration through the atlanto-occipital joint is effective in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Detection of African swine fever virus from formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Luka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Formalin fixing and paraffin embedding of tissue samples is one of the techniques for preserving the structural integrity of cells for a very long time. However, extraction and analysis of genomic material from formalin fixed tissue (FFT remains a challenge despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. The success of polymerase chain reaction (PCR depends on the quality of DNA extract. Materials and Methods: Here we assessed the conventional method of DNA extraction from FFT for African swine fever virus (ASFV detection. The modified conventional method gave a higher quality DNA when compared with commercially available DNA extraction kits (QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, DNeasy® Blood and Tissue Kit, and ZR Genomic DNA™ Tissue MiniPrep. Results: An average A260/A280 DNA purity of 0.86-1.68 and 3.22-5.32 μg DNA/mg for formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues, respectively using a conventional method. In a reproducible and three times repeat PCR, the ASFV DNA expected product size of 278 bp was obtained from the DNA extract of the conventional method but not from the DNA extract of the commercial kits. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the conventional method extracts ASFV genome better than commercial kit. In summary, the commercial kit extraction appeared not suitable to purify ASFV DNA from FFT. We, therefore, recommend that the use of the conventional method be considered for African swine fever DNA extraction from FFT.

  2. Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssane Zouikr

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis during postnatal day (PND 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG. Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb as compared to medial habenula (MHb, however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process.

  3. Altered Formalin-Induced Pain and Fos Induction in the Periaqueductal Grey of Preadolescent Rats following Neonatal LPS Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouikr, Ihssane; James, Morgan H.; Campbell, Erin J.; Clifton, Vicki L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Dayas, Christopher V.; Hodgson, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis) during postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG). Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb) as compared to medial habenula (MHb), however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process. PMID:24878577

  4. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  5. Optimization and characterization of spray-dried IgG formulations: a design of experiment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Homa; Najafabadi, Abdolhosein Rouholamini; Vatanara, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study is to optimize a spray-dried formulation as a model antibody regarding stability and aerodynamic property for further aerosol therapy of this group of macromolecules. Method A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed milligrams of Cysteine (X1), Trehalose (X2), and Tween 20 (X3) as independent variables. The dependent variables were quantified and the optimized formulation was prepared accordingly. SEC-HPLC and FTIR-spectroscopy we...

  6. Investigation of spray characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine using PLIF and LDV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Gashi, S; Nouri, J M; Lockett, R D; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a prototype piezo pintle-type injector are investigated in a single-cylinder optical direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine based on the spray-guided concept where mixture preparation is dominated by the spray dynamics. The high-pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle providing a hollow cone spray. Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and 2-dimensional Mie scattering were used to study the spray structure and characteristics under different in-cylinder back pressures and to obtain cycle resolved measurements of the planar fuel distribution inside the cylinder. The obtained results give information about the extent of charge stratification, spray stability and fuel/air mixture formation process under operating conditions. PLIF results revealed that there is a rich mixture at the spark plug position for all these conditions, ensuring stable combustion over the entire engine operating range. In addition, LDV measurements were carried out in order to provide information on the in-cylinder flow field near the spark plug, and to assess its influence on the mixture formation process. LDV results showed that the influence of the flow field strength during the late compression injection on the liquid fuel spray structure is low. The tumble generated in the cylinder is transformed into turbulence at the end of the compression stroke, which aids fuel evaporation and vapour dispersion just before ignition

  7. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  8. Examining properties of arc sprayed nanostructured coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czupryński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining properties of arc sprayed coating obtained with nano-alloy on the iron matrix with a high amount of fine carbide precipitates sprayed on non-alloyed steel plates intended for high temperature operation. Powder metal cored wire EnDOtec DO*390N 1,6 mm diameter, was used to produce, dense, very high abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approx. 1,0 mm thick. Nano-material coatings characterization was done to determine abrasion resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion strength, hardness as well as metallographic examinations. Results have proved high properties of arc sprayed nano-material coatings and have shown promising industrial applications.

  9. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  10. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  11. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  12. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  13. Numerical investigation on particle swelling in spray roasting reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemann, M; de Haan, A.B.; Wirtz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spray roasting of metal chloride solutions is frequently used in steel industries to recover pickling liquids. As spray roasting reactors are difficult to characterize experimentally, computational fluid dynamics simu- lations have been used to investigate reactor performance. These simulations

  14. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  15. A single simple procedure for dewaxing, hydration and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, I M S; Dimke, H; Frische, S

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraffin...... of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue....

  16. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  17. SPIRT-NRC. Containment Spray Iodine Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K. [Benton City Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Sherry, R.R.; Tam, P.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1988-01-01

    SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles,the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  18. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  19. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  20. Validation of methods on formalin testing in tofu and determination of 3,5-diacetyl-dihydrolutidine stability by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Pribadi, Rizki Maulana

    2017-12-01

    Formalin is a food preservative that is prohibited by the government, but the abuse of these chemicals is still widely found. The presence of formalin can be detected by using a typical reagent that can ensure the presence of formaldehyde qualitatively and quantitatively. This research was conducted to validate the method of determining formalin in tofu by using Nash reagent in UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The addition of Nash reagent will lead to the formation of diacetyldihydrolutidin complex. The study was performed by stability test of deacetyldihydrolutidine complex against time and pH. Validation of methods for formalin testing in tofu with diacetyldihydrolutidine by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that 3,5-diacetyl-dihydrolutidine complex is stable at pH of 7 and stable in the range of 70-120 minutes. The validation shows that the method gives good precision and accuracy of 83.78%. The method has the limit of detection of 1.3681 µg/mL, limit of quantification of 4,5603 µg/mL, and the estimated uncertainty of measurement of 1.30 µg/mL. The test showed that the tofu contained formalin 3.09 ± 1.30 µg/mL. These values provide information that this method can be used as a procedure for the determination of formalin on tofu.

  1. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ZnO. Table 1. Spray parameters for film deposition. Spray parameter. Value. Concentration of zinc acetate solution. 0.1 M. Nozzle–substrate ..... [13] F Paraguay, D M Miki-Yoshida, J Morales, J Solis and W Estrada, Thin Solid Films 373, 137. (2000). [14] B Baruwati ...

  2. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  3. Robustness of Next Generation Sequencing on Older Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mercatante Carrick

    Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technologies are used to detect somatic mutations in tumors and study germ line variation. Most NGS studies use DNA isolated from whole blood or fresh frozen tissue. However, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are one of the most widely available clinical specimens. Their potential utility as a source of DNA for NGS would greatly enhance population-based cancer studies. While preliminary studies suggest FFPE tissue may be used for NGS, the feasibility of using archived FFPE specimens in population based studies and the effect of storage time on these specimens needs to be determined. We conducted a study to determine whether DNA in archived FFPE high-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinomas from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER registries Residual Tissue Repositories (RTR was present in sufficient quantity and quality for NGS assays. Fifty-nine FFPE tissues, stored from 3 to 32 years, were obtained from three SEER RTR sites. DNA was extracted, quantified, quality assessed, and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES. Following DNA extraction, 58 of 59 specimens (98% yielded DNA and moved on to the library generation step followed by WES. Specimens stored for longer periods of time had significantly lower coverage of the target region (6% lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 3-10% and lower average read depth (40x lower per 10 years, 95% CI: 18-60, although sufficient quality and quantity of WES data was obtained for data mining. Overall, 90% (53/59 of specimens provided usable NGS data regardless of storage time. This feasibility study demonstrates FFPE specimens acquired from SEER registries after varying lengths of storage time and under varying storage conditions are a promising source of DNA for NGS.

  4. DNA degrades during storage in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Alice; Boyez, Alice; Pujals, Anaïs; Robe, Cyrielle; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Allory, Yves; Moroch, Julien; Georges, Odette; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Zafrani, Elie-Serge; Leroy, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks are widely used to identify clinically actionable molecular alterations or perform retrospective molecular studies. Our goal was to quantify degradation of DNA occurring during mid to long-term storage of samples in usual conditions. We selected 46 FFPE samples of surgically resected carcinomas of lung, colon, and urothelial tract, of which DNA had been previously extracted. We performed a second DNA extraction on the same blocks under identical conditions after a median period of storage of 5.5 years. Quantitation of DNA by fluorimetry showed a 53% decrease in DNA quantity after storage. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting KRAS exon 2 showed delayed amplification of DNA extracted after storage in all samples but one. The qPCR/fluorimetry quantification ratio decreased from 56 to 15% after storage (p DNA analyzable by qPCR represented only 11% of the amount obtained at first extraction. Maximal length of amplifiable DNA fragments assessed with a multiplex PCR was reduced in DNA extracted from stored tissue, indicating that DNA fragmentation had increased in the paraffin blocks during storage. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 12 samples and showed a mean 3.3-fold decrease in library yield and a mean 4.5-fold increase in the number of single-nucleotide variants detected after storage. In conclusion, we observed significant degradation of DNA extracted from the same FFPE block after 4 to 6 years of storage. Better preservation strategies should be considered for storage of FFPE biopsy specimens.

  5. Buffered Romanowsky-Giemsa method for formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections: taming a traditional stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, D; Samardžija, G; Redžek, A; Arnaut, M; Nikin, Z; Stefanović, M

    2017-01-01

    Romanowsky-Giemsa (RG) stains were devised during the 19th century for identifying plasmodia parasites in blood smears. Later, RG stains became standard procedures for hematology and cytology. Numerous attempts have been made to apply RG staining to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections, with varied success. Most published work on this topic described RG staining methods in which sections were overstained, then subjected to acid differentiation; unfortunately, the differentiation step often caused inconsistent staining outcomes. If staining is performed under optimal conditions with control of dye concentration, pH, solution temperature and staining time, no differentiation is required. We used RG and 0.002 M buffer, pH 42, for staining and washing sections. All steps were performed at room temperature. After staining and air drying, sections were washed in 96-100% ethanol to remove extraneous stain. Finally, sections were washed in xylene and mounted using DPX. Staining results were similar to routine hemalum and eosin (H & E) staining. Nuclei were blue; intensity depended largely on chromatin density. RNA-rich sites were purple. Collagen fibers, keratin, muscle cells, erythrocytes and white matter of the central nervous system were stained pinkish and reddish hues. Cartilage matrix, mast cell granules and areas of myxomatous degeneration were purple. Sulfate-rich mucins were stained pale blue, while those lacking sulfate groups were unstained. Deposits of hemosiderin, lipofuscin and melanin were greenish, and calcium deposits were blue. Helicobacter pylori bacteria were violet to purple. The advantages of the method are its close similarity to H & E staining and technical simplicity. Hemosiderin, H. pylori, mast cell granules, melanin and specific granules of different hematopoietic cells, which are invisible or barely distinguishable by H & E staining, are visualized. Other advantages over previous RG stains include shorter staining time and avoidance

  6. Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Woan Shian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formula. Methods: This study was carried out from September–October 2014 in the Laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The study used the laboratory experimental method with consecutive sampling of 16 Wistar Rats. Thirty two soleus muscles and thirty two colons were collected and divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 16 soleus muscles and 16 colons. Group 1 was preserved with formalin’s preservative formula and Group 2 was preserved with ethanol’s preservative formula. The two groups were preserved for six weeks. The tissue’s color, consistency, odor and the growth of bacteria were determined before and after treatment. Results: Tissues preserved with ethanol’s preservative formula had better tissue preservation in the aspect of color and odor, compared with formalin’s preservative formula. Both preservative formulas showed no growth of bacteria in tissues but failed to retain the consistency. All the data were analyzed with Chi-square test. Conclusions: Ethanol’s preservative formula preserves better quality of tissue compared to formalin’s preservative formula.

  7. Feasibility of spray drying bacteriophages into respirable powders to combat pulmonary bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Singh, Abhishek; Vandersteegen, Katrien; Klumpp, Jochen; Lavigne, Rob; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-08-01

    The use of bacterial viruses for antibacterial treatment (bacteriophage therapy) is currently being reevaluated. In this study, we analyze the potential of processing bacteriophages in a dry powder formulation, using a laboratory spray dryer. The phages were dried in the presence of lactose, trehalose or dextran 35, serving as an excipient to give the resulting powder the necessary bulk mass and offer protection to the delicate phage structure. Out of the three excipients tested, trehalose was found to be the most efficient in protecting the phages from temperature and shear stress throughout the spray drying process. A low inlet air temperature and atomizing force appeared to be the best parameter conditions for phage survival. Pseudomonas podovirus LUZ19 was remarkably stable, suffering less than 1 logarithmic unit reduction in phage titer. The phage titer of Staphyloccus phage Romulus-containing powders, a member of the Myoviridae family, showed more than 2.5 logarithmic units reduction. On the other hand, Romulus-containing powders showed more favorable characteristics for pulmonary delivery, with a high percentage of dry powder particles in the pulmonary deposition fraction (1-5 μm particle diameter). Even though the parameters were not optimized for spray drying all phages, it was demonstrated that spray drying phages with this industrial relevant and scalable set up was possible. The resulting powders had desirable size ranges for pulmonary delivery of phages with dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Copper-Tungsten Composites Sprayed by HVOF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Zahálka, F.; Bensch, Jan; Chi, W.; Sedláček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-180 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermally sprayed coatings * tungsten * copper * HVOF Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/120439/

  9. Commissioning of laser assisted cold spraying technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the potential of a newly designed, assembled and commissioned laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) technology at the National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, to deposit Al-12wt%Si coatings on stainless steel substrate...

  10. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  11. Plasma sprayed basalt/chromium oxide coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Medarhri, Z.; Ctibor, Pavel; Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-82 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Chromia, basalt * plasma spraying * microstructure * phase analysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2007

  12. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  13. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others:COST(XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  14. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  15. Remarks on the 'Spray-Paint' Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, Tadanori

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that the locative variant of the 'spray-paint' construction makesthe object NP partitive in a certain sense while the transposed one makes it holistic.Arguing that there are in fact many more factors operative, this paper attempts to get aclearer perspective on the issue.

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of swirling spray flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presser, C.; Gupta, A.K.; Semerjian, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the effect of swirl on droplet transport processes is examined in a pressure-atomized, hollow-cone kerosene spray, introduced into coflowing nonswirling and swirling air flow fields. An ensemble light scattering technique, based on measurement of the polarization ratio, provided spatially resolved measurements on the local values of droplet mean size and number density in dense regions of the nonburning spray. Laser velocimetry was employed to measure the axial, radial, and tangential velocity components of the droplets and combustion air stream. Droplet velocity distributions and time histories provided information on the transport of individual droplets under nonburning and burning conditions. high-speed cinemathography, short-exposure photography, and video movies were also employed to observe the global features of the spray flame. The results reveal that the spray flame has a complex three-dimensional structure. The introduction of swirl to the combustion air modifies the droplet/air velocity field in addition to the spatial distribution of droplet size and number density

  17. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  18. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  19. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  20. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  1. HVOF Combustion spraying of inconel powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D. J.; Ortiz, M. G.; Miller, C. S.; Steeper, T. J.; Rotolico, A. J.; Nerz, J.; Rlggs, W. L.

    1993-06-01

    A major trend in the thermal spray industry has been to increase the gas jet velocity to obtain better coating attributes. One emerging technology now used in industry is the high-velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF). High-velocity spray guns combine oxygen and a fuel gas to generate heat and extremely high particle velocities. In this study, Inconel 718 powder was deposited on steel substrates. The primary coating function was electrical resistivity for a heater application. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi L8 statistical fractional/factorial design parametric study. The Taguchi experiment evaluated the effect of six HVOF processing variables on the measured responses. The parameters were oxygen flow, fuel flow, air envelope gas flow, powder feed rate, spray distance, and nozzle configuration. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, surface profilometry, optical metallography, and image analysis. This article investigates coating hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure with respect to the influence of the processing parameters. Analytical studies were conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics for two of the HVOF thermal spray experiments.

  2. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  3. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  4. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  5. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  6. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  7. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  8. An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy R; Lossignol, Dominique; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Fallon, Marie T

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain in patients with advanced cancer poses a serious clinical challenge. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (U.S. Adopted Name, nabiximols; Sativex(®)) is a novel cannabinoid formulation currently undergoing investigation as an adjuvant therapy for this treatment group. This follow-up study investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD spray and THC spray in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 43 patients with cancer-related pain experiencing inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, who had participated in a previous three-arm (THC/CBD spray, THC spray, or placebo), two-week parent randomized controlled trial, entered this open-label, multicenter, follow-up study. Patients self-titrated THC/CBD spray (n=39) or THC spray (n=4) to symptom relief or maximum dose and were regularly reviewed for safety, tolerability, and evidence of clinical benefit. The efficacy end point of change from baseline in mean Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form scores for "pain severity" and "worst pain" domains showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) at each visit in the THC/CBD spray patients. Similarly, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 scores showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) from baseline in the domains of insomnia, pain, and fatigue. No new safety concerns associated with the extended use of THC/CBD spray arose from this study. This study showed that the long-term use of THC/CBD spray was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of a loss of effect for the relief of cancer-related pain with long-term use. Furthermore, patients who kept using the study medication did not seek to increase their dose of this or other pain-relieving medication over time, suggesting that the adjuvant use of cannabinoids in cancer-related pain could provide useful benefit. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  10. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)]. E-mail: moreira@dem.ist.utl.pt; Carvalho, Joao [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Panao, Miguel R.O. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  11. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  12. Detection of viral infection by immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed tissues, pretreated with trypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Barth

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of viral antigen in sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissues was demonstrated by trypsin digestion followed by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. The specimens may be used for retrospective diagnosis. The immunofluorescence technique has to be adapted to the suspected virus infection on the basis of previous histopathology study. Variations of trypsin concentration time and temperature of incubation, expose different viral antigens and have to be previously tested for each unknown system. For measles virus detection in lung a stronger digestion has to be applied as compared to adenovirus or respiratory disease viruses in the same tisue. Flavivirus in liver tissue needs a weaker digestion. The reproducibility of the method makes it useful as a routine technique in diagnosis of virus infection.A presença de antígeno viral em cortes de tecidos humanos fixados em formol e emblocados em parafina foi demonstrada pela digestão com tripsina foi demonstrada pela ingestão com tripsina seguida de imunofluorescência direta ou indireta. Os espécimens podem ser utilizados para diagnoses retrospectivas. A técnica da imunofluorescência deve ser adaptada à infecção viral suspeita segundo diagnosie histopatológica prévia. Os parâmetros para a digestão do tecido pela tripsina, relacionados à concentração, duração de atuação e temperatura, expõem diferentes antígenos virais e devem ser previamente testados para cada sistema a ser estabelecido. Uma digestão mais intensa deve ser aplicada para a detecção do vírus do sarampo em tecido pulmonar do que para adenovírus ou vírus respiratório sincicial no mesmo tecido. Por outro lado, o vírus da febre amarela em tecido de fígado necessita de uma digestão mais fraca.

  13. Whole-genome gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig April

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a gene expression assay (Whole-Genome DASL, capable of generating whole-genome gene expression profiles from degraded samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens.We demonstrated a similar level of sensitivity in gene detection between matched fresh-frozen (FF and FFPE samples, with the number and overlap of probes detected in the FFPE samples being approximately 88% and 95% of that in the corresponding FF samples, respectively; 74% of the differentially expressed probes overlapped between the FF and FFPE pairs. The WG-DASL assay is also able to detect 1.3-1.5 and 1.5-2 -fold changes in intact and FFPE samples, respectively. The dynamic range for the assay is approximately 3 logs. Comparing the WG-DASL assay with an in vitro transcription-based labeling method yielded fold-change correlations of R(2 approximately 0.83, while fold-change comparisons with quantitative RT-PCR assays yielded R(2 approximately 0.86 and R(2 approximately 0.55 for intact and FFPE samples, respectively. Additionally, the WG-DASL assay yielded high self-correlations (R(2>0.98 with low intact RNA inputs ranging from 1 ng to 100 ng; reproducible expression profiles were also obtained with 250 pg total RNA (R(2 approximately 0.92, with approximately 71% of the probes detected in 100 ng total RNA also detected at the 250 pg level. When FFPE samples were assayed, 1 ng total RNA yielded self-correlations of R(2 approximately 0.80, while still maintaining a correlation of R(2 approximately 0.75 with standard FFPE inputs (200 ng.Taken together, these results show that WG-DASL assay provides a reliable platform for genome-wide expression profiling in archived materials. It also possesses utility within clinical settings where only limited quantities of samples may be available (e.g. microdissected material or when minimally invasive procedures are performed (e.g. biopsied specimens.

  14. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  15. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B; Chesnick, Ingrid E; Moore, Cedric D; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2010-12-08

    Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  16. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Adams

    Full Text Available Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN, test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80-90% when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections, current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from

  17. DNA Extraction Method Affects the Detection of a Fungal Pathogen in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Andrea J; LaBonte, John P; Ball, Morgan L; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Toothman, Mary H; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2015-01-01

    Museum collections provide indispensable repositories for obtaining information about the historical presence of disease in wildlife populations. The pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has played a significant role in global amphibian declines, and examining preserved specimens for Bd can improve our understanding of its emergence and spread. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables Bd detection with minimal disturbance to amphibian skin and is significantly more sensitive to detecting Bd than histology; therefore, developing effective qPCR methodologies for detecting Bd DNA in formalin-fixed specimens can provide an efficient and effective approach to examining historical Bd emergence and prevalence. Techniques for detecting Bd in museum specimens have not been evaluated for their effectiveness in control specimens that mimic the conditions of animals most likely to be encountered in museums, including those with low pathogen loads. We used American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) of known infection status to evaluate the success of qPCR to detect Bd in formalin-fixed specimens after three years of ethanol storage. Our objectives were to compare the most commonly used DNA extraction method for Bd (PrepMan, PM) to Macherey-Nagel DNA FFPE (MN), test optimizations for Bd detection with PM, and provide recommendations for maximizing Bd detection. We found that successful detection is relatively high (80-90%) when Bd loads before formalin fixation are high, regardless of the extraction method used; however, at lower infection levels, detection probabilities were significantly reduced. The MN DNA extraction method increased Bd detection by as much as 50% at moderate infection levels. Our results indicate that, for animals characterized by lower pathogen loads (i.e., those most commonly encountered in museum collections), current methods may underestimate the proportion of Bd-infected amphibians. Those extracting DNA from archived museum

  18. Effects of microinjection of histamine into the anterior cingulate cortex on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of histamine and its H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, mepyramine, ranitidine and thioperamide, respectively, into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats. Two stainless steel guide canulas were bilaterally implanted into the ACC of anaesthetized rats. For induction of pain, intraplantar (ipl) injection of a 2.5% formalin solution was performed. The duration of paw licking/biting and the number of paw flinching were recorded in 5 min blocks for 60 min. Locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pattern of pain. Histamine reduced the second phases of paw licking/biting and flinching. Mepyramine (2 μg/side) prevented the suppressive effect of histamine (1 μg/side) on second phase of pain, but at a dose of 8 μg/side it did not inhibit the suppressive effects of 4 μg/side of histamine. Ranitidine at doses of 2 and 8 μg/side prevented histamine (1 and 4 μg/side)-induced antinociception. Thioperamide not only suppressed the second phases of pain, but also increased the suppressive effect of histamine. Naloxone prevented suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide on pain. Mepyramine (8 μg/side) suppressed locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed pain suppressing effects for histamine. Histamine H2 and H3, and to a lesser extent, H1 receptors might be involved in histamine-induced antinociception. Opioid receptors might be involved in suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form

  20. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing.In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates.These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  1. The effects of embalming using a 4% formalin solution on the compressive mechanical properties of human cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Baleani, Massimiliano; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Viceconti, Marco

    2008-12-01

    The use of formalin fixed bone tissue is often avoided because of its assumed influence on the mechanical properties of bone. Fixed bone tissue would minimise biological risks and eliminate preservation issues for long duration experimental tests. This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of embalming, using a solution with 4% formalin concentration, on the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Three-millimetre cylindrical specimens of human cortical bone were extracted from two femoral diaphyses and divided in four groups. The first group was used as control, the remaining three groups were left in the embalming solution for 48 h, 4 week, and 8 week, respectively. Compressive mechanical properties, hardness and ash density were assessed. The last was used to check the homogeneity among the four groups. No significant differences were found among the four groups in yield stress, ultimate stress and hardness. The specimens stored for 8 week in the embalming solution had significant lower Young's modulus (-24%), higher yield strain (+20%) and ultimate strain (+53%) compared to the other groups. On a short-term perspective, embalming did not affect the compressive mechanical properties, nor hardness of human cortical bone, whereas a long-term preservation (8 week) did significantly affect Young's modulus, yield strain and ultimate strain in compression. Preserving bone segments for up to 4 week in an embalming solution with low formalin concentration seems to be an interesting alternative when collecting and/or managing fresh or fresh-frozen bone segments for biomechanical experiments is not possible.

  2. Xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray combined with laser artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation for nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhao Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray in combination therapy of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to investigate the effect of nasal inflammation on nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: Totally 279 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction were collected, who received lacrimal passage irrigation, CT angiography for lacrimal passage and nasal endoscope before treated by lacrimal laser forming and artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation combined with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray. In group A, 137 patients were treated with antibiotic eye drop and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after operations. In group B, 142 patients were treated with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray besides the same treatment for group A. RESULTS:In the 279 patients 217(77.8%, in which 105 cases(76.6%were in group A and 112 cases(78.9%were in group B, were suffered with nasal inflammation, including nasal mucosal hyperemia, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, middle turbinate hypertrophy. At 3mo after the ducts were drawn, efficacy of group B was 95.8%, which was significant better than that of group A(86.1%, PCONCLUSION: Nasal inflammation was an important factor in the incidence of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which shoud pay more attention in the process of diagnosis and treatment. Combination therapy could improve the cure rate of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  3. Generating Exome Enriched Sequencing Libraries from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue DNA for Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosy, Beth A; Craig, Brian D; Hetrick, Kurt N; Witmer, P Dane; Ling, Hua; Griffith, Sean M; Myers, Benjamin; Ostrander, Elaine A; Stanford, Janet L; Brody, Lawrence C; Doheny, Kimberly F

    2017-01-11

    This unit describes a technique for generating exome-enriched sequencing libraries using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Utilizing commercially available kits, we present a low-input FFPE workflow starting with 50 ng of DNA. This procedure includes a repair step to address damage caused by FFPE preservation that improves sequence quality. Subsequently, libraries undergo an in-solution-targeted selection for exons, followed by sequencing using the Illumina next-generation short-read sequencing platform. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Sequence artefacts in a prospective series of formalin-fixed tumours tested for mutations in hotspot regions by massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen Q; Li, Jason; Tan, Angela Y-C; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Pang, Jia-Min B; Do, Hongdo; Ellul, Jason; Doig, Ken; Bell, Anthony; MacArthur, Grant A; Fox, Stephen B; Thomas, David M; Fellowes, Andrew; Parisot, John P; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2014-05-13

    Clinical specimens undergoing diagnostic molecular pathology testing are fixed in formalin due to the necessity for detailed morphological assessment. However, formalin fixation can cause major issues with molecular testing, as it causes DNA damage such as fragmentation and non-reproducible sequencing artefacts after PCR amplification. In the context of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), distinguishing true low frequency variants from sequencing artefacts remains challenging. The prevalence of formalin-induced DNA damage and its impact on molecular testing and clinical genomics remains poorly understood. The Cancer 2015 study is a population-based cancer cohort used to assess the feasibility of mutational screening using MPS in cancer patients from Victoria, Australia. While blocks were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded in different anatomical pathology laboratories, they were centrally extracted for DNA utilising the same protocol, and run through the same MPS platform (Illumina TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel). The sequencing artefacts in the 1-10% and the 10-25% allele frequency ranges were assessed in 488 formalin-fixed tumours from the pilot phase of the Cancer 2015 cohort. All blocks were less than 2.5 years of age (mean 93 days). Consistent with the signature of DNA damage due to formalin fixation, many formalin-fixed samples displayed disproportionate levels of C>T/G>A changes in the 1-10% allele frequency range. Artefacts were less apparent in the 10-25% allele frequency range. Significantly, changes were inversely correlated with coverage indicating high levels of sequencing artefacts were associated with samples with low amounts of available amplifiable template due to fragmentation. The degree of fragmentation and sequencing artefacts differed between blocks sourced from different anatomical pathology laboratories. In a limited validation of potentially actionable low frequency mutations, a NRAS G12D mutation in a melanoma was shown to be a false

  5. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  6. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  7. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  8. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  9. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  10. Interferential therapy produces antinociception during application in various models of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Sérgio; Parada, Carlos A; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Tambeli, Cláudia H

    2006-06-01

    Although interferential therapy (IFT) is used widely in the management of many painful conditions, the effectiveness and the mechanism of action of IFT in animal models of inflammatory pain have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of IFT in reducing inflammatory pain and edema in rats. Sixty-nine male Wistar rats were used in the study. The effect of IFT application (4,000-Hz carrier frequency, 140-Hz amplitude-modulated beat frequency, pulse duration=125 milliseconds, current intensity=5 mA) for 1 hour on the formalin-induced nociceptive response and edema and on carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and edema was evaluated. Interferential therapy significantly reduced the formalin-evoked nociceptive response when applied to the paw immediately after but not before the formalin injection. Interferential therapy application at 2 hours after the carrageenan injection significantly prevented a further increase in carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia only immediately after discontinuation of the electrical current application. The antinociception induced by IFT was not attributable to a reduction in inflammation because IFT did not significantly reduce the edema induced by either formalin or carrageenan. The results suggest that, despite its short-duration effect, IFT is effective in reducing inflammatory pain and should be considered primarily for use in the control of acute inflammatory pain.

  11. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  12. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  13. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  14. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Yusof, Mohd Izwan; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Lay Kek, Teh; Ahmat, Norizan; Nik Azmin, Nik Fatini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G). These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls); morphine and aspirin (positive controls) for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone (3), and calaburone (4). At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.

  15. Multicenter Evaluation of a Novel Automated Rapid Detection System of BRAF Status in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Parlow, Laura; Gabler, Lisa; Mesteri, Ildiko; Koperek, Oskar; von Deimling, Andreas; Streubel, Berthold; Preusser, Matthias; Lehmann, Annika; Kellner, Udo; Pauwels, Patrick; Lambin, Suzan; Dietel, Manfred; Hummel, Michael; Klauschen, Frederick; Birner, Peter; Möbs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The mutated BRAF oncogene represents a therapeutic target in malignant melanoma. Because BRAF mutations are also involved in the pathogenesis of other human malignancies, the use of specific BRAF inhibitors might also be extended to other diseases in the future. A prerequisite for the clinical application of BRAF inhibitors is the reliable detection of activating BRAF mutations in routine histopathological samples. In a multicenter approach, we evaluated a novel and fully automated PCR-based system (Idylla) capable of detecting BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue within 90 minutes with high sensitivity. We analyzed a total of 436 samples with the Idylla system. Valid results were obtained in 421 cases (96.56%). Its performance was compared with conventional methods (pyrosequencing or Sanger sequencing). Concordant results were obtained in 406 cases (96.90%). Reanalysis of eight discordant samples by next-generation sequencing and/or pyrosequencing with newly extracted DNA and the BRAF RGQ Kit confirmed the Idylla result in seven cases, resulting in an overall agreement of 98.57%. In conclusion, the Idylla system is a highly reliable and sensitive platform for detection of BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material, providing an efficient alternative to conventional diagnostic methods, particularly for routine diagnostics laboratories with limited experience in molecular pathology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Supra-Additive Interaction of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Naproxen and Gastric Safety on the Formalin Test in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lira, Arlette Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Ortiz, Mario I; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2017-11-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics-nociception-of naproxen in rats, as well as to determine the gastric safety resulting from this combination versus naproxen alone. Female Wistar rats were orally administered DHA, naproxen or the DHA-naproxen mixture at fixed-ratio combination of 1:3. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the formalin test. The gastric injury was determined 3 h after naproxen administration. An isobolographic analysis was performed to characterize the antinociceptive interaction between DHA and naproxen. To determine the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions, the oral bioavailability of naproxen was evaluated in presence and absence of oral DHA. The experimental effective dose ED 30 values (Zexp) were decreased from theoretical additive dose values (Zadd; P supra-additive interaction. The oral administration of DHA increased the pharmacokinetic parameter AUC 0- t of naproxen (P supra-additive antinociceptive effect in the formalin test so that this combination could be useful to management of inflammatory pain. Drug Dev Res 78 : 332-339, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Length correction for early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 after preservation in formalin, ethanol and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim N. S. Santos

    Full Text Available This work aims to quantify the variation in total length and body mass for the early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro and to determine total length and body mass correction equation to allow fresh measures to be calculated from preserved ones. Fishes were randomly assigned to one of five preservation methods (freezing at - 20º C, 2.5% and 5% formalin, 70% and 95% ethanol, and measured for total length (TL and body mass (W before preservation, and on days 5, 15, 30, and 60 after storage. Significant reductions in total length and body mass occurred during the first 5 days after preservation and continued to contract significantly at a lesser rate through 30 days in most methods. Exceptions were shown for body mass in freezing and 5% formalin, where the greatest losses occurred after 30 days of preservation. The degree of shrinkage for total length and body mass was very much dependent on fish size, with smaller specimens shrinking more than larger ones. The fresh total length and body mass can be back-calculated using equations that describe the relationship between fresh and preserved individuals after 60 days storage for all methods except for body mass in freezing.

  18. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Seonaid M; Craven, Rachel A; Nirmalan, Niroshini J; Harnden, Patricia; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information. However, the cross-linking of proteins and nucleic acids by formalin fixation has hampered analysis and proteomic studies have been restricted to using frozen tissue, which is more limited in availability as it needs to be collected specifically for research. This means that rare disease subtypes cannot be studied easily. Recently, improved extraction techniques have enabled analysis of FFPE tissue by a number of proteomic techniques. As with all clinical samples, pre-analytical factors are likely to impact on the results obtained, although overlooked in many studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the various pre-analytical factors, which include warm and cold ischaemic time, size of sample, fixation duration and temperature, tissue processing conditions, length of storage of archival tissue and storage conditions, and to review the studies that have considered these factors in more detail. In those areas where investigations are few or non-existent, illustrative examples of the possible importance of specific factors have been drawn from studies using frozen tissue or from immunohistochemical studies of FFPE tissue. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Factors affecting the yield of microRNAs from laser microdissectates of formalin-fixed tissue sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of microRNAs in specific cell populations microdissected from tissues can be used to define their biological roles, and to develop and deploy biomarker assays. In this study, a number of variables were examined for their effect on the yield of microRNAs in samples obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by laser microdissection. Results MicroRNA yield was improved by using cresyl violet instead of hematoxylin-eosin to stain tissue sections in preparation for microdissection, silicon carbide instead of glass fiber as matrix in RNA-binding columns, and overnight digestion of dissected samples with proteinase K. Storage of slides carrying stained tissue sections at room temperature for up to a week before microdissection, and storage of the microdissectates at room temperature for up to a day before RNA extraction did not adversely affect microRNA yield. Conclusions These observations should be of value for the efficient isolation of microRNAs from microdissected formalin-fixed tissues with a flexible workflow.

  20. A pilot study comparing the use of Thiel- and formalin-embalmed cadavers in the teaching of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Lamb, Clare; Soames, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Formalin had traditionally been used to preserve human material to teach gross anatomy. In 2008 the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) at the University of Dundee embarked on the use of the Thiel method of embalming. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference between formalin-embalmed cadavers (FEC) and Thiel-embalmed cadavers (TEC) used for teaching and surgical training. Three different questionnaires were prepared for data collection from undergraduate and postgraduate students and clinical staff. All undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as clinical staff commented on the appearance of the TEC. There was no overall consensus concerning the use of TEC, some respondents preferred TEC for the entire dissection, some only for certain areas such as the musculoskeletal system. On a technical level TEC were considered less hazardous then FEC by one-third of participants with fewer than 10% regarding TEC as more irritating than FEC. Psychologically, 32.7% of undergraduate students expressed the view that TEC made them feel more uncomfortable compared with FEC because of their life-like appearance. However, 57.1% of undergraduate students encountered the same uncomfortable feelings when viewing both TEC and FEC. The use of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach anatomy has an added value, though further research is required over longer periods of time to identify its best usage. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Izwan Mohamad Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP, ethyl acetate (EAP, and aqueous (AQP partitions, in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G. These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls; morphine and aspirin (positive controls for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1, 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2, 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxychalcone (3, and calaburone (4. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.

  2. Who benefits most from THC:CBD spray? Learning from clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) represent a diverse and heterogeneous population varying in terms of disease type, its severity and variable progression/time-course, and with regard to the wide range of presenting symptoms. Consequently, detailed experience with individual patients is important to provide examples of therapy to specific patient types. In this article, real-life data from clinical practice showing specific aspects relating to use of 9-delta-tetrahydocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in patients with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to usual therapy will be presented. Three common clinical scenarios will be considered: MS patients with resistance to usual spasticity therapies; patients with impairment in MS spasticity symptoms; MS patients with relevant impairment in quality of life/activities of daily living (QoL/ADL). These case reports highlight the diverse nature of the MS spasticity population and they show the possible usefulness of THC:CBD oromucosal spray in individual patients with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to existing therapies, within the frame of use approved after large clinical trial results. Perhaps the most important finding is the possibility of obtaining relevant improvements in QoL/ADL in some patients with resistant MS spasticity, allowing them to engage back in physical and social activities. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  4. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  5. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  6. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  7. Material design of ceramic coating by plasma spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.; Takabatake, T.

    1998-01-01

    In the ceramic coating on substrate, cracking and peeling occur due to the difference of thermal expansion between substrate material and coating material. For evaluation of peeling property of plasma sprayed coating, it is demanded that thermal properties of plasma sprayed coating are estimated in detail. In this study, the results of comparison of thermal properties between bulk material and plasma sprayed material are investigated to design the ceramic coating quantitatively. Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 is decreased by approximately 50% to that of sintered MgO.Al 2 O 3 . Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed 410SS agreed well with the calculation results of relation between porosity and thermal conductivity of iron sintered material. Thermal expansions of atmospheric plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 and bulk 410SS, respectively. Therefore, as to material design on ceramic coating, it was made clear that thermal conductivity is more important than thermal expansion. (orig.)

  8. Comparative efficacy of steroid nasal spray versus antihistamine nasal spray in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anand; Das, Balabhadra Prasad; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2007-03-01

    This prospective randomized case controlled study was conducted to determine the efficacy of antihistamine (azelastine) nasal spray and compare it to steroid (beclomethasone) nasal spray on the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Seventy five symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and physical examination. The patients were divided into three groups randomly. Group A was treated with Azelastine nasal spray, Group B was treated with Beclomethasone nasal spray and Group C was control group and only treated with steam inhalation. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed in the terms of Total Rhinitis Symptom Complex (TSC) scores and individual symptom score which was calculated on the basis of Okuda's grading system. Base line total symptom complex (TSC) scores were reduced in group A and group B by 84.0% after 4 week treatment whereas in group C it was reduced by only 38.0%. Decrease in mean score for sneezing was 95.0% in group A and group B whereas it was only 28.3% in group C. Similarly decrease in mean score for rhinorrhoea in azelastine group was 94.4% and in beclomethasone group was 95.3% in comparison to steam inhalation group where it was 25.0%. Only the beclomethasone reduced nasal stuffiness score significantly by 95.0%. No significant adverse effects of the drugs were observed. The present study establishes the relative efficacy and tolerability ofazelastine nasal spray as compared to beclomethasone nasal spray in symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis.

  9. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  10. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...... with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal...

  11. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  12. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  13. Blockade of peripheral and spinal Na+/H+ exchanger increases formalin-induced long-lasting mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Vidal-Cantú, Guadalupe C; Miguel Jiménez-Andrade, Juan; Murbartián, Janet; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2012-09-26

    The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) is involved in the regulation of intracellular pH and volume by mediating the electroneutral transport of H(+) against an influx of Na(+) ions. Since NHE1 regulates pH in neurons and astrocytes and it is expressed in nociceptive nerve fibers, it is likely that NHE may modulate neuronal excitability and pain transmission. The purpose of this study was to assess the participation of peripheral and spinal NHE in the secondary allodynia/hyperalgesia induced by formalin. In addition, we determined whether formalin injection modifies the expression of NHE1 in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and dorsal spinal cord. Subcutaneous injection of 0.5% formalin into the dorsal surface of the hind paw produced acute nociceptive behaviors (flinching and licking/lifting) followed by long-lasting bilateral secondary mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia. Peripheral and intrathecal pre-treatment (-10min) with selective NHE inhibitors 5-(N,N-dimethyl)amiloride hydrochloride (DMA, 0.3-30μM), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA, 0.3-30μM) and [1-(quinolin-5-yl)-5-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl] guanidine dihydrochloride (zoniporide, 0.03-3μM) significantly increased 0.5% formalin-induced bilateral long-lasting secondary allodynia/hyperalgesia. Contrariwise, local peripheral or intrathecal post-treatment (day 6 postinjection) with these NHE inhibitors did not affect formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors. Formalin injection reduced NHE1 expression in ipsilateral and contralateral spinal dorsal horns from day 1 to 12. In addition, formalin diminished NHE1 protein expression in DRG at day 12. These results suggest that NHE1 plays a role in pain processing at peripheral and spinal levels in formalin-induced long-lasting nociceptive behaviors. Additionally, these results suggest that proteins involved in pH regulation could be targets for the development of new analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Progesterone receptor isoform analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine mammary dysplasias and tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guil-Luna, S.; Stenvang, Jan; Brünner, Nils

    2014-01-01

    and its isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from canine mammary lesions (4 dysplasias, 10 benign tumors, and 46 carcinomas) using 1-step SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Progesterone receptor was expressed in 75% of dysplasias, all benign...... in the expression of isoform A versus B. Analysis of progesterone receptor mRNA isoforms by RT-qPCR was successful in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and enabled the distribution of isoforms A and B to be identified for the first time in dysplasias, benign tumors, and malignant tumors...

  15. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  16. Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

  17. Early experience with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) based commercial clinical genomic profiling of gliomas-robust and informative with caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, Masoud; Shabihkhani, Maryam; Hojat, Seyed A; Williams, Ryan R; Chung, Lawrance K; Im, Kyuseok; Lucey, Gregory M; Wei, Bowen; Mareninov, Sergey; Wang, Michael W; Ng, Denise W; Tashjian, Randy S; Magaki, Shino; Perez-Rosendahl, Mari; Yang, Isaac; Khanlou, Negar; Vinters, Harry V; Liau, Linda M; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Lai, Albert; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Yong, William H

    2017-08-01

    Commercial targeted genomic profiling with next generation sequencing using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue has recently entered into clinical use for diagnosis and for the guiding of therapy. However, there is limited independent data regarding the accuracy or robustness of commercial genomic profiling in gliomas. As part of patient care, FFPE samples of gliomas from 71 patients were submitted for targeted genomic profiling to one commonly used commercial vendor, Foundation Medicine. Genomic alterations were determined for the following grades or groups of gliomas; Grade I/II, Grade III, primary glioblastomas (GBMs), recurrent primary GBMs, and secondary GBMs. In addition, FFPE samples from the same patients were independently assessed with conventional methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC), Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), or Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for three genetic alterations: IDH1 mutations, EGFR amplification, and EGFRvIII expression. A total of 100 altered genes were detected by the aforementioned targeted genomic profiling assay. The number of different genomic alterations was significantly different between the five groups of gliomas and consistent with the literature. CDKN2A/B, TP53, and TERT were the most common genomic alterations seen in primary GBMs, whereas IDH1, TP53, and PIK3CA were the most common in secondary GBMs. Targeted genomic profiling demonstrated 92.3%-100% concordance with conventional methods. The targeted genomic profiling report provided an average of 5.5 drugs, and listed an average of 8.4 clinical trials for the 71 glioma patients studied but only a third of the trials were appropriate for glioma patients. In this limited comparison study, this commercial next generation sequencing based-targeted genomic profiling showed a high concordance rate with conventional methods for the 3 genetic alterations and identified mutations expected for the type of glioma. While it may not be feasible to

  18. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    OpenAIRE

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to paint during airless spray painting. It was also investigated whether the observed exposure corresponds with the estimates made by the exposure model EASE. Skin exposure was measured in three offsho...

  19. Optimization of Chitosan Microspheres Spray Drying via 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsarov Plamen D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally, the preparation of spray-dried microspheres is strongly affected by the process parameters. Particle size and production yield are mainly influenced by the spraying solution concentration and the pump rate of the spray dryer.

  20. PLASMA SPRAYING OF REFRACTORY CERMETS BY THE WATER-STABILIZED SPRAY (WSP®) SYSTEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, V.; Cheong, D.-I.; Chráska, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-253 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * cermet coatings * microhardness * zirconium carbide * tungsten Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  1. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  2. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  3. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  4. Intrathecal administration of clonidine or yohimbine decreases the nociceptive behavior caused by formalin injection in the marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration...... of the α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. RESULTS: Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused...... administration of yohimbine (53 μg/kg) followed immediately by intrathecal injection of the serotonergic methysergide maleate (20 μg/kg) resulted in a significant reversal of the antinociceptive effect of yohimbine. CONCLUSION: The present study documented the intrathecal administration of drugs in the marsh...

  5. Molecular identification of Coccidioides immitis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from a Colombian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteros, Cristina E; Vélez H, Alejandro; Toranzo, Adriana I; Suárez-Alvarez, Roberto; Tobón O, Ángela; Jimenez A, María del Pilar; Restrepo M, Ángela

    2015-06-01

    Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii are the etiologic agents of coccidioidomycosis, an endemic fungal disease of the Americas. In Colombia, this mycosis is uncommon, and only five cases, two of them imported, have been documented.By means of DNA sequencing, C. immitis was identified in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues samples from the 5th Colombian patient diagnosed in 1997. The patient was born in Pinto, Department of Magdalena, and had never visited other geographic regions, a reason to consider that the mycosis had been acquired locally.This species is primarily found in California although it has been occasionally reported in other geographic areas such as Mexico and Brazil. This is the first indigenous report of C. immitis-associated coccidioidomycosis in a Colombian patient. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.

  6. An efficient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huifang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues is challenging due to extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs upon formalin fixation. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA is a high-throughput technology, which can detect changes in protein levels and protein functionality in numerous tissue and cell sources. It has been used to evaluate protein expression mainly in frozen preparations or FFPE-based studies of limited scope. Reproducibility and reliability of the technique in FFPE samples has not yet been demonstrated extensively. We developed and optimized an efficient and reproducible procedure for extraction of proteins from FFPE cells and xenografts, and then applied the method to FFPE patient tissues and evaluated its performance on RPPA. Results Fresh frozen and FFPE preparations from cell lines, xenografts and breast cancer and renal tissues were included in the study. Serial FFPE cell or xenograft sections were deparaffinized and extracted by six different protein extraction protocols. The yield and level of protein degradation were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western Blots. The most efficient protocol was used to prepare protein lysates from breast cancer and renal tissues, which were subsequently subjected to RPPA. Reproducibility was evaluated and Spearman correlation was calculated between matching fresh frozen and FFPE samples. The most effective approach from six protein extraction protocols tested enabled efficient extraction of immunoreactive protein from cell line, breast cancer and renal tissue sample sets. 85% of the total of 169 markers tested on RPPA demonstrated significant correlation between FFPE and frozen preparations (p Conclusions With optimized protein extraction methods, FFPE tissues can be a valuable source in generating reproducible and biologically relevant proteomic profiles using RPPA, with specific marker performance varying according to tissue type.

  7. An efficient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for reverse phase protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huifang; Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Tamboli, Pheroze; Jonasch, Eric; Mills, Gordon B; Lu, Yiling; Hennessy, Bryan T; Tsavachidou, Dimitra

    2012-09-24

    Protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is challenging due to extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs upon formalin fixation. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) is a high-throughput technology, which can detect changes in protein levels and protein functionality in numerous tissue and cell sources. It has been used to evaluate protein expression mainly in frozen preparations or FFPE-based studies of limited scope. Reproducibility and reliability of the technique in FFPE samples has not yet been demonstrated extensively. We developed and optimized an efficient and reproducible procedure for extraction of proteins from FFPE cells and xenografts, and then applied the method to FFPE patient tissues and evaluated its performance on RPPA. Fresh frozen and FFPE preparations from cell lines, xenografts and breast cancer and renal tissues were included in the study. Serial FFPE cell or xenograft sections were deparaffinized and extracted by six different protein extraction protocols. The yield and level of protein degradation were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western Blots. The most efficient protocol was used to prepare protein lysates from breast cancer and renal tissues, which were subsequently subjected to RPPA. Reproducibility was evaluated and Spearman correlation was calculated between matching fresh frozen and FFPE samples.The most effective approach from six protein extraction protocols tested enabled efficient extraction of immunoreactive protein from cell line, breast cancer and renal tissue sample sets. 85% of the total of 169 markers tested on RPPA demonstrated significant correlation between FFPE and frozen preparations (p extraction methods, FFPE tissues can be a valuable source in generating reproducible and biologically relevant proteomic profiles using RPPA, with specific marker performance varying according to tissue type.

  8. MicroRNA expression profiles of multiple system atrophy from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Koichi; Mori, Fumiaki; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Shinya; Utsumi, Jun; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2016-12-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Recently, we have shown that informative miRNA data can be derived from archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from postmortem cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and normal controls. miRNA analysis has now been performed on FFPE samples from affected brain regions in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and the same areas in neurologically normal controls. We evaluated 50 samples from patients with MSA (n=13) and controls (n=13). Twenty-six samples were selected for miRNA analysis on the basis of the criteria reported previously: (i) a formalin fixation time of less than 4 weeks, (ii) a total RNA yield per sample of more than 500ng, and (iii) sufficient quality of the RNA electrophoresis pattern. These included 11 cases of MSA and 5 controls. Thus, the success rate for analysis of RNA from FFPE samples was 52% (26 of 50). For MSA, a total of 395 and 383 miRNAs were identified in the pons and cerebellum, respectively; 5 were up-regulated and 33 were down-regulated in the pons and 5 were up-regulated and 18 were down-regulated in the cerebellum. Several miRNAs down-regulated in the pons (miR-129-2-3p and miR-129-5p) and cerebellum (miR-129-2-3p, miR-129-5p and miR-132-3p) had already been identified in frozen cerebellum from MSA patients. These findings suggest that archived FFPE postmortem samples can be a valuable source for miRNA profiling in MSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the Feasibility of DNA Methylation Analyses Using Long-Term Archived Brain Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Stine T; Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Starnawska, Anna; Daugaard, Tina F; Nyengaard, Jens R; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders; Mors, Ole; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Nielsen, Anders L

    2018-01-01

    We here characterize the usability of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissue as a resource for genetic and DNA methylation analyses with potential relevance for brain-manifested diseases. We analyzed FFPE samples from The Brain Collection, Aarhus University Hospital Risskov, Denmark (AUBC), constituting 9479 formalin-fixated brains making it one of the largest collections worldwide. DNA extracted from brain FFPE tissue blocks was interrogated for quality and usability in genetic and DNA methylation analyses by different molecular techniques. Overall, we found that DNA quality was inversely correlated with storage time and DNA quality was insufficient for Illumina methylation arrays; data from methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, clonal bisulfite sequencing, and pyrosequencing of BDNF and ST6GALNAC1 suggested that the original methylation pattern is indeed preserved. Proof-of-principle experiments predicting sex based on the methylation status of the X-inactivated SLC9A7 gene, or genotype differences of the Y and X chromosomes, showed consistency between predicted and actual sex for a subset of FFPE samples. In conclusion, even though DNA from FFPE samples is of low quality and technically challenging, it is likely that a subset of samples can provide reliable data given that the methodology used is designed for small DNA fragments. We propose that simple PCR-based quality control experiments at the genetic and DNA methylation level, carried out at the beginning of any given project, can be used to enrich for the best-performing FFPE samples. The apparent preservation of genetic and DNA methylation patterns in archival FFPE samples may bring along new perspectives for the identification of genetic and epigenetic changes associated with brain-manifested diseases.

  10. Optimization and characterization of spray-dried IgG formulations: a design of experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Homa; Najafabadi, Abdolhosein Rouholamini; Vatanara, Alireza

    2017-10-24

    The purpose of the present study is to optimize a spray-dried formulation as a model antibody regarding stability and aerodynamic property for further aerosol therapy of this group of macromolecules. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed milligrams of Cysteine (X 1 ), Trehalose (X 2 ), and Tween 20 (X 3 ) as independent variables. The dependent variables were quantified and the optimized formulation was prepared accordingly. SEC-HPLC and FTIR-spectroscopy were conducted to evaluate the molecular and structural status of spray-dried preparations. Particle characterization of optimized sample was performed with the aid of DSC, SEM, and TSI examinations. Experimental responses of a total of 17 formulations resulted in yield values, (Y 1 ), ranging from 21.1 ± 0.2 to 40.2 ± 0.1 (%); beta-sheet content, (Y 2 ), from 66.22 ± 0.19 to 73.78 ± 0.26 (%); amount of aggregation following process, (Y 3 ), ranging from 0.11 ± 0.03 to 0.95 ± 0.03 (%); and amount of aggregation upon storage, (Y 4 ), from 0.81 ± 0.01 to 3.13 ± 0.64 (%) as dependent variables. Results-except for those of the beta sheet content-were fitted to quadratic models describing the inherent relationship between main factors. Co-application of Cysteine and Tween 20 preserved antibody molecules from molecular degradation and improved immediate and accelerated stability of spry-dried antibodies. Validation of the optimization study indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology in preparation of stable spray-dried IgG. Graphical abstract Spray drying of IgG in the presence of Trehalose, Cysteine and Tween 20.

  11. Chlorhexidine spray versus mouthwash in the control of dental plaque after implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francetti, Luca; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Basso, Matteo; Testori, Tiziano; Taschieri, Silvio; Weinstein, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    This randomized clinical trial was aimed at comparing two different means of delivering chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) for plaque control during the 2 weeks following implant surgery. Twenty patients selected for implant therapy were randomly divided into two groups: 10 subjects used 15 ml of 0.12% CHX mouthrinse (control group) and 10 used 0.2% CHX spray (test group). Professional oral hygiene was carried out immediately before surgery. During the 14 days following surgery mechanical oral hygiene was performed only at the teeth not surgically involved. Plaque index (PI), stain index (SI), modified gingival index and taste alteration were assessed on the 7th and 14th day after surgery. The clinical parameters were evaluated at four tooth surfaces by a single examiner. Teeth proximal to surgical site and teeth not involved were statistically compared. In both groups, the PI increased similarly, with respect to the baseline, at days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference between the two groups at either time point. On the contrary, in the control group, the SI increased significantly when compared with baseline over the 14 days both at teeth nearest to surgical sites and at not-involved sites. In the test group pigmentation was consistent only at teeth proximal to the surgical site. When considering not-involved sites, tooth staining was significantly lower in the test with respect to the control group. The present study indicates that the efficacy of CHX spray in the post-surgical control of dental plaque is similar to that of CHX mouthwash. Tooth staining, however, is significantly lower in the spray group at sites not surgically involved. These effects might be related to the route of CHX delivery, as well as the total dose administered that was significantly lower in the spray group with respect to the rinse group. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  12. Development and independent validation of a prognostic assay for stage II colon cancer using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Richard D

    2011-12-10

    Current prognostic factors are poor at identifying patients at risk of disease recurrence after surgery for stage II colon cancer. Here we describe a DNA microarray-based prognostic assay using clinically relevant formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples.

  13. Comparison of percent hatch and fungal infestation in channel catfish eggs after copper sulfate, diquat bromide, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced survival is often a result of fungal (Saprolegnia spp.) infestation of fish eggs. However, timely chemical treatments often limit these infestations and increase survival. The effect of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP - 10 mg/L), diquat bromide (25 mg/L diquat cation), formalin (433 mg/L)...

  14. MicroRNA expression in melanocytic nevi: the usefulness of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material for miRNA microarray profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M.; Klausen, M.; Gniadecki, R.

    2009-01-01

    surgical specimens are formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). To explore whether FFPE material would be suitable for miRNA profiling in melanocytic lesions, we compared miRNA expression patterns in FFPE versus fresh frozen samples, obtained from 15 human melanocytic nevi. Out of microarray data, we...

  15. Detection of Streptococcus suis by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and peroxidase-antiperoxidase assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Feenstra, Anne Avlund; Tegtmeier, Conny

    2000-01-01

    and the immunohistochemical methods were used for detection of S. suis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of brain, endocardium, and lung from pigs infected with S. suis. The methods developed were able to detect single cells of S. suis in situ in the respective samples, whereas no signal was observed from...

  16. Comparative investigations of T cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissues by capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Funder, A D; Bendix, K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare clonal T cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) tissue, using capillary electrophoresis for use in diagnostics, as T cell lymphomas may be difficult to diagnose by conventional methods. METHODS: The DNA for PCR...

  17. The effects of age-in-block on RNA-seq analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival samples represent a vast resource for identification of chemical and pharmaceutical targets. Previous use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples has been limited due to changes in RNA introduced by fixation and embedding procedures. Recent advances in RNA-seq...

  18. Implementation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell line pellets as high-quality process controls in quality assessment programs for KRAS mutation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Jeroen R; Opdam, Frank J M; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    . We assessed a novel synthetic control for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples in a blind study conducted within nine laboratories across Europe. We show that FFPE material can, at least in part, mimic clinical samples and we demonstrate this control to be a valuable tool...

  19. Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Hennig, Guido; Kyndi, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression analysis on messenger RNA (mRNA) purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is increasingly used for research purposes. Tissue heterogeneity may question specificity and interpretation of results from mRNA isolated from a whole slide section, and thresholds for minimal...

  20. Mining the archives: a cross-platform analysis of gene expression profiles in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a potentially invaluable resource for genomic research into the molecular basis of disease. However, use of FFPE samples in gene expression studies has been limited by technical challenges resulting from degradation...

  1. Digital Image Processing application to spray and flammability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, M. A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Image Processing has been integrated into a new technique for measurements of fuel spray characteristics. The advantages of this technique are: a wide dynamic range of droplet sizes, accounting for nonspherical droplet shapes not possible with other spray assessment techniques. Finally, the technique has been applied to the study of turbojet engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel.

  2. Tableting properties of an improved spray-dried lactose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose

  3. Comparison of three fungicide spray advisories for lettuce downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Koike, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    Lettuce growers in coastal California have relied mainly on protective fungicide sprays to control downy mildew. Thus, timing of sprays before infection is critical for optimal results. A leaf-wetness-driven, infection-based advisory system, previously developed, did not always perform

  4. Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2001-01-01

    The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...

  5. A numerical study on dynamics of spray jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of flow characteristics of spray jets in an injector nozzle, solgel process is very critical for scientific studies. In this communication, we report results from a numerical modeling of spray jet dynamics and its breakup. The nature of instability depends on the density of the jet fluid and the ambient fluid and also on the ...

  6. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  7. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  8. Screening and spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide a longer shelf life. A major hurdle when applying spray drying is the extensive optimisa tion required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain powders of acceptable quality. Therefore, a high-throughput

  9. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  10. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  11. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this

  12. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  13. Efficacy of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on postharvest natural decay of cherry tomato fruit, and evaluated the quality attributes during storage. Preharvest spraying with P. guilliermondii significantly decreased the decay index. Moreover, the efficacy of this biological control was ...

  14. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  15. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  16. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1 × 10(10) CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70 °C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03 ± 0.04%, 100% (in 1.16 min), 0.14 ± 0.0, 35.20 g H2O/100 g and 4.80 ± 0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60 days, the samples stored at -8 °C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/g.

  17. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  18. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. UVC emitting phosphors obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiut, J.M.A., E-mail: jmacaiut@iq.unesp.b [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Institute of Chemistry, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, CP 355, Araraquara-SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Lechevallier, S.; Dexpert-Ghys, J. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Caillier, B.; Guillot, Ph. [Diagnostic des Plasmas Hors Equilibre, Universite Jean Francois Champollion, place de Verdun, 81012 Albi Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-15

    The broadband inter-configurational (4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1{yields}}4f{sup 2}) emission of Pr{sup 3+} doped in lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) and in calcium pyrophosphate (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) has been investigated under plasma excitation. The synthesis by spray pyrolysis at moderate temperature followed by a controlled annealing proves to be a very efficient way to produce good quality UVC emitting phosphor Ca{sub 1.92}Pr{sub 0.04}Na{sub 0.04}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} ({alpha} phase). The emission of this phosphor in the wavelength range 200-350 nm has been measured with a prototype device, which can be employed for anti-microbial testing. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Pr{sup 3+} doped orthophosphate and pyrophosphate were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. {yields} The dense particles present good quality UVC emitting (200-350 nm). {yields} The prototype device can be employed for anti-microbial testing.

  20. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted...... into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...

  1. Laser diagnostics for urea-water solution spray characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Łukasz Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize the laser techniques used for urea-water solution (UWS spray characterization at the Institute of Heat Engineering (ITC, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. In presented studies several techniques for both, global and local spray characterization were used. Shadowgraphy-based long distance microscopy was used to visualize individual droplets and primary breakup. High speed imaging of Mie scattering (scattering on the gas-liquid interface signal was used for global spray characterization. Combination of LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence and Mie scattering allowed to determine qualitative droplet size distribution across the whole spray cloud. The structured illumination technique used to modulate laser light sheet allowed to minimize the effects of multiple scattering in detection of Mie signal, what indicated huge potential of this technique in characterization of UWS sprays. The results presented here prove the importance of laser diagnostics in SCR systems development.

  2. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  3. Thermal Spraying of Bioactive Polymer Coatings for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, A.; Stokes, J.

    2012-06-01

    Flame sprayed biocompatible polymer coatings, made of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, were investigated as single coatings on titanium and as top coatings on plasma sprayed Hydroxyapatite. Biocompatible polymers can act as drug carriers for localized drug release following implantation. The polymer matrix consisted of a biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate 98%/ polyhydroxyvalerate 2% (PHBV) and a non-biodegradable polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Screening tests were performed to determine the suitable range of spraying parameters, followed by a Design of Experiments study to determine the effects of spraying parameters on coating characteristics (thickness, roughness, adhesion, wettability), and to optimize the coating properties accordingly. Coatings characterization showed that optimized flame sprayed biocompatible polymers underwent little chemical degradation, did not produce acidic by-products in vitro, and that cells proliferated well on their surface.

  4. Experimental measurements of air cleaning with water sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of water sprays for removal of gaseous and particulate fission products from air was studied experimentally, to determine the value of existing and proposed spray systems at the Savannah River reactors for cleaning the reactor room air following a hypothetical severe accident. The interaction of spray droplets with iodine and with cesium aerosols formed by combustion were measured separately. In the case of iodine, the results were compared to the theoretical treatment of Albert, Wichner, and Baumgarten. Good agreement was found for the smaller drop sizes, and the effect of spray pH predicted by the theoretical model was confirmed. The aerosol studies demonstrated the effectiveness of sprays in removing aerosol particles larger than 1 micrometer

  5. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  6. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  7. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  8. Role of orexin-2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens in antinociception induced by carbachol stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Fatemeh; Jahangirvand, Mahboubeh; Ezzatpanah, Somayeh; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    Orexins, which are mainly produced by orexin-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), play an important role in pain modulation. Previously, it has been established that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in the modulation of formalin-induced nociceptive responses, a model of tonic pain. In this study, the role of intra-accumbal orexin-2 receptors (OX2rs) in the mediation of formalin-induced pain was investigated. A volume of 0.5 μl of 10, 20, and 40 nmol/l solutions of TCS OX2 29, an OX2r antagonist, were unilaterally microinjected into the NAc 5 min before an intra-LH carbachol microinjection (0.5 μl of 250 nmol/l solution). After 5 min, animals received a subcutaneous injection of formalin 2.5% (50 μl) into the hind paw. Pain-related behaviors were assessed at 5 min intervals during a 60-min test period. The findings showed that TCS OX2 29 administration dose dependently blocked carbachol-induced antinociception during both phases of formalin-induced pain. The antianalgesic effect of TCS OX2 29 was greater during the late phase compared with the early phase. These observations suggest that the NAc, as a part of a descending pain-modulatory circuitry, partially mediates LH-induced analgesia in the formalin test through recruitment of OX2rs. This makes the orexinergic system a good potential therapeutic target in the control of persistent inflammatory pain.

  9. Chemical stimulation of the ST36 acupoint reduces both formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors and spinal astrocyte activation via spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Yun; Kim, Chi-Young; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Hye-Jung; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2011-11-25

    Spinal astrocytes have emerged as important mechanistic contributors to pathological and chronic pain. Recently, we have demonstrated that injection of diluted bee venom (DBV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint produces a potent anti-nociceptive effect via the activation of spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors. However, it is unclear if this anti-nociceptive effect is associated with alterations in spinal astrocytes. Thus, the present study was designed to determine: (1) whether DBV's anti-nociceptive effect in the formalin test involves suppression of spinal astrocyte activation; (2) whether DBV-induced astrocyte inhibition is mediated by spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors; and (3) whether this glial modulation is potentiated by intrathecal administration of the glial metabolic inhibitor, fluorocitrate (FC) in combination with DBV injection. DBV was injected directly into the ST36 acupoint, and spinal expression of the astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was assessed together with effects on formalin-induced nociception. DBV treatment reduced pain responses in the late phase of the formalin test and significantly blocked the formalin-evoked increase in spinal GFAP expression. These effects of DBV were prevented by intrathecal pretreatment with selective alpha-2A and alpha-2C adrenoceptor antagonists. Moreover, low dose intrathecal injection of FC in conjunction with low dose DBV injection into the ST36 acupoint synergistically suppressed pain responses and GFAP expression. These results demonstrate that DBV stimulation of the ST36 acupoint inhibits the formalin-induced activation of spinal astrocytes and nociceptive behaviors in this inflammatory pain model and this inhibition is associated with the activation of spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of double formalin--Lugol's fixation in assessing number and biomass of ciliates: an example of estimations at mesoscale in NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; Van Wambeke, France; Dalby, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Ciliated protozoa are potential grazers of primary and bacterial production and act as intermediaries between picoplankton and copepods and other large suspension feeders. Accurate determination of ciliate abundance and feeding mode is crucial in oceanic carbon budget estimations. However, the impact of different fixatives on the abundance and cell volume of ciliates has been investigated in only a few studies using either laboratory cultures or natural populations. Lugol's solution and formalin are the most commonly used fixatives for the preservation of ciliates samples. In the present study, the aim was to compare 0.4% Lugol's solution and 2% borated-formalin fixation and evaluate the need of counting duplicate samples each using a different fixative. For this, a large number of samples (n = 110) from the NE Atlantic was analyzed in the frame of POMME program (Multidisciplinary Mesoscale Ocean Program). We established a statistically significant relationship (p Lugol's and formalin fixed samples for both abundance (r2 = 0.50) and biomass (r2 = 0.76) of aloricate ciliates which showed that counts were higher in Lugol's solution by a factor of 2 and a non-taxon specific cell-loss in formalin. However, loricate ciliate abundance in our samples which were represented primarily by Tintinnus spp. did not show any difference between the two treatments. Abundance and biomass of mixotrophic ciliates (chloroplast-bearing cells) were for various reasons underestimated in both treatments. Our results show that unique fixation by formalin may severely underestimate ciliates abundance and biomass although their population may not alter. For this reason, Lugol's solution is best for the estimation of their abundance and biomass. However, for counts of mixotrophs and the evaluation of the ecological role of ciliates in carbon flux, double fixation is essential. Compromises regarding the fixatives have lead to severe underestimations of mixotrophs in studies conducted by now.

  11. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to

  12. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  13. Development of a spray-drying method for the formulation of respirable microparticles containing ofloxacin-palladium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Francesco; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Schoubben, Aurelie; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo; Ricci, Maurizio

    2013-01-20

    The purpose of this study was to produce low-releasing spray-dried polymeric microparticles (MP) useful to target alveolar macrophages in tuberculosis (TB) inhalation therapy. Ofloxacin (Ofx) was encapsulated as ofloxacin-palladium (Ofx-Pd) complex into poly DL-lactide (PLA) MP by spray-drying. Ofx-Pd was prepared according to a method previously reported. A D-optimal design was employed to optimize drug content (DC), aerodynamic diameter (d(ae)) and span. d(ae) was calculated coupling tap-density to particle size analysis. The MP were characterized by SEM, UV spectrophotometry, and DSC. In vitro drug release was performed in comparison to Ofx loaded PLA MP. The Ofx-Pd complex formed spontaneously with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Inlet temperature, drug loading and polymer concentration resulted the most influential. Optimal MP had span of 0.9, a round shape, d(ae) of 2.5 μm, and DC of 30% (w/w). DSC and SEM analyses correlated with particle size. The optimized MP formulation showed a very low release at pH 7.4 compared to spray-dried Ofx loaded MP, the release increased slightly at lower pHs. Potentially inhalable MP were obtained by an optimized spray-drying process. The very low initial drug release at physiologic pH could be useful to target alveolar macrophages and to avoid systemic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotarou Sugawara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarou Sugawara1, Atsushi Kameyama2, Akiko Haruyama3, Takumi Oishi4, Nobuyuki Kukidome2, Yasuaki Takase2, Masatake Tsunoda21Undergraduate Student, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 2Division of General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan; 3Department of Dental Materials Science, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 4Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanObjective: To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin.Materials and methods: The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical, and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test.Results: Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups showed significantly lower μTBS than control specimens (P < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference between

  15. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  16. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  17. Autonomous Precision Spraying Trials Using a Novel Cell Spray Implement Mounted on an Armadillo Tool Carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Midtiby, Henrik

    of weed detection algorithms and spraying strategies is developed. The front part of the cell sprayer implement is a camera module mounted in a shock absorbing frame. The camera module is followed by a spraying module containing nozzles with individual valve control. The implement is designed for use......Precision weeding is one of the most promising applications for autonomous service robots in biological production. Herbicides have been the default weeding solution during the past decades, but there is a growing concern about the environmental impact on drinking water reservoirs etc. The use...... with an Armadillo robotic tool carrier consisting of two battery powered track modules mounted on each side of the implement. This paper focus on the cell sprayer implement design including camera system, sprayer module and integration with the service robot and the robot software. The FroboMind software platform...

  18. Characterization and Analysis of Paper Spray Ionization of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga-Aguilar, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Paper spray ionization has arisen relatively recently as a complement and alternative to electro- and nanospray ionization with silica capillaries. A majority of the work in the present literature focuses on the chemical aspect of paper spray. In order to study the physical and phenomenological facet of its implementation, we measured current and voltage distributions of Taylor cones. To study transport phenomena on filter paper, we addressed the behavior of large, sparingly soluble tetraalkylammonium ions, which are usually used as mobility standards, in paper spray. The variation of intensity with time of monomers and dimers of these ions was measured with a differential mobility analyzer and compared with that produced by contamination in the paper. At the same time, we evaluated the proficiency of different paper spray techniques for protein analysis using nano spray as a reference. Experiments suggest that Taylor cones in paper spray are subject to hysteresis, whereas transport phenomena in the porous substrate notably affects the ionization of the sample. Additionally, we observed that paper spray tends to favor lower charge states in proteins. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  20. A dermal model for spray painters. Part I: subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Semple, S; Marquart, J; Cherrie, J W

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a process-based, structured approach has been used to estimate dermal exposure from overspray generated by a spray painting process. Factors for spray technique, object shape and workers' individual work practices involved in the processes of droplet formation and deposition were incorporated into the model. The model was applied to predict dermal exposure of airless spray painters and the results were compared with exposure data. The predicted levels of exposure showed reasonable rank correlation with the measured exposure, although the model tended to over-predict the actual level of exposure. It was concluded that a structured, process-based approach has the potential to produce reliable estimates of dermal exposure. The reliability of exposure models of this type should be explored further and the relationship between the determinants of exposure should be validated by additional field studies.

  1. To Spray or Not to Spray: A Decision Analysis of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Woodill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on pesticide spraying (spray/no spray as the most significant pest management decision within each period over the entire crop season. The main result from the analysis suggests the most important parameter to maximize net benefit is to ensure a low initial infestation level. A second result looks at the impact of a subsidy for the cost of pesticides and shows a typical farmer receives a positive net benefit of $947.17. Sensitivity analysis of parameters checks the robustness of the model and further confirms the importance of a low initial infestation level vis-a-vis any level of subsidy. The use of a decision tree is shown to be an effective method for understanding integrated pest management strategies and solutions.

  2. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  3. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  4. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  5. Plasma sprayed Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, R. A.; Anderson, C. D.; Flanagan, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Thin coatings (0.16 mm) and thick coatings (0.50 mm) of Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) were deposited on stainless-steel substrates by low pressure plasma spraying. Microscopic examination of the coatings in a light microscope revealed excessive porosity, but good bonding to the substrate. Fracture cross sections examined in a scanning electron microscope showed the grains to be equiaxed and approximately 1 micron or less in diameter in the as-sprayed condition. The intrinsic coercivities of the as-sprayed coatings varied from 5.8 to 10.9 kOe. The effects of postspray heat treatments on the intrinsic coercivity are also given.

  6. PRODUCING STRAWBERRY (Fragaria chiloensis) DEHYDRATED Spray and lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Pérez, A.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos.; Rojas Ayerve, T.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of dehydration of strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis 1 .) ha ve been studied: spray-drying and freezedrying. It has been found that the optimum sequence for the drying operation is as follows: selection/classification , washing, steaming, pulp-extraction, conditioning and freeze-drying. The efficiency over the total solids obtained with this method is 86.48% compared to 66.02% when using spray-drying. The strawberry pulp was conditioned by water dilution of 1:1. For spray-drying, t...

  7. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  8. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkiran, Özgür Oğuz; Ergeneman, Metin

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image pr...

  9. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  10. Improved results of LINE-1 methylation analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues with the application of a heating step during the DNA extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianyu; Jeong, Seorin; Kim, Younghoon; Bae, Jeong Mo; Cho, Nam Yun; Kim, Jung Ho; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are important resources for profiling DNA methylation changes and for studying a variety of diseases. However, formalin fixation introduces inter-strand crosslinking, which might cause incomplete bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosines, which might lead to falsely elevated measurements of methylation levels in pyrosequencing assays. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a major constituent of repetitive transposable DNA elements, and its methylation is referred to correlates with global DNA methylation. To identify whether formalin fixation might impact the measured values of methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements and whether prolonged heat-induced denaturation of DNA might reduce the artificial increases in measured values caused by formalin fixation, we analyzed paired fresh-frozen (FF) and FFPE xenograft tissue samples for their methylation levels in LINE-1 using a pyrosequencing assay. To further confirm the effect of a heating step in the measurement of LINE-1 or single gene methylation levels, we analyzed FFPE tissue samples of gastric cancer and colorectal cancer for their methylation status in LINE-1 and eight single genes, respectively. Formalin fixation led to an increase in the measured values of LINE-1 methylation regardless of the duration of fixation. Prolonged heating of the DNA at 95 °C for 30 min before bisulfite conversion was found (1) to decrease the discrepancy in the measured values between the paired FF and FFPE tissue samples, (2) to decrease the standard deviation of the measured value of LINE-1 methylation levels in FFPE tissue samples of gastric cancer, and (3) to improve the performance in the measurement of single gene methylation levels in FFPE tissue samples of colorectal cancer. Formalin fixation leads to artificial increases in the measured values of LINE-1 methylation, and the application of prolonged heating of DNA samples decreases the discrepancy in the

  11. Evaluation of two commercial and three home-made fixatives for the substitution of formalin: a formaldehyde–free laboratory is possible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanini Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formaldehyde (HCHO is a gas (available as a 37% concentrated solution, stabilized with methanol. The 10% dilution (approximately 4% formaldehyde has been used as a fixative since the end of the 19th century. Alternative fixatives are also commercially available or may be prepared in-house in laboratories. Statements by the IARC, along with other USA agencies (CalEPA, RoC/NTP on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde for humans renders its substitution in Pathology Departments necessary since the annual use of formalin may exceed 3,500 liters for a medium-large laboratory. To achieve a “formalin-free laboratory” we tested straightforward-to-make fixatives along with registered reagents offered as formalin substitutes. Methods More than two hundreds specimens were fixed in parallel with in-laboratory made fixatives PAGA (Polyethylenglycol, ethyl Alcohol, Glycerol, Acetic acid, two zinc-based fixatives (ZBF, Z7, and commercially-available alternatives (RCL2 and CellBlock. Tissue micro arrays were used for morphological and immunohistochemical comparison. Extraction of RNA was carried out to evaluate preservation of nucleic acids. Results Differences compared to formalin fixation were evident in alcohol-based fixatives, mainly restricted to higher stain affinity and considerable tissue shrinkage. Conversely, nuclear detail was superior with these alcohol-based formulas compared to formalin or glyoxale-based recipes. RNA extraction was superior for Z7, PAGA and RCL2 with regard to concentration but relatively comparable regarding quality. Conclusions Abolition of the human carcinogen formaldehyde from pathology laboratories is possible even in contexts whereby commercial alternatives to formalin are unavailable or are too expensive for routine use, and aspiration devices are lacking or not adequately serviced. The use of known formulations, possibly with simple and not-noxious (“alimentary grade” constituents, comparable with

  12. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, M; Ratcliffe, S; Hovorka, J; Schofield, M; Taylor, L; Lauder, H; Ehler, E

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) associated with allodynia poses a significant clinical challenge. The efficacy of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray, a novel cannabinoid formulation, was investigated in this 15-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. In total, 303 patients with PNP associated with allodynia were screened; 128 were randomized to THC/CBD spray and 118 to placebo, in addition to their current analgesic therapy. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the 30% responder rate in PNP 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) score and the mean change from baseline to the end of treatment in this score. Various key secondary measures of pain and functioning were also investigated. At the 30% responder level, there were statistically significant treatment differences in favour of THC/CBD spray in the full analysis (intention-to-treat) dataset [p = 0.034; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-3.70]. There was also a reduction in mean PNP 0-10 NRS scores in both treatment groups that was numerically higher in the THC/CBD spray group, but which failed to reach statistical significance. Secondary measures of sleep quality 0-10 NRS score (p = 0.0072) and Subject Global Impression of Change (SGIC) (p = 0.023) also demonstrated statistically significant treatment differences in favour of THC/CBD spray treatment. These findings demonstrate that, in a meaningful proportion of otherwise treatment-resistant patients, clinically important improvements in pain, sleep quality and SGIC of the severity of their condition are obtained with THC/CBD spray. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated and no new safety concerns were identified. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. Randomized double-blind trial of prophylactic topical Evozac® Calming Skin Spray for gefitinib-associated acne-like eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yalan Wang,* Yunpeng Yang,* Jinxia Xu, Juan Yu, Xia Liu, Ruizhen Gao, Li Zhang State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: "Gefitinib" is a first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. More than half of patients receiving gefitinib develop acne-like eruption. Evozac® Calming Skin Spray (Evaux Laboratoires, Évaux-les-Bains, France is made of Évaux thermal spring water and commonly used for the treatment of dermatological toxicities caused by anti- epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. The aim of the study reported here was to test the effect of Evozac Calming Skin Spray on the prevention of rash in patients receiving gefitinib. Methods: Non-small-cell lung cancer patients preparing to initiate gefitinib therapy were randomly assigned to apply Evozac Calming Skin Spray or physiological saline to the face three times a day. The treatment was started on the same day as initiation of gefitinib therapy and continued for 4 weeks. Results: A total of 51 patients in the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group and 50 patients in the physiological saline group completed the study per the protocol. The number of facial lesions peaked at the end of 3 weeks in both groups. There were significantly fewer lesions in the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group than in the physiological saline group at the end of 1 week (0.25 versus [vs] 1.10, P=0.031 and 3 weeks (6.67 vs 12.26, P=0.022. Patients from the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group also developed fewer facial lesions at the end of 2 weeks and 4 weeks, however, the difference was not statistically significant. At the end of 4 weeks, fewer patients from the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group developed rash of grade 2 or greater severity (17.6% vs 36.0%, P=0.037, or experienced rash

  14. Plasma Spray Synthesis of High Purity Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is the efficient synthesis of high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT’s) using the LaRC radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS)...

  15. Nutritional Composition of Liquid and Spray-dried Juices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica) juices were extracted from the calyces and tamarind pulp respectively. Parts of the extracted juices were spray dried while the remaining parts were preserved as whole juices. The juices and powders were then analyzed for the ...

  16. A Combined Foam-Spray Model for Ocean Microwave Radiometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raizer, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Passive microwave emissions from oceanic dispersed media are considered. The spray is modeled by the aggregates of spherical water droplets, and the foam is represented by a macroscopic system of hollow spherical water shells...

  17. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  18. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  19. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases......In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  20. Modular Spray-Cooled Assemblies for High Heat Fluxes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project will produce a flight suitable test bench based on a modular spray-cooled assembly that considers NASA power and mass budgets and can...

  1. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  2. Approximate computation of hydrothermal conditions of nuclear reactor spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Borshchev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for determining the evaporation numbers of nuclear reactor spray ponds which provide necessary reactor cooling during its normal operation under given meteorological conditions with account of restrictions on the cooled water temperature at the reactor entrance

  3. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  4. Optimization of Urea Based Protein Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for Shotgun Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebker, Stephen A; Koepsell, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase protein detection. Each extraction was performed on a randomized pair of serial sections of homogenous FFPE tissue and analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results were compared in terms of yield, missed cleavages, and peptide carbamylation. Lowering extraction temperature to 60°C decreased carbamylation at the cost of decreased protein detection and yield. Protein extraction for at least 20 minutes at 95°C followed by 60°C for 2 hours maximized total protein yield while maintaining protein detection and reducing carbamylation by 7.9%. When accounting for carbamylation during analysis, this modified extraction temperature provides equivalent peptide and protein detection relative to the commercially available Qproteome® FFPE Tissue Kit. No changes to buffer composition containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, and 1 M ammonium bicarbonate resulted in improvements to control conditions. Optimized urea in-solution digestion provides an efficient workflow with maximized yields for proteomic analysis of clinically relevant FFPE tissue.

  5. Histology-guided protein digestion/extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pressure ulcer biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Domenico; Pollins, Alonda C; Nanney, Lillian B; Sindona, Giovanni; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Herein we present a simple, reproducible and versatile approach for in situ protein digestion and identification on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. This adaptation is based on the use of an enzyme delivery platform (hydrogel discs) that can be positioned on the surface of a tissue section. By simultaneous deposition of multiple hydrogels over select regions of interest within the same tissue section, multiple peptide extracts can be obtained from discrete histological areas. After enzymatic digestion, the hydrogel extracts are submitted for LC-MS/MS analysis followed by database inquiry for protein identification. Further, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is used to reveal the spatial distribution of the identified peptides within a serial tissue section. Optimization was achieved using cutaneous tissue from surgically excised pressure ulcers that were subdivided into two prime regions of interest: the wound bed and the adjacent dermal area. The robust display of tryptic peptides within these spectral analyses of histologically defined tissue regions suggests that LC-MS/MS in combination with IMS can serve as useful exploratory tools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Carrillo-Munguía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different analgesic combinations with caffeine have shown this drug to be capable of increasing the analgesic effect. Many combinations with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been carried out, but, in regard to opioids, only combinations with morphine and tramadol have been reported. The antinociceptive synergism mechanism of these combinations is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the participation of spinal and supraspinal opioidergic and serotonergic systems in the synergic effect of the tramadol+caffeine combination in the rat formalin test. At the supraspinal level, the opioid antagonist, naloxone, completely reversed the effect of the drug combination, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect by 60%; however, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, did not alter the combination effect. When the antagonists were intrathecally administered, there was a significant reduction in all tramadol-caffeine combination effects. With respect to tramadol alone, there was significant participation of the opioid system at the supraspinal level, whereas it was the serotonergic system that participated at the spinal level by means of the two receptors studied. In conclusion, the tramadol+caffeine combination synergically activated the opioid and serotonergic systems at the supraspinal level, as well as at the spinal level, to produce the antinociception.

  7. Methanol-based fixation is superior to buffered formalin for next-generation sequencing of DNA from clinical cancer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorz, A M; Ennis, D; Macintyre, G; Goranova, T E; Eldridge, M; Segui-Gracia, N; Valganon, M; Hoyle, A; Orange, C; Moore, L; Jimenez-Linan, M; Millan, D; McNeish, I A; Brenton, J D

    2016-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumour samples is a critical component of personalised cancer treatment, but it requires high-quality DNA samples. Routine neutral-buffered formalin (NBF) fixation has detrimental effects on nucleic acids, causing low yields, as well as fragmentation and DNA base changes, leading to significant artefacts. We have carried out a detailed comparison of DNA quality from matched samples isolated from high-grade serous ovarian cancers from 16 patients fixed in methanol and NBF. These experiments use tumour fragments and mock biopsies to simulate routine practice, ensuring that results are applicable to standard clinical biopsies. Using matched snap-frozen tissue as gold standard comparator, we show that methanol-based fixation has significant benefits over NBF, with greater DNA yield, longer fragment size and more accurate copy-number calling using shallow whole-genome sequencing (WGS). These data also provide a new approach to understand and quantify artefactual effects of fixation using non-negative matrix factorisation to analyse mutational spectra from targeted and WGS data. We strongly recommend the adoption of methanol fixation for sample collection strategies in new clinical trials. This approach is immediately available, is logistically simple and can offer cheaper and more reliable mutation calling than traditional NBF fixation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  8. Hydrolysis Profiles of Formalin Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumors Based on IOD (Integrated Optical Density and Nuclear Texture Feature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Fležar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine optimal hydrolysis time for the Feulgen DNA staining of archival formalin fixed paraffin‐embedded surgical samples, prepared as single cell suspensions for image cytometric measurements. The nuclear texture features along with the IOD (integrated optical density of the tumor nuclei were analysed by an automated high resolution image cytometer as a function of duration of hydrolysis treatment (in 5 N HCl at room temperature. Tissue blocks of breast carcinoma, ovarian serous carcinoma, ovarian serous tumor of borderline malignancy and leiomyosarcoma were included in the study. IOD hydrolysis profiles showed plateau between 30 and 60 min in the breast carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma, and between 40 and 60 min in the ovarian serous carcinoma and ovarian serous tumor of borderline malignancy. Most of the nuclear texture features remained stable after 20 min of hydrolysis treatment. Our results indicate that the optimal hydrolysis time for IOD and for nuclear texture feature measurements, was between 40 and 60 min in the cell preparations from tissue blocks of three epithelial and one soft tissue tumor.

  9. Matrix-comparative genomic hybridization from multicenter formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köhne Claus-Henning

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genomic signatures of colorectal cancer for risk stratification requires the study of large series of cancer patients with an extensive clinical follow-up. Multicentric clinical studies represent an ideal source of well documented archived material for this type of analyses. Methods To verify if this material is technically suitable to perform matrix-CGH, we performed a pilot study using macrodissected 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples collected within the framework of the EORTC-GI/PETACC-2 trial for colorectal cancer. The scientific aim was to identify prognostic genomic signatures differentiating locally restricted (UICC stages II-III from systemically advanced (UICC stage IV colorectal tumours. Results The majority of archived tissue samples collected in the different centers was suitable to perform matrix-CGH. 5/7 advanced tumours displayed 13q-gain and 18q-loss. In locally restricted tumours, only 6/12 tumours showed a gain on 13q and 7/12 tumours showed a loss on 18q. Interphase-FISH and high-resolution array-mapping of the gain on 13q confirmed the validity of the array-data and narrowed the chromosomal interval containing potential oncogenes. Conclusion Archival, paraffin-embedded tissue samples collected in multicentric clinical trials are suitable for matrix-CGH analyses and allow the identification of prognostic signatures and aberrations harbouring potential new oncogenes.

  10. A formalin-inactivated vaccine provides good protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Trong; Thu Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Tsai, Ming-An; Ya-Zhen, E; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2017-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi is one of the most common threats to farmed grouper, so considerable efforts are in practice to control the pathogen. This study presents a highly effective vaccine against V. harveyi in the orange-spotted grouper with the help of a single intraperitoneal immunization. The vaccine candidate was in form of whole, formalin-inactivated V. harveyi cells combined with a metabolizable ISA763 AVG adjuvant. Our results indicated that the vaccine triggered a remarkably higher expression level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in the groupers' kidneys and spleens, as recorded after 1 and 3 days of immunization. Antibody titers were significantly elevated in the vaccinated fish. A pivotal observation was that the vaccine highly protected the grouper from a homologous V. harveyi strain challenge with relative percentage survival values of 100% and 91.7% at 6 and 12 weeks post-immunization, respectively. Vaccinated fish also demonstrated strong cross-protection against a heterologous bacterial isolate challenge. Therefore, the inactivated V. harveyi vaccine is a promising candidate that could stimulate good immune responses and confer remarkable protection in farmed groupers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of Single- and Dual-Color Immunofluorescence Protocols for Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Archival Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Junko; Ito, Reiko; Manley, Nancy R; Hale, Laura P

    2016-02-01

    Performance of immunofluorescence staining on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues is generally not considered to be feasible, primarily due to problems with tissue quality and autofluorescence. We report the development and application of procedures that allowed for the study of a unique archive of thymus tissues derived from autopsies of individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima, Japan in 1945. Multiple independent treatments were used to minimize autofluorescence and maximize fluorescent antibody signals. Treatments with NH3/EtOH and Sudan Black B were particularly useful in decreasing autofluorescent moieties present in the tissue. Deconvolution microscopy was used to further enhance the signal-to-noise ratios. Together, these techniques provide high-quality single- and dual-color fluorescent images with low background and high contrast from paraffin blocks of thymus tissue that were prepared up to 60 years ago. The resulting high-quality images allow the application of a variety of image analyses to thymus tissues that previously were not accessible. Whereas the procedures presented remain to be tested for other tissue types and archival conditions, the approach described may facilitate greater utilization of older paraffin block archives for modern immunofluorescence studies. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  12. HaloPlex Targeted Resequencing for Mutation Detection in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Lotte N J; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Ljungström, Viktor; Mattsson, Johanna; Sundström, Magnus; La Fleur, Linnéa; Mathot, Lucy; Micke, Patrick; Nilsson, Mats; Botling, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled substantial advances in the study of human diseases. Combined with targeted DNA enrichment methods, high sequence coverage can be obtained for different genes simultaneously at a reduced cost per sample, creating unique opportunities for clinical cancer diagnostics. However, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) process of tissue samples, routinely used in pathology departments, results in DNA fragmentation and nucleotide modifications that introduce a number of technical challenges for downstream biomolecular analyses. We evaluated the HaloPlex target enrichment system for somatic mutation detection in 80 tissue fractions derived from 20 clinical cancer cases with paired tumor and normal tissue available in both FFPE and fresh-frozen format. Several modifications to the standard method were introduced, including a reduced target fragment length and two strand capturing. We found that FFPE material can be used for HaloPlex-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing, even when starting from small amounts of DNA. By specifically capturing both strands for each target fragment, we were able to reduce the number of false-positive errors caused by FFPE-induced artifacts and lower the detection limit for somatic mutations. We believe that the HaloPlex method presented here will be broadly applicable as a tool for somatic mutation detection in clinical cancer settings. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new classification method for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry data acquired on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskamp, Tobias; Lachmund, Delf; Oetjen, Janina; Cordero Hernandez, Yovany; Trede, Dennis; Maass, Peter; Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Warth, Arne; Dienemann, Hendrik; Weichert, Wilko; Kriegsmann, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) shows a high potential for applications in histopathological diagnosis, and in particular for supporting tumor typing and subtyping. The development of such applications requires the extraction of spectral fingerprints that are relevant for the given tissue and the identification of biomarkers associated with these spectral patterns. We propose a novel data analysis method based on the extraction of characteristic spectral patterns (CSPs) that allow automated generation of classification models for spectral data. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from N=445 patients assembled on 12 tissue microarrays were analyzed. The method was applied to discriminate primary lung and pancreatic cancer, as well as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. A classification accuracy of 100% and 82.8%, resp., could be achieved on core level, assessed by cross-validation. The method outperformed the more conventional classification method based on the extraction of individual m/z values in the first application, while achieving a comparable accuracy in the second. LC-MS/MS peptide identification demonstrated that the spectral features present in selected CSPs correspond to peptides relevant for the respective classification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic interaction between mazindol, an anorectic drug, and swim-stress on analgesic responses in the formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Leandro Franco; Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto

    2004-01-23

    The present study examined the interaction between mazindol (MZ), an anorectic drug extensively used in Brazil and opioid/non-opioid endogenous analgesic systems activated by swim-stress. Further, the role of opioid, dopamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mediating the analgesic effect was evaluated. The stress-induced analgesia of a 3-min swimming at 32 degrees C (opioid/non-opioid) and 20 degrees C (non-opioid) were assessed using the formalin test. Male Swiss mice were intraperitoneally injected with naloxone (1.0 mg/kg), sulpiride (3.0 mg/kg), MK-801 (0.075 mg/kg) or saline/vehicle 15 min prior, and with MZ (0.5 mg/kg) or saline/vehicle 5 min prior to swimming. The dose of MZ (0.5 mg/kg) did not cause analgesic effect, however, the association of MZ and swim-stress at both temperatures displayed synergistic interaction on analgesia that was blocked by sulpiride and MK-801 but not by naloxone. The present results suggest that MZ and swim-stress acted synergistically on analgesic responses, involving mainly the non-opioid component and possibly mediated by dopamine D2 receptors and NMDA receptors.

  15. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preparations from human isolates in unusual tissue sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizem, A; M'rad, S; Oudni-M'rad, M; Mestiri, S; Hammedi, F; Mezhoud, H; Zakhama, A; Mokni, M; Babba, H

    2016-07-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains a serious problem worldwide for issues relating to public health and the economy. The most predominantly affected sites are the liver and the lungs, but other organs such as the heart, the spleen and the peritoneum can also be infected. Access to cysts from uncommon sites has limited genomic and molecular investigations. In the present study, genotypes of E. granulosus sensu lato were identified from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FF-PETs) implicated in human CE. Tissue samples were obtained from 57 patients with histologically confirmed CE. DNA samples were analysed using Egss 1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E. granulosus sensu stricto. All cysts were typed as E. granulosus sensu stricto with up to 35% of the liver and 16.6% of lungs being the most frequently infected, and up to 48.4% of samples being from rare sites. No correlation was found between cyst site and either the gender or the age of patients. This study demonstrates the possibility of exploiting atypical cysts using FF-PET samples and highlights the predominance of E. granulosus sensu stricto species in the Tunisian population, even in unusual infection sites.

  16. Analgesic Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on Various "Phenotypes" of Nociception and Inflammation in a Formalin Pain Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Bin; Zhou, Ke-Cheng; Wu, Huang-Hui; Hu, Wei; Ding, Tan; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Li-Ying; Kou, Jun-Ping; Kaye, Alan David; Wang, Wen

    2016-12-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has long been used for pain treatment and has been demonstrated to possess anti-oxidative, cognitive enhancement, and anti-depressant effects. In the present study, the effects of aqueous extracts of DSS on spontaneous pain behaviors and long-term hyperalgesia were examined to investigate the anti-nociceptive effects and underlying mechanisms. Single pretreatment of DSS dose-dependently reduced spontaneous flinches/licking time in the second, rather than the first, phase after subcutaneous injection of 5 % formalin into one hindpaw, in doses of 2.4 and 9.6 g/kg. DSS also dose-dependently inhibited FOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in both superficial and deep layers within the spinal dorsal horn. Further, DSS reduced hypoalgesia in the injected paw from 1 to 3 days and produced anti-hyperalgesic actions in both the injected paw after 3 days and non-injected paw. These data suggest involvement of enhancement of descending pain inhibition by suppression of 5-HTT levels in the spinal dorsal horn and reduction of peripheral long-term inflammation, including paw edema and ulcers. These findings suggest that DSS may be a useful therapeutic agent for short- and long-term inflammation induced pain, through both anti-inflammatory and suppression of central sensitization mechanisms.

  17. The role of transdermal estrogen sprays and estradiol topical emulsion in the management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Egras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy M Egras, Elena M UmlandJefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS are among the most bothersome complaints of postmenopausal women. To date, the most widely studied and effective treatment for VMS is hormone replacement therapy, consisting of estrogen (in women without a uterus or estrogen plus progestin (in women with a uterus. Traditionally, oral estrogens have been used for treatment. However, over the years, additional estrogen formulations have been developed including transdermal patches; vaginal rings, creams, and tablets; and injectable preparations. Two newer formulations are transdermal estrogen spray and estradiol topical emulsion. This review evaluates the current literature assessing the use of these two newer formulations for the treatment of VMS associated with menopause.Keywords: menopause, vasomotor symptoms, transdermal estrogen spray, estradiol topical emulsion

  18. Whole-exome sequencing and clinical interpretation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples to guide precision cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Eliezer M; Wagle, Nikhil; Stojanov, Petar; Perrin, Danielle L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Marlow, Sara; Jane-Valbuena, Judit; Friedrich, Dennis C; Kryukov, Gregory; Carter, Scott L; McKenna, Aaron; Sivachenko, Andrey; Rosenberg, Mara; Kiezun, Adam; Voet, Douglas; Lawrence, Michael; Lichtenstein, Lee T; Gentry, Jeff G; Huang, Franklin W; Fostel, Jennifer; Farlow, Deborah; Barbie, David; Gandhi, Leena; Lander, Eric S; Gray, Stacy W; Joffe, Steven; Janne, Pasi; Garber, Judy; MacConaill, Laura; Lindeman, Neal; Rollins, Barrett; Kantoff, Philip; Fisher, Sheila A; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Garraway, Levi A

    2014-06-01

    Translating whole-exome sequencing (WES) for prospective clinical use may have an impact on the care of patients with cancer; however, multiple innovations are necessary for clinical implementation. These include rapid and robust WES of DNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, analytical output similar to data from frozen samples and clinical interpretation of WES data for prospective use. Here, we describe a prospective clinical WES platform for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The platform employs computational methods for effective clinical analysis and interpretation of WES data. When applied retrospectively to 511 exomes, the interpretative framework revealed a 'long tail' of somatic alterations in clinically important genes. Prospective application of this approach identified clinically relevant alterations in 15 out of 16 patients. In one patient, previously undetected findings guided clinical trial enrollment, leading to an objective clinical response. Overall, this methodology may inform the widespread implementation of precision cancer medicine.

  19. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO 2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m 3 . • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO 2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m 3 . The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  20. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  1. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Pehan, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound veloci...

  2. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  3. Steel fibre corrosion in cracks:durability of sprayed concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Erik

    2000-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete is common practice for permanent linings in underground construction. Today there is a demand on "expected technical service life" of 120 years. Thin steel fibres could be expected to discontinue carrying load fast with a decrease of fibre diameter caused by corrosion, especially in cracks. The thesis contains results from inspections on existing sprayed concrete structures and a literature review on corrosion of steel fibres in cracked concrete. To stu...

  4. Single-dose fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor DR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Taylor Comprehensive Pain Care PC, Marietta, GA, USA Abstract: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that arises in patients with otherwise controlled persistent pain. BTCP typically has a rapid onset and relatively short duration, but it causes a significant amount of physical and psychological distress for patients. Several rapid-onset fentanyl formulations have been introduced in the USA to replace traditional oral opioids for the treatment of BTCP: a transmucosal lozenge, a sublingual orally disintegrating tablet, a buccal tablet, a buccal soluble film, a pectin nasal spray and, the newest formulation to enter the market, a sublingual spray. This article reviews the six rapid-onset formulations of fentanyl approved in the USA for the management of BTCP with emphasis on describing the published literature on fentanyl sublingual spray. The different fentanyl formulations vary in pharmacokinetic properties and ease of use, but all have a rapid onset and a relatively short duration of analgesia. Fentanyl sublingual spray has demonstrated absorption within 5 minutes of administration, with fentanyl plasma concentrations increasing over the first 30 minutes and remaining elevated for 60–90 minutes in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy subjects. Fentanyl sublingual spray shows linear dose proportionality, and changes in the temperature or acidity of the oral cavity do not alter its pharmacokinetic properties. In patients with BTCP, statistically significant pain relief is measurable at 5 minutes after administration of fentanyl sublingual spray, when compared with placebo, with significant pain relief lasting at least 60 minutes after administration. Adverse events are typical of opioid treatment and are considered mild to moderate in intensity. In summary, fentanyl sublingual spray provides rapid onset of analgesia and is a tolerable and effective treatment for BTCP. Keywords: breakthrough pain

  5. Sound Spray - can-shaped sound effect device

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gibeom; Lee, Kyogu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a sound effect device, which was applicable forspray paint art process. For the applicability research of the device, wedesigned a prototype which had a form not far off the traditional spray cans,using Arduino and various sensors. Through the test process of the prototype,we verified the elements that would be necessary to apply our newly designeddevice to real spray paint art activities. Thus we checked the possibility ofvarious musical expressions by expanding th...

  6. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Utzen, Christer; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Sp...

  7. Plasma Spraying of Magnetite Coatings for M.W. Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Enikov, R.; Nedkov, I.; Oliver, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of arc - plasma spray deposition of polycrystalline ferromagnetic coating are investigated. Powder sintered microwave absorbing ferrite materials were deposited by arc-plasma jet on polycrystalline substrates. By varying the distance between plasma torch and substrates and the spray duration, coatings with different thickness and porosity were obtained. The coatings characteristics were studied by optical, SEM and XRD methods. The mechanism of the magnetic structure formatio...

  8. Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Klaumünzer; Jakob Hübner; Denis Spitzer

    2016-01-01

    Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. ...

  9. Production of ceramic formed parts by means of plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, K.

    1989-01-01

    Open and closed pipes and tubes, nozzles and crucibles, conical parts and other molded articles of ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide, magnesium-aluminium spinel, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate and special ceramics can be fabricated by spray application to a core which is afterwards removed. Because at the same time these are mainly high temperature materials and high temperature application areas, plasma spraying is preferred. The process and examples of application are described, the advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  10. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...

  11. Pemanfaatan Zeolit Alam Untuk Pengeringan Karaginan Dengan Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    M.H, Babar Priyadi; Afifi, Thufail Khoirul; Sasongko, Setia Budi

    2012-01-01

    The problem that will be faced in drying is quite high relative humidity, therefore carrageenan drying process using spray dryer with zeolite as humidity absorber becomes alternative option to achieve heat effectiveness of air dryer. The research is purposed to examine the effect of temperature and level of zeolite to relative humidity and product quality on carrageenan drying process. Spray dryer is a dryer used to produce powder material from feeds which have liquid and pasta form. The Resu...

  12. The effect of supplementary formalin treated soya‐bean meal on feed intake, milk yield and live‐weight gain of dairy cows fed ensiled fodder beets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    1993-01-01

    The present experiment compared formalin treated soya‐bean meal (2 kg DM) with barley and urea (2.4 kg DM) as supplements for a mixture of ensiled beets and ammonium‐treated straw given ad libitum in a cross over experiment with two periods of 6 weeks. Furthermore, these diets were compared...... and may indicate that not only the amino acid supply of the cows but also the supply of other glucogenic nutrients may be adversely affected when feeding ensiled beets....

  13. Applying a Real-Time PCR Assay for Histoplasma capsulatum to Clinically Relevant Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Scott A.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is described. The assay had an analytical sensitivity of 6 pg/μl of fungal DNA, analytical specificity of 100%, and clinical sensitivity of 88.9%. This proof-of-concept study may aid in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis from FFPE tissue. PMID:22855519

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation by strand displacement amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Forsgren, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Rapid, reliable diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to initiate correct treatment, avoid severe complications, and prevent transmission. Conventional microbiological methods may not be an option if samples are formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histopathological examination....... With the demonstration of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, tuberculosis becomes an important differential diagnosis, although it was not initially suspected. Following paraffin extraction, BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was applied to 47...

  15. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  16. Bullous cryothermic dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, A; Bender, A; Hertl, M; König, A

    2011-08-01

    Dermatitis artefacta belongs to a broad spectrum of factitious diseases of lesions usually self-induced by patients. Here we report a surprisingly effective induction of blisters and thermic dermatitis by excessive abuse of common deodorant sprays. We evaluated the clinical course and outcome in three patients with dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray. A 12-year-old boy only admitted the abuse of deodorant spray after psychiatric intervention. Two adults (21-year-old and 37-year-old women) had borderline personality disorder and frankly reported the urge to induce pain by spraying for at least 100 s at a short distance. Bullous dermatitis was the acute presenting sign in all patients. The bullae were found on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, with a distribution of older lesions showing erosions and scarring and fresh lesions with intact bullae with a diameter of 3-15 cm. After searching for the causative agent and removal of the deodorant spray, clinical outcome showed a healing without and with scars. Cryo-damage by abuse of common deodorant sprays seems to become a popular mechanism by which an impressive bullous dermatitis can be artificially induced. Dermatologists and psychiatrist should be aware of this method of injury. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Jhon [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5250 (United States); Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V. [Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-7115 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: schlaf@eng.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5101 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin–avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin–biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin–biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  18. Status of emergency spray modelling in the integral code ASTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumecocq, W.; Passalacqua, R.

    2001-01-01

    Containment spray systems are emergency systems that would be used in very low probability events which may lead to severe accidents in Light Water Reactors. In most cases, the primary function of the spray would be to remove heat and condense steam in order to reduce pressure and temperature in the containment building. Spray would also wash out fission products (aerosols and gaseous species) from the containment atmosphere. The efficiency of the spray system in the containment depressurization as well as in the removal of aerosols, during a severe accident, depends on the evolution of the spray droplet size distribution with the height in the containment, due to kinetic and thermal relaxation, gravitational agglomeration and mass transfer with the gas. A model has been developed taking into account all of these phenomena. This model has been implemented in the ASTEC code with a validation of the droplets relaxation against the CARAIDAS experiment (IPSN). Applications of this modelling to a PWR 900, during a severe accident, with special emphasis on the effect of spray on containment hydrogen distribution have been performed in multi-compartment configuration with the ASTEC V0.3 code. (author)

  19. Production of press moulds by plasma spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Y.; Myakota, I.; Polyakov, S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma spray forming process for production of press moulds which are used for manufacture of articles from plastics was developed. The press moulds were produced by plasma spraying of Cu-Al-Fe-alloy powder on surface of a master model. The master models were made from non-metallic materials with heat resistance below 70 C (wood, gypsum etc). Double cooling system which provides for a control of surface model temperature and quenching conditions of sprayed material was designed. It made possible on the one hand to support model surface temperature below 70 C and on the other hand to provide for temperature conditions of martensite transformation in Cu-Al-system with a fixation of metastable ductile α + β 1 -phase. This allowed to decrease residual stresses in sprayed layer (up to 0,5-2,5 MPa), to increase microhardness of the coating material (up to 1200-1800 MPa) and its ductility (σ B = 70-105 MPa, δ = 6-12 %). This plasma spray forming process makes possible to spray thick layers (5-20 mm and more) without their cracking and deformation. The process is used for a production of press moulds which are applied in shoes industry, for fabrication of toys, souvenirs etc. (author)

  20. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jhon; Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V.; Schlaf, Rudy

    2014-02-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin-avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin-biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin-biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the peripheral antinoceptive action of a tramadol-dexketoprofen combination in the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Pérez-Urizar, José; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Systemic coadministration of tramadol and dexketoprofen can produce antinociceptive synergism in animals. There has been only limited evaluation of this drug combination in the peripheral nervous system in terms of the antinociceptive interaction and its mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the peripheral antinociceptive interaction between tramadol and dexketoprofen in the formalin test and the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Different doses of tramadol or dexketoprofen were administered locally to the formalin-injured mouse paw and the antinociceptive effect evaluated. ED50 values were calculated for both drugs alone and in combination. Coadministration of tramadol and dexketoprofen produced an antinociceptive synergistic interaction during the second phase of the formalin test. Pretreatment with NO antagonists, including l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one, or the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel antagonist glibenclamide reversed the antinociceptive synergistic effect of the tramadol-dexketoprofen combination, suggesting that NO and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels were involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thermo- and fluid dynamics characterization of spray cooling with pulsed sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, M.R.O.; Moreira, A.L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-11-01

    A fundamental study is reported here on the spray impingement of pulsed sprays on heated surfaces. The experiments consider simultaneous measurements of surface heat flux and droplet characteristics performed with a Phase Doppler Anemometer (velocity, size and flux) prior to impact, to provide a better insight into the interaction between thermal and fluid dynamic effects during the period of injection. The experimental conditions are relevant for engines at steady rotational speeds between 1800rpm and 3600rpm, which are of interest for hybrid configurations, where the IC engine is set to operate at maximum efficiency. The analysis addresses the effects of injection conditions (e.g., duration, frequency and pressure) on the thermodynamic behaviour of the surface. It is observed that the heat flux decreases when the pressure of injection increases, due to dynamic variations of the film induced by interaction with impacting droplets in the film evaporation regime. Results further suggest that, for the range of injection conditions found in real engines, the time variation of the heat transfer during injection depends more on the liquid mass flux than on droplet size and axial velocity. However, when the engine load increases, the mechanism by which heat is removed from the surface varies from thermally controlled to mass diffusion controlled, due to saturation of the atmosphere with gasoline vapour. The time resolved measurements are processed to quantify the critical points of the boiling curves, e.g., the critical heat flux (CHF) at the Nukiyama temperature and the minimum heat flux (MHF) at the Leidenfrost temperature. The dynamic characteristics of those curves are used as an approach to describe the heat transfer mechanisms in pulsed spray systems. It is suggested that multiple droplet interaction alters the thermal behaviour of the target in the sense that both, CHF and MHF, increase in regions of large droplet concentration and when the frequency of injection

  3. Design of the containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The present RFS defines the functional requirements of the containment spray system and proposes certain complementary criteria or methods to be used in its equipment design

  4. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  5. Agricultural Spray Drift Concentrations in Rainwater, Stemflow ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to study spray drift contribution to non-targeted habitats, pesticide concentrations were measured in stemflow (water flowing down the trunk of a tree during a rain event), rainfall, and amphibians in an agriculturally impacted wetland area near Tifton, Georgia, USA. Agricultural fields and sampling locations were located on the University of Georgia's Gibbs research farm. Samples were analyzed for >150 pesticides and over 20 different pesticides were detected in these matrices. Data indicated that herbicides (metolachlor and atrazine) and fungicides (tebuconazole) were present with the highest concentrations in stemflow, followed by those in rainfall and amphibian tissue samples. Metolachlor had the highest frequency of detection and highest concentration in rainfall and stemflow samples. Higher concentrations of pesticides were observed in stemflow for a longer period than rainfall. Furthermore, rainfall and stemflow concentrations were compared against aquatic life benchmarks and environmental water screening values to determine if adverse effects would potentially occur for non-targeted organisms. Of the pesticides detected, several had concentrations that exceeded the aquatic life benchmark value. The majority of the time mixtures were present in the different matrices, making it difficult to determine the potential adverse effects that these compounds will have on non-target species, due to unknown potentiating effects. These data help assess the

  6. Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Vardelle, M; Vardelle, A

    2013-01-01

    As for every coating technology, the reliability and reproducibility of coatings are essential for the development of the plasma spraying technology in industrial manufacturing. They mainly depend on the process reliability, equipment and spray booth maintenance, operator training and certification, implementation and use of consistent production practices and standardization of coating testing. This paper deals with the first issue, that is the monitoring and control of the plasma spray process; it does not tackle the coating characterization and testing methods. It begins with a short history of coating quality improvement under plasma spray conditions over the last few decades, details the plasma spray torches used in the industry, the development of the measurements of in-flight and impacting particle parameters and then of sensors. It concludes with the process maps that describe the interrelations between the operating parameters of the spray process, in-flight particle characteristics and coating properties and with the potential of in situ monitoring of the process by artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods. (paper)

  7. Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2013-06-01

    As for every coating technology, the reliability and reproducibility of coatings are essential for the development of the plasma spraying technology in industrial manufacturing. They mainly depend on the process reliability, equipment and spray booth maintenance, operator training and certification, implementation and use of consistent production practices and standardization of coating testing. This paper deals with the first issue, that is the monitoring and control of the plasma spray process; it does not tackle the coating characterization and testing methods. It begins with a short history of coating quality improvement under plasma spray conditions over the last few decades, details the plasma spray torches used in the industry, the development of the measurements of in-flight and impacting particle parameters and then of sensors. It concludes with the process maps that describe the interrelations between the operating parameters of the spray process, in-flight particle characteristics and coating properties and with the potential of in situ monitoring of the process by artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods.

  8. An integrated study of thermal spray process-structure-property correlations: A case study for plasma sprayed molybdenum coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, A.; Streibl, T.; Li, L.; Sampath, S.; Kovarik, O.; Greenlaw, R.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings exhibit a wide variety of hierarchial and multiscale microstructural characteristics that lead to variation in their functional properties and performance. The array of defect structures, orthotropic behaviour and process-induced attributes (e.g. quenching stresses) all add to complexity in understanding and predicting their performance. A complete understanding of the plasma spray process includes examination of the particle-jet interaction, particle impact (to form the splats) and the particle-substrate interaction during coating deposition. This link has been established by using diagnostic tools in conjunction with a splat collection shutter and an 'in situ' curvature measurement instrument. In this study, commercial grade spherical molybdenum (Mo) powder was plasma sprayed and the spray stream was characterized for resulting particle state. A 'splat map' was deposited through a 'spray stream guillotine' to capture the fingerprint of the plume cross-section. Subsequently, coatings were deposited at these spray conditions on a newly developed 'in situ' curvature measurement instrument to measure coating residual stresses and to estimate the coating modulus. Splats and coatings were subsequently characterized by microdiffraction (for splat residual stresses), nano and microindentation for elastic and elastic-plastic properties and by electron microscopy. This complete history of the process followed by splat and coating characterization provides insight into the correlation between processing parameters, resultant particle states and final coating properties. The role of particle temperature and velocity on the splat (and coating) morphology and residual stress is explained in the results

  9. Laser-Based Spatio-Temporal Characterisation of Port Fuel Injection (PFI Sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. N. Anand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, detailed laser-based diagnostic experiments were conducted to characterise the spray from low pressure 2-hole and 4-hole Port Fuel Injection (PFI injectors. The main objective of the work included obtaining quantitative information of the spatio-temporal spray structure of such low-pressure gasoline sprays. A novel approach involving a combination of techniques such as Mie scattering, Granulometry, and Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD was used to study the spray structure. The droplet sizes, distributions with time, Sauter Mean Diameters (SMD, droplet velocities, cone angles and spray tip penetrations of the sprays from the injectors were determined. The spray from these injectors is found to be ‘pencil like’ and not dispersed as in high pressure sprays. The application of the above mentioned techniques provides two-dimensional SMD contours of the entire spray at different instants of time, with reasonable accuracy.

  10. Water spray interaction with air-steam mixtures under containment spray conditions: experimental study in the TOSQAN facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcheron, E.; Lemaitre, P.; Malet, J.; Nuboer, A.; Brun, P.; Bouilloux, L.; Vendel, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la Surete des Usines, des laboratoires, des transports et des dechets, Saclay, BP 68 - 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen can be produced by the reactor core oxidation and distributed into the reactor containment according to convection flows and steam wall condensation. In order to assess the risk of detonation generated by a high local hydrogen concentration, hydrogen distribution in the containment has to be known. The TOSQAN experimental program has been created to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in the reactor containment. The present work is devoted to study the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation mean in order to reduce containment pressure and to produce a mixing of air, steam and hydrogen induced by spray entrainment and condensation on droplet. In order to have a better understanding of physical phenomena, we need to make a detailed characterization of the spray and the gas. The TOSQAN facility that is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics consists in a closed cylindrical vessel (7 m{sup 3} volume, 4 m high, 1.5 m i.d.) into which steam is injected. Water droplets size is measured in the vessel by the Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing technique. Droplet velocity is obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry, and droplet temperature is measured by global rainbow refractometry. Gas concentration measurements are performed by Spontaneous Raman Scattering. The walls of the vessel are thermostatically controlled by heated oil circulation. Inner spray system that is located on the top of the enclosure on the vertical axis, is composed of a single nozzle producing a full cone water spray. Spray test scenario consists of water spray injection in TOSQAN that is first pressurized with a steam injection (steam injection is stopped before spray injection). Water spray falling into the sump is removed to avoid accumulation and evaporation

  11. Development & characterization of alumina coating by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jobin; Scaria, Abyson; Kurian, Don George

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on metals to prevent them from oxidation and corrosion at room as well as elevated temperatures. The service environment, mechanisms of protection, chemical and mechanical compatibility, application method, control of coating quality and ability of the coating to be repaired are the factors that need to be considered while selecting the required coating. The coatings based on oxide materials provides high degree of thermal insulation and protection against oxidation at high temperatures for the underlying substrate materials. These coatings are usually applied by the flame or plasma spraying methods. The surface cleanliness needs to be ensured before spraying. Abrasive blasting can be used to provide the required surface roughness for good adhesion between the substrate and the coating. A pre bond coat like Nickel Chromium can be applied on to the substrate material before spraying the oxide coating to avoid chances of poor adhesion between the oxide coating and the metallic substrate. Plasma spraying produces oxide coatings of greater density, higher hardness, and smooth surface finish than that of the flame spraying process Inert gas is often used for generation of plasma gas so as to avoid the oxidation of the substrate material. The work focuses to develop, characterize and optimize the parameters used in Al2O3 coating on transition stainless steel substrate material for minimizing the wear rate and maximizing the leak tightness using plasma spray process. The experiment is designed using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The parameters that are to be optimized are plasma voltage, spraying distance and the cooling jet pressure. The characterization techniques includes micro-hardness and porosity tests followed by Grey relational analysis of the results.

  12. Removal of carbon dioxide by a spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tang, Jun-Tian; Liu, Li-Ping

    2005-03-01

    With the global warming due to greenhouse effects becoming serious, many efforts are carried out to decrease the emissions of CO2 from the combustion of carbonaceous materials. In Taiwan, there are 19 large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators running and their total emission of CO2 is about 16,950 kton y-1. Spray dryer is the most prevailing air pollution control devise for removing acid gas in waste incineration; however, the performance of spray dryer on the removal of CO2 is seldom studied. This study employs a laboratory-scale spray dryer to investigate the removal efficiency of CO2 under different operating conditions. The evaluated parameters include different absorbents mixed with CaOH2, operating temperature, the concentration of absorbent, and the inlet concentration of CO2. Experimental results show that the best removal efficiency of CO2 by a spray dryer is 48% as the absorbent is 10%NaOH+5%CaOH2 and the operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Comparing this result with previous study shows that the performance of spray dryer is better than traditional NaOH wet scrubber. For NaOH+CaOH2 spray dryer, the removal efficiency of CO2 is decreased with the inlet concentration of CO2 increased and the optimum operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Except NaOH+CaOH2, absorbents DEA+CaOH2, TEA+CaOH2, and single CaOH2 are not effective in removing CO2 by a spray dryer.

  13. Clinical relevance of Ki67 gene expression analysis using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoko; Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fu, Peifen; Fujiwara, Saori; Murakami, Keiichi; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2013-07-01

    Ki67 is a protein associated with cell cycle activity and shows a good correlation with the growth fraction, which has been proposed as a prognostic or predictive marker in breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to analyze the expression levels of Ki67 (MKI67) messenger RNA (mRNA) derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for comparison with the immunohistochemical Ki67 labeling index, and investigate the correlation coefficients with clinical outcomes. We analyzed the data of Ki67 mRNA from FFPE and matched fresh-frozen (FF) tissues based on a real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay system in 203 cases of primary invasive breast cancer. The correlation between Ki67 mRNA expression of either FFPE or FF specimens and Ki67 labeling index was positive, as was the correlation between the FFPE and FF results (P Ki67 mRNA expression of FFPE specimens was significantly associated with clinicopathological characteristics: tumor size, lymph node status, nuclear grade, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) status, and tumor subtype. In prognostic results, Ki67 gene expression in the FFPE specimens revealed almost similar patterns of significance in Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate relapse-free survival results as the Ki67 labeling index. Gene expression analysis of Ki67 of FFPE specimens could be successfully performed using RT-qPCR, closely resembling the significant clinical characteristics of Ki67 labeling index. These results confirm that Ki67 gene expression of FFPE specimens has potential for evaluation of cell cycle activity of breast cancer specimens.

  14. Real-time PCR assays for diagnosing brucellar spondylitis using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Zhou, Xingang; Li, Jingjing; Sun, Lei; Chen, Xiangmei; Wang, Peng

    2018-03-01

    It is difficult to diagnose brucellar spondylitis because of its nonspecific clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics. This study aimed to determine whether real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was superior to conventional serum-based methods for diagnosing brucellar spondylitis.This retrospective study included 31 patients with brucellosis and a control group of 20 people with no history of brucellosis or exposure to Brucella spp. Samples from all patients with brucellar spondylitis were evaluated using Giemsa staining, the standard tube agglutination (STA) test, blood culture, and real-time PCR.The brucellar spondylitis was acute in 7 patients (22.6%), subacute in 15 patients (48.4%), and chronic in 9 patients (29%). Serological assays provided positive results for 25 patients (80.1%), real-time PCR provided positive results for 29 patients (93.5%), and blood cultures provided positive results for 11 patients (35.5%). The real-time PCR provided sensitivity of 93.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. The corresponding values for the STA test were 80.1%, 100%, 100%, and 76.9%, respectively. Real-time PCR provided better sensitivity than Giemsa staining, the STA test, and blood culture, although the difference between PCR and STA was not statistically significant (P = .22). B melitensis was the only pathogen that was detected in patient with brucellar spondylitis using real-time PCR.These results suggest that real-time PCR provides a high sensitivity for diagnosing brucellar spondylitis. Furthermore, the real-time PCR results indicate that B melitensis was the causative pathogen in these cases.

  15. Adjuvant effect of recombinant interleukin-12 in the Nocardiosis formalin-killed vaccine of the amberjack Seriola dumerili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Araki, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Kazuma; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Suetake, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Nocardiosis causes serious economic damage in the fish farming of Japanese yellowtail fish. Nocardia seriolae identified as pathogenic bacterium is an intracellular-pathogen. In general, induction of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is effective in infection defense against intracellular-pathogen. However, the conventional formalin-killed N. seriolae (FKC) vaccine induces humoral immunity. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is Th1 type heterodimeric cytokine and induces cell differentiation in mammals. Our previous study showed that recombinant amberjack IL-12 has a role in CMI induction in vitro and could be a possible CMI inducing adjuvant. However, its adjuvant effect of fish IL-12 was not studied. In the present study, six types of amberjack recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) were mixed and injected into amberjack with FKC. Firstly, we analyzed Th1- and Th2- related gene expression and monitored Th1/Th2 status followed by investigation of antibody titer. As a result, Th1-type immunity was induced in FKC + rIL-12 vaccinated fish. Secondly, we checked Th1/Th2 status of vaccinated fish after 10 days of N. seriolae infection using the expression of related genes. High T-bet/GATA-3 ratio was observed in FKC + rIL-12 vaccinated fish, suggesting that Th1 cells possesing antigen memory were induced against N. seriolae infection. Finally, the survival rate in challenge test showed that 88% of FKC + rIL-12 vaccinated fish was survived at 34 days after N. seriolae injection whereas PBS (control) and FKC only were exterminated. These result suggest that i) rIL-12 is viable CMI inducible adjuvant and ii) production of Th1 cells having antigen memory resulting from activation of IL-12 signaling pathway is important for defense against N. seriolae infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Molecular markers associated with nonepithelial ovarian cancer in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens by genome wide expression profiling

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    Koon Vui-Kee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonepithelial ovarian cancer (NEOC is a rare cancer that is often misdiagnosed as other malignant tumors. Research on this cancer using fresh tissues is nearly impossible because of its limited number of samples within a limited time provided. The study is to identify potential genes and their molecular pathways related to NEOC using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples. Total RNA was extracted from eight archived NEOCs and seven normal ovaries. The RNA samples with RNA integrity number >2.0, purity >1.7 and cycle count value <28 cycles were hybridized to the Illumina Whole-Genome DASL assay (cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation. We analyzed the results using the GeneSpring GX11.0 and FlexArray software to determine the differentially expressed genes. Microarray results were validated using an immunohistochemistry method. Statistical analysis identified 804 differentially expressed genes with 443 and 361 genes as overexpressed and underexpressed in cancer, respectively. Consistent findings were documented for the overexpression of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, E2F transcription factor 2, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, except for the down-regulated gene, early growth response 1 (EGR1. The immunopositivity staining for EGR1 was found in the majority of cancer tissues. This finding suggested that the mRNA level of a transcript did not always match with the protein expression in tissues. The current gene profile can be the platform for further exploration of the molecular mechanism of NEOC.

  17. Comparison of Accuracy of Whole-Exome Sequencing with Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Tissue Samples.

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    Ensel Oh

    Full Text Available Formalin fixing with paraffin embedding (FFPE has been a standard sample preparation method for decades, and archival FFPE samples are still very useful resources. Nonetheless, the use of FFPE samples in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing, which is a powerful technique for the identification of genomic alterations at the nucleotide level, has been challenging due to poor DNA quality and artificial sequence alterations. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of matched frozen samples and FFPE samples of tissues from 4 cancer patients and compared the next-generation sequencing data obtained from these samples. The major differences between data obtained from the 2 types of sample were the shorter insert size and artificial base alterations in the FFPE samples. A high proportion of short inserts in the FFPE samples resulted in overlapping paired reads, which could lead to overestimation of certain variants; >20% of the inserts in the FFPE samples were double sequenced. A large number of soft clipped reads was found in the sequencing data of the FFPE samples, and about 30% of total bases were soft clipped. The artificial base alterations, C>T and G>A, were observed in FFPE samples only, and the alteration rate ranged from 200 to 1,200 per 1M bases when sequencing errors were removed. Although high-confidence mutation calls in the FFPE samples were compatible to that in the frozen samples, caution should be exercised in terms of the artifacts, especially for low-confidence calls. Despite the clearly observed artifacts, archival FFPE samples can be a good resource for discovery or validation of biomarkers in cancer research based on whole-exome sequencing.

  18. Deteksi Cemaran Boraks, Formalin, Analisis Proksimat serta Persepsi Pembeli dan Pedagang Bakso yang Berada di Kota Lhokseumawe

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    Juni Mirzal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Meatballs are one of the foods that undergo processing and meatballs are very popular with people of various backgrounds and ages, where the meatballs assessed consumer acceptance of the characteristics that suit the tastes of consumers without regard to nutrition and food safety standards. This research aims to detect any contamination of borax and formaldehyde in meatballs circulating in the town of Lhokseumawe, analyze the levels proximate to the meatballs circulating in the town of Lhokseumawe, and to determine the level of consumer knowledge meatballs to formaldehyde and borax as harmful preservatives. The samples are meatball sauce and meatball skewers taken from meatballs traders in the city of Lhokseumawe. Results of research on the meatball sauce sold in the shop found a 12.5% positive samples containing borax, while samples meatball skewers sold in schools is not found contamination borax, formalin as well as in the examination did not reveal any contamination of formaldehyde in the meatball sauce and skewers. The test results of proximate levels meatball soup obtained average values and standard deviations where the protein content of 9.43 ± 1.00, 10.53 ± 4.08 fat content, water content of 65.88 ± 3.51, ash content 2 , 76 ± 0.65 and 11.40 ± carbohydrate content of 3.33 and between levels of education and knowledge of the relationship between education and knowledge meatballs consumers to the dangers of borax and formaldehyde when used in food products (P <0.05. Conclusions 12.5% found gravy meatball stall containing borax, and not found any contamination of formaldehyde in the sauce and meatballs skewers and education levels affect the buyer meatballs knowledge about the dangers of formaldehyde and borax, proximate levels meatballs sold in some gravy meatball stall in the town of Lhokseumawe meet the standard values proximate levels meatballs issued by SNI.

  19. Genomic characterization of pediatric B-lymphoblastic lymphoma and B-lymphoblastic leukemia using formalin-fixed tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julia A; Zhou, Delu; Mason, Clinton C; Downie, Jonathan M; Rodic, Vladimir; Abromowitch, Minnie; Wistinghausen, Birte; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Angiolillo, Anne L; Perkins, Sherrie L; Lones, Mark A; Barnette, Phillip; Schiffman, Joshua D; Miles, Rodney R

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent genomic changes in B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) identified by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis provide important prognostic information, but gene copy number analysis of its rare lymphoma counterpart, B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL), is limited by the low incidence and lack of fresh tissue for genomic testing. We used molecular inversion probe (MIP) technology to analyze and compare copy number alterations (CNAs) in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pediatric B-LBL (n = 23) and B-ALL (n = 55). Similar to B-ALL, CDKN2A/B deletions were the most common alteration identified in 6/23 (26%) B-LBL cases. Eleven of 23 (48%) B-LBL patients were hyperdiploid, but none showed triple trisomies (chromosomes 4, 10, and 17) characteristic of B-ALL. IKZF1 and PAX5 deletions were observed in 13 and 17% of B-LBL, respectively, which was similar to the reported frequency in B-ALL. Immunoglobulin light chain lambda (IGL) locus deletions consistent with normal light chain rearrangement were observed in 5/23 (22%) B-LBL cases, compared with only 1% in B-ALL samples. None of the B-LBL cases showed abnormal, isolated VPREB1 deletion adjacent to IGL locus, which we identified in 25% of B-ALL. Our study demonstrates that the copy number profile of B-LBL is distinct from B-ALL, suggesting possible differences in pathogenesis between these closely related diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Improved PCR performance using template DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues by overcoming PCR inhibition.

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    Dimo Dietrich

    Full Text Available Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues represent a valuable source for biomarker studies and clinical routine diagnostics. However, they suffer from degradation of nucleic acids due to the fixation process. Since genetic and epigenetic studies usually require PCR amplification, this degradation hampers its use significantly, impairing PCR robustness or necessitating short amplicons. In routine laboratory medicine a highly robust PCR performance is mandatory for the clinical utility of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers. Therefore, methods to improve PCR performance using DNA from FFPE tissue are highly desired and of wider interest. The effect of template DNA derived from FFPE tissues on PCR performance was investigated by means of qPCR and conventional PCR using PCR fragments of different sizes. DNA fragmentation was analyzed via agarose gel electrophoresis. This study showed that poor PCR amplification was partly caused by inhibition of the DNA polymerase by fragmented DNA from FFPE tissue and not only due to the absence of intact template molecules of sufficient integrity. This PCR inhibition was successfully minimized by increasing the polymerase concentration, dNTP concentration and PCR elongation time thereby allowing for the robust amplification of larger amplicons. This was shown for genomic template DNA as well as for bisulfite-converted template DNA required for DNA methylation analyses. In conclusion, PCR using DNA from FFPE tissue suffers from inhibition which can be alleviated by adaptation of the PCR conditions, therefore allowing for a significant improvement of PCR performance with regard to variability and the generation of larger amplicons. The presented solutions to overcome this PCR inhibition are of tremendous value for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine.

  1. Effects of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV in the perinatal lamb model of RSV.

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    Rachel J Derscheid

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or effective antivirals. The lack of a vaccine is partly due to increased caution following the aftermath of a failed clinical trial of a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV conducted in the 1960's that led to enhanced disease, necessitating hospitalization of 80% of vaccine recipients and resulting in two fatalities. Perinatal lamb lungs are similar in size, structure and physiology to those of human infants and are susceptible to human strains of RSV that induce similar lesions as those observed in infected human infants. We sought to determine if perinatal lambs immunized with FI-RSV would develop key features of vaccine-enhanced disease. This was tested in colostrum-deprived lambs immunized at 3-5 days of age with FI-RSV followed two weeks later by RSV infection. The FI-RSV-vaccinated lambs exhibited several key features of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease, including reduced RSV titers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung, and increased infiltration of peribronchiolar and perivascular lymphocytes compared to lambs either undergoing an acute RSV infection or naïve controls; all features of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease. These results represent a first step proof-of-principle demonstration that the lamb can develop altered responses to RSV following FI-RSV vaccination. The lamb model may be useful for future mechanistic studies as well as the assessment of RSV vaccines designed for infants.

  2. Analysis of biological and technical variability in gene expression assays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded classical Hodgkin lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Lozada, Gabriela; Scholl, Vanesa; Barros, Mário Henrique M; Sisti, Davide; Guescini, Michele; Stocchi, Vilberto; Stefanoff, Claudio Gustavo; Hassan, Rocio

    2014-12-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are invaluable sources of biological material for research and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we aimed to identify biological and technical variability in RT-qPCR TaqMan® assays performed with FFPE-RNA from lymph nodes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma samples. An ANOVA-nested 6-level design was employed to evaluate BCL2, CASP3, IRF4, LYZ and STAT1 gene expression. The most variable genes were CASP3 (low expression) and LYZ (high expression). Total variability decreased after normalization for all genes, except by LYZ. Genes with moderate and low expression were identified and suffered more the effects of the technical manipulation than high-expression genes. Pre-amplification was shown to introduce significant technical variability, which was partially alleviated by lowering to a half the amount of input RNA. Ct and Cy0 quantification methods, based on cycle-threshold and the kinetic of amplification curves, respectively, were compared. Cy0 method resulted in higher quantification values, leading to the decrease of total variability in CASP3 and LYZ genes. The mean individual noise was 0.45 (0.31 to 0.61 SD), indicating a variation of gene expression over ~1.5 folds from one case to another. We showed that total variability in RT-qPCR from FFPE-RNA is not higher than that reported for fresh complex tissues, and identified gene-, and expression level-sources of biological and technical variability, which can allow better strategies for designing RT-qPCR assays from highly degraded and inhibited samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits.

  4. Evaluation of the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Katja; Arpagaus, Cordin; Friess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    The vibrating mesh spray technology implemented in the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by spray drying common pharmaceutical excipients (e.g. trehalose, mannitol) and model drugs (e.g. griseofulvin). Aerosol droplet size measurements investigated the influence of spray solution factors (e.g. viscosity, surface tension) and of vibrating mesh aperture sizes on particle characteristics. Particle deposition on the spray nozzle was addressed by analyzing the influence of spray solute concentration and solvent on the process outcome. Submicron particles with 0.5 ?m and 0.8 ?m mean particle size were obtained at high yields for 50?mg powder amounts.

  5. Occupational acute anaphylactic reaction to assault by perfume spray in the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessenger, J E

    2001-01-01

    Perfumes have been associated with rashes in employees exposed to scented soaps or with allergic conditions, such as rhinitis or asthma, in employees exposed to perfumes or fragrances in the air. Reported here is a case of an anaphylactic reaction and respiratory distress as a result of a deliberate assault with a perfume spray. The medical literature was searched using the key words "fragrances," "respiratory distress," "assault," and "health care workers." A female medical assistant with no history of asthma or reactions to fragrances was assaulted by a patient, who pumped three sprays of a perfume into her face. The employee experienced an acute anaphylactic reaction with shortness of breath, a suffocating sensation, wheezes, and generalized urticaria, and required aggressive medical treatment, a long period of oral bronchodilator therapy, and, finally, weaning from the medications. Perfumes are complex mixtures of more than 4,000 vegetable and animal extracts and organic and nonorganic compounds. Fragrances have been found to cause exacerbations of symptoms and airway obstruction in asthmatic patients, including chest tightening and wheezing, and are a common cause of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis. In many work settings the use of fragrances is limited. Assault is becoming more common among workers in the health care setting. Workers should be prepared to take immediate steps should an employee go into anaphylactic shock.

  6. Development and Characterization of Oral Spray for Stomatitis Containing Irsogladine Maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yayoi; Imamura, Ayano; Nakamura, Tomoe; Akaishi, Mio; Satoh, Mitsutoshi; Hanawa, Takehisa

    2016-12-01

    The stomatitis caused by anticancer agents and radiation therapy deteriorates patient QOL, potentially causing eating disorders as a result of pain. Although gargling and ointments can be used in the treatment of stomatitis, patients must spit out mouthwash after use, while ointment application requires a finger to be inserted into the oral cavity. In contrast, sprays eliminate these potential compliance problems. Therefore, we developed a stomatitis spray that remains on the oral mucosa. It has been reported that irsogladine maleate (IM) is effective against stomatitis via oral administration. IM is water insoluble; thus, it was dissolved with various cyclodextrins (CDs). Furthermore, we examined combination with gum ghatti (GG), a mucoadhesive polymer. The interaction between mucin and GG was examined by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring. We found that GG exhibited mucoadhesion. Furthermore, we examined the healing effects of IM on stomatitis in a stomatitis model hamster. We found that stomatitis healed after direct application of IM. However, the model used in this experiment is not based on stomatitis caused by anticancer agents. Further study is therefore necessary.

  7. Antibiofilm Efficacy of DispersinB Wound Spray Used in Combination with a Silver Wound Dressing

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    Purushottam V. Gawande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. As the traditional methods of treatment have proven ineffective against chronic wounds involving biofilms, there is an unmet clinical need for developing products with an antibiofilm component that inhibits and/or disrupts biofilms and thus make the biofilm-embedded bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobial therapy. We developed a DispersinB® antibiofilm enzyme-based wound spray for treating chronic wounds in conjunction with an antimicrobial. Under in vitro conditions, the DispersinB® and Acticoat™ combination performed significantly better ( P < 0.05 than Acticoat™ alone, indicating the synergy between the two compounds because of DispersinB® enhancing the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat™. Furthermore, DispersinB® wound spray enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat™ in a chronic wound mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection. Thus, this novel combination of DispersinB® and Acticoat™, an antimicrobial dressing, prompts clinical evaluation for potential applications in biofilm-based chronic wound management.

  8. Electrostatic spray deposition of doped ceria films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.B.; Chang, C.L.; Hwang, B.H. [Department of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424 (China); Hsu, C.S. [Kaohsiung Municipal Chung-Cheng Industrial High School, Kaohsiung 80656 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Dense and thin electrolyte films are desirable for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their low gas leakage and low ohmic resistances. This work aims at the preparation of thin dense Gd-doped ceria (CGO) electrolyte films using a cost-effective deposition method in ambient atmosphere-electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The deposition parameters such as deposition temperature, concentration and flow rate of precursor solution were changed systematically to examine their effects on film morphology and hence electrochemical performance. While the film morphology was examined by a scanning electron microscope, the electrochemical performance was revealed by measuring open circuit voltages (OCVs) of NiO-CGO/CGO/Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) cells in 500-700 C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and air as oxidant. The results show that a CGO film of 25 {mu}m thick obtained at a deposition temperature of 400 C, a precursor solution flow rate of 6 ml h{sup -1} and a precursor concentration of 0.3 M was dense with very few isolated pores and the OCV of the associated cell was 0.915 V at 500 C. This implies that the CGO film has negligible gas leakage and ESD is a promising method for preparing thin dense electrolyte films for SOFCs. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

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    Özgür Oğuz Taşkiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image processing program. To investigate the influence of nozzle geometry, 4 different types of divergent, straight, straight-rounded, convergent-rounded nozzles, were manufactured and used in both spray evolution and autoignition experiments. The internal geometry of the injector nozzles were obtained by using silicone mold method. The macroscopic properties of the nozzles are presented in the study. Ignition behaviour of different nozzle types was observed in terms of ignition delay time and ignition location. A commercial Diesel fuel, n-heptane, and a mixture of hexadecane-heptamethylnonane (CN65—cetane number 65 were used as fuels at ignition experiments. The similar macroscopic properties of different nozzles were searched for observing ignition time and ignition location differences. Though spray and ignition characteristics revealed very similar results, the dissimilarities are presented in the study.

  10. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  11. Treatment of Rhinitis Sicca Anterior with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray

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    Uwe Sonnemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1 and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2 over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians were asked to rate the efficacy in reducing symptoms and the tolerability over the treatment phase. Results. The treatment in both studies resulted in a clinical and statistical significant reduction of the main diagnosis parameters, nasal airway obstruction, and crust formation. There was also a significant reduction in the secondary diagnosis parameters in both studies. Importantly, the tolerability was very good. During the whole observational study, neither patients nor doctors stopped the medication due to unwanted effects. Conclusion. Rhinitis sicca could be successfully treated with a nasal spray containing ectoine and a nasal spray combining ectoine with dexpanthenol. The combination of both substances led to slight advantages.

  12. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted.

  13. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  14. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.-I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2014-02-01

    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head coastal station, on the west coast of Ireland, were used together with open-ocean eddy correlation flux measurements from the Eastern Atlantic Sea Spray, Gas Flux, and Whitecap (SEASAW) project cruise. In the overlapping size range, the data for Mace Head and SEASAW were found to be in a good agreement, which allowed deriving the new SSSF from the combined dataset spanning the dry diameter range from 15 nm to 6 μm. The OSSA source function has been parameterized in terms of five lognormal modes and the Reynolds number instead of the more commonly used wind speed, thereby encapsulating important influences of wave height, wind history, friction velocity, and viscosity. This formulation accounts for the different flux relationships associated with rising and waning wind speeds since these are included in the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the Reynolds number incorporates the kinematic viscosity of water, thus the SSSF inherently includes dependences on sea surface temperature and salinity. The temperature dependence of the resulting SSSF is similar to that of other in-situ derived source functions and results in lower production fluxes for cold waters and enhanced fluxes from warm waters as compared with SSSF formulations that do not include temperature effects.

  15. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85 were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  16. Technological Challenges for Spray Chilling Encapsulation of Functional Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Favaro-Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray chilling technology (also known as spray cooling and spray congealing technology has been widely studied and used in the pharmaceutical field. In the food industry, this technique is gaining interest and can become useful because functional food formulations can be developed. Spray chilling is a fat-based system, which involves the addition of the component of interest to a molten lipid carrier, and the resulting mixture is fed through an atomiser nozzle. When the nebulised material is put into contact with the environment, which is cooled below the melting point of the matrix material, the vehicle solidifies (due to heat exchange between the molten material and cold air, and solid lipid microparticles are formed at the same time. This technology is fat based, and lipid carriers, such as wax and oil (e.g. palm oil, beeswax, cocoa butter, and kernel oil can be used. This encapsulation technique can potentially change the functionality, reduce the hygroscopicity, mask taste or odour, change solubility, and provide physical protection in addition to allowing the controlled release of these ingredients. This low-cost technology is relatively simple to apply and scale up, and it does not require the use of organic solvents and the application of high temperatures in the process. Therefore, spray chilling encapsulation may facilitate the development and production of functional and enriched foods as it may solve some technological problems associated with the use of certain ingredients, such as those that have high reactivity and low stability.

  17. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted

  18. Experimental testing of spray dryer for control of incineration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, M Y; Wu, H Y; Tseng, H H; Chen, J C

    2003-05-01

    The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results showed that CaO could be used as an alternative sorbent in the spray dryer at an optimal initial particle size distribution of spraying droplet. In the spray dryer, Ca-based sorbents provided a lot of sites for heavy metals and PAHs condensing and calcium and alkalinity to react with metals to form merged species. As a result, heavy metals and PAHs could be removed from the flue gas simultaneously by condensation and adsorption. The additions of additives NaHCO3, SiO2, and KMnO4 were also found to be effective in improving the removal efficiency of these air pollutants.

  19. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  20. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  1. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  2. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based spray-dried microparticles for the delivery of clindamycin phosphate to periodontal pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Muge; Gumustas, Mehmet; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Baykara, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable spray-dried chitosan microparticles loaded with clindamycin phosphate (CDP) were formulated to deliver drugs locally into the periodontal pocket. The effects of spray dryer conditions, drug/polymer ratio, and added amounts of glutaraldehyde (GA) solution on the characterization of microparticles were investigated by determining process yield, encapsulation efficiency, particle size and size distribution, surface morphology, drug release, release kinetics, thermal analysis, and antimicrobial efficacy of formulations. Burst release was obtained for all formulations due to the water solubility of the drug, but the increased amount of chitosan decreased the drug release rates. Microparticles with a more wrinkled surface were obtained by increasing the amount of the drug. Incorporation efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained for all preparation conditions. The addition of GA caused higher viscosity of the chitosan solution, leading to larger particles with more spherical and smooth surface characteristics. However, the increased GA amount did not significantly influence the drug release. The data obtained from in vitro release experiments were best fitted to the Weibull and Higuchi models. The amorphous nature of the drug-loaded microparticles was detected by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermographs. A delayed drug release of more than one week could be obtained by loading the drug into the chitosan microparticles. Antimicrobial efficacy studies reflected a positive drug release profile. These results indicate that spray-dried clindamycin-loaded microparticles with sustained antimicrobial efficacy appear to be a promising periodontal therapy for drug delivery into the periodontal pocket.

  3. Efficacy of lignocaine in gel and spray form during buccal infiltration anesthesia in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshul; Suprabha, B S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of 15% lignocaine spray and 8% lignocaine gel as a topical anesthetic, in reducing pain, during buccal infiltration in children. Forty-two patients aged between 7 and 12 years requiring restorative procedures/extraction/pulp therapy of primary/ permanent teeth in the maxillary arch, under buccal infiltration anesthesia were selected for the study. The participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 21 each. In group A, 8% lignocaine gel and in group B, 15% lignocaine spray was applied prior to buccal infiltration. Pain was assessed using Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPRS) and faces legs activity cry and consolability (FLACC) painscale. Pearson's chi-square test revealed that there was no significant difference in the FLACC scores of the two groups (p = 0.54). Independent t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference in Wong-Bakers faces pain score between the two agents (p = 0.07). There is no significant difference in the efficacy of 15% lignocaine spray and 8% lignocaine gel as a topical anesthetic in controlling pain during buccal infiltration anesthesia, in children.

  4. Relationships between spray parameters, microstructures and ultrasonic cavitation erosion behavior of HVOF sprayed Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Wu, Yuping; Hong, Sheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yugui

    2017-11-01

    Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings were prepared on the AISI 321 steel substrate by the high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technology. The effect of selected parameters (oxygen flow, kerosene flow and spray distance) on the cavitation erosion resistance (denoted as Rc) of the coating were investigated by using the Taguchi method. Statistical tools such as design of experiments (DOE), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to meet the expected objective. It was concluded that the kerosene flow had greater influence on the Rc of the coating and followed by the spray distance and the oxygen flow, respectively. The optimum spray parameters (OSP) were 963L/min for the oxygen flow, 28L/h for the kerosene flow, and 330mm for the spray distance. The Rc of the coating increased with the increase of hardness or the decrease of porosity, and the hardness had a greater influence on Rc than the porosity. The Fe-based coating deposited under the OSP exhibited the best cavitation erosion resistance in distilled water. The cracks initiated at the edge of the pores and the interfaces between the un-melted or half-melted particles, and finally leaded to the delamination of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  7. 3rd International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gutheil, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the results of the 2nd and 3rd International Workshops on Turbulent Spray Combustion. The focus is on progress in experiments and numerical simulations for two-phase flows, with emphasis on spray combustion. Knowledge of the dominant phenomena and their interactions allows development of predictive models and their use in combustor and gas turbine design. Experts and young researchers present the state-of-the-art results, report on the latest developments and exchange ideas in the areas of experiments, modelling and simulation of reactive multiphase flows. The first chapter reflects on flame structure, auto-ignition and atomization with reference to well-characterized burners, to be implemented by modellers with relative ease. The second chapter presents an overview of first simulation results on target test cases, developed at the occasion of the 1st International Workshop on Turbulent Spray Combustion. In the third chapter, evaporation rate modelling aspects are covered, while the fourth ...

  8. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...

  9. USO DE FIPRONIL SPRAY NO TRATAMENTO DA ESCABIOSE CANINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franco Andrade

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to prove the effectiveness of the fipronil spray (FRONTLINE, a new synthetic molecule, as a safe acaricide in dogs. Were analyzed 10 dogs from the attendance of the service of Dermatology of the Veterinary Hospital and of the kennel of UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, with symptomatic and tested positive for scabies by scrapings, and used the fipronil spray in the whole body of the animal, besides external ear conduct, weekly until the disappearance of the symptoms and scrapings from the skin tested negative for scabies. The remission of the symptoms jointly with scraped of skin negative it happened on average from 4 to 6 weeks, demonstrating to be the fipronil spray effective and practical could be a safe alternative in the treatment of the canine scabies.

  10. Plasma spraying of bioactive glass-ceramics containing bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária Dobrádi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural bone derived glass-ceramics are promising biomaterials for implants. However, due to their price and weak mechanical properties they are preferably applied as coatings on load bearing implants. This paper describes result obtained by plasma spraying of bioactive glass-ceramics containing natural bone onto selected implant materials, such as stainless steel, alumina, and titanium alloy. Adhesion of plasma sprayed coating was tested by computed X-ray tomography and SEM of cross sections. The results showed defect free interface between the coating and substrate, without cracks or gaps. Dissolution rate of the coating in simulated body fluid (SBF was readily controlled by the bone additives (phase composition, as well as microstructure. The SBF treatment of the plasma sprayed coating did not influence the boundary between the coating and substrate.

  11. Fine structure of the vapor field in evaporating dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel; Moutte, Alexandre; Amielh, Muriel; Meunier, Patrice

    2017-11-01

    Making use of an original technique which permits the simultaneous measurement of both the displacement field of evaporating droplets in a spray, and of their vapor, we investigate the relevance of a scenario introduced earlier to describe the evaporation dynamics of dense sprays. A plume of dense acetone droplets evaporating in air is studied, for which the stirring field is measured by particle image velocimetry of the droplets, and the vapor field is imaged quantitatively by laser-induced fluorescence. We show, thanks to these unique in situ measurements, that the spray boundary with the diluting environment is slaved to the dynamics of its saturating vapor concentration field, whose structure is analyzed for different well defined local flow topologies.

  12. Economic Model Predictive Control for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert

    and MPC strategies to optimize the operation of four-stage spray dryers. The models are first-principle dynamic models with parameters identified from dryer specific experiments and powder properties identified from laboratory tests. A simulation model is used for detailed closed-loop simulations...... and a complexity reduced control model is used for state estimation and prediction in the controllers. These models facilitate development and comparison of control strategies. We develop two MPC strategies; a linear tracking MPC with a Real-Time Optimization layer (MPC with RTO) and an Economic Nonlinear MPC (E...... and sticky powder is avoided from building up on the dryer walls; 3) Demonstrate the industrial application of an MPC strategy to a full-scale industrial four-stage spray dryer. The main scientific contributions can be summarized to: - Modeling of a four-stage spray dryer. We develop new first-principles...

  13. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of mineral diesel. The experimentally obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. Furthermore, the influence of biodiesel usage on lubrication is presented briefly. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NOx, CO, HC, smoke, and PM can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly while keeping other engine characteristics within acceptable limits. Furthermore, the results indicate better lubrication conditions when biodiesel is used.

  14. The Evaluation of Momentum Flux to Estimate Exposure From Spray Painting Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blazicko, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... The model was tested with an anthropometric, 73 inch mechanical mannequin spraying nonvolatile oil on a flat plate in a paint booth while using a high volume, low pressure (HVLP) spray paint gun...

  15. Mimicking spray drying by drying of single droplets deposited on a flat surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The inactivation of bioactive ingredients during spray drying is often matrix specific. Therefore, the design of new processes or the optimisation of existing spray drying processes is usually highly product specific and requires numerous experiments. Rapid experimentation methods that facilitate

  16. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  17. Lanthanide-based laser-induced phosphorescence for spray diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voort, D. D. van der, E-mail: d.d.v.d.voort@tue.nl; Water, W. van de; Kunnen, R. P. J.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Heijst, G. J. F. van [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maes, N. C. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Dam, N. J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lamberts, T. [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) is a relatively recent and versatile development for studying flow dynamics. This work investigates certain lanthanide-based molecular complexes for their use in LIP for high-speed sprays. Lanthanide complexes in solutions have been shown to possess long phosphorescence lifetimes (∼1-2 ms) and to emit light in the visible wavelength range. In particular, europium and terbium complexes are investigated using fluorescence/phosphorescence spectrometry, showing that europium-thenoyltrifluoracetone-trioctylphosphineoxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) can be easily and efficiently excited using a standard frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser. The emitted spectrum, with maximum intensity at a wavelength of 614 nm, is shown not to vary strongly with temperature (293-383 K). The decay constant of the phosphorescence, while independent of ambient pressure, decreases by approximately 12 μs/K between 323 and 373 K, with the base level of the decay constant dependent on the used solvent. The complex does not luminesce in the gas or solid state, meaning only the liquid phase is visualized, even in an evaporating spray. By using an internally excited spray containing the phosphorescent complex, the effect of vaporization is shown through the decrease in measured intensity over the length of the spray, together with droplet size measurements using interferometric particle imaging. This study shows that LIP, using the Eu-TTA-TOPO complex, can be used with different solvents, including diesel surrogates. Furthermore, it can be easily handled and used in sprays to investigate spray breakup and evaporation.

  18. Lanthanide-based laser-induced phosphorescence for spray diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Maes, N. C. J.; Lamberts, T.; Sweep, A. M.; van de Water, W.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Dam, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP) is a relatively recent and versatile development for studying flow dynamics. This work investigates certain lanthanide-based molecular complexes for their use in LIP for high-speed sprays. Lanthanide complexes in solutions have been shown to possess long phosphorescence lifetimes (˜1-2 ms) and to emit light in the visible wavelength range. In particular, europium and terbium complexes are investigated using fluorescence/phosphorescence spectrometry, showing that europium-thenoyltrifluoracetone-trioctylphosphineoxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) can be easily and efficiently excited using a standard frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser. The emitted spectrum, with maximum intensity at a wavelength of 614 nm, is shown not to vary strongly with temperature (293-383 K). The decay constant of the phosphorescence, while independent of ambient pressure, decreases by approximately 12 μs/K between 323 and 373 K, with the base level of the decay constant dependent on the used solvent. The complex does not luminesce in the gas or solid state, meaning only the liquid phase is visualized, even in an evaporating spray. By using an internally excited spray containing the phosphorescent complex, the effect of vaporization is shown through the decrease in measured intensity over the length of the spray, together with droplet size measurements using interferometric particle imaging. This study shows that LIP, using the Eu-TTA-TOPO complex, can be used with different solvents, including diesel surrogates. Furthermore, it can be easily handled and used in sprays to investigate spray breakup and evaporation.

  19. Copy number and loss of heterozygosity detected by SNP array of formalin-fixed tissues using whole-genome amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Stokes

    Full Text Available The requirement for large amounts of good quality DNA for whole-genome applications prohibits their use for small, laser capture micro-dissected (LCM, and/or rare clinical samples, which are also often formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE. Whole-genome amplification of DNA from these samples could, potentially, overcome these limitations. However, little is known about the artefacts introduced by amplification of FFPE-derived DNA with regard to genotyping, and subsequent copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH analyses. Using a ligation adaptor amplification method, we present data from a total of 22 Affymetrix SNP 6.0 experiments, using matched paired amplified and non-amplified DNA from 10 LCM FFPE normal and dysplastic oral epithelial tissues, and an internal method control. An average of 76.5% of SNPs were called in both matched amplified and non-amplified DNA samples, and concordance was a promising 82.4%. Paired analysis for copy number, LOH, and both combined, showed that copy number changes were reduced in amplified DNA, but were 99.5% concordant when detected, amplifications were the changes most likely to be 'missed', only 30% of non-amplified LOH changes were identified in amplified pairs, and when copy number and LOH are combined ∼50% of gene changes detected in the unamplified DNA were also detected in the amplified DNA and within these changes, 86.5% were concordant for both copy number and LOH status. However, there are also changes introduced as ∼20% of changes in the amplified DNA are not detected in the non-amplified DNA. An integrative network biology approach revealed that changes in amplified DNA of dysplastic oral epithelium localize to topologically critical regions of the human protein-protein interaction network, suggesting their functional implication in the pathobiology of this disease. Taken together, our results support the use of amplification of FFPE-derived DNA, provided sufficient samples are used

  20. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction detection of HER2 amplification in formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast and gastric carcinoma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yazhen; Lu, Dan; Lira, Maruja E; Xu, Qing; Du, Yunzhi; Xiong, Jianghong; Mao, Mao; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Zheng, Guangjuan

    2016-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a key driver of tumorigenesis, and over-expression as a result of HER2 gene amplification has been observed in a number of solid tumors. Recently HER2 has become an important biomarker for the monoclonal antibody treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast and advanced gastric cancer. The HER2 targeting antibody trastuzumab treatment requires accurate measurement of HER2 levels for proper diagnosis. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with highly direct, precise and absolute nucleic acid quantification could be used to detect HER2 amplification levels. Our objective was to evaluate a robust, accurate and less subjective application of ddPCR for HER2 amplification levels and test the assay performance in clinical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast and gastric carcinoma samples. Genomic DNA from HER2 amplified cell line SK-BR-3 was used to set up the ddPCR assays. The copy number of HER2 was compared to the chromosome 17 centromere reference gene (CEP17), expressed as HER2:CEP17 ratio. Genomic DNAs of FFPE specimens from 145 Asian patients with breast and gastric carcinomas were assayed using both standard methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and ddPCR. Based on 145 clinical breast and gastric carcinoma cases, our study demonstrated a high concordance of ddPCR results to FISH and IHC. In breast cancer specimens, the ddPCR results had high concordance with FISH and IHC defined HER2 status with a sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) and a specificity of 100% (77/77). In gastric cancer specimens that were concordant in both FISH and IHC, our assay was 95.5% concordant with FISH and IHC (21/22). ddPCR has the advantage of automation and also allows levels of HER2 amplification to be easily evaluated in large numbers of samples, and presents a potential option to define HER2 status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.