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Sample records for formal engineering methods

  1. Formal Methods in Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Fensel, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by summ

  2. Formal Methods in Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Fensel, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by

  3. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  4. Epistemology, software engineering and formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1994-01-01

    One of the most basic questions anyone can ask is, 'How do I know that what I think I know is true?' The study of this question is called epistemology. Traditionally, epistemology has been considered to be of legitimate interest only to philosophers, theologians, and three year old children who respond to every statement by asking, 'Why?' Software engineers need to be interested in the subject, however, because a lack of sufficient understanding of epistemology contributes to many of the current problems in the field.

  5. The importance of training in formal methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Polansky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of formal methods provides systematic techniques and rigorous to software develop and, due the crescent complexity and quality requirements of current products, is necessary introduce them in curriculum of software engineer. In this article is analyzed the importance of train in formal methods and described specific techniques to achieved it efficiently. This techniques are the result of an experimental process in the class room of more than fifteen years in undergraduate and graduate programs, the same as company training. Also are presented a proposal a curriculum to systematic introduction of this paradigm and description of a program in training methods that has been success to industry. Results shows that students gain confidence in formal methods just when found out of the benefits of this in the context of software engineer.

  6. Introduction of the Formal Methods in Software Engineering Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toledo B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Formal methods were developed to provide systematic and rigorous techniques for software development, and as initiative will be introduced in training in Software Engineering (SE. This article discusses the importance of including these scientific principles and describes several specific techniques in order to improve the processes of the IS. It also provides an analysis of the principles that should be taken into account in a curriculum to systematically introduce in university education and business. Several methods have been tried in recent years to achieve this goal in undergraduate and graduate universities programs, as well as IT professionals. Experience shows that participants gain confidence in formal methods only when they learn their clear benefits in the context of software engineering.

  7. Software Engineering with Formal Methods: The Development of a Storm Surge Barrier Control System - Revisiting Seven Myths of Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Wijbrans, K.C.J.; Chaudron, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of formal methods in the development of the control system for the Maeslant Kering. The Maeslant Kering is the movable dam which has to protect Rotterdam from floodings while, at (almost) the same time, not restricting ship traffic to the port of Rotterdam. The control

  8. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met......In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification...

  9. Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.

    2009-01-01

    Both the human factors engineering (HFE) and formal methods communities are concerned with finding and eliminating problems with safety-critical systems. This work discusses a modeling effort that leveraged methods from both fields to use model checking with HFE practices to perform formal verification of a human-interactive system. Despite the use of a seemingly simple target system, a patient controlled analgesia pump, the initial model proved to be difficult for the model checker to verify in a reasonable amount of time. This resulted in a number of model revisions that affected the HFE architectural, representativeness, and understandability goals of the effort. If formal methods are to meet the needs of the HFE community, additional modeling tools and technological developments are necessary.

  10. Integrating object-oriented methods and formal methods for requirement engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡海; 缪淮扣

    2004-01-01

    High quality software requirement specification is crucial for a software development. Although much efforts and research works have been done to address the problem, the errors in user requirement are still prevent us from developing high quality software. To address the problem, this paper proposes integrating graphical specification technique UML with formal specification technique to construct user requirement specification. We also present a prototype tool to perform the automatic translation from UML specification into Object-Z specification.

  11. The application of formal software engineering methods to the unattended and remote monitoring software suite at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Determan, John Clifford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Longo, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michel, Kelly D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Unattended and Remote Monitoring (UNARM) system is a collection of specialized hardware and software used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to institute nuclear safeguards at many nuclear facilities around the world. The hardware consists of detectors, instruments, and networked computers for acquiring various forms of data, including but not limited to radiation data, global position coordinates, camera images, isotopic data, and operator declarations. The software provides two primary functions: the secure and reliable collection of this data from the instruments and the ability to perform an integrated review and analysis of the disparate data sources. Several years ago the team responsible for maintaining the software portion of the UNARM system began the process of formalizing its operations. These formal operations include a configuration management system, a change control board, an issue tracking system, and extensive formal testing, for both functionality and reliability. Functionality is tested with formal test cases chosen to fully represent the data types and methods of analysis that will be commonly encountered. Reliability is tested with iterative, concurrent testing where up to five analyses are executed simultaneously for thousands of cycles. Iterative concurrent testing helps ensure that there are no resource conflicts or leaks when multiple system components are in use simultaneously. The goal of this work is to provide a high quality, reliable product, commensurate with the criticality of the application. Testing results will be presented that demonstrate that this goal has been achieved and the impact of the introduction of a formal software engineering framework to the UNARM product will be presented.

  12. Formal Methods in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.

  13. Teaching Formal Methods and Discrete Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Jaume

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advancements in the conception of (formal integrated development environments, applying formal methods in software industry is still perceived as a difficult task. To make the task easier, providing tools that help during the development cycle is essential but we think that education of computer scientists and software engineers is also an important challenge to take up. Indeed, we believe that formal methods courses do not appear sufficiently early in compter science curricula and thus are not widely used and perceived as a valid professional skill. In this paper, we claim that teaching formal methods could be done at the undergraduate level by mixing formal methods and discrete mathematics courses and we illustrate such an approach with a small develop- ment within FoCaLiZe. We also believe that this could considerably benefit the learning of discrete mathematics.

  14. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    -oriented methods to analysis-oriented methods. Then, Sect. 2, we shall provide a "survey": which are the 'prerequisite works' that have enabled formal methods, Sect. 2.1, and which are, to us, the, by now, classical 'formal methods', Sect. 2.2. We then ask ourselves the question: have formal methods for software......" is complemented, in Sect. 3.4, by a "looking forward" at some promising developments-besides the alleviation of the (eighth or more) hindrances! © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland....

  15. Industrial use of formal methods formal verification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based.  The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow

  16. Formalization of the engineering science discipline - knowledge engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao

    Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an

  17. Formal Methods: Practice and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting...... on a new survey of industrial use, comparing the situation in 2009 with the most significant surveys carried out over the last 20 years. We describe some of the highlights of our survey by presenting a series of industrial projects, and we draw some observations from these surveys and records of experience....... Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate...

  18. Intelligent Knowledge Database (IKD Tool for Formal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Nanda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Intelligent Knowledge Database (IKD tool generated for formal methods. Theknowledge database provides the information regarding the existing formal methods in the area ofacademia, industry and R&D sectors. The tool provides complete information about the formal methodsadopted in the conventional or model-based approach, in the various phases of the software developmentlife cycle process, list of tools using formal techniques with their version and published literaturesupporting formal methods. This knowledge-database serves as a live encyclopedia which will enable theengineers and researchers interested in the field of formal methods. The database is intelligent because itprovides the user with the flexibility of searching the formal method related information using keywordsimilar to the search engine. This is a unique tool for formal methods encompassing most of the publishedliterature with intelligent search options

  19. Formal methods in software development: A road less travelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A van der Poll

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An integration of traditional verification techniques and formal specifications in software engineering is presented. Advocates of such techniques claim that mathematical formalisms allow them to produce quality, verifiably correct, or at least highly dependable software and that the testing and maintenance phases are shortened. Critics on the other hand maintain that software formalisms are hard to master, tedious to use and not well suited for the fast turnaround times demanded by industry. In this paper some popular formalisms and the advantages of using these during the early phases of the software development life cycle are presented. Employing the Floyd-Hoare verification principles during the formal specification phase facilitates reasoning about the properties of a specification. Some observations that may help to alleviate the formal-methods controversy are established and a number of formal methods successes is presented. Possible conditions for an increased acceptance of formalisms in oftware development are discussed.

  20. Formal Verification, Engineering and Business Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Huuck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How to apply automated verification technology such as model checking and static program analysis to millions of lines of embedded C/C++ code? How to package this technology in a way that it can be used by software developers and engineers, who might have no background in formal verification? And how to convince business managers to actually pay for such a software? This work addresses a number of those questions. Based on our own experience on developing and distributing the Goanna source code analyzer for detecting software bugs and security vulnerabilities in C/C++ code, we explain the underlying technology of model checking, static analysis and SMT solving, steps involved in creating industrial-proof tools.

  1. Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination

  2. Survey of formal and informal citation in Google search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Teymourikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Informal citations is bibliographic information (title or Internet address, citing sources of information resources for informal scholarly communication and always neglected in traditional citation databases. This study is done, in order to answer the question of whether informal citations in the web environment are traceable. The present research aims to determine what proportion of web citations of Google search engine is related to formal and informal citation. Research method: Webometrics is the method used. The study is done on 1344 research articles of 98 open access journal, and the method that is used to extract the web citation from Google search engine is “Web / URL citation extraction". Findings: The findings showed that ten percent of the web citations of Google search engine are formal and informal citations. The highest formal citation in the Google search engine with 19/27% is in the field of library and information science and the lowest official citation by 1/54% is devoted to the field of civil engineering. The highest percentage of informal citations with 3/57% is devoted to sociology and the lowest percentage of informal citations by 0/39% is devoted to the field of civil engineering. Journal Citation is highest with 94/12% in the surgical field and lowest with 5/26 percent in the philosophy filed. Result: Due to formal and informal citations in the Google search engine which is about 10 percent and the reduction of this amount compared to previous research, it seems that track citations by this engine should be treated with more caution. We see that the amount of formal citation is variable in different disciplines. Cited journals in the field of surgery, is highest and in the filed of philosophy is lowest, this indicates that in the filed of philosophy, that is a subset of the social sciences, journals in scientific communication do not play a significant role. On the other hand, book has a key role in this filed

  3. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  4. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  5. Industrial Practice in Formal Methods : A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicarregui, Juan C.; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant chal...

  6. Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Paul

    The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.

  7. Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.

  8. Proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Second NASA Formal Methods Symposium sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and held in Washington D.C. April 13-15, 2010. Topics covered include: Decision Engines for Software Analysis using Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solvers; Verification and Validation of Flight-Critical Systems; Formal Methods at Intel -- An Overview; Automatic Review of Abstract State Machines by Meta Property Verification; Hardware-independent Proofs of Numerical Programs; Slice-based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z; How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project; A Machine-Checked Proof of A State-Space Construction Algorithm; Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications; Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving; Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol; Can Regulatory Bodies Expect Efficient Help from Formal Methods?; Synthesis of Greedy Algorithms Using Dominance Relations; A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines; Verification of Faulty Message Passing Systems with Continuous State Space in PVS; Phase Two Feasibility Study for Software Safety Requirements Analysis Using Model Checking; A Prototype Embedding of Bluespec System Verilog in the PVS Theorem Prover; SimCheck: An Expressive Type System for Simulink; Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness; Software Model Checking of ARINC-653 Flight Code with MCP; Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B; Formal Verification of Large Software Systems; Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation; Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System; Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking; Model Checking with Edge-valued Decision Diagrams

  9. What makes industries believe in formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Chris A.; Sinderen, van Marten; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Danthine, A.S.; Leduc, G.; Wolper, P.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of formal methods in the design and development departments of an industrial company has far reaching and long lasting consequences. In fact it changes the whole environment of methods, tools and skills that determine the design culture of that company. A decision to replace current

  10. Uncertainty and Reconfigurability in Hilbertean Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Hilbertian Formal Methods is a recently introduced paradigm for embedded systems operating in harsh physical environments. This paradigm has been more developed for the deterministic case. However, it is very rare that a physical environment follows precisely a deterministic rule and then it is mo

  11. Uncertainty and Reconfigurability in Hilbertean Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    Hilbertian Formal Methods is a recently introduced paradigm for embedded systems operating in harsh physical environments. This paradigm has been more developed for the deterministic case. However, it is very rare that a physical environment follows precisely a deterministic rule and then it is more

  12. Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou

    2006-01-01

    Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…

  13. On the Need for Practical Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    either a good violin or a highly talented violinist . Light-weight techniques o er software developers good violins. A user need not be a talented... violinist to bene t. This is in contrast to heavy-duty techniques where the user needs to be a good violinist . Formal methods research has already produced a

  14. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.G. [Software Engineering Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  15. Research methods for formal consensus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daphne; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews three research methods for developing consensus. Consensus statements and guidelines are increasingly used to clarify and standardise practice, and inform health policy, when relevant and rigorous evidence is lacking. Clinicians need to evaluate the quality of practice guidelines to determine whether to incorporate them into clinical practice or reject them. Formal methods of developing consensus provide a scientific method that uses expert panel members to evaluate current evidence and expert opinions to produce consensus statements for clinical problems. Online search for relevant literature was conducted in Medline and CINAHL. A literature review of consensus, consensus development and research methods papers published in English in peer-reviewed journals. The three methods of developing consensus discussed are the Delphi technique, nominal group technique and the consensus development conference. The techniques and their respective advantages are described, and examples from the literature are provided. The three methods are compared and a flowchart to assist researchers selecting an appropriate method is included. Online resources with information on the development and evaluation of clinical guidelines are reviewed. This paper will help researchers to select an appropriate research method for developing consensus statements and guidelines. When developing consensus guidelines for clinical practice, researchers should use a formal research method to ensure rigour and credibility.

  16. Formal Methods in the Philosophy of Natural Science

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    What is the proper place of formal methods in philosophy of natural science, or in philosophy more broadly speaking? The idea that philosophy should proceed formally (“more geometrico”, as in the title of Spinoza’s Ethica) has been around for some time, but both the attitude towards formal methods and the understanding of formal methods itself has changed. Mathematical logic has succeeded geometrical demonstration as the paradigm of formal precision, and in technical areas such as foundations...

  17. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  18. Whatever Happened to Formal Methods for Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, J; Schaffer, K

    2016-08-01

    We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare "How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?" [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in "safety-critical" has succeeded as well for today's "build it, hack it, patch it" mindset. Our experts were John McLean (Naval Research Labs), Paul Black (National Institute of Standards and Technology), Karl Levitt (University of California at Davis), Joseph Williams (CloudEconomist.Com), Connie Heitmeyer (Naval Research Labs), Eugene Spafford (Purdue University), and Joseph Kiniry (Galois, Inc.). The questions and responses follow.

  19. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    need for multi-language formalisation (Petri Nets, MSC, StateChart, Temporal Logics); the sociology of university and industry acceptance of formal methods; the inevitability of the use of formal software development methods; while referring to seminal monographs and textbooks on formal methods....

  20. Formal Model-Driven Engineering: Generating Data and Behavioural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-driven engineering is the automatic production of software artefacts from abstract models of structure and functionality. By targeting a specific class of system, it is possible to automate aspects of the development process, using model transformations and code generators that encode domain knowledge and implementation strategies. Using this approach, questions of correctness for a complex, software system may be answered through analysis of abstract models of lower complexity, under the assumption that the transformations and generators employed are themselves correct. This paper shows how formal techniques can be used to establish the correctness of model transformations used in the generation of software components from precise object models. The source language is based upon existing, formal techniques; the target language is the widely-used SQL notation for database programming. Correctness is established by giving comparable, relational semantics to both languages, and checking that the transformations are semantics-preserving.

  1. On Fitting a Formal Method into Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gmehlich, Rainer; Grau, Katrin; Hallerstede, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    . The interaction between the two proved to be crucial for the success of the case study. The heart of the problem was tracing informal requirements from Problem Frames descriptions to formal Event-B models. To a large degree, this issue dictated the approach that had to be used for formal modelling. A dedicated...

  2. Applying Formal Methods and Object-Oriented Analysis to Existing Space Shuttle Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B.; Auernheimer, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the application of formal methods and object-oriented modeling to reverse engineering, in which formal specifications are developed for existing, or legacy, code. In this project, several layers of formal specifications were constructed for a portion of the NASA Space Shuttle Digital Auto Pilot (DAP), a software module that is used to control the position of the spacecraft through appropriate jet firings.

  3. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  4. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  5. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  6. On Applicability of Formal Methods and Tools to Dependable Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    As a variety of digital services are provided through networks, more and more efforts are made to ensure dependability of software behavior implementing services. Formal methods and tools have been considered as promising means to support dependability in complex software systems during the development. On the other hand, there have been serious doubts on practical applicability of formal methods. This paper overviews the present state of formal methods and discusses their applicability, especially focusing on two representative methods (SPIN and B Method) and their recent industrial applications. This paper also discusses applications of formal methods to dependable networked software.

  7. A New Formal Method for Communication Protocol Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腊元

    1989-01-01

    A new formal method for communication protocol specification is presented.FSM,CSP and ADT are mixed and the best features of these approaches can be offered in the fomal method.First,we briefly describe the formal techniques of communication protocol.We then put forward the hybrid method of protocol specification.Finally,an example,i.e.,IEEE 802.3 MAC protocol for LAN described by the proposed formal method,is given.The results of studies show that this hybrid formal method for protocol specification is a correct,unambiguous and complete approach.

  8. Definicion y establecimiento formal de la engineering educacion en Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazares Rangel, V. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación de los ingenieros es de gran importancia debido a que la producción de una nación depende del conocimiento, capacidades y destrezas de los ingenieros. La Engineering Education (Educación para la Ingeniería es el área responsable de todos los aspectos relacionados con la educación en las facultades de ingeniería. Esta área no está a cargo de pedagogos, sino por ingenieros preparados en el tipo de educación necesaria para la ingeniería. La Engineering Education aparece formalmente como una rama hace treinta años en unas pocas universidades de los EUA. Ha sido aceptada en algunos otros países; donde cada uno de ellos ha elaborado su propia área de acuerdo con sus propias necesidades y requisitos. En México, la presencia de la. Engineering Education es nula de manera formal en las universidades, ni como área o disciplina, ni como estudio a nivel posgrado. Es objetivo de la tesis doctoral del autor establecer esta área de manera oficial como resultado de la investigación y del análisis.

  9. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  10. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  11. Formalization and Implementation of Algebraic Methods in Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Marić, Filip; Petrović, Danijela; Janičić, Predrag; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.4

    2012-01-01

    We describe our ongoing project of formalization of algebraic methods for geometry theorem proving (Wu's method and the Groebner bases method), their implementation and integration in educational tools. The project includes formal verification of the algebraic methods within Isabelle/HOL proof assistant and development of a new, open-source Java implementation of the algebraic methods. The project should fill-in some gaps still existing in this area (e.g., the lack of formal links between algebraic methods and synthetic geometry and the lack of self-contained implementations of algebraic methods suitable for integration with dynamic geometry tools) and should enable new applications of theorem proving in education.

  12. Proceedings First Workshop on Quantitative Formal Methods: Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Andova, Suzana; D'Argenio, Pedro; Cuijpers, Pieter; Markovski, Jasen; Morgan, Caroll; Núñez, Manuel; 10.4204/EPTCS.13

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 1st workshop on Quantitative Formal Methods: Theory and Applications, which was held in Eindhoven on 3 November 2009 as part of the International Symposium on Formal Methods 2009. This volume contains the final versions of all contributions accepted for presentation at the workshop.

  13. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  14. Applying formal methods and object-oriented analysis to existing flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Betty H. C.; Auernheimer, Brent

    1993-01-01

    Correctness is paramount for safety-critical software control systems. Critical software failures in medical radiation treatment, communications, and defense are familiar to the public. The significant quantity of software malfunctions regularly reported to the software engineering community, the laws concerning liability, and a recent NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board report additionally motivate the use of error-reducing and defect detection software development techniques. The benefits of formal methods in requirements driven software development ('forward engineering') is well documented. One advantage of rigorously engineering software is that formal notations are precise, verifiable, and facilitate automated processing. This paper describes the application of formal methods to reverse engineering, where formal specifications are developed for a portion of the shuttle on-orbit digital autopilot (DAP). Three objectives of the project were to: demonstrate the use of formal methods on a shuttle application, facilitate the incorporation and validation of new requirements for the system, and verify the safety-critical properties to be exhibited by the software.

  15. Questions and Answers About Ten Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnesi, S.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Latella, D.; Butler, M.J.; Currie, A.; Henderson, P.; Leuschel, M; Martin, A.; Smith, A.; Ultes-Nitsche, U.; Walters, B.

    An abstract model of a distributed data base application has been studied using process based, state based, and queueing theory based methods. The methods supported by graphical notations and/or integrated development environments were found to be easiest to work with. The methods supported by model

  16. Formalization and Implementation of Algebraic Methods in Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Marić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe our ongoing project of formalization of algebraic methods for geometry theorem proving (Wu's method and the Groebner bases method, their implementation and integration in educational tools. The project includes formal verification of the algebraic methods within Isabelle/HOL proof assistant and development of a new, open-source Java implementation of the algebraic methods. The project should fill-in some gaps still existing in this area (e.g., the lack of formal links between algebraic methods and synthetic geometry and the lack of self-contained implementations of algebraic methods suitable for integration with dynamic geometry tools and should enable new applications of theorem proving in education.

  17. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  18. Discrete mathematics, formal methods, the Z schema and the software life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    The proper role and scope for the use of discrete mathematics and formal methods in support of engineering the security and integrity of components within deployed computer systems are discussed. It is proposed that the Z schema can be used as the specification language to capture the precise definition of system and component interfaces. This can be accomplished with an object oriented development paradigm.

  19. ATAM-based Architecture Evaluation Using LOTOS Formal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Ashraf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available System Architecture evaluation and formal specification are the significant processes and practical endeavors in all domains. Many methods and formal descriptive techniques have been proposed to make a comprehensive analysis and formal representation of a system architecture. This paper consists of two main parts, in first we evaluated system performance, quality attribute in Remote Temperature Sensor clients-Server architecture by implementing an ATAM model, which provides a comprehensive support for evaluation of architecture designs by considering design quality attributes and how they can be represented in the architecture. In the second part, we computed the selected system architecture in ISO standards formal description technique LOTOS with which a system can be specified by the temporal relation between interactions and behavior of the system. Our proposed approach improves on factors such as ambiguity, inconsistency and incompleteness in current system architecture.

  20. On teaching software engineering based on formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2001-01-01

    thoughts about and plans for a different software engineering text book peter Lucas Farewell Symposium......thoughts about and plans for a different software engineering text book peter Lucas Farewell Symposium...

  1. On teaching software engineering based on formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2001-01-01

    thoughts about and plans for a different software engineering text book peter Lucas Farewell Symposium......thoughts about and plans for a different software engineering text book peter Lucas Farewell Symposium...

  2. Formal methods for discrete-time dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belta, Calin; Aydin Gol, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges fundamental gaps between control theory and formal methods. Although it focuses on discrete-time linear and piecewise affine systems, it also provides general frameworks for abstraction, analysis, and control of more general models. The book is self-contained, and while some mathematical knowledge is necessary, readers are not expected to have a background in formal methods or control theory. It rigorously defines concepts from formal methods, such as transition systems, temporal logics, model checking and synthesis. It then links these to the infinite state dynamical systems through abstractions that are intuitive and only require basic convex-analysis and control-theory terminology, which is provided in the appendix. Several examples and illustrations help readers understand and visualize the concepts introduced throughout the book.

  3. Evidence Arguments for Using Formal Methods in Software Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    We describe a generic approach for automatically integrating the output generated from a formal method/tool into a software safety assurance case, as an evidence argument, by (a) encoding the underlying reasoning as a safety case pattern, and (b) instantiating it using the data produced from the method/tool. We believe this approach not only improves the trustworthiness of the evidence generated from a formal method/tool, by explicitly presenting the reasoning and mechanisms underlying its genesis, but also provides a way to gauge the suitability of the evidence in the context of the wider assurance case. We illustrate our work by application to a real example-an unmanned aircraft system- where we invoke a formal code analysis tool from its autopilot software safety case, automatically transform the verification output into an evidence argument, and then integrate it into the former.

  4. Formal Model Engineering for Embedded Systems Using Real-Time Maude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Csaba Ölveczky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper motivates why Real-Time Maude should be well suited to provide a formal semantics and formal analysis capabilities to modeling languages for embedded systems. One can then use the code generation facilities of the tools for the modeling languages to automatically synthesize Real-Time Maude verification models from design models, enabling a formal model engineering process that combines the convenience of modeling using an informal but intuitive modeling language with formal verification. We give a brief overview six fairly different modeling formalisms for which Real-Time Maude has provided the formal semantics and (possibly formal analysis. These models include behavioral subsets of the avionics modeling standard AADL, Ptolemy II discrete-event models, two EMF-based timed model transformation systems, and a modeling language for handset software.

  5. Formal Model Engineering for Embedded Systems Using Real-Time Maude

    CERN Document Server

    Ölveczky, Peter Csaba

    2011-01-01

    This paper motivates why Real-Time Maude should be well suited to provide a formal semantics and formal analysis capabilities to modeling languages for embedded systems. One can then use the code generation facilities of the tools for the modeling languages to automatically synthesize Real-Time Maude verification models from design models, enabling a formal model engineering process that combines the convenience of modeling using an informal but intuitive modeling language with formal verification. We give a brief overview six fairly different modeling formalisms for which Real-Time Maude has provided the formal semantics and (possibly) formal analysis. These models include behavioral subsets of the avionics modeling standard AADL, Ptolemy II discrete-event models, two EMF-based timed model transformation systems, and a modeling language for handset software.

  6. Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.

  7. Formal Methods for Abstract Specifications – A Comparison of Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Instenberg, Martin; Schneider, Axel; Schnetter, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    In industry formal methods are becoming increasingly important for the verification of hardware and software designs. However current practice for specification of system and protocol functionality on high level of abstraction is textual description. For verification of the system behavior manual...... inspections and tests are usual means. To facilitate the introduction of formal methods in the development process of complex systems and protocols, two different tools evolved from research activities – UPPAAL and SpecEdit – have been investigated and compared regarding their concepts and functionality...

  8. Formal Methods for Abstract Specifications – A Comparison of Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Instenberg, Martin; Schneider, Axel; Schnetter, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    In industry formal methods are becoming increasingly important for the verification of hardware and software designs. However current practice for specification of system and protocol functionality on high level of abstraction is textual description. For verification of the system behavior manual...... inspections and tests are usual means. To facilitate the introduction of formal methods in the development process of complex systems and protocols, two different tools evolved from research activities – UPPAAL and SpecEdit – have been investigated and compared regarding their concepts and functionality...

  9. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  10. An irerative requirements engineering framework based on formal concept analysis and C-K theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Dedene, G.; Snoeck, M.; Viaene, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an expert system for iterative requirements engineering using Formal Concept Analysis. The requirements engineering approach is grounded in the theoretical framework of C-K theory. An essential result of this approach is that we obtain normalized class models. Compared to t

  11. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  12. A Survey on Formal Methods for Web Service Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Web Service Composition creates new composite Web Services from existing Web Services which embodies the added values of Web Service technology and is a key technology to solve cross-organizational business process integrations. We do a survey on formal methods for Web Service Composition in the following way. Through analyses of Web Service Composition, we establish a reference model called RM-WSComposition to capture elements of Web Service Composition. Based on the RM-WSComposition, issues...

  13. Mathematical methods in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as:  Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control,  Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications,  Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.

  14. Formal methods applied to industrial complex systems implementation of the B method

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents real-world examples of formal techniques in an industrial context. It covers formal methods such as SCADE and/or the B Method, in various fields such as railways, aeronautics, and the automotive industry. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of experience on the use of "formal methods" (based on formal techniques such as proof, abstract interpretation and model-checking) in industrial examples of complex systems, based on the experience of people currently involved in the creation and assessment of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from

  15. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  16. A formal method to real-time protocol interoperability testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiLiang; YIN Xia; JING ChuanMing

    2008-01-01

    Interoperability testing is an important technique to ensure the quality of implementations of network communication protocol. In the next generation Internet protocol, real-time applications should be supported effectively. However, time constraints were not considered in the related studies of protocol interoperability testing, so existing interoperability testing methods are difficult to be applied in real-time protocol interoperability testing. In this paper, a formal method to realtime protocol interoperability testing is proposed. Firstly, a formal model CMpTIOA (communicating multi-port timed input output automata) is defined to specify the system under test (SUT) in real-time protocol interoperability testing; based on this model, timed interoperability relation is then defined. In order to check this relation,a test generation method is presented to generate a parameterized test behavior tree from SUT model; a mechanism of executability pre-determination is also integrated in the test generation method to alleviate state space explosion problem to some extent. The proposed theory and method are then applied in interoperability testing of IPv6 neighbor discovery protocol to show the feasibility of this method.

  17. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  18. Closing the Gap between Formalism and Application--PBL and Mathematical Skills in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ole Ravn

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in learning mathematics concerns the gap between, on the one hand, doing the formalisms and calculations of abstract mathematics and, on the other hand, applying these in a specific contextualized setting for example the engineering world. The skills acquired through problem-based learning (PBL), in the special model used at…

  19. Verification of Interdomain Routing System Based on Formal Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Zhiyuan; LUO Guiming; YIN Chongyuan

    2009-01-01

    In networks,the stable path problem (SPP) usually results in oscillations in interdomain systems and may cause systems to become unstable.With the rapid development of internet technology,the occurrence of SPPs in interdomain systems has quite recently become a significant focus of research.A framework for checking SPPs is presented in this paper with verification of an interdomain routing system using formal methods and the NuSMV software.Sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for determining SPP occurrence are presented with proof of the method's effectiveness.Linear temporal logic was used to model an interdomain routing system and its properties were analyzed.An example is included to demonstrate the method's reliability.

  20. Category Theory as a Formal Mathematical Foundation for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we introduce Category Theory as a formal foundation for model-based systems engineering. A generalised view of the system based on category theory is presented, where any system can be considered as a category. The objects of the category represent all the elements and components of the system and the arrows represent the relations between these components (objects). The relationship between these objects are the arrows or the morphisms in the category. The Olog is introduced as a formal language to describe a given real-world situation description and requirement writing. A simple example is provided.

  1. Constructing a Knowledge Base for Gene Regulatory Dynamics by Formal Concept Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Wollbold, Johannes; Ganter, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Our aim is to build a set of rules, such that reasoning over temporal dependencies within gene regulatory networks is possible. The underlying transitions may be obtained by discretizing observed time series, or they are generated based on existing knowledge, e.g. by Boolean networks or their nondeterministic generalization. We use the mathematical discipline of formal concept analysis (FCA), which has been applied successfully in domains as knowledge representation, data mining or software engineering. By the attribute exploration algorithm, an expert or a supporting computer program is enabled to decide about the validity of a minimal set of implications and thus to construct a sound and complete knowledge base. From this all valid implications are derivable that relate to the selected properties of a set of genes. We present results of our method for the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. However the formal structures are exhibited in a most general manner. Therefore the approach may be adapte...

  2. MatLab Programming for Engineers Having No Formal Programming Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for Scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. Also, stated are the current limitations of the MatLab, which possibly can be taken care of by Mathworks Inc. in a future version to make MatLab more versatile.

  3. Engine and method for operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  4. Monte-Carlo methods make Dempster-Shafer formalism feasible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinovich, Vladik YA.; Bernat, Andrew; Borrett, Walter; Mariscal, Yvonne; Villa, Elsa

    1991-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to the applications of Dempster-Shafer formalism is its computational complexity. If we combine m different pieces of knowledge, then in general case we have to perform up to 2(sup m) computational steps, which for large m is infeasible. For several important cases algorithms with smaller running time were proposed. We prove, however, that if we want to compute the belief bel(Q) in any given query Q, then exponential time is inevitable. It is still inevitable, if we want to compute bel(Q) with given precision epsilon. This restriction corresponds to the natural idea that since initial masses are known only approximately, there is no sense in trying to compute bel(Q) precisely. A further idea is that there is always some doubt in the whole knowledge, so there is always a probability p(sub o) that the expert's knowledge is wrong. In view of that it is sufficient to have an algorithm that gives a correct answer a probability greater than 1-p(sub o). If we use the original Dempster's combination rule, this possibility diminishes the running time, but still leaves the problem infeasible in the general case. We show that for the alternative combination rules proposed by Smets and Yager feasible methods exist. We also show how these methods can be parallelized, and what parallelization model fits this problem best.

  5. Applying Formal Methods to a Certifiably Secure Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    state machine model , an access control matrix [8], mechanized reasoning using PVS [9], and a...classical theory of refinement [10] to the proof that a concrete state machine model conforms to an abstract state machine model , thus provid- ing a formal...Formulate a TLS of the code as a state machine model in the style of [14], [15]. 2. Formally express the security property as a property of the state

  6. Dimensions of Formality: A Case Study for MKM in Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kohlhase, Andrea; Lange, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We study the formalization of a collection of documents created for a Software Engineering project from an MKM perspective. We analyze how document and collection markup formats can cope with an open-ended, multi-dimensional space of primary and secondary classifications and relationships. We show that RDFa-based extensions of MKM formats, employing flexible "metadata" relationships referencing specific vocabularies for distinct dimensions, are well-suited to encode this and to put it into service. This formalized knowledge can be used for enriching interactive document browsing, for enabling multi-dimensional metadata queries over documents and collections, and for exporting Linked Data to the Semantic Web and thus enabling further reuse.

  7. A Novel Formal Analysis Method of Network Survivability Based on Stochastic Process Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guosheng; WANG Huiqiang; WANG Jian

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic process algebras have been proposed as compositional specification formalisms for performance models. A formal analysis method of survivable network was proposed based on stochastic process algebra, which incorporates formal modeling into performance analysis perfectly, and then various performance parameters of survivable network can be simultaneously obtained after formal modeling. The formal description with process expression to the survivable network system was carried out based on the simply introduced syntax and operational semantics of stochastic process algebra. Then PEPA workbench tool was used to obtain the probability of system's steady state availability and transient state availability. Simulation experiments show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method.

  8. Digital system verification a combined formal methods and simulation framework

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lun

    2010-01-01

    Integrated circuit capacity follows Moore's law, and chips are commonly produced at the time of this writing with over 70 million gates per device. Ensuring correct functional behavior of such large designs before fabrication poses an extremely challenging problem. Formal verification validates the correctness of the implementation of a design with respect to its specification through mathematical proof techniques. Formal techniques have been emerging as commercialized EDA tools in the past decade. Simulation remains a predominantly used tool to validate a design in industry. After more than 5

  9. A brief overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An overview of NASA Langley's research program in formal methods is presented. The major goal of this work is to bring formal methods technology to a sufficiently mature level for use by the United States aerospace industry. Towards this goal, work is underway to design and formally verify a fault-tolerant computing platform suitable for advanced flight control applications. Also, several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of six NASA civil servants and contractors from Boeing Military Aircraft Company, Computational Logic Inc., Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, University of California at Davis, and Vigyan Inc.

  10. Notation, method, tool: a conceptual framework for the application of formal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer zu Hoerste, M.; Schnieder, E. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungs- und Automatisierungstechnik; Parthasarathy, S. [Algologic Research and Solutions, Secunderabad (India)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to make an introspective study of some aspects of the use of formal methods in development and assessment of automation systems. The authors do not wish to enter into yet another polemical debate on the pros and cons of formal methods. Instead, the paper proposes a holistic approach to the subject. The authors describe the outlines of a concept called the ''BMW approach'' (the resemblance of this name to a famous make of German cars is only a coincidence.). The BMW approach presents a symbiosis of the three orthogonal components of any methodology: notation (Beschreibungsmittel), method (Methode) and tool (Werkzeug). The BMW approach has been successfully applied in several railways-related projects done at IfRA. (orig.)

  11. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  12. A Formal Method to Model Early Requirement of Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xin-jun; YU Eric

    2004-01-01

    A formal specification language iFL based on i* framework is presented in this paper to formally specify and analyze the early requirement of multi-agent system. It is a branching temporal logic which defines the concepts and models in i* framework in a rigorous way. The method to transform the i* models to iFL formal specification is also put forward.

  13. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  14. Environmental Science and Engineering Merit Badges: An Exploratory Case Study of a Non-Formal Science Education Program and the U.S. Scientific and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.; Garvey, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges are two of their over 120 merit badges offered as a part of a non-formal educational program to U.S. boys. The Scientific and Engineering Practices of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards provide a vision of science education that includes integrating eight…

  15. Sensoria Patterns: Augmenting Service Engineering with Formal Analysis, Transformation and Dynamicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsing, Martin; Hölzl, Matthias; Acciai, Lucia; Banti, Federico; Clark, Allan; Fantechi, Alessandro; Gilmore, Stephen; Gnesi, Stefania; Gönczy, László; Koch, Nora; Lapadula, Alessandro; Mayer, Philip; Mazzanti, Franco; Pugliese, Rosario; Schroeder, Andreas; Tiezzi, Francesco; Tribastone, Mirco; Varró, Dániel

    The IST-FET Integrated Project Sensoria is developing a novel comprehensive approach to the engineering of service-oriented software systems where foundational theories, techniques and methods are fully integrated into pragmatic software engineering processes. The techniques and tools of Sensoria encompass the whole software development cycle, from business and architectural design, to quantitative and qualitative analysis of system properties, and to transformation and code generation. The Sensoria approach takes also into account reconfiguration of service-oriented architectures (SOAs) and re-engineering of legacy systems.

  16. FORMED: Bringing Formal Methods to the Engineering Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Proof Structure), we transformed the Ivory textual DSL, optimized for drone flight control, into ACL2s to prove properties about the functions...internal planning prototype developed using UML prior to the FORMED project. The platform code and theorems, consisting mainly of the MddContext, are...Mgmt Planner Prototype # Classes 14 33 103 #operations 30 58 209 AL SLOC 290 187 1594 Java Java SLOC 3197 7959 27780 Functions 220 335 1143 Defdata 84

  17. Formal Methods for Reverse Engineering Gate-Level Netlists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    is not very much prior CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 5 work in this area. Mohnke and Malik [26] present a BDD -based approach for comparing two combinational...fact, when the vertices represent delta events, our approach can identify corresponding signals even if they are implemented with opposite polarities in

  18. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  19. NASA Langley Research and Technology-Transfer Program in Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Caldwell, James L.; Carreno, Victor A.; Holloway, C. Michael; Miner, Paul S.; DiVito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of NASA Langley research program in formal methods. The major goals of this work are to make formal methods practical for use on life critical systems, and to orchestrate the transfer of this technology to U.S. industry through use of carefully designed demonstration projects. Several direct technology transfer efforts have been initiated that apply formal methods to critical subsystems of real aerospace computer systems. The research team consists of five NASA civil servants and contractors from Odyssey Research Associates, SRI International, and VIGYAN Inc.

  20. FORMALIZATION OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION CONSIDERING THE EVALUATION OF VELOCITY DURING THE COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Litvinenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Under modern conditions the applying methods and design models as well as the evaluation of the operational characteristics of diesel engines do not completely take into consideration the specifics of the combustion processes. In part, such situation is characterized by the complexity of considering of varied by its nature processes that haven’t been completely investigated. In this context it is necessary to find the new methods and models which would provide relatively simple solutions through the use of integrated factors based on the analysis of parameters of diesel engines. Methodology. The proposed algorithms for the estimating of the combustion process in the form of volumetric and linear velocities is based on the well-known parameters of power and mean effective pressure and allows to compare the efficiency of their behavior in various versions of diesel engines. Findings. The author specified that the volumetric / linear velocity ratio is characterized by some strength and depends on the geometric dimensions of the cylinder-piston group. Due to the assumptions it has become possible to consider the operation of a diesel engine as a system comprising: 1 the subsystem that provides the possibility of obtaining the thermal energy; 2 the subsystem providing the thermal energy transformation; 3 the subsystem that provides the necessary diesel engine power depending on terms of combustion of air-fuel mixture. Originality. The author of the paper proposed the indices of volumetric and linear combustion velocity of air-fuel mixture in the engine cylinder, that allow to obtain the comparative value in different modifications taking into account the possible choice of optimum ratio. Practical value. The usage of indices of volumetric and linear velocities of the combustion processes in the engine cylinder combined with a mathematical model will simplify the method of diesels calculating. Parametric indices of the mentioned velocities

  1. Industrial applications of formal methods to model, design and analyze computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craigen, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques, often supported by reasoning tools, that can offer a rigorous and effective way to model, design and analyze computer systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate international industrial experience in using formal methods. The cases selected are representative of industrial-grade projects and span a variety of application domains. The study had three main objectives: · To better inform deliberations within industry and government on standards and regulations; · To provide an authoritative record on the practical experience of formal m

  2. An Introduction to Formal Methods for the Development of Safety-critical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    is assumed to have some knowledge about software development, but not on formal methods. The background for the railway authorities’ interest in formal methods is the fact that during the next decade a total renewal of the Danish signalling infrastructure is going to take place. Central parts of the new......This report is a delivery to The Danish Government’s railway authority, Trafikstyrelsen, as a part of the Public Sector Consultancy service offered by the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the report is to give the reader an insight into the stateof-the-art of formal methods. The reader...... systems will be software components that must fulfill strong safety requirements: in order to get the software certified at the highest Safety Integrity Levels of the European CENELEC standards for railway applications, the software providers are expected to use formal methods....

  3. Practice-Oriented Formal Methods to Support the Software Development of Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Formal specification and verification methods provide ways to describe requirements precisely and to check whether the requirements are satisfied by the design or the implementation. In other words, they can prevent development faults and therefore improve the quality of the developed systems. These methods are part of the state-of-the-practice in application domains with high criticality, such as avionics, railway or nuclear industry. The situation is different in the industrial control systems domain. As the criticality of the systems is much lower, formal methods are rarely used. The two main obstacles to using formal methods in systems with low- or medium-criticality are performance and usability. Overcoming these obstacles often needs deep knowledge and high effort. Model checking, one of the main formal verification techniques, is computationally difficult, therefore the analysis of non-trivial systems requires special considerations. Furthermore, the mainly academic tools implementing different model c...

  4. Finite element methods for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...

  5. Analysis of Formal Methods for Specification of E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce based application characteristics portray elevated dynamics while incorporating decentralized nature. Extreme emphasis influencing structural design plus implementation, positions such applications highly appreciated. Significant research articles reveal that, applying formal methods addressing challenges incumbent with E-commerce based applications, contribute towards reliability and robustness obliging the system. Anticipating and designing sturdy e-process and concurrent implementation, allows application behavior extra strength against errors, frauds and hacking, minimizing program faults during application operations. Programmers find extreme difficulty guaranteeing correct processing under all circumstances, however, not impossible. Concealed flaws and errors, triggered only under unexpected and unanticipated scenarios, pilot subtle mistakes and appalling failures. Code authors utilize various formal methods for reducing these flaws. Mentioning prominent methods would include, ASM (Abstract State Machines, B-Method, z-Language, UML (Unified Modelling Language etc. This paper primarily focuses different formal methods applied while deliberating specification and verification techniques for cost effective.

  6. IEEE/NASA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, Tiziana (Editor); Steffen, Bernhard (Editor); Hichey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains the Preliminary Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE ISoLA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation, with a special track on the theme of Formal Methods in Human and Robotic Space Exploration. The workshop was held on 23-24 September 2005 at the Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia, MD, USA. The idea behind the Workshop arose from the experience and feedback of ISoLA 2004, the 1st International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods held in Paphos (Cyprus) last October-November. ISoLA 2004 served the need of providing a forum for developers, users, and researchers to discuss issues related to the adoption and use of rigorous tools and methods for the specification, analysis, verification, certification, construction, test, and maintenance of systems from the point of view of their different application domains.

  7. Portfolio Method in Assessment of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokiene, Ausra; Sajiene, Laima

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of portfolio method in the process of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (ANILA), with reference to the example of vocational teacher education. The purpose of the article is to explore the use of "portfolio" method as an opportunity to monitor the professional development of…

  8. Preliminary Proceedings First International Workshop on Formal Methods for WirelessSystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The FMWS workshops aim at bringing together researchers interested in formal methods for wireless systems, more specifically in theories for semantics, logics, and verification techniques for wireless systems. Wireless systems are rapidly increasing their success in real-world applications while...... formal methods for modelling, analysing, and verifying the systems are lacking behind. Recently however much attention has been carried out to model, analyse and verify Sensor Networks and, more generally, Ad Hoc Networks. This very first FMWS workshop is co-located with CONCUR '08, held in Toronto...

  9. An Entry Point for Formal Methods: Specification and Analysis of Event Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Barringer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Formal specification languages have long languished, due to the grave scalability problems faced by complete verification methods. Runtime verification promises to use formal specifications to automate part of the more scalable art of testing, but has not been widely applied to real systems, and often falters due to the cost and complexity of instrumentation for online monitoring. In this paper we discuss work in progress to apply an event-based specification system to the logging mechanism of the Mars Science Laboratory mission at JPL. By focusing on log analysis, we exploit the "instrumentation" already implemented and required for communicating with the spacecraft. We argue that this work both shows a practical method for using formal specifications in testing and opens interesting research avenues, including a challenging specification learning problem.

  10. Expectations of Formal Model Analysis Methods: Implications for SIG-MA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slinger, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the 2008 System Dynamics Conference in Athens a survey of the understanding and expectations of conference participants regarding model analysis was conducted. Respondents included both those active in research on formal model analysis methods and those only vaguely familiar with the term. Result

  11. Steps Towards a Method for the Formal Modeling of Dynamic Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1991-01-01

    Fragments of a method to formally specify object-oriented models of a universe of discourse are presented. The task of finding such models is divided into three subtasks, object classification, event specification, and the specification of the life cycle of an object. Each of these subtasks is

  12. Methods of Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Formal Representation as Resulting Units in Relation to the Initial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Belikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to examine the methods of formal representation of euphemisms and dysphemisms, structurally represented as separate words, phrases or sentences, used in the English-language newspaper text. This analysis enables to take a fresh look at the essence of euphemisms and dysphemisms phenomena, many features of which went unnoticed in the previous theories.

  13. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  14. Requirements Engineering Methods: A Classification Framework and Research Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Jureta, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements Engineering Methods (REMs) support Requirements Engineering (RE) tasks, from elicitation, through modeling and analysis, to validation and evolution of requirements. Despite the growing interest to design, validate and teach REMs, it remains unclear what components REMs should have. A classification framework for REMs is proposed. It distinguishes REMs based on the domain-independent properties of their components. The classification framework is intended to facilitate (i) analysis, teaching and extension of existing REMs, (ii) engineering and validation of new REMs, and (iii) identifying research challenges in REM design. The framework should help clarify further the relations between REM and other concepts of interest in and to RE, including Requirements Problem and Solution, Requirements Modeling Language, and Formal Method.

  15. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  16. Proceedings Second International Workshop on Algebraic Methods in Model-based Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Durán, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Over the past years there has been quite a lot of activity in the algebraic community about using algebraic methods for providing support to model-driven software engineering. The aim of this workshop is to gather researchers working on the development and application of algebraic methods to provide rigorous support to model-based software engineering. The topics relevant to the workshop are all those related to the use of algebraic methods in software engineering, including but not limited to: formally specifying and verifying model-based software engineering concepts and related ones (MDE, UML, OCL, MOF, DSLs, ...); tool support for the above; integration of formal and informal methods; and theoretical frameworks (algebraic, rewriting-based, category theory-based, ...). The workshop's main goal is to examine, discuss, and relate the existing projects within the algebraic community that address common open-issues in model-driven software engineering.

  17. Engineering Change Management Method Framework in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekolschik, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Engineering changes make an impact on different process chains in and outside the company, and lead to most error costs and time shifts. In fact, 30 to 50 per cent of development costs result from technical changes. Controlling engineering change processes can help us to avoid errors and risks, and contribute to cost optimization and a shorter time to market. This paper presents a method framework for controlling engineering changes at mechanical engineering companies. The developed classification of engineering changes and accordingly process requirements build the basis for the method framework. The developed method framework comprises two main areas: special data objects managed in different engineering IT tools and process framework. Objects from both areas are building blocks that can be selected to the overall business process based on the engineering process type and change classification. The process framework contains steps for the creation of change objects (both for overall change and for parts), change implementation, and release. Companies can select singleprocess building blocks from the framework, depending on the product development process and change impact. The developed change framework has been implemented at a division (10,000 employees) of a big German mechanical engineering company.

  18. Quantifying uncertainty in predictions of groundwater levels using formal likelihood methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Ben; Mackay, Jonathan; Bloomfield, John

    2016-09-01

    Informal and formal likelihood methods can be used to quantify uncertainty in modelled predictions of groundwater levels (GWLs). Informal methods use a relatively subjective criterion to identify sets of plausible or behavioural parameters of the GWL models. In contrast, formal methods specify a statistical model for the residuals or errors of the GWL model. The formal uncertainty estimates are only reliable when the assumptions of the statistical model are appropriate. We apply the formal approach to historical reconstructions of GWL hydrographs from four UK boreholes. We test whether a model which assumes Gaussian and independent errors is sufficient to represent the residuals or whether a model which includes temporal autocorrelation and a general non-Gaussian distribution is required. Groundwater level hydrographs are often observed at irregular time intervals so we use geostatistical methods to quantify the temporal autocorrelation rather than more standard time series methods such as autoregressive models. According to the Akaike Information Criterion, the more general statistical model better represents the residuals of the GWL model. However, no substantial difference between the accuracy of the GWL predictions and the estimates of their uncertainty is observed when the two statistical models are compared. When the general model is applied, significant temporal correlation over periods ranging from 3 to 20 months is evident for the different boreholes. When the GWL model parameters are sampled using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach the distributions based on the general statistical model differ from those of the Gaussian model, particularly for the boreholes with the most autocorrelation. These results suggest that the independent Gaussian model of residuals is sufficient to estimate the uncertainty of a GWL prediction on a single date. However, if realistically autocorrelated simulations of GWL hydrographs for multiple dates are required or if the

  19. A formal analysis of the Shlaer-Mellor method: towards a toolkit for formal and informal requirements specification techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.J.; Saake, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we define a number of tools that we think belong to the core of any toolkit for requirements engineers. The tools are conceptual and hence, they need precise definitions that lay down as exactly as possible what their meaning and possible use is. We argue that this definition can best

  20. Experience Using Formal Methods for Specifying a Multi-Agent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James; Hinchey, Michael; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The process and results of using formal methods to specify the Lights Out Ground Operations System (LOGOS) is presented in this paper. LOGOS is a prototype multi-agent system developed to show the feasibility of providing autonomy to satellite ground operations functions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). After the initial implementation of LOGOS the development team decided to use formal methods to check for race conditions, deadlocks and omissions. The specification exercise revealed several omissions as well as race conditions. After completing the specification, the team concluded that certain tools would have made the specification process easier. This paper gives a sample specification of two of the agents in the LOGOS system and examples of omissions and race conditions found. It concludes with describing an architecture of tools that would better support the future specification of agents and other concurrent systems.

  1. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri......This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods....... The described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....

  2. Formal, Model-oriented Software Development Methods - From VDM to ProCoS & from RAISE to LaCoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Havelund, K.

    1991-01-01

    the technical/scientific essence of the VDM and RAISE methods, and explain the ProCos and LaCoS project structures. The paper will first outline five central roles of software developers: problem domain specialists, programmers, software engineers, resident computation scientists and managers. We will briefly......The first author has been invited to reminisce over almost 20 years of his research into and application of formal methods in software development. The paper deals with model-oriented methods. The title of this paper mentions two methods: VDM (Vienna Development Method) and RAISE (Rigorous Approach...... illustrate examples of specifications in VDM and RAISE. The aim of the paper is to record that formal methods in software development are now well-developed and broadly accepted in Europe....

  3. A method for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented conceptual models of database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a method called MCM (Method for Conceptual Modeling) for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented models of database system behavior. An important aim of MCM is to bridge the gap between formal specification and informal understanding. Building a MCM mod

  4. A method for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented conceptual models of database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a method called MCM (Method for Conceptual Modeling) for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented models of database system behavior. An important aim of MCM is to bridge the gap between formal specification and informal understanding. Building a MCM mod

  5. Efficient formalism for treating tapered structures using the Fourier modal method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerkryger, Andreas Dyhl; Gregersen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the development of the mode occupations in tapered structures using the Fourier modal method. In order to use the Fourier modal method, tapered structures are divided into layers of uniform refractive index in the propagation direction and the optical modes are found within each...... layer. This is not very efficient and in this proceeding we take the first steps towards a more efficient formalism for treating tapered structures using the Fourier modal method. We show that the coupling coefficients through the structure are slowly varying and that only the first few modes...

  6. Qualitative research methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of Software Engineering coexist two different research methods: 1 the quantitative that try to measure and analyze the casual relationship between the variables in a frame with free values, and 2 the qualitative that examine the creation process of meanings from which is generated new theorems or improve. Apply this methods separately in the research in software engineer makes evident that obtain results are incomplete and so is difficult to choose definitively wit which of them embark in a specific research. To approach this problem, in this article are described the quantitative methods as research methods to this engineer, and described its benefits and difficulties.

  7. A method for exploring the structure of behavioural syndromes to allow formal comparison within and between data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Dochtermann, Ned A.; Wright, Jonathan

    Research on behavioural syndromes (consistent individual differences in suites of correlated behaviours) requires formal statistical methods to describe and compare syndrome structures. We detail the shortcomings of current methods aimed at describing variation in behavioural syndromes, such as

  8. Method of resonating groups in the Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism for three-body nuclear problem

    CERN Document Server

    Nasirov, M Z

    2002-01-01

    The Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism for three-body nuclear problem is considered. For solution of the equations the method of resonant groups have applied. The calculations of tritium binding energy and doublet nd-scattering length have been carried out. The results obtained shows that Faddeev-Hahn equation formalism is very simple and effective. (author)

  9. Faculty Consulting in Natural Sciences and Engineering: Between Formal and Informal Knowledge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Nabil; Landry, Rejean; Halilem, Norrin

    2013-01-01

    Academic consulting is a form of knowledge and technology transfer largely under-documented and under-studied that raises ethical and resources allocation issues. Based on a survey of 2,590 Canadian researchers in engineering and natural sciences, this paper explores three forms of academic consulting: (1) paid consulting; (2) unpaid consulting…

  10. Faculty Consulting in Natural Sciences and Engineering: Between Formal and Informal Knowledge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Nabil; Landry, Rejean; Halilem, Norrin

    2013-01-01

    Academic consulting is a form of knowledge and technology transfer largely under-documented and under-studied that raises ethical and resources allocation issues. Based on a survey of 2,590 Canadian researchers in engineering and natural sciences, this paper explores three forms of academic consulting: (1) paid consulting; (2) unpaid consulting…

  11. Using a Formal Approach for Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery to Support Software Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannod, Gerald C.

    2002-01-01

    This document describes 3rd year accomplishments and summarizes overall project accomplishments. Included as attachments are all published papers from year three. Note that the budget for this project was discontinued after year two, but that a residual budget from year two allowed minimal continuance into year three. Accomplishments include initial investigations into log-file based reverse engineering, service-based software reuse, and a source to XML generator.

  12. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  13. Advanced finite element method in structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.

  14. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  15. A FORMAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SOLVER DESIGN-HILL CLIMBING METHOD WITH PUSH DOWN STACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiko TAKAHARA; Yongmei LIU; Yoshio YANO

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a formal approach to design of a solver of an intelligent management information system and its implementation. The approach implies set theoretic modeling based on the general systems concepts and implementation in the extProlog. There are research efforts which attack (optimization) problems using the set theory and logics. Furthermore, they use logic programming languages for their implementation. Although their methods look quite similar to the approach of this paper, there are clear differences between them. This paper is interested in exploration of the solving system rather than algorithms. The paper first presents a design and implementation procedure of a solver. Then, classification of problems is discussed. The least structured class of the classification is the target of this paper. A data mining system is an example of the class. Formal theories are derived for the design procedure assnming the least structured case. A solving strategy, which is called a hill climbing method with a push down stack, is proposed on the theories. A data mining system is used as an example to illustrate the results. Finally, a full implementation in extProlog is presented for the data mining system.

  16. Beyond parallax barriers: applying formal optimization methods to multilayer automultiscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanman, Douglas; Wetzstein, Gordon; Hirsch, Matthew; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on resolving long-standing limitations of parallax barriers by applying formal optimization methods. We consider two generalizations of conventional parallax barriers. First, we consider general two-layer architectures, supporting high-speed temporal variation with arbitrary opacities on each layer. Second, we consider general multi-layer architectures containing three or more light-attenuating layers. This line of research has led to two new attenuation-based displays. The High-Rank 3D (HR3D) display contains a stacked pair of LCD panels; rather than using heuristically-defined parallax barriers, both layers are jointly-optimized using low-rank light field factorization, resulting in increased brightness, refresh rate, and battery life for mobile applications. The Layered 3D display extends this approach to multi-layered displays composed of compact volumes of light-attenuating material. Such volumetric attenuators recreate a 4D light field when illuminated by a uniform backlight. We further introduce Polarization Fields as an optically-efficient and computationally efficient extension of Layered 3D to multi-layer LCDs. Together, these projects reveal new generalizations to parallax barrier concepts, enabled by the application of formal optimization methods to multi-layer attenuation-based designs in a manner that uniquely leverages the compressive nature of 3D scenes for display applications.

  17. How to Improve the Production Process for interactive TV with semi-formal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alders

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central question for this paper is how to improve the production process by closing the gap between industrial designers and software engineers of television(TV-based User Interfaces (UI in an industrial environment. Software engineers are highly interested whether one UI design can be converted into several fully functional UIs for TV products with different screen properties. The aim of the software engineers is to apply automatic layout and scaling in order to speed up and improve the production process. However, the question is whether a UI design lends itself for such automatic layout and scaling. This is investigated by analysing a prototype UI design done by industrial designers. In a first requirements study, industrial designers had created meta-annotations on top of their UI design in order to disclose their design rationale for discussions with software engineers. In a second study, five (out of ten industrial designers assessed the potential of four different meta-annotation approaches. The question was which annotation method industrial designers would prefer and whether it could satisfy the technical requirements of the software engineering process. One main result is that the industrial designers preferred the method they were already familiar with, which therefore seems to be the most effective one although the main objective of automatic layout and scaling could still not be achieved.

  18. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...

  19. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in...

  20. The optimal homotopy asymptotic method engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes in detail the applicability of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to various engineering problems. It is a continuation of the book “Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Engineering: Some Approximate Approaches”, published at Springer in 2011, and it contains a great amount of practical models from various fields of engineering such as classical and fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, nonlinear oscillations, electrical machines, and so on. The main structure of the book consists of 5 chapters. The first chapter is introductory while the second chapter is devoted to a short history of the development of homotopy methods, including the basic ideas of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method. The last three chapters, from Chapter 3 to Chapter 5, are introducing three distinct alternatives of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method with illustrative applications to nonlinear dynamical systems. The third chapter deals with the first alternative of our approach with two iterations. Five application...

  1. A fresh recipe for designers: HCI approach to explore the nexus between design techniques and formal methods in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Galindo Losada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging companies involved in design and implementation of innovative products demand multidisciplinary teams to be competitive in the market. This need mainly exposes designers to extend their knowledge not only in User Interface elements of the design process but also in software methodologies to cover the lack of resources and expertise in start-ups. It raises the question of how designers can line up HCI techniques with best practices in software development while preserving usability and easy-to-use principles. To explore this gap, this paper proposes an approach which combines existing technology and methods by studying the nexus between HCI prototyping and software engineering. The approach is applied into a case study in the design of a virtual shop harmonizing the use of storyboards and the spiral. A comprehensive analysis is performed by using a Technology acceptance model (TAM regarding with two variables: usability and easy-to-use. The present finding underlines the positive integration of HCI techniques and formal methods without compromising user satisfaction with a potential benefit for small companies in a formation stage.

  2. Formal and heuristic system decomposition methods in multidisciplinary synthesis. Ph.D. Thesis, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloebaum, Christina L.

    1991-01-01

    The multidisciplinary interactions which exist in large scale engineering design problems provide a unique set of difficulties. These difficulties are associated primarily with unwieldy numbers of design variables and constraints, and with the interdependencies of the discipline analysis modules. Such obstacles require design techniques which account for the inherent disciplinary couplings in the analyses and optimizations. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient holistic design synthesis methodology that takes advantage of the synergistic nature of integrated design. A general decomposition approach for optimization of large engineering systems is presented. The method is particularly applicable for multidisciplinary design problems which are characterized by closely coupled interactions among discipline analyses. The advantage of subsystem modularity allows for implementation of specialized methods for analysis and optimization, computational efficiency, and the ability to incorporate human intervention and decision making in the form of an expert systems capability. The resulting approach is not a method applicable to only a specific situation, but rather, a methodology which can be used for a large class of engineering design problems in which the system is non-hierarchic in nature.

  3. Boundary element methods for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    POLJAK, D

    2005-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become a well-established technique that is widely used for solving various problems in electrical engineering and electromagnetics. Although there are many excellent research papers published in the relevant literature that describe various BEM applications in electrical engineering and electromagnetics, there has been a lack of suitable textbooks and monographs on the subject. This book presents BEM in a simple fashion in order to help the beginner to understand the very basic principles of the method. It initially derives B

  4. Risk calculation method for complex engineering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid and simple risk calculation method for large and complex engineering systems, the simulated maximum entropy method (SMEM, which is based on integration of the advantages of the Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods, thus avoiding the shortcoming of the slow convergence rate of the Monte Carlo method in risk calculation. Application of SMEM in the calculation of reservoir flood discharge risk shows that this method can make full use of the known information under the same conditions and obtain the corresponding probability distribution and the risk value. It not only greatly improves the speed, compared with the Monte Carlo method, but also provides a new approach for the risk calculation in large and complex engineering systems.

  5. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  6. Formal Research Methods in Political Science and Comparative Politics: The Prospects of MGIMO-University Political Science School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolaevich Timofeyev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the formal research methods in political science and the use of such methods in Russian comparative political and international studies, in particular at MGIMO-University. The author calls not to run to extremes when dealing with these methods, analyzing their advantages and limitations.

  7. Acoustic microscopy of functionally graded thermal sprayed coatings using stiffness matrix method and Stroh formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X. D.; Monnier, T.; Guy, P.; Courbon, J.

    2013-06-01

    Acoustic microscopy of multilayered media as well as functionally graded coatings on substrate necessitates to model acoustic wave propagation in such materials. In particular, we chose to use Stroh formalism and the recursive stiffness matrix method to obtain the reflection coefficient of acoustic waves on these systems because this allows us to address the numerical instability of the conventional transfer matrix method. In addition, remarkable simplification and computational efficiency are obtained. We proposed a modified formulation of the angular spectrum of the transducer based on the theoretical analysis of a line-focus transducer for broadband acoustic microscopy. A thermally sprayed coating on substrate is treated as a functionally graded material along the depth of the coating and is approximately represented by a number of homogeneous elastic layers with exponentially graded elastic properties. The agreement between our experimental and numerical analyses on such thermal sprayed coatings with different thicknesses confirms the efficiency of the method. We proved the ability of the inversion procedure to independently determine both thickness and gradient of elastic properties. The perspective of this work is the opportunity to non-destructively measure these features in functionally graded materials.

  8. Leveraging Formal Methods and Fuzzing to Verify Security and Reliability Properties of Large-Scale High-Consequence Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthruff, Joseph. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Benjamin Garry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Mayo, Jackson R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Punnoose, Ratish J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Formal methods describe a class of system analysis techniques that seek to prove specific properties about analyzed designs, or locate flaws compromising those properties. As an analysis capability,these techniques are the subject of increased interest from both internal and external customers of Sandia National Laboratories. Given this lab's other areas of expertise, Sandia is uniquely positioned to advance the state-of-the-art with respect to several research and application areas within formal methods. This research project was a one-year effort funded by Sandia's CyberSecurity S&T Investment Area in its Laboratory Directed Research & Development program to investigate the opportunities for formal methods to impact Sandia's present mission areas, more fully understand the needs of the research community in the area of formal methods and where Sandia can contribute, and clarify from those potential research paths those that would best advance the mission-area interests of Sandia. The accomplishments from this project reinforce the utility of formal methods in Sandia, particularly in areas relevant to Cyber Security, and set the stage for continued Sandia investments to ensure this capabilityis utilized and advanced within this laboratory to serve the national interest.

  9. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  10. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enormous array of problems encountered by scientists and engineers are based on the design of mathematical models using many different types of ordinary differential, partial differential, integral, and integro-differential equations. Accordingly, the solutions of these equations are of great interest to practitioners and to science in general. Presenting a wealth of cutting-edge research by a diverse group of experts in the field, Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects gives a vivid picture of both the development of theoretical integral techniques

  11. Traceability Method for Software Engineering Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adila Azram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traceability has been widely discussed in research area. It has been one of interest topic to be research in software engineering. Traceability in software documentation is one of the interesting topics to be research further. It is important in software documentation to trace out the flow or process in all the documents whether they depends with one another or not. In this paper, we present a traceability method for software engineering documentation. The objective of this research is to facilitate in tracing of the software documentation.

  12. An adaptive, formally second order accurate version of the immersed boundary method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Boyce E.; Hornung, Richard D.; McQueen, David M.; Peskin, Charles S.

    2007-04-01

    Like many problems in biofluid mechanics, cardiac mechanics can be modeled as the dynamic interaction of a viscous incompressible fluid (the blood) and a (visco-)elastic structure (the muscular walls and the valves of the heart). The immersed boundary method is a mathematical formulation and numerical approach to such problems that was originally introduced to study blood flow through heart valves, and extensions of this work have yielded a three-dimensional model of the heart and great vessels. In the present work, we introduce a new adaptive version of the immersed boundary method. This adaptive scheme employs the same hierarchical structured grid approach (but a different numerical scheme) as the two-dimensional adaptive immersed boundary method of Roma et al. [A multilevel self adaptive version of the immersed boundary method, Ph.D. Thesis, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 1996; An adaptive version of the immersed boundary method, J. Comput. Phys. 153 (2) (1999) 509-534] and is based on a formally second order accurate (i.e., second order accurate for problems with sufficiently smooth solutions) version of the immersed boundary method that we have recently described [B.E. Griffith, C.S. Peskin, On the order of accuracy of the immersed boundary method: higher order convergence rates for sufficiently smooth problems, J. Comput. Phys. 208 (1) (2005) 75-105]. Actual second order convergence rates are obtained for both the uniform and adaptive methods by considering the interaction of a viscous incompressible flow and an anisotropic incompressible viscoelastic shell. We also present initial results from the application of this methodology to the three-dimensional simulation of blood flow in the heart and great vessels. The results obtained by the adaptive method show good qualitative agreement with simulation results obtained by earlier non-adaptive versions of the method, but the flow in the vicinity of the model heart valves

  13. Engineering design of systems models and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Buede, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    The ideal introduction to the engineering design of systems-now in a new edition. The Engineering Design of Systems, Second Edition compiles a wealth of information from diverse sources to provide a unique, one-stop reference to current methods for systems engineering. It takes a model-based approach to key systems engineering design activities and introduces methods and models used in the real world. Features new to this edition include: * The addition of Systems Modeling Language (SysML) to several of the chapters, as well as the introduction of new terminology * Additional material on partitioning functions and components * More descriptive material on usage scenarios based on literature from use case development * Updated homework assignments * The software product CORE (from Vitech Corporation) is used to generate the traditional SE figures and the software product MagicDraw UML with SysML plugins (from No Magic, Inc.) is used for the SysML figures This book is designed to be an introductory reference ...

  14. Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othon, Bill

    2009-01-01

    NASA project managers attempt to manage risk by relying on mature, well-understood process and technology when designing spacecraft. In the case of crewed systems, the margin for error is even tighter and leads to risk aversion. But as we look to future missions to the Moon and Mars, the complexity of the systems will increase as the spacecraft and crew work together with less reliance on Earth-based support. NASA will be forced to look for new ways to do business. Formal methods technologies can help NASA develop complex but cost effective spacecraft in many domains, including requirements and design, software development and inspection, and verification and validation of vehicle subsystems. To realize these gains, the technologies must be matured and field-tested so that they are proven when needed. During this discussion, current activities used to evaluate FM technologies for Orion spacecraft design will be reviewed. Also, suggestions will be made to demonstrate value to current designers, and mature the technology for eventual use in safety-critical NASA missions.

  15. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Abstract Formal genetic maps are databases, represented as text or graphic figures, that can be ..... cantly, to our current vague and scanty knowledge of many, ...... similar to reverse engineering techniques, might be worthy of.

  16. Mathematical methods for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Royal Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This practical, highly readable text provides physics and engineering students with the essential mathematical tools for thorough comprehension of their disciplines. Featuring all the necessary topics in applied mathematics in the form of programmed instruction, the text can be understood by advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students without any assistance from the instructor. Topics include elementary vector calculus, matrix algebra, and linear vector operations; the many and varied methods of solving linear boundary value problems, including the more common special functions o

  17. Fundamental numerical methods for electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosloniec, Stanislaw [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Radioelectronics

    2008-07-01

    The book presents fundamental numerical methods which are most frequently applied in the electrical (electronic) engineering. A scope of this book is rather wide and includes solving the sets of linear and nonlinear equations, interpolation and approximation of the functions of one variable, integration and differentation of the functions of one and two variables, integration of the ordinary differential equations, and integration the partial differential equations of two variables. All methods discussed are illustrated with real-world examples of applications. It is shown how real engineering questions can be transformed into the corresponding mathematical problems and next effectively solved by using appropriate numerical methods. Usually, for teaching reasons, mathematical problems are solved step by step, and illustrated by numerous intermediate results. Thus, it is not only explained how the problem can be solved, but the details of the solution are also demonstrated. In Chapter 7 for instance three electrical rectifying devices and a transmission-line non- homogeneous impedance transformer are analyzed in this manner. Similarly, in Chapter 8 different aspects of Laplace boundary value problem formulated for various kinds of single and coupled TEM transmission lines are presented. In other words, six standard TEM transmission lines are investigated by means of the finite difference method. It is shown how a partial differential equation of the second order can be approximated by the corresponding difference equation defined on interior and boundary nodes of the introduced grid. At the next stage, the set of linear equations, formulated in this way, is recurrently solved by using the effective SOR technique. Additionally, ideas of '' fictitious nodes '' and the '' even and odd mode excitations '' methods are explained and illustrated. All methods and computational results, presented in the book, are of significant

  18. Unpacking (In)formal Learning in an Academic Development Programme: A Mixed-Method Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Hosein, Anesa

    2015-01-01

    How and with whom academics develop and maintain formal and informal networks for reflecting on their teaching practice has received limited attention even though academic development (AD) programmes have become an almost ubiquitous feature of higher education. The primary goal of this mixed-method study is to unpack how 114 academics in an AD…

  19. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  20. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1 /2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1 /2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s ), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange interaction strengths. The role of exchange coupling and spin s on the work output and the thermal efficiency is studied in detail. In addition, the engine operation is analyzed from the perspective of local work and efficiency. We develop a general formalism to explore local thermodynamics applicable to any coupled bipartite system. Our general framework allows for examination of local thermodynamics even when global parameters of the system are varied in thermodynamic cycles. The generalized definitions of local and cooperative work are introduced by using mean field Hamiltonians. The general conditions for which the global work is not equal to the sum of the local works are given in terms of the covariance of the subsystems. Our coupled spin quantum Otto engine is used as an example of the general formalism.

  1. Higher Derivatives and Canonical Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    HAMAMOTO, Shinji

    1995-01-01

    A canonical formalism for higher-derivative theories is presented on the basis of Dirac's method for constrained systems. It is shown that this formalism shares a path integral expression with Ostrogradski's canonical formalism.

  2. VERIFYING ROUTE REQUEST PROCEDURE OF AODV USING GRAPH THEORY AND FORMAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenal growth both in wireless ad hoc networks and network-based real time applications has led torapid change in the industry. For this purpose various protocols are designed for routing packets fromsource to destination to attain a better Quality of Service (QoS, which requires a mechanism thatguarantees bounded delay and jitter. Finding the best route to destination satisfying the QoS for real-timeinteractive application has become a challenge for today’s network services. The routing table of Ad hocon-demand routing protocol (AODV maintains only one route to the specified node without consideringthe other important parameters. This paper proposes a Formal framework to improve the QoS bysearching the graph using formal techniques. The searching technique is based on considering packet typeand battery life. Because the nodes of AODV protocol are not fixed hence the dynamic graphs are used tomodel the network topology. The Z notation is used to transform the graph into formal specification of theprotocol. Finally, the formal specification is analyzed and validated using Z Eves tool.

  3. Stroh formalism and Rayleigh waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Introduces a powerful and elegant mathematical method for the analysis of anisotropic elasticity equationsThe reader can grasp the essentials as quickly as possibleCan be used as a textbook, which presents compactly introduction and applications of the Stroh formalismAppeals to the people not only in mathematics but also in mechanics and engineering sciencePrerequisites are only basic linear algebra, calculus and fundamentals of differential equations

  4. Numerical methods for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Antia, H M

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an exhaustive and in-depth exposition of the various numerical methods used in scientific and engineering computations. It emphasises the practical aspects of numerical computation and discusses various techniques in sufficient detail to enable their implementation in solving a wide range of problems. The main addition in the third edition is a new Chapter on Statistical Inferences. There is also some addition and editing in the next chapter on Approximations. With this addition 12 new programs have also been added.

  5. Innovative Methods for Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-30

    C. Amzallag, J.P. Gerey, J.L. Robert and J. Bahuaudt, "Standardization of the rainflow counting method for fatigue analysis", Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 16...Millwater, R.C. McClung, M.P. Enright , "A new tool for design and certification of aircraft turbine rotors," Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines...Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 3443-3455. [4] J. Dundurs: J. Appl. Mech., 1969, Vol. 36, pp. 650-652. [5] K.S. Chan and M. P. Enright : Metall. Mater. Transactions

  6. Molecular Biological Methods in Environmental Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guocai; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria, acting as catalysts, perform the function of degrading pollutants. Molecular biological techniques play an important role in research on the community analysis, the composition and the functions of complex microbial communities. The development of secondary high-throughput pyrosequencing techiniques enhances the understanding of the composition of the microbial community. The literatures of 2015 indicated that 16S rDNA gene as genetic tag is still the important method for bacteria identification and classification. 454 high throughput sequencing and Illumina MiSeq sequencing have been the primary and widely recognized methods to analyze the microbial. This review will provide environmental engineers and microbiologists an overview of important advancements in molecular techniques and highlight the application of these methods in diverse environments.

  7. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  8. An International Survey of Industrial Applications of Formal Methods. Volume 2. Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    SA, Inisel Espacio SA, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, Matra Transportation SA, Space Software Italia SpA, STC Technology Ltd. (now part of BNR Europe...software for the T9000. VHDL simulation vectors were also derived from the concrete representation. In parallel with the above, there was an attempt...converted to VHDL representations for simulation using test vectors partially derived from the formal specification. 3 I International Survey of Industrial

  9. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences.

  10. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION METHOD USED IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCURTU Iacob Liviu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization study in mechanical engineering. First part of the research describe the structural optimization method used, followed by the presentation of several optimization studies conducted in recent years. The second part of the paper presents the CAD modelling of an agricultural plough component. The beam of the plough is analysed using finite element method. The plough component is meshed in solid elements, and the load case which mimics the working conditions of agricultural equipment of this are created. The model is prepared to find the optimal structural design, after the FEA study of the model is done. The mass reduction of part is the criterion applied for this optimization study. The end of this research presents the final results and the model optimized shape.

  11. Case-based knowledge formalization and reasoning method for digital terrain analysis - application to extracting drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Wu, Xue-Wei; Jiang, Jing-Chao; Zhu, A.-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Application of digital terrain analysis (DTA), which is typically a modeling process involving workflow building, relies heavily on DTA domain knowledge of the match between the algorithm (and its parameter settings) and the application context (including the target task, the terrain in the study area, the DEM resolution, etc.), which is referred to as application-context knowledge. However, existing DTA-assisted tools often cannot use application-context knowledge because this type of DTA knowledge has not been formalized to be available for inference in these tools. This situation makes the DTA workflow-building process difficult for users, especially non-expert users. This paper proposes a case-based formalization for DTA application-context knowledge and a corresponding case-based reasoning method. A case in this context consists of a series of indices that formalize the DTA application-context knowledge and the corresponding similarity calculation methods for case-based reasoning. A preliminary experiment to determine the catchment area threshold for extracting drainage networks has been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. In the experiment, 124 cases of drainage network extraction (50 for evaluation and 74 for reasoning) were prepared from peer-reviewed journal articles. Preliminary evaluation shows that the proposed case-based method is a suitable way to use DTA application-context knowledge to achieve a marked reduction in the modeling burden for users.

  12. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  13. DIFFERENT ELEMENT METHODS IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. ... Civil Engineering Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. ... are discussed in an overall and general manner so that engineers and scientists who are increas-.

  14. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5-question written survey rating the session. The most common primary instructional methods were computer slides-based classroom lectures (66%), workshops (15%), simulations (5%), and journal club (5%). The number of teaching techniques used per formal teaching session averaged 5.31 (SD, 1.92; median, 5; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions had a mean score of 8.44 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.2) compared with a mean score of 8.63 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.1) for active sessions (P = 0.63). Slides-based classroom lectures were the most common instructional method, and faculty used an average of 5 known teaching techniques per formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high.

  15. Methods and experimental techniques in computer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Computing and science reveal a synergic relationship. On the one hand, it is widely evident that computing plays an important role in the scientific endeavor. On the other hand, the role of scientific method in computing is getting increasingly important, especially in providing ways to experimentally evaluate the properties of complex computing systems. This book critically presents these issues from a unitary conceptual and methodological perspective by addressing specific case studies at the intersection between computing and science. The book originates from, and collects the experience of, a course for PhD students in Information Engineering held at the Politecnico di Milano. Following the structure of the course, the book features contributions from some researchers who are working at the intersection between computing and science.

  16. Mathematical methods in engineering and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    This text is intended for the undergraduate course in math methods, with an audience of physics and engineering majors. As a required course in most departments, the text relies heavily on explained examples, real-world applications and student engagement. Supporting the use of active learning, a strong focus is placed upon physical motivation combined with a versatile coverage of topics that can be used as a reference after students complete the course. Each chapter begins with an overview that includes a list of prerequisite knowledge, a list of skills that will be covered in the chapter, and an outline of the sections. Next comes the motivating exercise, which steps the students through a real-world physical problem that requires the techniques taught in each chapter.

  17. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine simulation

  18. Decision making under uncertainty: An investigation into the application of formal decision-making methods to safety issue decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, M P [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As part of the NRC-sponsored program to study the implications of Generic Issue 57, Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment,'' a subtask was performed to evaluate the applicability of formal decision analysis methods to generic issues cost/benefit-type decisions and to apply these methods to the GI-57 results. In this report, the numerical results obtained from the analysis of three plants (two PWRs and one BWR) as developed in the technical resolution program for GI-57 were studied. For each plant, these results included a calculation of the person-REM averted due to various accident scenarios and various proposed modifications to mitigate the accident scenarios identified. These results were recomputed to break out the benefit in terms of contributions due to random event scenarios, fire event scenarios, and seismic event scenarios. Furthermore, the benefits associated with risk (in terms of person-REM) averted from earthquakes at three different seismic ground motion levels were separately considered. Given this data, formal decision methodologies involving decision trees, value functions, and utility functions were applied to this basic data. It is shown that the formal decision methodology can be applied at several different levels. Examples are given in which the decision between several retrofits is changed from that resulting from a simple cost/benefit-ratio criterion by virtue of the decision-makinger's expressed (and assumed) preferences.

  19. Mapping of Primary Instructional Methods and Teaching Techniques for Regularly Scheduled, Formal Teaching Sessions in an Anesthesia Residency Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active......; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions...... learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5...

  20. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  1. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  2. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  3. Diagnostic Methods for an Aircraft Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ε. L. Ntantis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main gas path components, namely compressor and turbine, are inherently reliable but the operation of the aero engines under hostile environments, results into engine breakdowns and performance deterioration. Performance deterioration increases the operating cost, due to the reduction in thrust output and higher fuel consumption, and also increases the engine maintenance cost. In times when economic considerations dominate airline operators’ strategies, carrying out unnecessary rectification, can be very costly and time consuming. In an attempt to minimize such unexpected circumstances, having detailed knowledge prior to any inspection will allow the gas turbine user to take some of the maintenance action when it is necessary. Advanced engine-fault diagnostics tools offer the possibility of identifying degradation at the module level, determining the trends of these degradations during the usage of the engine, and planning the maintenance action ahead.

  4. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

    The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

  5. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been ca

  6. Spinor helicity methods in high-energy factorization: Efficient momentum-space calculations in the Color Glass Condensate formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ayala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the spinor helicity formalism to calculate the cross section for production of three partons of a given polarization in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS off proton and nucleus targets at small Bjorken x. The target proton or nucleus is treated as a classical color field (shock wave from which the produced partons scatter multiple times. We reported our result for the final expression for the production cross section and studied the azimuthal angular correlations of the produced partons in [1]. Here we provide the full details of the calculation of the production cross section using the spinor helicity methods.

  7. Graph Drawing with Algorithm Engineering Methods (Dagstuhl Seminar 11191)

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrescu, Camil; Kaufmann, Michael; Kobourov, Stephen; Mutzel, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 11191 ``Graph Drawing with Algorithm Engineering Methods''. We summarize the talks, open problems, and working group discussions.

  8. A Guideline of Using Case Method in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri; Razali, Rozilawati; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering (SE) education has been reported to fall short in producing high quality software engineers. In seeking alternative solutions, Case Method (CM) is regarded as having potential to solve the issue. CM is a teaching and learning (T&L) method that has been found to be effective in Social Science education. In principle,…

  9. Accurate and efficient velocity estimation using Transmission matrix formalism based on the domain decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benfeng; Jakobsen, Morten; Wu, Ru-Shan; Lu, Wenkai; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) has been regarded as an effective tool to build the velocity model for the following pre-stack depth migration. Traditional inversion methods are built on Born approximation and are initial model dependent, while this problem can be avoided by introducing Transmission matrix (T-matrix), because the T-matrix includes all orders of scattering effects. The T-matrix can be estimated from the spatial aperture and frequency bandwidth limited seismic data using linear optimization methods. However the full T-matrix inversion method (FTIM) is always required in order to estimate velocity perturbations, which is very time consuming. The efficiency can be improved using the previously proposed inverse thin-slab propagator (ITSP) method, especially for large scale models. However, the ITSP method is currently designed for smooth media, therefore the estimation results are unsatisfactory when the velocity perturbation is relatively large. In this paper, we propose a domain decomposition method (DDM) to improve the efficiency of the velocity estimation for models with large perturbations, as well as guarantee the estimation accuracy. Numerical examples for smooth Gaussian ball models and a reservoir model with sharp boundaries are performed using the ITSP method, the proposed DDM and the FTIM. The estimated velocity distributions, the relative errors and the elapsed time all demonstrate the validity of the proposed DDM.

  10. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  11. Formal detection method for hardware vulnerabilities and Trojan of embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Qingbao; Niu, Xiaopeng

    2013-03-01

    As become more widely used, embedded systems security has increasingly gained attention. From the hardware point of view, this paper describes the background of approach to the vulnerabilities and hardware Trojan detection of embedded system, basic ideas and objectives; established the model- ESM (Embedded Systems Model) used to describe embedded systems, provides the encoding method of the ESM system state. Based on this model, this article describes how to use model checking methods to detect vulnerabilities and Trojan existence of an embedded system.

  12. Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…

  13. METHOD OF HYDROGEN FEEDING FOR AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abramchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On basis of analysis of various methods of hydrogen feeding for automotive engine supply methods of multipoint hydrogen distribution with microprocessor-based control are proposed.

  14. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system.

  15. Engineering education at a new public university in Brazil: first students' contact with engineering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jesus Franklin A.; Leite, Patrícia; Mantovani, Gerson L.; Lanfredi, Alexandre J. C.; Martins-Filho, Luiz S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the experience of an introductory discipline to the engineering curricula at the Brazilian Federal University of ABC (UFABC). The university offers a common basic curriculum that must be accomplished by every student and can be followed by professionalising courses. The discipline 'Introduction to Engineering' presents the basis of the engineering career, methods and thinking together with professional commitments and regulations. The objective is to help students to consciously choose their careers, minimising the precocity problem in deciding a professional future. The discipline methodology includes activities proposed by the TryEngineering website and from Brazilian engineering councils. Lectures with invited professors introduce UFABC engineering specialities: Aerospace, Bioengineering, Energy, Environmental & Urban, Information, Instrumentation & Automation & Robotics, Management, Materials. This paper reports the proposed activities, results obtained by the students, a methodology critical analysis and the impacts on the following steps of students embracing an engineering career.

  16. Formal Inspection: A Tool for TQM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, L.; Kelly, J.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Formal Inspection Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to support projects wishing to use Formal Inspections to improve the quality of software and system level engineering products.

  17. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  18. Modeling of cavities using the analytic modal method and an open geometry formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Christensen, Thomas; Mørk, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    -sized simulation domains, this avoids the issue of parasitic reflections from artificial boundaries. We compute the Purcell factor in a two-dimensional micropillar and explore two discretization techniques for the continuous radiation modes. Specifically, an equidistant and a nonequidistant discretization...... are employed, and while both converge, only the nonequidistant discretization exhibits uniform convergence. These results demonstrate that the method leads to more accurate results than existing simulation techniques and constitutes a promising basis for further work....

  19. Path optimization by a variational reaction coordinate method. I. Development of formalism and algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Adam B; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2015-12-28

    The development of algorithms to optimize reaction pathways between reactants and products is an active area of study. Existing algorithms typically describe the path as a discrete series of images (chain of states) which are moved downhill toward the path, using various reparameterization schemes, constraints, or fictitious forces to maintain a uniform description of the reaction path. The Variational Reaction Coordinate (VRC) method is a novel approach that finds the reaction path by minimizing the variational reaction energy (VRE) of Quapp and Bofill. The VRE is the line integral of the gradient norm along a path between reactants and products and minimization of VRE has been shown to yield the steepest descent reaction path. In the VRC method, we represent the reaction path by a linear expansion in a set of continuous basis functions and find the optimized path by minimizing the VRE with respect to the linear expansion coefficients. Improved convergence is obtained by applying constraints to the spacing of the basis functions and coupling the minimization of the VRE to the minimization of one or more points along the path that correspond to intermediates and transition states. The VRC method is demonstrated by optimizing the reaction path for the Müller-Brown surface and by finding a reaction path passing through 5 transition states and 4 intermediates for a 10 atom Lennard-Jones cluster.

  20. Ontology or formal ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Ontology or formal ontology? Which word is correct? The aim of this article is to introduce correct terms and explain their basis. Ontology describes a particular area of interest (domain) in a formal way - defines the classes of objects that are in that area, and relationships that may exist between them. Meaning of ontology consists mainly in facilitating communication between people, improve collaboration of software systems and in the improvement of systems engineering. Ontology in all these areas offer the possibility of unification of view, maintaining consistency and unambiguity.

  1. An extension to the Luscher's finite volume method above inelastic threashold (formalism)

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Noriyoshi

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Luscher's finite volume method above inelastic thresholds is proposed. It is fulfilled by extendind the procedure recently proposed by HAL-QCD Collaboration for a single channel system. Focusing on the asymptotic behaviors of the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions (equal-time) near spatial infinity, a coupled channel extension of effective Schrodinger equation is constructed by introducing an energy-independent interaction kernel. Because the NBS wave functions contain the information of T-matrix at long distance, S-matrix can be obtained by solving the coupled channel effective Schrodinger equation in the infinite volume.

  2. A local chemical potential approach within the variable charge method formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsener, A.; Politano, O.; Derlet, P. M.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2008-03-01

    A new and computationally efficient implementation of the variable charge method of Streitz and Mintmire (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 11996) is presented. In particular a local chemical potential approach that optimizes the charge on only those atoms expected to be ionic is developed. By doing so, the charge fluctuation problem experienced in regions far from any oxygen is solved, leading to a linear minimization problem of the electrostatic energy. In the dilute oxygen limit, such an approach can lead to at least an order of magnitude saving in computation.

  3. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  4. Localized operator partitioning method for electronic excitation energies in the time-dependent density functional formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Brumer, Paul; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2016-01-01

    We extend the localized operator partitioning method (LOPM) [J. Nagesh, A.F. Izmaylov, and P. Brumer, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 084114 (2015)] to the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) framework to partition molecular electronic energies of excited states in a rigorous manner. A molecular fragment is defined as a collection of atoms using Stratman-Scuseria-Frisch atomic partitioning. A numerically efficient scheme for evaluating the fragment excitation energy is derived employing a resolution of the identity to preserve standard one- and two-electron integrals in the final expressions. The utility of this partitioning approach is demonstrated by examining several excited states of two bichromophoric compounds: 9-((1-naphthyl)-methyl)-anthracene and 4-((2-naphthyl)-methyl)-benzaldehyde. The LOPM is found to provide nontrivial insights into the nature of electronic energy localization that are not accessible using simple density difference analysis.

  5. The investigation of the 2 decay by Pyatov method within quasiparticle random phase approximation formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Unlu; T Babacan; N Cakmak; C Selam

    2008-09-01

    The violated commutation condition between the total shell model Hamiltonian and Gamow–Teller operator (GT) has been restored by Pyatov method (PM). The considered nuclear model Hamiltonian in PM includes the separable GT residual interaction in ph and pp channels and is differentiated from the traditional schematic model by ℎ0 (restoration term). The influence of the h0 effective interaction on the 2 decay of 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, 116Cd, 128,130Te and 136Xe is investigated. All the calculations have been done within the framework of standard QRPA. The results obtained by PM are compared with those of other approaches and experimental data. The influence of the restoration term on the stability of the 2 decay nuclear matrix elements is analysed.

  6. The Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures (MFESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    provides the world’s largest free open - source website documenting over 1,100 reusable method components. 3 SEI Webinar Series - MFESA Donald Firesmith...hope!): • Informational website with softcopies of the method components • Free , open - source tool set (Eclipse ?) 18 SEI Webinar Series - MFESA Donald...2009 Carnegie Mellon University The Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures (MFESA) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon

  7. Mathematical methods in physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    2011-01-01

    Intended for college-level physics, engineering, or mathematics students, this volume offers an algebraically based approach to various topics in applied math. It is accessible to undergraduates with a good course in calculus which includes infinite series and uniform convergence. Exercises follow each chapter to test the student's grasp of the material; however, the author has also included exercises that extend the results to new situations and lay the groundwork for new concepts to be introduced later. A list of references for further reading will be found at the end of each chapter. For t

  8. Interpretability formalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Joost Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation is in the first place a treatment of mathematical interpretations. Interpretations themselves will be studied, but also shall they be used to study formal theories. Interpretations, when used in comparing theories, tell us, in a natural way, something about proof-strength of form

  9. Integral methods in science and engineering theoretical and practical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, C; Rollins, D

    2006-01-01

    Presents a series of analytic and numerical methods of solution constructed for important problems arising in science and engineering, based on the powerful operation of integration. This volume is meant for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students.

  10. Method Evaluating the Durability of Aircraft Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca PIANCASTELLI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner’s law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

  11. Simple statistical methods for software engineering data and patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pandian, C Ravindranath

    2015-01-01

    Although there are countless books on statistics, few are dedicated to the application of statistical methods to software engineering. Simple Statistical Methods for Software Engineering: Data and Patterns fills that void. Instead of delving into overly complex statistics, the book details simpler solutions that are just as effective and connect with the intuition of problem solvers.Sharing valuable insights into software engineering problems and solutions, the book not only explains the required statistical methods, but also provides many examples, review questions, and case studies that prov

  12. A Survey of Various Object Oriented Requirement Engineering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi Mahajan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current years many industries have been moving to the use of object-oriented methods for the development of large scale information systems The requirement of Object Oriented approach in the development of software systems is increasing day by day. This paper is basically a survey paper on various Object-oriented requirement engineering methods. This paper contains a summary of the available Object-oriented requirement engineering methods with their relative advantages and disadvantages. On next, several features have been proposed. These features are the characteristics of a good model of Object-oriented requirement engineering.

  13. An evaluation of learning resources in the teaching of formal philosophical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A.J. Stuart

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In any discipline, across a wide variety of subjects, there are numerous learning resources available to students. For many students the resources that will be most beneficial to them are quickly apparent but, because of the nature of philosophy and the philosophical method, it is not immediately clear which resources will be most valuable to students for whom the development of critical thinking skills is crucial. If we are to support these students effectively in their learning we must establish what these resources are how we can continue to maintain and improve them, and how we can encourage students to make good use of them. In this paper we describe and assess our evaluation of the use made by students of learning resources in the context of learning logic and in developing their critical thinking skills. We also assess the use of a new resource, electronic handsets, the purpose of which is to encourage students to respond to questions in lectures and to gain feedback about how they are progressing with the material.

  14. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  15. Towards a formal genealogical classification of the Lezgian languages (North Caucasus): testing various phylogenetic methods on lexical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassian, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    A lexicostatistical classification is proposed for 20 languages and dialects of the Lezgian group of the North Caucasian family, based on meticulously compiled 110-item wordlists, published as part of the Global Lexicostatistical Database project. The lexical data have been subsequently analyzed with the aid of the principal phylogenetic methods, both distance-based and character-based: Starling neighbor joining (StarlingNJ), Neighbor joining (NJ), Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Unweighted maximum parsimony (UMP). Cognation indexes within the input matrix were marked by two different algorithms: traditional etymological approach and phonetic similarity, i.e., the automatic method of consonant classes (Levenshtein distances). Due to certain reasons (first of all, high lexicographic quality of the wordlists and a consensus about the Lezgian phylogeny among Caucasologists), the Lezgian database is a perfect testing area for appraisal of phylogenetic methods. For the etymology-based input matrix, all the phylogenetic methods, with the possible exception of UMP, have yielded trees that are sufficiently compatible with each other to generate a consensus phylogenetic tree of the Lezgian lects. The obtained consensus tree agrees with the traditional expert classification as well as some of the previously proposed formal classifications of this linguistic group. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the UMP method has suggested the least plausible tree of all. In the case of the phonetic similarity-based input matrix, the distance-based methods (StarlingNJ, NJ, UPGMA) have produced the trees that are rather close to the consensus etymology-based tree and the traditional expert classification, whereas the character-based methods (Bayesian MCMC, UMP) have yielded less likely topologies.

  16. Towards a formal genealogical classification of the Lezgian languages (North Caucasus: testing various phylogenetic methods on lexical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kassian

    Full Text Available A lexicostatistical classification is proposed for 20 languages and dialects of the Lezgian group of the North Caucasian family, based on meticulously compiled 110-item wordlists, published as part of the Global Lexicostatistical Database project. The lexical data have been subsequently analyzed with the aid of the principal phylogenetic methods, both distance-based and character-based: Starling neighbor joining (StarlingNJ, Neighbor joining (NJ, Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC, Unweighted maximum parsimony (UMP. Cognation indexes within the input matrix were marked by two different algorithms: traditional etymological approach and phonetic similarity, i.e., the automatic method of consonant classes (Levenshtein distances. Due to certain reasons (first of all, high lexicographic quality of the wordlists and a consensus about the Lezgian phylogeny among Caucasologists, the Lezgian database is a perfect testing area for appraisal of phylogenetic methods. For the etymology-based input matrix, all the phylogenetic methods, with the possible exception of UMP, have yielded trees that are sufficiently compatible with each other to generate a consensus phylogenetic tree of the Lezgian lects. The obtained consensus tree agrees with the traditional expert classification as well as some of the previously proposed formal classifications of this linguistic group. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the UMP method has suggested the least plausible tree of all. In the case of the phonetic similarity-based input matrix, the distance-based methods (StarlingNJ, NJ, UPGMA have produced the trees that are rather close to the consensus etymology-based tree and the traditional expert classification, whereas the character-based methods (Bayesian MCMC, UMP have yielded less likely topologies.

  17. Formal quality improvement curriculum and DMAIC method results in interdisciplinary collaboration and process improvement in renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaphart, Cynthia L; Gonwa, Thomas A; Mai, Martin L; Prendergast, Mary B; Wadei, Hani M; Tepas, Joseph J; Taner, C Burcin

    2012-09-01

    Broad-based formal quality improvement curriculum emphasizing Six Sigma and the DMAIC approach developed by our institution is required for physicians in training. DMAIC methods evaluated the common outcome of postoperative hyponatremia, thus resulting in collaboration to prevent hyponatremia in the renal transplant population. To define postoperative hyponatremia in renal transplant recipients, a project charter outlined project aims. To measure postoperative hyponatremia, serum sodium at admission and immediately postoperative were recorded by retrospective review of renal transplant recipient charts from June 29, 2010 to December 31, 2011. An Ishikawa diagram was generated to analyze potential causative factors. Interdisciplinary collaboration and hospital policy assessment determined necessary improvements to prevent hyponatremia. Continuous monitoring in control phase was performed by establishing the goal of <10% of transplant recipients with abnormal serum sodium annually through quarterly reduction of hyponatremia by 30% to reach this goal. Of 54 transplant recipients, postoperative hyponatremia occurred in 92.6% of patients. These potential causes were evaluated: 1) Hemodialysis was more common than peritoneal dialysis. 2) Alemtuzumab induction was more common than antithymocyte globulin. 3) A primary diagnosis of diabetes existed in 16 patients (30%). 4) Strikingly, 51 patients received 0.45% sodium chloride intraoperatively, suggesting this as the most likely cause of postoperative hyponatremia. A hospital policy change to administer 0.9% sodium chloride during renal transplantation resulted in normal serum sodium levels postoperatively in 59 of 64 patients (92.2%). The DMAIC approach and formal quality curriculum for trainees addresses core competencies by providing a framework for problem solving, interdisciplinary collaboration, and process improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  19. The MODUS approach to formal verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2014-01-01

    in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution...... Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model...... verification engines, model verification producing inputs to be fed into these engines. Conclusions: The MODUS approach is aligned with present market needs; the familiarity with tools, the ease of use and compatibility/interoperability remain among the most important criteria when selecting the development...

  20. Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…

  1. Formal Methods for Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Shuchi Chawla, Cynthia Dwork, Frank McSherry, Adam Smith , and Hoeteck Wee. Toward privacy in public databases. In 2nd Theory of Cryptography Conference...Dwork, Frank McSherry, Kobbi Nissim, and Adam Smith . Calibrating noise to sensitivity in private data analysis. In In Proceedings of the 3rd Theory of

  2. Beyond formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.

  3. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...... on their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be concluded...

  4. Advanced mathematical methods in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hayek, SI

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary Differential EquationsDEFINITIONS LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER LINEAR INDEPENDENCE AND THE WRONSKIAN LINEAR HOMOGENEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF ORDER N WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS EULER'S EQUATION PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS BY METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS BY THE METHOD OF VARIATIONS OF PARAMETERS ABEL'S FORMULA FOR THE WRONSKIAN INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMSSeries Solutions of Ordinary Differential EquationsINTRODUCTION POWER SERIES SOLUTIONS CLASSIFICATION

  5. Multicomponent and multiscale systems theory, methods, and applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the latest research results from combined multi-component and multi-scale explorations. It provides theory, considers underlying numerical methods, and presents brilliant computational experimentation. Engineering computations featured in this monograph further offer particular interest to many researchers, engineers, and computational scientists working in frontier modeling and applications of multicomponent and multiscale problems. Professor Geiser gives specific attention to the aspects of decomposing and splitting delicate structures and controlling decomposition and the rationale behind many important applications of multi-component and multi-scale analysis. Multicomponent and Multiscale Systems: Theory, Methods, and Applications in Engineering also considers the question of why iterative methods can be powerful and more appropriate for well-balanced multiscale and multicomponent coupled nonlinear problems. The book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in theoretical and a...

  6. Seismic methods in engineering geology. Seismicheskie metody v inzhenernoi geologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryainov, N.N.; Lyakhovitskii, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    A presentation is made of the physical principles and methods of seismic investigations in engineering geology as well as methods of interpreting the material obtained. An examination in detail is made of the connection between the seismic properties of rock from the upper part of a layer and their composition and state. A description is made of the distinctive features of using seismic methods in engineering geology, the basic methodological approaches that are used for conducting ground-level and well seismic as well as geoacoustical measurements. The section on interpretation devotes considerable attention to new methods that have not been sufficiently covered in the literature. Examples are given for the use of seismic methods for solving various engineering-geology problems in the study of loose and hard rock under thaw and frozen conditions. 99 references, 44 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Engineering computation of structures the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Roseiro, Luis; Cirne, José; Leal, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    This book presents theories and the main useful techniques of the Finite Element Method (FEM), with an introduction to FEM and many case studies of its use in engineering practice. It supports engineers and students to solve primarily linear problems in mechanical engineering, with a main focus on static and dynamic structural problems. Readers of this text are encouraged to discover the proper relationship between theory and practice, within the finite element method: Practice without theory is blind, but theory without practice is sterile. Beginning with elasticity basic concepts and the classical theories of stressed materials, the work goes on to apply the relationship between forces, displacements, stresses and strains on the process of modeling, simulating and designing engineered technical systems. Chapters discuss the finite element equations for static, eigenvalue analysis, as well as transient analyses. Students and practitioners using commercial FEM software will find this book very helpful. It us...

  8. Pavideoge: A New Video Processing Method in Video Search Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Pu; Chen, Guang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problems of video processing in video search engine. Video has now become a very important kind of data in Internet; while searching for video is still a challenging task due to the inner properties of video: requiring enormous storage space, being independent, expressing information hiddenly. To handle the properties of video more effectively, in this paper, we propose a new video processing method in video search engine. In detail, the core of the new video processing method is creating pavideoge--a new data type, which contains the video advantages and webpage advantages. The pavideoge has four attributes: real link, videorank, text information and playnum. Each of them combines video's properties with webpage's. Video search engine based on the pavideoge can retrieve video more effectively. The experiment results show the encouraging performance of our approach. Based on the pavideoge, our video search engine can retrieve more precise videos in comparsion with previous related ...

  9. Optimization and control methods in industrial engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in optimization and control methods with applications to industrial engineering and construction management. It consists of 15 chapters authored by recognized experts in a variety of fields including control and operation research, industrial engineering, and project management. Topics include numerical methods in unconstrained optimization, robust optimal control problems, set splitting problems, optimum confidence interval analysis, a monitoring networks optimization survey, distributed fault detection, nonferrous industrial optimization approaches, neural networks in traffic flows, economic scheduling of CCHP systems, a project scheduling optimization survey, lean and agile construction project management, practical construction projects in Hong Kong, dynamic project management, production control in PC4P, and target contracts optimization.   The book offers a valuable reference work for scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in industrial engineering and c...

  10. Requirements Engineering Methods: A Classification Framework and Research Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jureta, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements Engineering Methods (REMs) support Requirements Engineering (RE) tasks, from elicitation, through modeling and analysis, to validation and evolution of requirements. Despite the growing interest to design, validate and teach REMs, it remains unclear what components REMs should have. A classification framework for REMs is proposed. It distinguishes REMs based on the domain-independent properties of their components. The classification framework is intended to facilitate (i) analys...

  11. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  12. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  13. Formal Deduction Method in Quantitative Logic%计量逻辑学中的形式化推演方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鹏

    2014-01-01

    基于经典逻辑系统中的计量逻辑学,探讨了计量逻辑学中的形式化推理问题。结果表明,在注重数值计算的计量逻辑学中同样存在类似于语构理论的形式化推演方法,并给出了形式化推演的性质。%Based on the quantitative logic in classical proposition logic system,the problem of formal inference is disussed.The results indicate that the formal deduction method also exists in quantitative logic which similarity with the syntactic theory.At the same time,the properties of formal deduction method are given.

  14. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  15. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  16. A comparison between state-specific and linear-response formalisms for the calculation of vertical electronic transition energy in solution with the CCSD-PCM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, Marco

    2013-07-28

    The calculation of vertical electronic transition energies of molecular systems in solution with accurate quantum mechanical methods requires the use of approximate and yet reliable models to describe the effect of the solvent on the electronic structure of the solute. The polarizable continuum model (PCM) of solvation represents a computationally efficient way to describe this effect, especially when combined with coupled cluster (CC) methods. Two formalisms are available to compute transition energies within the PCM framework: State-Specific (SS) and Linear-Response (LR). The former provides a more complete account of the solute-solvent polarization in the excited states, while the latter is computationally very efficient (i.e., comparable to gas phase) and transition properties are well defined. In this work, I review the theory for the two formalisms within CC theory with a focus on their computational requirements, and present the first implementation of the LR-PCM formalism with the coupled cluster singles and doubles method (CCSD). Transition energies computed with LR- and SS-CCSD-PCM are presented, as well as a comparison between solvation models in the LR approach. The numerical results show that the two formalisms provide different absolute values of transition energy, but similar relative solvatochromic shifts (from nonpolar to polar solvents). The LR formalism may then be used to explore the solvent effect on multiple states and evaluate transition probabilities, while the SS formalism may be used to refine the description of specific states and for the exploration of excited state potential energy surfaces of solvated systems.

  17. Validation of published Stirling engine design methods using engine characteristics from the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four fully disclosed reference engines and five design methods are discussed. So far, the agreement between theory and experiment is about as good for the simpler calculation methods as it is for the more complicated methods, that is, within 20%. For the simpler methods, a one number adjustable constant can be used to reduce the error in predicting power output and efficiency over the entire operating map to less than 10%.

  18. Engineering models and methods for industrial cell control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1997-01-01

    control and monitor-ing systems for production cells. The project participants are The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, the Institute of Manufacturing Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark and ODENSE STEEL SHIPYARD Ltd.The manufacturing environment and the current practice......This paper is concerned with the engineering, i.e. the designing and making, of industrial cell control systems. The focus is on automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. The industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implemen-tation of computer based....... Further, an engineering methodology is defined. The three elements enablers, architecture and methodology constitutes the Cell Control Engineering concept which has been defined and evaluated through the implementation of two cell control systems for robot welding cells in production at ODENSE STEEL...

  19. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  20. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-04

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  1. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  2. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  3. Formal Phonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Odden

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two problematic trends have dominated modern phonological theorizing: over-reliance on machinery of Universal Grammar, and reification of functional properties in grammar. The former trend leads to arbitrary postulation of grammatical principles because UG “has no cost”, which leads to a welter of contradictory and unresolvable claims. The latter trend amounts to rejection of phonology and indeed grammatical computation, as a legitimate independent area of scientific investigation. This paper outlines Formal Phonology, which is a metatheoretical approach rooted in an inductive epistemology, committed to seriously engaging the fundamental logic of the discipline, one which demands justification of claims and an integrated consideration of what is known about phonological grammars, eschewing ad libitum conjectures and isolated positing of novel claims without evaluating how the claim interacts with other aspects of phonology. Debate over the proper mechanism for apparent segment-transparency in harmony, or the binary vs. privative nature of features, is ultimately doomed if we do not have a clear awareness of what a “grammar” and a “phonology” are. Misconstruing the nature of a phonology as being a model of observed behavior negatively affects theoretical choices, leads to confusion over what could motivate a claim about the nature of grammar, and in general, a lack of developed epistemological foundation leads to confusion over how to approach theory-construction.

  4. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  5. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Stijn; Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan; Weerd, Inge van de

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we de

  6. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  7. The Integrated Application Based on Real-time Extended UML and Improved Formal Method in Real-time Embedded Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Yin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, formal methods were introduced into the real-time embedded software testing field and a real-time extended finite state machine, called rt_EFSM, was studied firstly. And then, the process of the integrated application based on real-time extended Unified Modeling Language (UML and improved formal method in real-time embedded software testing are put forward. Furthermore, the extension scheme of the real-time UML, including the improvement and extension of state transitions and time constraints described mechanism, and the conversion method from real-time UML to rt_EFSM ware proposed. Finally, combined with the testing process of flight control software of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, a method to generate the time-extended UIO sequence (ex_UIO was put forward. Finally, the method to generate test cases automatically according to ex_UIO sequence was brought forward. The method proposed in this paper can fully make use of the advantages of tool resources of the UML which has been as the industry standard, but also the advantages of formal methods in accuracy, effectiveness and automation support.

  8. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  9. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been...

  10. To fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程飚; 陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    To fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods in vitro. Methods: Schwann cells (SCs) were cultured and seeded on polyglactin 910 fibers wrapped by biomembrane coated with rat tail glue and laminin for 2 weeks. The absorbability on the scaffolds, growth and migration of SCs were assessed with a light microscope, a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Results: SCs could migrate and proliferate on polyglactin 910 fibers. They were well distributed between scaffolds and absorbed on surface of scaffolds and formed a bungner band, on which SCs produced more matrices. SCs seeded on the biomembrane could also grow well. Axon regeneration in the distal nerve stump was observed at 8 weeks. Conclusions: Adult SCs can be expanded on coated fibers and biomembrane. Three-dimensional scaffold of SCs has the basic characteristics of artificial nerves. These findings offer a novel method to fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods for repairing defected long nerves.

  11. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  12. A Review of Deterministic Optimization Methods in Engineering and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing reliance on modeling optimization problems in practical applications, a number of theoretical and algorithmic contributions of optimization have been proposed. The approaches developed for treating optimization problems can be classified into deterministic and heuristic. This paper aims to introduce recent advances in deterministic methods for solving signomial programming problems and mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems. A number of important applications in engineering and management are also reviewed to reveal the usefulness of the optimization methods.

  13. Exergetic optimization of turbofan engine with genetic algorithm method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Onder [Anadolu University, School of Civil Aviation (Turkey)], e-mail: onderturan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the growth of passenger numbers, emissions from the aeronautics sector are increasing and the industry is now working on improving engine efficiency to reduce fuel consumption. The aim of this study is to present the use of genetic algorithms, an optimization method based on biological principles, to optimize the exergetic performance of turbofan engines. The optimization was carried out using exergy efficiency, overall efficiency and specific thrust of the engine as evaluation criteria and playing on pressure and bypass ratio, turbine inlet temperature and flight altitude. Results showed exergy efficiency can be maximized with higher altitudes, fan pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature; the turbine inlet temperature is the most important parameter for increased exergy efficiency. This study demonstrated that genetic algorithms are effective in optimizing complex systems in a short time.

  14. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  15. Multiplexed genome engineering and genotyping methods applications for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Harris H; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    Engineering at the scale of whole genomes requires fundamentally new molecular biology tools. Recent advances in recombineering using synthetic oligonucleotides enable the rapid generation of mutants at high efficiency and specificity and can be implemented at the genome scale. With these techniques, libraries of mutants can be generated, from which individuals with functionally useful phenotypes can be isolated. Furthermore, populations of cells can be evolved in situ by directed evolution using complex pools of oligonucleotides. Here, we discuss ways to utilize these multiplexed genome engineering methods, with special emphasis on experimental design and implementation.

  16. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  17. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  18. The use of Statistical Methods in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saleem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an important tool to handle the vast data of present era as statistics can interpret all the information in such a beauty that so many conclusions can be extracted from it. The aim of this study is to see the use of statistical methods in Mechanical Engineering (ME therefore; we selected research papers published in 2010 from the well reputed journals in ME under Taylor and Francis Company LTD. More than 350 research papers were downloaded from well reputed ME journals such as Inverse Problem in Science and Engineering (IPSE, Machining Science and Technology (MST, Materials and Manufacturing Processes (MMP, Particulate Science and Technology (PST and Research in Nondestructive Evaluation (RNE. We recorded the statistical techniques/methods used in each research paper. In this study, we presented frequency distribution of descriptive statistics and advance level statistical methods used in five of the ME journals in 2010.

  19. Methods of Genome Engineering: a New Era of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunova, A A; Dontsova, O A; Sergiev, P V

    2016-07-01

    Genome sequencing now progressing much faster than our understanding of the majority of gene functions. Studies of physiological functions of various genes would not be possible without the ability to manipulate the genome. Methods of genome engineering can now be used to inactivate a gene to study consequences, introduce heterologous genes into the genome for scientific and biotechnology applications, create genes coding for fusion proteins to study gene expression, protein localization, and molecular interactions, and to develop animal models of human diseases to find appropriate treatment. Finally, genome engineering might present the possibility to cure hereditary diseases. In this review, we discuss and compare the most important methods for gene inactivation and editing, as well as methods for incorporation of heterologous genes into the genome.

  20. Deep First Formal Concept Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA; however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis.

  1. Automotive Software Engineering. Fundamentals, processes, methods, tools; Automotive Software Engineering. Grundlagen, Prozesse, Methoden und Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeuffele, J.; Zurawka, T.

    2003-07-01

    The book presents fundamentals and practical examples of processes, methods and tools to ensure safe operation of electronic systems and software in motor vehicles. The focus is on the electronic systems of the powertrain, suspension and ar body. Contents: The overall system of car, driver and environment; Fundamentals; Processes for development of electronic systems and software; Methods and tools for the development, production and servicing of electronic systems. The book addresses staff members of motor car producers and suppliers of electronic systems and software, as well as students of computer science, electrical and mechanical engineering specifying in car engineering, control engineering, mechatronics and software engineering. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt Grundlagen und praktische Beispiele zu Prozessen, Methoden und Werkzeugen, die zur sicheren Beherrschbarkeit von elektronischen Systemen und Software im Fahrzeug beitragen. Dabei stehen die elektronischen Systeme des Antriebsstrangs, des Fahrwerks und der Karosserie im Vordergrund. Zum Inhalt gehoeren die folgenden Rubriken: Gesamtsystem Fahrzeug-Fahrer-Umwelt - Grundlagen - Prozesse zur Entwicklung von elektronischen Systemen und Software - Methoden und Werkzeuge fuer die Entwicklung, die Produktion un den Service elektronischer Systeme. Das Buch richtet sich an alle Mitarbeiter von Fahrzeugherstellern und Zulieferern, die sich mit elektornischen Systemen und Software im Fahrzeug beschaeftigen. Studierende der Informatik, der Elektrotechnik oder des Maschinenbaus mit den Schwerpunkten Fahrzeugtechnik, Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik oder Software-Technik. (orig.)

  2. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  3. Applications of the discrete element method in mechanical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleissner, Florian, E-mail: fleissner@itm.uni-stuttgart.de; Gaugele, Timo, E-mail: gaugele@itm.uni-stuttgart.de; Eberhard, Peter [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Engineering and Computational Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: eberhard@itm.uni-stuttgart.de

    2007-08-15

    Compared to other fields of engineering, in mechanical engineering, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is not yet a well known method. Nevertheless, there is a variety of simulation problems where the method has obvious advantages due to its meshless nature. For problems where several free bodies can collide and break after having been largely deformed, the DEM is the method of choice. Neighborhood search and collision detection between bodies as well as the separation of large solids into smaller particles are naturally incorporated in the method. The main DEM algorithm consists of a relatively simple loop that basically contains the three substeps contact detection, force computation and integration. However, there exists a large variety of different algorithms to choose the substeps to compose the optimal method for a given problem. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of particle systems together with appropriate numerical integration schemes and give an overview over different types of particle interactions that can be composed to adapt the method to fit to a given simulation problem. Surface triangulations are used to model complicated, non-convex bodies in contact with particle systems. The capabilities of the method are finally demonstrated by means of application examples.

  4. Estimation method of margin gasdynamic stability of the gas turbine engine while in service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Ф. Кінащук

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Considered is the method of an estimation gasdynamic stability margin of the compressor gas turbine engine under operating conditions. The given way can be used at diagnosing gas turbine engine and gas turbine engine installations.

  5. Formal aspects of component software

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Meng; Schatz, B.

    2014-01-01

    This issue includes extended versions of selected best papers from the 7th International Workshop on Formal Aspects of Component Software (FACS 2010) held in Guimarães, Portugal on October 14–16, 2010. The component-based software development approach has emerged as a promising paradigm to cope with an ever increasing complexity of present-day software solutions by bringing sound production and engineering principles into software engineering. However, many conceptual and technological iss...

  6. The finite element method and applications in engineering using ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Madenci, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    This textbook offers theoretical and practical knowledge of the finite element method. The book equips readers with the skills required to analyze engineering problems using ANSYS®, a commercially available FEA program. Revised and updated, this new edition presents the most current ANSYS® commands and ANSYS® screen shots, as well as modeling steps for each example problem. This self-contained, introductory text minimizes the need for additional reference material by covering both the fundamental topics in finite element methods and advanced topics concerning modeling and analysis. It focuses on the use of ANSYS® through both the Graphics User Interface (GUI) and the ANSYS® Parametric Design Language (APDL). Extensive examples from a range of engineering disciplines are presented in a straightforward, step-by-step fashion. Key topics include: • An introduction to FEM • Fundamentals and analysis capabilities of ANSYS® • Fundamentals of discretization and approximation functions • Modeling techniq...

  7. Sustaining Engineering Informatics: Toward Methods and Metrics for Digital Curation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Lubell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the long-term usability of engineering informatics (EI artifacts is a challenge, particularly for products with longer lifecycles than the computing hardware and software used for their design and manufacture. Addressing this challenge requires characterizing the nature of EI, defining metrics for EI sustainability, and developing methods for long-term EI curation. In this paper we highlight various issues related to long-term archival of EI and describe the work towards methods and metrics for sustaining EI. We propose an approach to enhance the Open Archival Information System (OAIS functional model to incorporate EI sustainability criteria, Digital Object Prototypes (DOPs, and end user access requirements. We discuss the end user’s requirements from the point of view of reference, reuse and rationale – the “3Rs” – to better understand the level of granularity and abstractions required in the definition of engineering digital objects. Finally we present a proposed case study and experiment.

  8. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  9. Method of designing developable surface based on engineering requirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-xin; LIU Zhe; LIU Jian

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the principle of envelope of a one-parameter plane family to design developable surfaces. Three methods of designing developable surfaces are presented. They are designing a developable surface based on one curve on it and its normal line, designing a developable surface based on two curves on it and designing a developable surface based on one curve and one surface. They meet the requirements of engineering fields.

  10. The methods of formaldehyde emission testing of engine: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Geng, Peng; Cao, Erming; Wei, Lijiang

    2015-12-01

    A number of measurements have been provided to detect formaldehyde in the atmosphere, but there are no clear unified standards in engine exhaust. Nowadays, formaldehyde, an unregulated emission from methanol engine, has been attracting increasing attention by researchers. This paper presents the detection techniques for formaldehyde emitted from the engines applied in recent market, introducing the approaches in terms of unregulated emission tests of formaldehyde, which involved gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, chromatography-spectrum, Fourier infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The author also introduces the comparison regarding to the advantages of the existing detection techniques based on the principle, to compare with engine exhaust sampling method, the treatment in advance of detection, obtaining approaches accessing to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromatograms or spectra. The accuratest result obtained was chromatography though it cannot be used continuously. It also can be utilized to develop high requirements of emissions and other regulations. Fourier infrared spectroscopy has the advantage of continuous detection for a variety of unregulated emissions and can be applied to the bench in variable condition. However, its accuracy is not as good as chromatography. As the conclusion, a detection technique is chosen based on different requirements.

  11. Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Qadi, Abderrahim El; Ennouary, Yassine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by order of relevance. The control of relevance is exploited in clustering, we improved the result by using ontology in field of image processing, and reformulating the user queries which make it possible to give more relevant documents.

  12. Optimization in engineering sciences approximate and metaheuristic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanoiu, Dan; Popescu, Dumitru; Filip, Florin Gheorghe; El Kamel, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present the main metaheuristics and approximate and stochastic methods for optimization of complex systems in Engineering Sciences. It has been written within the framework of the European Union project ERRIC (Empowering Romanian Research on Intelligent Information Technologies), which is funded by the EU's FP7 Research Potential program and has been developed in co-operation between French and Romanian teaching researchers. Through the principles of various proposed algorithms (with additional references) this book allows the reader to explore various methods o

  13. Model based methods and tools for process systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Process systems engineering (PSE) provides means to solve a wide range of problems in a systematic and efficient manner. This presentation will give a perspective on model based methods and tools needed to solve a wide range of problems in product-process synthesis-design. These methods and tools...... of the framework. The issue of commercial simulators or software providing the necessary features for product-process synthesis-design as opposed to their development by the academic PSE community will also be discussed. An example of a successful collaboration between academia-industry for the development...

  14. Remarks on Some Engineering Methods and Their Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odyniec, M.

    2011-06-16

    The author makes the point that engineering practice and the mathematical modelling applied to engineering problems are different and that mathematical solutions that exist for engineering problems are incomprehensible to engineers. Two practical examples are presented to illustrate the point: parameter fitting error estimates and oscillator design. Some insights are offered to help translate between the languages of mathematics and engineering.

  15. Patterning methods for polymers in cell and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Nam; Kang, Do-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jiao, Alex; Kim, Deok-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2012-06-01

    Polymers provide a versatile platform for mimicking various aspects of physiological extracellular matrix properties such as chemical composition, rigidity, and topography for use in cell and tissue engineering applications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of patterning methods of various polymers with a particular focus on biocompatibility and processability. The materials highlighted here are widely used polymers including thermally curable polydimethyl siloxane, ultraviolet-curable polyurethane acrylate and polyethylene glycol, thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and thermoplastic and conductive polymers. We also discuss how micro- and nanofabricated polymeric substrates of tunable elastic modulus can be used to engineer cell and tissue structure and function. Such synergistic effect of topography and rigidity of polymers may be able to contribute to constructing more physiologically relevant microenvironment.

  16. Formal Analysis of Meaning in Natural Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Saric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadly, the subject of this paper is the relation between logic and linguistics. More narrowly, it concentrates on formal semantics. The first part of the text discusses the topics and methods of formal semantics, and the second part the history of formal semantics. Formal semantic analysis has not been widely known and applied in our research community, and formal methods have been applied extremely rarely in linguistic analyses. This is why it is useful to point out the significant achievements of formal semantics. This inspiring interdisciplinary field of research has been successfully connecting research in linguistics, logic and philosophy since the early 1970s.

  17. A Model of the Cellular Iron Homeostasis Network Using Semi-Formal Methods for Parameter Space Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Fanchon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for the modeling of biological networks. It makes use of recent tools analyzing the robust satisfaction of properties of (hybrid dynamical systems. The main challenge of this approach as applied to biological systems is to get access to the relevant parameter sets despite gaps in the available knowledge. An initial estimate of useful parameters was sought by formalizing the known behavior of the biological network in the STL logic using the tool Breach. Then, once a set of parameter values consistent with known biological properties was found, we tried to locally expand it into the largest possible valid region. We applied this methodology in an effort to model and better understand the complex network regulating iron homeostasis in mammalian cells. This system plays an important role in many biological functions, including erythropoiesis, resistance against infections, and proliferation of cancer cells.

  18. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  19. Towards the integration of formal specification in the \\'Ancora methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-y-Fernandez, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    There are some non-formal methodologies such as RUP, OpenUP, agile methodologies such as SCRUP, XP and techniques like those proposed by UML, which allow the development of software. The software industry has struggled to generate quality software, as importance has not been given to the engineering requirements, resulting in a poor specification of requirements and software of poor quality. In order to generate a contribution to the specification of requirements, this article describes a methodological proposal, implementing formal methods to the results of the process of requirements analysis of the methodology \\'Ancora.

  20. General formalism of local thermodynamics with an example: Quantum Otto engine with a spin-1/2 coupled to an arbitrary spin

    OpenAIRE

    Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür Esat; Altintas, Ferdi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a quantum heat engine with a working substance of two particles, one with a spin-1/2 and the other with an arbitrary spin (spin s), coupled by Heisenberg exchange interaction, and subject to an external magnetic field. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle. Work harvested in the cycle and its efficiency are calculated using quantum thermodynamical definitions. It is found that the engine has higher efficiencies at higher spins and can harvest work at higher exchange inter...

  1. Application of Architectural Patterns and Lightweight Formal Method for the Validation and Verification of Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Lord Jesus Christ to whom I always find spiritual strength. Last but not the least, my deepest thanks go to my spouse, Olga, who stands by me both...is the way that they behave when they occur. There are cases in which a component receives some inputs (or changes the original inputs) and reacts...demands resources. The origin of systems design is the result of human experience in civil engineering over the centuries. The early step of this branch

  2. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; lzak, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Rough Set Theory, introduced by Pawlak in the early 1980s, has become an important part of soft computing within the last 25 years. However, much of the focus has been on the theoretical understanding of Rough Sets, with a survey of Rough Sets and their applications within business and industry much desired. Rough Sets: Selected Methods and Applications in Management and Engineering provides context to Rough Set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets. Rough Sets is relevant to managers striving to improve their businesses, industry researchers looking to imp

  3. Jet Engine Nozzle Exit Configurations and Associated Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  4. Engineering applications of a dynamical state feedback chaotification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Savaş; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents two engineering applications of a chaotification method which can be applied to any inputstate linearizable (nonlinear) system including linear controllable ones as special cases. In the used chaotification method, a reference chaotic and linear system can be combined into a special form by a dynamical state feedback increasing the order of the open loop system to have the same chaotic dynamics with the reference chaotic system. Promising dc motor applications of the method are implemented by the proposed dynamical state feedback which is based on matching the closed loop dynamics to the well known Chua and also Lorenz chaotic systems. The first application, which is the chaotified dc motor used for mixing a corn syrup added acid-base mixture, is implemented via a personal computer and a microcontroller based circuit. As a second application, a chaotified dc motor with a taco-generator used in the feedback is realized by using fully analog circuit elements.

  5. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty......, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision, and game theory. This volume presents 42 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy...... and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five basic subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Logics of Knowledge and Belief. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading...

  6. {\\delta}M Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Talebian-Ashkezari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of the "non-perturbative" metric perturbations in a Bianchi background in the long-wavelength limit. By applying the gradient expansion to the equations of motion we exhibit a generalized "Separate Universe" approach to the cosmological perturbation theory. Having found this consistent separate universe picture, we introduce the "{\\delta}M formalism" for calculating the evolution of the tensor perturbations in anisotropic inflation models in almost similar way as the so-called {\\delta}N formula for the super-horizon dynamics of the curvature perturbations. Likewise its ancestor, {\\delta}N formalism, this new method can substantially reduce the amount of calculations related to the evolution of the tensor modes.

  7. Comparison of three formal methods used to estimate the functional axis of rotation: an extensive in-vivo analysis performed on the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Francesca; Lopomo, Nicola; Visani, Andrea; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the main axis of rotation (AoR) of a human joint represents an important issue in biomechanics. This study compared three formal methods used to estimate functional AoR, namely a cylindrical fitting method, a mean helical axis transformation, and a symmetrical axis approach. These methods were tested on 106 subjects undergoing navigated total knee arthroplasty. AoR orientation in 3D and in the frontal and coronal planes provided by each method was compared to the transepicondylar axis direction. Although all the methods resulted effective, significant differences were identified among them, relatively to the orientation in 3D and in the frontal plane projection. This was probably due to the presence of secondary rotations during the first degrees of knee flexion.

  8. Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit (PEAK): formal usability testing of an easy-to-use method for creating computerized experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Walter; Bolger, D J; Eschman, Amy; Neff, Christopher; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2005-05-01

    In academic courses in which one task for the students is to understand empirical methodology and the nature of scientific inquiry, the ability of students to create and implement their own experiments allows them to take intellectual ownership of, and greatly facilitates, the learning process. The Psychology Experiment Authoring Kit (PEAK) is a novel spreadsheet-based interface allowing students and researchers with rudimentary spreadsheet skills to create cognitive and cognitive neuroscience experiments in minutes. Students fill in a spreadsheet listing of independent variables and stimuli, insert columns that represent experimental objects such as slides (presenting text, pictures, and sounds) and feedback displays to create complete experiments, all within a single spreadsheet. The application then executes experiments with centisecond precision. Formal usability testing was done in two stages: (1) detailed coding of 10 individual subjects in one-on-one experimenter/subject videotaped sessions and (2) classroom testing of 64 undergraduates. In both individual and classroom testing, the students learned to effectively use PEAK within 2 h, and were able to create a lexical decision experiment in under 10 min. Findings from the individual testing in Stage 1 resulted in significant changes to documentation and training materials and identification of bugs to be corrected. Stage 2 testing identified additional bugs to be corrected and new features to be considered to facilitate student understanding of the experiment model. Such testing will improve the approach with each semester. The students were typically able to create their own projects in 2 h.

  9. Reverse Engineering Cellular Networks with Information Theoretic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R. Banga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Building mathematical models of cellular networks lies at the core of systems biology. It involves, among other tasks, the reconstruction of the structure of interactions between molecular components, which is known as network inference or reverse engineering. Information theory can help in the goal of extracting as much information as possible from the available data. A large number of methods founded on these concepts have been proposed in the literature, not only in biology journals, but in a wide range of areas. Their critical comparison is difficult due to the different focuses and the adoption of different terminologies. Here we attempt to review some of the existing information theoretic methodologies for network inference, and clarify their differences. While some of these methods have achieved notable success, many challenges remain, among which we can mention dealing with incomplete measurements, noisy data, counterintuitive behaviour emerging from nonlinear relations or feedback loops, and computational burden of dealing with large data sets.

  10. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  11. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  12. Formalization of Matrix Theory in HOL4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Matrix theory plays an important role in modeling linear systems in engineering and science. To model and analyze the intricate behavior of complex systems, it is imperative to formalize matrix theory in a metalogic setting. This paper presents the higher-order logic (HOL formalization of the vector space and matrix theory in the HOL4 theorem proving system. Formalized theories include formal definitions of real vectors and matrices, algebraic properties, and determinants, which are verified in HOL4. Two case studies, modeling and verifying composite two-port networks and state transfer equations, are presented to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of our work.

  13. The MODUS Approach to Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewka Lukasz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Software reliability is of great importance for the development of embedded systems that are often used in applications that have requirements for safety. Since the life cycle of embedded products is becoming shorter, productivity and quality simultaneously required and closely in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model verification engines, model verification producing inputs to be fed into these engines. Conclusions: The MODUS approach is aligned with present market needs; the familiarity with tools, the ease of use and compatibility/interoperability remain among the most important criteria when selecting the development environment for a project

  14. A Cloverleaf of Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2005-01-01

    We shall touch upon four issues of software engineering (SE): domain engineering, formal techniques, SE sociology, and academic software architects. First, before software can be designed one must understand its requirements; but before requirements can be formulated one must understand the domain....... So we assume that requirements development is based on first having established models of the (application) domain. We illustrate facets of the railway domain. Second, we touch upon all of the three phases: domain engineering, requirements engineering and software design also being done formally......, however "lite". Third, despite 35 years of formal methods, the SE industry, maturity-wise still lags far behind that of other engineering disciplines. So we examine why. Finally, in several areas, in health care, in architecture, and others, we see that major undertakings are primarily spearheaded...

  15. Non-Formal Education: The Concept and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Anil

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of non-formal education examines definitions of informal, formal, and non-formal education; compares non-formal and formal education in terms of objectives, student entry, clientele, curriculum, learning situations; teaching methods and materials, teachers, pupil evaluation, and agencies; and discusses four types of programs deserving…

  16. Collection of methods for reliability and safety engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fussell, J.B.; Rasmuson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Burdick, G.R.; Zipperer, J.C.

    1976-04-01

    The document presented contains five reports each describing a method of reliability and safety engineering. Report I provides a conceptual framework for the study of component malfunctions during system evaluations. Report II provides methods for locating groups of critical component failures such that all the component failures in a given group can be caused to occur by the occurrence of a single separate event. These groups of component failures are called common cause candidates. Report III provides a method for acquiring and storing system-independent component failure logic information. The information stored is influenced by the concepts presented in Report I and also includes information useful in locating common cause candidates. Report IV puts forth methods for analyzing situations that involve systems which change character in a predetermined time sequence. These phased missions techniques are applicable to the hypothetical ''accident chains'' frequently analyzed for nuclear power plants. Report V presents a unified approach to cause-consequence analysis, a method of analysis useful during risk assessments. This approach, as developed by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission, is modified to reflect the format and symbology conventionally used for other types of analysis of nuclear reactor systems.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann method and its applications in engineering thermophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YaLing; LI Qing; WANG Yong; TANG GuiHua

    2009-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM),a mesoscopic method between the molecular dynamics method and the conventional numerical methods,has been developed into a very efficient numerical alternative in the past two decades.Unlike conventional numerical methods,the kinetic theory based LBM simulates fluid flows by tracking the evolution of the particle distribution function,and then accumulates the distribution to obtain macroscopic averaged properties.In this article we review some work on LBM applications in engineering thermophysics:(1) brief introduction to the development of the LBM; (2)fundamental theory of LBM including the Boltzmann equation,Maxwell distribution function,Boltzmann-BGK equation,and the lattice Boltzmann-BGK equation; (3) lattice Boltzmann models for compressible flows and non-equilibrium gas flows,bounce back-specular-reflection boundary scheme for microscale gaseous flows,the mass modified outlet boundary scheme for fully developed flows,and an implicit-explicit finite-difference-based LBM; and (4) applications of the LBM to oscillating flow,compressible flow,porous media flow,non-equilibrium flow,and gas resonant oscillating flow.

  18. Formal Verification of UML Profil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2011-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is based on the Model Driven Development (MDD) approach which capturing the system functionality using the platform-independent model (PMI) and appropriate domain-specific languages. In UML base system notations, structural view is model by the class, components...... and object diagrams and behavioral view model by the activity, use case, state, and sequence diagram. However, UML does not provide the formal syntax, therefore its semantics is not formally definable, so for assure of correctness, we need to incorporate semantic reasoning through verification, specification......, refinement, and incorporate into the development process. Our motivation of research is to make an easy structural view and suggest formal technique/ method which can be best applied or used for the UML based development system. We investigate the tools and methods, which broadly used for the formal...

  19. Evaluation of light extraction efficiency for the light-emitting diodes based on the transfer matrix formalism and ray-tracing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingbo, An; Li, Wang; Hongxi, Lu; Zhiguo, Yu; Lei, Liu; Xin, Xi; Lixia, Zhao; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li

    2016-06-01

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the light-emitting diodes can be calculated by the ratio of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE). The EQE can be measured experimentally, but the LEE is difficult to calculate due to the complicated LED structures. In this work, a model was established to calculate the LEE by combining the transfer matrix formalism and an in-plane ray tracing method. With the calculated LEE, the IQE was determined and made a good agreement with that obtained by the ABC model and temperature-dependent photoluminescence method. The proposed method makes the determination of the IQE more practical and conventional. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.11574306, 61334009), the China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (No. 2014DFG62280), and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2015AA03A101).

  20. Low emission fuel engine and method of operating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.

    1990-09-11

    This patent describes a low emission duel fuel engine system. It comprises: a dual fuel engine having a combustion chamber; a fuel oil supply connected to the engine; a fuel gas supply connected to the engine; and means connected between the fuel oil supply and the engine for injecting fuel oil into the engine. The means connected between the engine and fuel oil supply limiting the injection of fuel oil to the combustion chamber to pilot ignition quantities only, wherein the limiting means includes means for limiting the injection of fuel oil such that the exhaust emission of NO{sub x} is at an emission rate of less than 1 GM/PH-HR, whereby the exhaust emission performance of the dual fuel engine is enhanced.

  1. Method to Identify Similarity and Dissimilarity between Systems Engineering and Neighboring Disciplines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Tianshe; Dong Xiaoshe; Li Jisheng; Sun Yanhong

    2007-01-01

    Systems engineering is not a new discipline. However, up to now, there is little consensus on its exact definition and scope. The scopes of several disciplines (neighboring disciplines of systems engineering) overlap with that of systems engineering. In this paper, the methods to identify similarities and dissimilarities between systems engineering and its neighboring disciplines are discussed .The research of this paper is expected to be helpful for clarifying the definition and scope of systems engineering.

  2. Formal, Model-oriented Software Development Methods - From VDM to ProCoS & from RAISE to LaCoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Havelund, K.

    1991-01-01

    the technical/scientific essence of the VDM and RAISE methods, and explain the ProCos and LaCoS project structures. The paper will first outline five central roles of software developers: problem domain specialists, programmers, software engineers, resident computation scientists and managers. We will briefly...

  3. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  4. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders P.; Hasle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    increase responsiveness of the health care organizations in order to provide patients with rapid diagnostics and treatment. Finally, the quality levels of care and treatment must also be raised. Difficulties in meeting these challenges often result in public critism and stressed health care workers...... possibilities for higher efficiency and quality or it just reinforces stress. This question has been studied in three Danish cases in surgery, oncology and home-nurse care, and the results from these case studies are used for a review the use of lean in healthcare. The cases further serve as a basis...... for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars...

  5. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Hasle, Peter

    . With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... possibilities for higher efficiency and quality or it just reinforces stress. This question has been studied in three Danish cases in surgery, oncology and home-nurse care, and the results from these case studies are used for a review the use of lean in healthcare. The cases further serve as a basis...... for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars...

  6. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Hasle, Peter

    . With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars......The Danish public healthcare sector is like other healthcare systems under pressure to deliver more and better services. The sector is especially facing three challenges: Firstly, they must increase their efficiency in order to free capacity and support budget reductions. Secondly, they must...

  7. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders P.; Hasle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    . With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars......The Danish public healthcare sector is like other healthcare systems under pressure to deliver more and better services. The sector is especially facing three challenges: Firstly, they must increase their efficiency in order to free capacity and support budget reductions. Secondly, they must...

  8. The characteristics of engineering geology and exploration method in Satui coalfield, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [China National Administration of Coal Geology (China). First Exploration Bureau

    1999-07-01

    This paper introduces engineering geology conditions and exploration method in Satui Coalfield of Indonesia, and forecasts main engineering geological problems that will occur during excavating and mining. 2 figs.

  9. Neutron tomography as a reverse engineering method applied to the IS-60 Rover gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Probably the most common method of reverse engineering in mechanical engineering involves measuring the physical geometry of a component using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Neutron tomography, in contrast, is used primarily as a non...

  10. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  11. Formalization in Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.

  12. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...

  13. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  14. Effects of cooperative learning plus inquiry method on student learning and attitudes: a comparative study for engineering economic classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, M. Reza; Behin-Aein, Noureddin

    2014-03-01

    In the Iranian higher education system, including engineering education, effective implementation of cooperative learning is difficult because classrooms are usually crowded and the students never had a formal group working background in their previous education. In order to achieve the benefits of cooperative learning in this condition, this paper proposes a combination of cooperative learning and inquiry method. The method is implemented by grouping students in a way that the learning procedure is done in non-official class sessions by each group, while the inquiry method is done in the regular programmed class sessions. The study is performed in Islamic Azad University and the methods are implemented in two engineering economic classes with different numbers of students in each working group. The results are compared with a control class in which traditional teaching style is implemented. The results of analysis show simultaneous improvement of learning and behavioural attitudes of the students with cooperative learning plus inquiry method in the classroom with a fewer number of students in each working group.

  15. Border Crossings: A Commentary on Henkjan Honing's "On the Growing Role of Observation, Formalization and Experimental Method in Musicology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Cook

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early twentieth century systematic musicology, which was based on the comparative method, played a prominent role in the discipline: however it was appropriated by the Nazis and fell out of favour after the war. It was replaced by ethnomusicology and structuralist music theory, both of which emphasized the individual context (cultural or structural and eschewed comparison between contexts. Both also developed an epistemology based on the generation of meaning through the act of "experiencing and understanding music" (Titon 1997: 87: this epistemology, characteristic of cultural musicology and theory (CMT in general, is quite distinct from that of the cognitive sciences of music (CSM. The otherwise confusing variety of musicological practices subsumed under the category "systematic musicology", as set out in Honing's article on which this is a commentary, can be usefully seen in terms of two distinct dimensions, those of method and of epistemology. It follows from this that empirical methods are as consistent with, and as potentially valuable to, CMT as they are to CSM, and that EMR has the potential to reach both constituencies.

  16. A Novel Gas Turbine Engine Health Status Estimation Method Using Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate gas turbine engine health status estimation is very important for engine applications and aircraft flight safety. Due to the fact that there are many to-be-estimated parameters, engine health status estimation is a very difficult optimization problem. Traditional gas path analysis (GPA methods are based on the linearized thermodynamic engine performance model, and the estimation accuracy is not satisfactory on conditions that the nonlinearity of the engine model is significant. To solve this problem, a novel gas turbine engine health status estimation method has been developed. The method estimates degraded engine component parameters using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm. And the engine health indices are calculated using these estimated component parameters. The new method was applied to turbine fan engine health status estimation and is compared with the other three representative methods. Results show that although the developed method is slower in computation speed than GPA methods it succeeds in estimating engine health status with the highest accuracy in all test cases and is proven to be a very suitable tool for off-line engine health status estimation.

  17. Software engineering a practitioner's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pressman, Roger S

    1997-01-01

    This indispensable guide to software engineering exploration enables practitioners to navigate the ins and outs of this rapidly changing field. Pressman's fully revised and updated Fourth Edition provides in-depth coverage of every important management and technical topic in software engineering. Moreover, readers will find the inclusion of the hottest developments in the field such as: formal methods and cleanroom software engineering, business process reengineering, and software reengineering.

  18. Emerging methods, technologies and process management in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrucci, Filomena; Tortora, Genny; Tucci, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    A high-level introduction to new technologies andmethods in the field of software engineering Recent years have witnessed rapid evolution of software engineering methodologies, and until now, there has been no single-source introduction to emerging technologies in the field.

  19. Present and future of the numerical methods in buildings and infrastructures areas of biosystems engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ayuga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosystem engineering is a discipline resulting from the evolution of the traditional agricultural engineering to include new engineering challenges related with biological systems, from the cell to the environment. Modern buildings and infrastructures are needed to satisfy crop and animal production demands. In this paper a review on the status of numerical methods applied to solve engineering problems in the field of buildings and infrastructures in biosystem engineering is presented. The history and basic background of the finite element method is presented. This is the first numerical method implemented and also the more developed one. The history and background of other two more recent methods, with practical applications, the computer fluids dynamics and the discrete element method are also presented. Besides, a review on the scientific and professional applications on the field of buildings and infrastructures for biosystem engineering needs is presented. Today we can simulate engineering problems with solids, engineering problems with fluids and engineering problems with particles and get to practical solutions faster and cheaper than in the past. The paper encourages young engineers and researchers to make progress these tools and their engineering applications. The capacities of all numerical methods in their present development status go beyond the present practical applications. There is a broad field to work on it.

  20. An Introduction of Finite Element Method in the Engineering Teaching at the University of Camaguey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Elsa; Blanco, Ramon; Jimenez, Rafael; Mc.Pherson, Yoanka

    This paper illuminates experiences related to introducing finite element methods (FEM) in mechanical and civil engineering courses at the University of Camaguey in Cuba and provides discussion on using FEM in postgraduate courses for industry engineers. Background information on the introduction of FEM in engineering teaching is focused on…

  1. Preconditioning method and engineering application of large eddy simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On applying large eddy simulation (LES) to engineering interest, one of the keys is to obtain two-order low-dissipation shock-capturing schemes adapted to LES. Therefore, the preconditioning method for all speed flows is adopted. However, the accuracy of preconditioned schemes is not satisfactory because of the poor per-formance of stability of preconditioning techniques especially in viscous flows. The reason of unstability is attributed to the unstability structure in the preconditioned eigenvalue matrix. Based on Roe scheme and two assumptions for low-Mach- Number flows, the new scheme named Low-Speed-Roe scheme is deduced for removing the unstability structure. Numerical experiments show that this scheme has the reasonable computational stability. For general-precision problems, Low-Speed-Roe scheme has similar behavior as the classical preconditioned Roe scheme. For simulations of high-accuracy requirement such as LES, Low-Speed- Roe scheme can obtain better results of complex flows, such as the laminar sepa-ration bubble on the suction surface of the high-loaded turbine blade T106.

  2. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may......-driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential...

  3. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    -driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential....... Knowledge about the specific transgene and its possible environmental effects in other countries can be used to assist development of risk hypotheses. (6) The risk hypotheses are ranked using MCDA with criteria related to the severity of the potential risk. The model emphasizes transparent, expert...

  4. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  5. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo

    2014-12-01

    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  6. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    of formal methods tools into the software development life cycle, and which leverage the formal specification in the subsequent validation of the system. The tools developed use a new code generation infrastructure that has been built as part of this PhD project and implemented in the Overture tool...... of the steps involved in realising the formal specification. This PhD dissertation investigates ways to improve the automation of the steps involved in realising and validating a system based on a formal specification. The approach aims to develop properly designed software tools which support the integration......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...

  7. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Solana-Arellano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina. The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d-1 leaf-1. The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d-1 leaf-1. The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d-1 leaf-1 respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1003-1013. Epub 2008 September 30.Las praderas de pastos marinos abaten la erosión y aportan gran parte de la productividad primaria de los esteros y son refugio de muchos peces y sus larvas. El presente trabajo introduce métodos analíticos para estimar las tasas medias de crecimiento foliar de Zostera marina L. y sus varianzas. La calibración del método se llevó a cabo utilizando datos de una pradera de esta fanerógama en el Estero de Punta Banda Baja California, México. Las referidas estimaciones analíticas, se basan en medias de longitud foliar y en procedimientos estandarizados de regresión. Dichas determinaciones son por

  8. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  9. Effective Methods and Emerging Trends in Engineering Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engineering education plays a very important role in the social and economic development of ... offer knowledge in a motivating way and insure retention. ... that will develop next-generation products ... community with ethical and professional.

  10. Development of design automation codes using software engineering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J. II

    1976-10-31

    The Electrical Engineering Department of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has recently formed a Design Automation (DA) Group responsible for development of new DA capabilities at the Laboratory. This paper briefly discusses the environment in which the software is being produced, and methodologies employed by the development team. The discussion of software engineering approaches should be of interest to small groups producing relatively large complex software systems. (auth)

  11. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei

    2005-01-01

    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems - In the context of ERTMS/ETCS Level 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong

    This dissertation presents a holistic, formal method for efficient modelling and verification of safety-critical railway control systems that have product line characteristics, i.e., each individual system is constructed by instantiating common generic applications with concrete configuration data....... The proposed method is based on a combination of formal methods and domain-specific approaches. While formal methods offer mathematically rigorous specification, verification and validation, domain-specific approaches encapsulate the use of formal methods with familiar concepts and notions of the domain, hence...... making the method easy for the railway engineers to use. Furthermore, the method features a 4-step verification and validation approach that can be integrated naturally into different phases of the software development process. This 4-step approach identifies possible errors in generic applications...

  13. The relevance of surveying content in mining engineering education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomi Oshokoya

    engineering education must therefore offer a broad knowledge-base, which .... mine surveying methods and their applications to mine planning, design and safety. .... offers formal tuition towards the National Diploma (N.Dip) and Bachelor of ...

  14. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    bounded model-checking and satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can be used to check these criteria. Voter Experience: Technology profoundly affects the voter experience. These effects need to be measured and the data should be used to make decisions regarding the implementation of the electoral...... to voting software producing evidence so that can be retroactively analyzed, in case that something went wrong. There are two possible ways to analyze implementations for verifiability, first statically, i.e. before the technology is deployed, which gives the developers the opportunity to fix issues during...... development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...

  15. Methods for driveability improvement in Formula 1 engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, P.; Bollini, M. [Ferrari Gestione Sportiva, Maranello (Italy); Schoeggl, P.; Mundorff, F. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Driveability is a very important criterion for the success of Formula 1 engines, in addition to engine performance, fuel consumption, reliability, weight, size and stiffness. Driving on the limit of the car is very demanding for both the driver and all the components of a race car, ranging from aerodynamics, chassis, tyres, brakes and suspension to the engine. Beside of the gear position, the driver has only two means of control for holding his vehicle as close as possible to the limit, namely the steering wheel and the accelerator pedal. A good relationship between pedal position and the engine torque, which is foreseeable and even over a wide range of torque and load for all transient conditions, is a very important requirement for the engine. It enables the reduction of lap time, fuel consumption and tyre wear. Due to the engine design for highest specific power, this places the highest demands on the development and optimisation of Formula 1 engines. This paper illustrates the behaviour of a racing car on the limit, requirements for the engine, criteria relevant for driveability, the boundary conditions determined by regulations and ways for optimising engine behaviour. For the work presented here, a procedure for the analysis/objective assessment/improvement of subjective driving perception was applied, which was originally conceived for series production. Hence the paper describes an example of successful technology transfer from series production to racing. (orig.) [German] Eine gute Fahrbarkeit bildet neben Motorleistung, Kraftstoffverbrauch, Zuverlaessigkeit, Gewicht, Groesse und Steifigkeit ein wesentliches Kriterium fuer den Erfolg von Formel 1 Motoren. Das optimale Fahren im Grenzbereich des Fahrzeuges als Erfolgsfaktor der F1, stellt hohe Anforderungen an den Fahrer und an alle Komponenten eines Rennfahrzeuges, von der Aerodynamik, Chassis, Reifen, Bremsen und Radaufhaengung, bis hin zum Motor. Der Fahrer hat, neben der Wahl des Ganges, nur zwei

  16. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  17. A Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke Single Cylinder Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2014-11-01

    Turbocharging is not conventionally used with single cylinder engines due to the timing mismatch between when the turbo is powered and when it can deliver air to the cylinder. The proposed solution involves a fixed, pressurized volume - which we call an air capacitor - on the intake side of the engine between the turbocharger and intake valves. The capacitor acts as a buffer and would be implemented as a new style of intake manifold with a larger volume than traditional systems. This talk will present the flow analysis used to determine the optimal size for the capacitor, which was found to be four to five times the engine capacity, as well as its anticipated contributions to engine performance. For a capacitor sized for a one-liter engine, the time to reach operating pressure was found to be approximately two seconds, which would be acceptable for slowly accelerating applications and steady state applications. The air density increase that could be achieved, compared to ambient air, was found to vary between fifty percent for adiabatic compression and no heat transfer from the capacitor, to eighty percent for perfect heat transfer. These increases in density are proportional to, to first order, the anticipated power increases that could be realized. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.

  18. Methods for conducting an introductory flight test engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Gentry

    This thesis serves as a guide to teaching an introductory flight test engineering course. There are several references pertaining to this area of study, but they are limited in their discussion of the details in how the professor can teach the course, how the professor can handle the logistics of the course, how the students can record and reduce the data and how the pilot can perform the flight test maneuvers. As such, this thesis, along with the materials developed therein, serves the reader as a guide to developing and conducting an introductory flight test engineering course. Materials were developed for the parties involved with an introductory flight test engineering course. Lesson plans and background theory is developed for the professor of the course. In-flight videos and flight maneuver manuals were developed to assist the pilot with flying the maneuvers. In-flight videos, a workbook and in-flight data collection manuals were developed to teach the students the basics of flight test engineering. A chapter is also dedicated to the logistics of the course for the professor. With these materials, any university interested in teaching the basics of flight test engineering will have a foundation to build upon. They will also be guided in the selection of a pilot who can perform the flight test maneuvers required of this course.

  19. Optical Methods For Automatic Rating Of Engine Test Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James R.; Moss, Brian C.

    1989-03-01

    In recent years, increasing commercial and legislative pressure on automotive engine manufacturers, including increased oil drain intervals, cleaner exhaust emissions and high specific power outputs, have led to increasing demands on lubricating oil performance. Lubricant performance is defined by bench engine tests run under closely controlled conditions. After test, engines are dismantled and the parts rated for wear and accumulation of deposit. This rating must be consistently carried out in laboratories throughout the world in order to ensure lubricant quality meeting the specified standards. To this end, rating technicians evaluate components, following closely defined procedures. This process is time consuming, inaccurate and subject to drift, requiring regular recalibration of raters by means of international rating workshops. This paper describes two instruments for automatic rating of engine parts. The first uses a laser to determine the degree of polishing of the engine cylinder bore, caused by the reciprocating action of piston. This instrument has been developed to prototype stage by the NDT Centre at Harwell under contract to Exxon Chemical, and is planned for production within the next twelve months. The second instrument uses red and green filtered light to determine the type, quality and position of deposit formed on the piston surfaces. The latter device has undergone feasibility study, but no prototype exists.

  20. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  1. Success Factors for Using Case Method in Teaching and Learning Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Rozilawati; Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri

    2013-01-01

    The Case Method (CM) has long been used effectively in Social Science education. Its potential use in Applied Science such as Software Engineering (SE) however has yet to be further explored. SE is an engineering discipline that concerns the principles, methods and tools used throughout the software development lifecycle. In CM, subjects are…

  2. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Escher, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  3. USING SYSTEM SIMULATION METHOD AND CADTECHNIQUE TO SOLVE THE MINING ENGINEERING RELIABILITY IN SURFACE MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才庆祥; 彭世济; 张达贤

    1996-01-01

    Subjected to various stochastic factors, surface mining engineering reliability is difficult to solve by using general reliability mathematical method. The concept of reliability measurement is introduced; And the authors have combined system simulation method with CAD technique and developed an interactive color character graphic design system for evaluating and solving the mining engineering reliability in surface mines under the given constraints.

  4. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  5. Formalization of P Systems by Maude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Rewriting logic is a unified model of concurrency, which provides a formal common framework of wellknown models of concurrent systems. A new formal method of the specification and execution of P systems using rewriting logic was proposed. The powerful tool Maude 2.0 is used to implement this specification. In order to present the general ideas in a concrete case study, a simple and classical example from the literature is adopted to present how to formally specify and execute a P system.

  6. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    Over recent decades, institutions exhibiting high degrees of formality have come in for severe criticism. From the private to the public sector, and across a whole spectrum of actors spanning from practitioners to academics, formal organization is viewed with increasing doubt and skepticism. In a...

  7. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  8. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  9. Effects of Cooperative Learning Plus Inquiry Method on Student Learning and Attitudes: A Comparative Study for Engineering Economic Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, M. Reza; Behin-Aein, Noureddin

    2014-01-01

    In the Iranian higher education system, including engineering education, effective implementation of cooperative learning is difficult because classrooms are usually crowded and the students never had a formal group working background in their previous education. In order to achieve the benefits of cooperative learning in this condition, this…

  10. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  11. Evaluation of neutron flux parameters in irradiation sites of research reactor using the Westcott-formalism for the k0 neutron activation analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasban, H.; Hamid, Ashraf

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using k0 (k0-INAA) method has been used to determine a number of elements in sediment samples collected from El-Manzala Lake in Egypt. k0-INAA according to Westcott's formalism has been implemented using the complete irradiation kit of the fast pneumatic rabbit and some selected manually loaded irradiation sites for short and long irradiation at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). Zr-Au and Co sets as neutron flux monitors are used to determine the neutron flux parameters (f and α) in each irradiation sites. Two reference materials IAEA Soil-7 samples have been inserted and implemented for data validation and an internal monostandard multi monitor used (k0 based IM-NAA). It was given a good agreement between the experimental analyzed values and that obtained of the certified values. The major and trace elements in the sediment samples have been evaluated with the use of Co as an internal and Au as an external monostandard comparators. The concentrations of the elements (Cr, Mn and Zn) in the sediment samples of the present work are discussed regarding to those obtained from other sites.

  12. STEEP STREAMS - Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area risk of damage and even loss of human lives. These extreme events occur almost annually across Europe, though the formal return period in an exposed site is much larger. Recently, an increase in intensity and frequency of small-scale storm events, leading to extreme solid transport in steep channels, are recognized as one of the effects of climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In order to achieve that, reliable design tools are needed. Driftwood represents another important factor increasing the risk, as clogging induced by the vegetal material represents a major problem for the operational reliability of slit check dams. Current procedures in compiling hazardous maps do not account for

  13. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of large and small gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, E.; Klees, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method was developed to estimate weight and envelope dimensions of large and small gas turbine engines within + or - 5% to 10%. The method is based on correlations of component weight and design features of 29 data base engines. Rotating components were estimated by a preliminary design procedure which is sensitive to blade geometry, operating conditions, material properties, shaft speed, hub tip ratio, etc. The development and justification of the method selected, and the various methods of analysis are discussed.

  14. Improving Student Writing: Methods You Can Use in Science and Engineering Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, S. J.; Bright, K.

    2013-12-01

    Many educators in the fields of science and engineering assure their students that writing is an important and necessary part of their work. According to David Lindsay, in Scientific Writing=Thinking in Words, 99% of scientists agree that writing is an integral part of their jobs. However, only 5% of those same scientists have ever had formal instruction in scientific writing, and those who are also educators may then feel unconfident in teaching this skill to their students (2). Additionally, making time for writing instruction in courses that are already full of technical content can cause it to be hastily and/or peremptorily included. These situations may be some of the contributing factors to the prevailing attitude of frustration that pervades the conversation about writing in science and engineering classrooms. This presentation provides a summary of past, present, and ongoing Writing Center research on effective writing tutoring in order to give science and engineering educators integrated approaches for working with student writers in their disciplines. From creating assignments, providing instruction, guiding revisions, facilitating peer review, and using assessments, we offer a comprehensive approach to getting your students motivated to improve their writing. Our new research study focuses on developing student writing resources and support in science and engineering institutions, with the goal of utilizing cross-disciplinary knowledge that can be used by the various constituencies responsible for improving the effectiveness of writing among student engineers and scientists. We will will draw upon recent findings in the study of the rhetoric and compositional pedagogy and apply them to the specific needs of the science and engineering classroom. The fields of communication, journalism, social sciences, rhetoric, technical writing, and philosophy of science have begun to integrate these findings into classroom practice, and we will show how these can also

  15. A simple and effective method for construction of Escherichia coli strains proficient for genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Shin; Biswas, Rajesh Kumar; Shin, Kwangsu; Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Suk Min; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex genome engineering is a standalone recombineering tool for large-scale programming and accelerated evolution of cells. However, this advanced genome engineering technique has been limited to use in selected bacterial strains. We developed a simple and effective strain-independent method for effective genome engineering in Escherichia coli. The method involves introducing a suicide plasmid carrying the λ Red recombination system into the mutS gene. The suicide plasmid can be excised from the chromosome via selection in the absence of antibiotics, thus allowing transient inactivation of the mismatch repair system during genome engineering. In addition, we developed another suicide plasmid that enables integration of large DNA fragments into the lacZ genomic locus. These features enable this system to be applied in the exploitation of the benefits of genome engineering in synthetic biology, as well as the metabolic engineering of different strains of E. coli.

  16. A simple and effective method for construction of Escherichia coli strains proficient for genome engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Shin Ryu

    Full Text Available Multiplex genome engineering is a standalone recombineering tool for large-scale programming and accelerated evolution of cells. However, this advanced genome engineering technique has been limited to use in selected bacterial strains. We developed a simple and effective strain-independent method for effective genome engineering in Escherichia coli. The method involves introducing a suicide plasmid carrying the λ Red recombination system into the mutS gene. The suicide plasmid can be excised from the chromosome via selection in the absence of antibiotics, thus allowing transient inactivation of the mismatch repair system during genome engineering. In addition, we developed another suicide plasmid that enables integration of large DNA fragments into the lacZ genomic locus. These features enable this system to be applied in the exploitation of the benefits of genome engineering in synthetic biology, as well as the metabolic engineering of different strains of E. coli.

  17. Method of fabricating a rocket engine combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Mckechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Power, Christopher A. (Inventor); Daniel, Ronald L., Jr. (Inventor); Saxelby, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making a combustion chamber for a rocket engine wherein a copper alloy in particle form is injected into a stream of heated carrier gas in plasma form which is then projected onto the inner surface of a hollow metal jacket having the configuration of a rocket engine combustion chamber is described. The particles are in the plasma stream for a sufficient length of time to heat the particles to a temperature such that the particles will flatten and adhere to previously deposited particles but will not spatter or vaporize. After a layer is formed, cooling channels are cut in the layer, then the channels are filled with a temporary filler and another layer of particles is deposited.

  18. STRESSES DETERMINATION METHOD IN MOVING PARTS OF THE MARINE ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOROIANU CORNELIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The moving parts of internal-combustion engines endures the highest and the most complex stresses. The tensile compression, bending and twisting stresses appear under the action of gas pressure forces and inertic forces in the elements of the crankshaft. One to the bending stresses, the crankshaft is the strained compromising the coaxility of necks and bearing bushes. Taking into account these points (considering the points, the determination of the stresses to witch it is put, becomes a defining element for designing and testing to strength. This work presents a numerical modelling (MathCad program for determining the stresses to which the moving parts is put for the marine two-stroke engines.

  19. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  20. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF VALVE PROSTHESES CREATING BY TISSUE ENGINEERING METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Popandopulo; M. V. Savchuk; D. L. Yudickiy

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, definitive treatment for the end-stage organ failure is transplantation. Tissue engineering is an up to date solution to create the effective substitute of the defective organ. It involves the reconstitution of viable tissue with the use of autologous cells grown on connective tissue matrix, which has been acellularized before. Basis for the prothesis should be morphologically and physically nonmodified, so in case of making vessel-valvular biological prosthesises the decellularized...

  1. Engineering methods and tools for cyber–physical automation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Bilal; Vera, Daniel; Harrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Much has been published about potential benefits of the adoption of cyber–physical systems (CPSs) in manufacturing industry. However, less has been said about how such automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how application modeling, visualization, and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. It is vitally important to be able to incorporate support for engineering best practice while at the same time exploiting the potential that CPS...

  2. Necessity of Integral Formalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶勇

    2011-01-01

    To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 44fi], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 3846]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schroedinger differential equation (i.e., differential formalism for wave function) shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schroedinger integral equation (i.e., integral formalism for wave function), in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion: There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description.

  3. A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadburn, Randy Glen

    Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition

  4. Formal Assurance Arguments: A Solution In Search of a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    An assurance case comprises evidence and argument showing how that evidence supports assurance claims (e.g., about safety or security). It is unsurprising that some computer scientists have proposed formalizing assurance arguments: most associate formality with rigor. But while engineers can sometimes prove that source code refines a formal specification, it is not clear that formalization will improve assurance arguments or that this benefit is worth its cost. For example, formalization might reduce the benefits of argumentation by limiting the audience to people who can read formal logic. In this paper, we present (1) a systematic survey of the literature surrounding formal assurance arguments, (2) an analysis of errors that formalism can help to eliminate, (3) a discussion of existing evidence, and (4) suggestions for experimental work to definitively answer the question.

  5. Dependencies in Formal Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Alama, Jesse; Urban, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Dependencies in formal mathematical texts, large coherent formal libraries and proof assistants are introduced as an emerging research topic, analyzed from foundational, semantic, computational, and pragmatic perspectives, and put to practical use in computer-assisted mathematics. Two different approaches to dependency computation are implemented over two major proof assistants with different type disciplines, and a large-scale experimental comparison is provided based on large Coq and Mizar formal libraries. Apart from theoretical discussions, importance of dependency analysis for advanced automation of computer-assisted reasoning, and for efficient proof analysis and theory refactoring in substantial mathematical domains are experimentally demonstrated.

  6. Overview of Distributed Control Systems Formalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holecko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a chosen set of mainly object-oriented formal and semiformal methods, methodics, environments and tools for specification, analysis, modeling, simulation, verification, development and synthesis of distributed control systems (DCS.

  7. Combustion Model and Control Parameter Optimization Methods for Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a method to construct a combustion model and a method to optimize some control parameters of diesel engine in order to develop a model-based control system. The construction purpose of the model is to appropriately manage some control parameters to obtain the values of fuel consumption and emission as the engine output objectives. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was applied to construct combustion model with the polynomial model. Using the experimental data of a single cylinder diesel engine, the model of power, BSFC, NOx, and soot on multiple injection diesel engines was built. The proposed method succesfully developed the model that describes control parameters in relation to the engine outputs. Although many control devices can be mounted to diesel engine, optimization technique is required to utilize this method in finding optimal engine operating conditions efficiently beside the existing development of individual emission control methods. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was used to calculate control parameters to optimize fuel consumption and emission based on the model. The proposed method is able to calculate control parameters efficiently to optimize evaluation item based on the model. Finally, the model which added PSO then was compiled in a microcontroller.

  8. General Formalism for the BRST Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhail Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss Faddeev-Popov method for gauge theories with a general form of gauge symmetry in an abstract way.We will then develope a general formalism for dealing with the BRST symmetry.This formalism will make it possible to analyse the BRST symmetry for any theory.

  9. Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛廷河; 项贻强; 郭发忠

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium;and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. Theexperimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Δ and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength σc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.

  10. Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting-He; Xiang, Yi-Qiang; Guo, Fa-Zhong

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium; and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. The experimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Delta and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength sc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.

  11. Formal and Informal Styles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍柳

    2002-01-01

    This article intends to discuss one fundamental aspect of style…differences between formal and informal English with concrete examples through some specific features that distinquish these two types of English.

  12. Design Hybrid Methods for Encoding Prior Knowledge in Feedforward Network with Application in Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENChongwei; CHENDezhao

    2002-01-01

    Three-layer feedforward networks have been widely used in modeling chemical engineering processes and prior-knowledge-based methods have been introduced to improve their performances.In this paper,we propose the methodology of designing better prior-knowledge-based hybrid methods by combining the existing ones. Then according to this methodology,two hybrid methods,interpolation-optimization (IO) method and interpolation penalty-function (IPF) method,are designed as examples.Finally,both methods are applied to modeling two cases in chemical engineering to investigate their effectiveness.Simulation results show that the performances of the hybrid methods are better than those of their parents.

  13. Mathematical methods for mathematicians, physical scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning-Davies, J

    2003-01-01

    This practical introduction encapsulates the entire content of teaching material for UK honours degree courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering, and is also appropriate for post-graduate study. It imparts the necessary mathematics for use of the techniques, with subject-related worked examples throughout. The text is supported by challenging problem exercises (and answers) to test student comprehension. Index notation used in the text simplifies manipulations in the sections on vectors and tensors. Partial differential equations are discussed, and special functions introduced

  14. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  15. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  16. Semiotic Engineering Methods for Scientific Research in HCI

    CERN Document Server

    Sieckenius de Souza, Clarisse

    2009-01-01

    Semiotic engineering was originally proposed as a semiotic approach to designing user interface languages. Over the years, with research done at the Department of Informatics of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, it evolved into a semiotic theory of human-computer interaction (HCI). It views HCI as computer-mediated communication between designers and users at interaction time. The system speaks for its designers in various types of conversations specified at design time. These conversations communicate the designers' understanding of who the users are, what they know the us

  17. Engineers' Perceptions of Diversity and the Learning Environment at Work: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…

  18. Aligning Professional Skills and Active Learning Methods: An Application for Information and Communications Technology Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Ariadna; Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina; Llinàs-Audet, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Engineering education is facing new challenges to effectively provide the appropriate skills to future engineering professionals according to market demands. This study proposes a model based on active learning methods, which is expected to facilitate the acquisition of the professional skills most highly valued in the information and…

  19. Engineers' Perceptions of Diversity and the Learning Environment at Work: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…

  20. P2P网络模型的形式化描述方法%A formal description method for P2 P network models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈军; 黄元; 宋金晶

    2009-01-01

    为了更好地适应对Intemet中迅速发展的新形态P2P网络应用进行建模的需求,深入研究了适于描述多方并发网络交互的形式化建模方法.首先,对P2P网络系统模型的各项特征及其分类进行了探讨.然后,参照构件化建模的研究思路,基于对P2P应用建模需求的分析,提出了一种运用通信顺序进程(CSP)进行描述的P2P网络应用的形式化描述方法.借助CSP进程组表示,该方法能够更为方便精确地描述P2P系统中以多方交互为主的动态交互关系,探讨了CSP非确定性语义在P2P交互建模中的应用.最后通过一个新型P2P媒体点播系统的实例展示了以上描述方法的应用,验证了该方法在描述并行交互关系等方面的能力.%To meet the requirements of modeling the new modality of peer-to-peer(P2P) network applications which have been rapidly developing in the Internet recently,a formal descripfion method for modeling multiparty concurrent network interactions is Studied.The main characteristics and the classifications of P2P systems are discussed.Considering the requirements of P2P application modeling and referring to the component-based modeling thought,a description method based on communicating sequenfiM processes(CSP)is proposed for the P2P network models.By using a CSP process group,this method can describe the dynamic interactive relationship Which focuses on multiparty concurrent interaction of P2P systems more advantageously and accurately.The application of nondeteministic semantemes of CSP in describing the interactive relationshiP of P2P networks is discussed.The advantages and description abilities of the proposed method are demonstrated through the modeling of a new P2P media-on-demand system.

  1. Formal Semantics for SDL

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    In dieser Habilitationsschrift wird die formale Semantik der standardisierten Spezifikationssprache SDL (Specification and Description Language) beschrieben. Da SDL eine sehr umfangreiche Sprache ist, wurde eine repräsentative eingeschränkte Sprache RSDL (Restricted SDL) ausgewählt, um die Konzepte der formalen Definition von SDL darzustellen. Die vorliegende Habilitationsschrift umfaßt zwei große Teile: die Definition der formalen Semantik von RSDL und ihre Implementierung. Die formale Def...

  2. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  3. The Tracer Gas Method of Determining the Charging Efficiency of Two-stroke-cycle Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, P H; Deluca, Frank, Jr

    1942-01-01

    A convenient method has been developed for determining the scavenging efficiency or the charging efficiency of two-stroke-cycle engines. The method consists of introducing a suitable tracer gas into the inlet air of the running engine and measuring chemically its concentration both in the inlet and exhaust gas. Monomethylamine CH(sub 3)NH(sub 2) was found suitable for the purpose as it burns almost completely during combustion, whereas the "short-circuited" portion does not burn at all and can be determined quantitatively in the exhaust. The method was tested both on four-stroke and on two-stroke engines and is considered accurate within 1 percent.

  4. Study on Different Modification Methods of Collagen for Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xin-yu

    2008-01-01

    Because of the excellent biocompatibility and its specific amino sequences, collagen is an ideal biomedical material for tissue engineering applications. But collagen is usually lack of mechanical strength to form a rigid 3-D matrix and lack of ability to resist collagenase. In order to be a tissue engineering scaffold, collagen must strengthen its structures by modifying with chemical crosslinkers. Chemical crosslinkers used for modif-ying collagen fibers include glutaraldehyde (GA), epoxy compounds (PC) and carbodiim-ides (EDC). The aim of this study is to choose the best chemical crosslinker from the three reagents. In terms of the resistance to collagenase degradation, chemical cross-link-ing with PC provided the best protection; in terms of the mechanical characterization, chemical cross-linking with GA provided the best;and in terms of the biocompatibility, chemical cross-linking with EDC provided the best. There is not a reagent which has all merits for collagen crosslinking, so we should select the crosslinking reagent as the de-mands of use ask.

  5. Formal Semantics of Object Oriented Methods Based on Coalgebras%一种基于共代数的面向对象形式语义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余珊珊; 李师贤; 苏锦钿

    2011-01-01

    针对面向对象方法的数学理论基础相对薄弱的问题,利用共代数方法从范畴论及观察的角度研究面向对象的形式语义及行为关系.首先,给出类和对象的共代数描述,其中抽象类定义成一个类规范,类定义为满足类规范的共代数,类的各个对象则看成共代数状态空间上的元素,并分别利用强Monads理论和断言给出方法的行为的参数化描述和语义约束;接着,利用共代数互模拟探讨了不同对象在强Monads下的行为等价关系;最后用实例说明如何通过PVS工具证明类规范的一致性及对象的行为关系.%According to the problems of relative weak mathematical theory foundations of object oriented methods, the coalgebraic methods were used to analyze the formal semantics of object oriented methods from the perspectives of category theory and observation. Firstly,we presented the coalgebraic descriptions of classes and objects,among which abstract class was defined as a class specification and classes satisfying the class specification were described as coalge-bras. Each object belonging to a class was viewed as an element of the state space of the class,as coalgebras. We also used strong Monads theory and assertions respectively to give the parametric descriptions and semantic restrictions of objects' behaviors. Secondly, we further used coalgebraic bisimulation to discuss the behavioral equivalence relationships of objects with the considerations of strong Monads. Finally, we took an example to demonstrate how to use PVS tool to prove the consistence of class specification and objects' behavioral relationships.

  6. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    – a formal methods tool that supports the Vienna Development Method. The development of the code generation infrastructure has involved the re-design of the software architecture of Overture. The new architecture brings forth the reuse and extensibility features of Overture to take into account the needs......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...

  7. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Stability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Lee, Erik; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design specifications include dynamic, spontaneous, and broadband combustion stability requirements. These requirements are verified empirically based high frequency chamber pressure measurements and analyses. Dynamic stability is determined with the dynamic pressure response due to an artificial perturbation of the combustion chamber pressure (bomb testing), and spontaneous and broadband stability are determined from the dynamic pressure responses during steady operation starting at specified power levels. J2X Workhorse Gas Generator testing included bomb tests with multiple hardware configurations and operating conditions, including a configuration used explicitly for engine verification test series. This work covers signal processing techniques developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help assess engine design stability requirements. Dynamic stability assessments were performed following both the CPIA 655 guidelines and a MSFC in-house developed statistical-based approach. The statistical approach was developed to better verify when the dynamic pressure amplitudes corresponding to a particular frequency returned back to pre-bomb characteristics. This was accomplished by first determining the statistical characteristics of the pre-bomb dynamic levels. The pre-bomb statistical characterization provided 95% coverage bounds; these bounds were used as a quantitative measure to determine when the post-bomb signal returned to pre-bomb conditions. The time for post-bomb levels to acceptably return to pre-bomb levels was compared to the dominant frequency-dependent time recommended by CPIA 655. Results for multiple test configurations, including stable and unstable configurations, were reviewed. Spontaneous stability was assessed using two processes: 1) characterization of the ratio of the peak response amplitudes to the excited chamber acoustic mode amplitudes and 2) characterization of the variability of the peak response

  8. Lattice Boltzmann method fundamentals and engineering applications with computer codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamad, A A

    2014-01-01

    Introducing the Lattice Boltzmann Method in a readable manner, this book provides detailed examples with complete computer codes. It avoids the most complicated mathematics and physics without scarifying the basic fundamentals of the method.

  9. Engineered photosynthetic bacteria, method of manufacture of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laible, Philip D.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-09-13

    The invention provides for a novel type of biofuel; a method for cleaving anchors from photosynthetic organisms; and a method for producing biofuels using photosynthetic organisms, the method comprising identifying photosynthesis co-factors and their anchors in the organisms; modifying the organisms to increase production of the anchors; accumulating biomass of the organisms in growth media; and harvesting the anchors.

  10. Efficient Sensitivity Methods for Probabilistic Lifing and Engine Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The method was further described by Henrici and more recently Bagley [26,27]. The method utilizes additional sample points in the complex plane and...Analytic Function,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 14, No. 10, 1971, pp. 669-675. 26. Henrici , P., “Fast Fourier Methods in Computational Complex

  11. Optimization of Classical Hydraulic Engine Mounts Based on RMS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopherson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on RMS averaging of the frequency response functions of the absolute acceleration and relative displacement transmissibility, optimal parameters describing the hydraulic engine mount are determined to explain the internal mount geometry. More specifically, it is shown that a line of minima exists to define a relationship between the absolute acceleration and relative displacement transmissibility of a sprung mass using a hydraulic mount as a means of suspension. This line of minima is used to determine several optimal systems developed on the basis of different clearance requirements, hence different relative displacement requirements, and compare them by means of their respective acceleration and displacement transmissibility functions. In addition, the transient response of the mount to a step input is also investigated to show the effects of the optimization upon the time domain response of the hydraulic mount.

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF VALVE PROSTHESES CREATING BY TISSUE ENGINEERING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Popandopulo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, definitive treatment for the end-stage organ failure is transplantation. Tissue engineering is an up to date solution to create the effective substitute of the defective organ. It involves the reconstitution of viable tissue with the use of autologous cells grown on connective tissue matrix, which has been acellularized before. Basis for the prothesis should be morphologically and physically nonmodified, so in case of making vessel-valvular biological prosthesises the decellularized extracellular matrix is the best variant. The xenogeneic extracellular matrix is economically and ethically more useful. The possibility of preservation of the morphological and chemical properties of matrix structure initiates the process of programmed cell death. In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis doesn’t cause the tissue damages. One of the ways of realizing the apoptosis is the usage of EDTA — chelate, which binds the Ca2+ ions.

  13. Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    Solid-state sources of single indistinguishable photons are of great interest for quantum information applications. The semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a host material represents an attractive platform to realize such a single-photon source (SPS). A near-unity efficiency, defined...... as the number of detected photons by the collection optics per trigger, is desired, and to obtain this high efficiency the photonic environment must be engineered [1] such that all the emitted light couples to the collection optics. A recent design approach is based on a quantum dot placed inside a photonic...... nanowire (Fig. 1). This structure does not feature a cavity but instead relies on a geometrical screening effect to efficiently couple photons to the fundamental waveguide mode. Furthermore, the photonic nanowire SPS implements a bottom metal mirror and exploits tapering strategies based on conical tapers...

  14. Challenges and promises of integrating knowledge engineering and qualitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, C. Gustav; Holm, Gunilla

    Our goal is to expose some of the close ties that exist between knowledge engineering (KE) and qualitative methodology (QM). Many key concepts of qualitative research, for example meaning, commonsense, understanding, and everyday life, overlap with central research concerns in artificial intelligence. These shared interests constitute a largely unexplored avenue for interdisciplinary cooperation. We compare and take some steps toward integrating two historically diverse methodologies by exploring the commonalities of KE and QM both from a substantive and a methodological/technical perspective. In the second part of this essay, we address knowledge acquisition problems and procedures. Knowledge acquisition within KE has been based primarily on cognitive psychology/science foundations, whereas knowledge acquisition within QM has a broader foundation in phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology. Our discussion and examples are interdisciplinary in nature. We do not suggest that there is a clash between the KE and QM frameworks, but rather that the lack of communication potentially may limit each framework's future development.

  15. Computer-Aided Design Methods for Model-Based Nonlinear Engine Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional design methods for aircraft turbine engine control systems have relied on the use of linearized models and linear control theory. While these controllers...

  16. Development of continuous pharmaceutical production processes supported by process systems engineering methods and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way....

  17. Method for engineering of refraction index profile of circular crosssection waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Levandovskyy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Engineering method for circular cross-section waveguide refraction index profile is proposed. Mathematical apparatus of Gel’fund-Levitan-Martchenko for solving of inverse scattering problem of nonrelativistic quantum mechanic been used.

  18. Distributed optical fiber-based theoretical and empirical methods monitoring hydraulic engineering subjected to seepage velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Tian, Shiguang; Cui, Shusheng; Yang, Meng; Wen, Zhiping; Xie, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In order to systematically investigate the general principle and method of monitoring seepage velocity in the hydraulic engineering, the theoretical analysis and physical experiment were implemented based on distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing (DTS) technology. During the coupling influence analyses between seepage field and temperature field in the embankment dam or dike engineering, a simplified model was constructed to describe the coupling relationship of two fields. Different arrangement schemes of optical fiber and measuring approaches of temperature were applied on the model. The inversion analysis idea was further used. The theoretical method of monitoring seepage velocity in the hydraulic engineering was finally proposed. A new concept, namely the effective thermal conductivity, was proposed referring to the thermal conductivity coefficient in the transient hot-wire method. The influence of heat conduction and seepage could be well reflected by this new concept, which was proved to be a potential approach to develop an empirical method monitoring seepage velocity in the hydraulic engineering.

  19. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  20. Proceedings, Seminar on Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering Held at Vicksburg, Mississippi on 21 September 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering- by Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., Jean -Lou Chameau, G. Wayne Clough, Tarik Hadk-Hamou Probabilistic...S4 -9 * .4 -d *~4 LQJ .9 *1 APPLICATIONS 0 OF 0PROBABILISTIC METHODS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING by Edward Kavazanj ian, Jr. Jean -Lou Chameau G. Wayne...1977; Bazant and Krizek, 1976; Castro, 1975, 1977; Chameau, 1981; Christian and Swiger, 1975; DeAlba, Chan and Seed, 1975; Donovan, 1971; Drnevich, 1972

  1. Diagnostics of the technical condition of gas turbine engines by the random search method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepel' , V.T.; Kabashov, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    One of the methods of diagnosis of gas turbine engines according to a limited number of controllable thermodynamic parameters is considered. It makes use of a priori information about the object of diagnosis, including both the information about the assumed defect or a group of defects, and information about the region of possible variations of characteristics of engine components or elements. The random search method with adaptation serves as the basis for the procedures.

  2. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  3. Methods Used to Support a Life Cycle of Complex Engineering Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Kolegova, Olga A.; Nekrasova, Maria E.; Eremenko, Andrey O.

    2016-08-01

    Management of companies involved in the design, development and operation of complex engineering products recognize the relevance of creating systems for product lifecycle management. A system of methods is proposed to support life cycles of complex engineering products, based on fuzzy set theory and hierarchical analysis. The system of methods serves to demonstrate the grounds for making strategic decisions in an environment of uncertainty, allows the use of expert knowledge, and provides interconnection of decisions at all phases of strategic management and all stages of a complex engineering product lifecycle.

  4. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  5. A series method applied to engineering calculations in structural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Márquez, Auxiliadora; Reyes Perales, José Antonio; Cortés Molina, Mónica; García Alonso, Fernando Luis

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows an application of the Φ-functions series method to calculate the response of structures in face of an earthquake, modelled by a 2DOF. The Φ-functions series method is an adaptation of the ideas of Scheifele to integrate forced and damped oscillators. This algorithm presents the advantage of integrating precisely the perturbed problem with only two Φ-functions. Method coefficients are calculated by simple algebraic recurrences in which the perturbation function is involved. Re...

  6. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 1: Method of analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, R. J.; Onat, E.; Klees, G. W.; Tjonneland, E.

    1977-01-01

    Weight and envelope dimensions of aircraft gas turbine engines are estimated within plus or minus 5% to 10% using a computer method based on correlations of component weight and design features of 29 data base engines. Rotating components are estimated by a preliminary design procedure where blade geometry, operating conditions, material properties, shaft speed, hub-tip ratio, etc., are the primary independent variables used. The development and justification of the method selected, the various methods of analysis, the use of the program, and a description of the input/output data are discussed.

  7. Future Competencies and Learning Methods in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette

    2002-01-01

    What are the competencies for tommorow´s enginnering education and the implications of these regarding the choice of teaching content and learning methods? The paper analyses two trends: the traditional and the techo-science approach. These two trends are based on technological innovation...... and change processes and impact on educational content and methods....

  8. Risk management for engineering projects procedures, methods and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Munier, Nolberto

    2014-01-01

    Many people see risk in engineering projects as an imprecise and nebulous problem - something that exists, is feared and is impossible to deal with. Nothing could be further from the truth. While risk is certainly ubiquitous, sometimes difficult to detect, and cannot always be completely avoided, it can generally be mitigated, reduced or prevented through timely analysis and action.   This book covers the entire process of risk management by providing methodologies for determining the sources of project risk, and once threats have been identified, managing them through:   ·         identification and assessment (probability, relative importance, variables, risk breakdown structure, etc.) ·         implementation of measures for their prevention, reduction or mitigation ·         evaluation of impacts and quantification of risks ·         establishment of control measures   It also considers sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of uncertain parameters values ...

  9. Domain Engineering - A Software Engineering discipline in Need of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2000-01-01

    Before software can be developed its requirements must be stated. Before requirements can be expressed the application domain must be understood. In this paper we outline some of the basic facets of domain engineering. Domains seem, it is our experience, far more stable than computing requirements......, and these again seem more stable than software designs. Thus, almost like the universal laws of physics, it pays off to first develop theories of domains. But domain engineering, as in fact also requirements engineering, really is in need of thoroughly researched development principles, techniques and tools....... The aim of this paper is to advocate: that researchers study these development method components, and that universities focus their education on basing well-nigh any course on the use of formal techniques: Specification and verification, and that software engineers take heed: Start applying formal...

  10. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  11. IV international conference on computational methods in marine engineering : selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Oñate, Eugenio; García-Espinosa, Julio; Kvamsdal, Trond; Bergan, Pål; MARINE 2011

    2013-01-01

    This book contains selected papers from the Fourth International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering, held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal in September 2011.  Nowadays, computational methods are an essential tool of engineering, which includes a major field of interest in marine applications, such as the maritime and offshore industries and engineering challenges related to the marine environment and renewable energies. The 2011 Conference included 8 invited plenary lectures and 86 presentations distributed through 10 thematic sessions that covered many of the most relevant topics of marine engineering today. This book contains 16 selected papers from the Conference that cover “CFD for Offshore Applications”, “Fluid-Structure Interaction”, “Isogeometric Methods for Marine Engineering”, “Marine/Offshore Renewable Energy”, “Maneuvering and Seakeeping”, “Propulsion and Cavitation” and “Ship Hydrodynamics”.  The papers we...

  12. Methods for determining the internal thrust of scramjet engine modules from experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voland, Randall T.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for calculating zero-fuel internal drag of scramjet engine modules from experimental measurements are presented. These methods include two control-volume approaches, and a pressure and skin-friction integration. The three calculation techniques are applied to experimental data taken during tests of a version of the NASA parametric scramjet. The methods agree to within seven percent of the mean value of zero-fuel internal drag even though several simplifying assumptions are made in the analysis. The mean zero-fuel internal drag coefficient for this particular engine is calculated to be 0.150. The zero-fuel internal drag coefficient when combined with the change in engine axial force with and without fuel defines the internal thrust of an engine.

  13. The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate short and medium lived elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    The epithermal neutron shape factor, α of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The α values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by short and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common

  14. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  15. Study of Top Dead Center Measurement and Correction Method in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijiao Miao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal loss angle error analysis and maximum pressure determination method analysis were conducted first. Then the polytropic exponent method, the inflection point analysis, the loss function method and the symmetry method were utilized under different rotating speed, load and cooling water temperature, to calculate TDC in D6114 diesel engine and the results were compared with TDC position measured under the same condition with direct method of measurement. The study proved that (1 thermal loss angle of the diesel engine ranges from -1.0 ~ -0.6°CA; (2 Thermal loss angle is mainly affected by rotating speed and is reducing when rotate speed increases;(3 the symmetry method is generally the optimum for calculating the thermal loss angle of automotive diesel engines, with an error within 0.2°CA.

  16. Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.

  17. INCISIVE FORMAL VERIFIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cadence公司

    2007-01-01

    Incisive Formal Verifier为您的工作平台带来了形式分析的强大性能,能够令生产力大幅提高,并提升设计质量。作为Incisive平台的全套断言式验证解决方案的一个关键组件,Incisive Formal Verifier让你能够提前几个月开始验证,降低了重新投片的风险,加快了上市时间。

  18. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  19. Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

  20. Engineering Ethics Education : Its Necessity, Objectives, Methods, Current State, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudano, Jun

    The importance of engineering ethics education has become widely recognized in the industrialized countries including Japan. This paper examines the background against which engineering ethics education is required, and reviews its objectives, methods, and challenges, as well as its current state. In pointing out important issues associated with the apparent acceptance and quantitative development of ethics education, especially after the establishment of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education in 1999, the author stresses that the most serious problem is the lack of common understanding on the objectives of engineering ethics education. As a strategy to improve the situation, the so-called “Ethics-across-the-Curriculum” approach is introduced. The author also claims that business/organization ethics which is consistent with engineering ethics should be promoted in Japan.

  1. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2012-01-01

    trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  2. Informal work and formal plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm;

    2012-01-01

    trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...

  3. The Transformation between Formal and Visual Software Model%软件形式化与可视化软件模型的转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彦晖; 张为群

    2003-01-01

    It is an important issue in Software Engineering that combined the formal development method with the vi-sual development method. This study is about the transform method and rules between the UML model and theRAISE model. At last try to put this technology and the common software develop process together.

  4. Formal analysis of electromagnetic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Afshar, Sanaz; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiène

    2014-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly being used in safety-critical applications. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification raises many challenges for engineers. Traditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about their correctness by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as a complementary approach to improve optical system analysis. This paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of electromagnetic optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach, we present the analysis of resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices.

  5. Methodologies of Knowledge Discovery from Data and Data Mining Methods in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalewicz Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of methodologies of a process of knowledge discovery from data and methods of data exploration (Data Mining, which are the most frequently used in mechanical engineering. The methodologies contain various scenarios of data exploring, while DM methods are used in their scope. The paper shows premises for use of DM methods in industry, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Development of methodologies of knowledge discovery from data is also presented, along with a classification of the most widespread Data Mining methods, divided by type of realized tasks. The paper is summarized by presentation of selected Data Mining applications in mechanical engineering.

  6. METHOD TO EXTRACT BLEND SURFACE FEATURE IN REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhen; Ke Yinglin; Sun Qing; Kelvin W; Huang Xiaoping

    2003-01-01

    A new method of extraction of blend surface feature is presented. It contains two steps: segmentation and recovery of parametric representation of the blend. The segmentation separates the points in the blend region from the rest of the input point cloud with the processes of sampling point data, estimation of local surface curvature properties and comparison of maximum curvature values. The recovery of parametric representation generates a set of profile curves by marching throughout the blend and fitting cylinders. Compared with the existing approaches of blend surface feature extraction, the proposed method reduces the requirement of user interaction and is capable of extracting blend surface with either constant radius or variable radius. Application examples are presented to verify the proposed method.

  7. Interdisciplinary Study of Numerical Methods and Power Plants Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana OPRIS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology, electronics and computing opened the way for a cross-disciplinary research that brings benefits by combining the achievements of different fields. To prepare the students for their future interdisciplinary approach,aninterdisciplinary teaching is adopted. This ensures their progress in knowledge, understanding and ability to navigate through different fields. Aiming these results, the Universities introduce new interdisciplinary courses which explore complex problems by studying subjects from different domains. The paper presents a problem encountered in designingpower plants. The method of solvingthe problem isused to explain the numerical methods and to exercise programming.The goal of understanding a numerical algorithm that solves a linear system of equations is achieved by using the knowledge of heat transfer to design the regenerative circuit of a thermal power plant. In this way, the outcomes from the prior courses (mathematics and physics are used to explain a new subject (numerical methods and to advance future ones (power plants.

  8. The Sources and Methods of Engineering Design Requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Zhang, Zhinan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    to be defined in a new context. This paper focuses on understanding the design requirement sources at the requirement elicitation phase. It aims at proposing an improved design requirement source classification considering emerging markets and presenting current methods for eliciting requirement for each source......The increasing interest in emerging markets drives the product development activities for emerging markets. As a first step, companies need to understand the specific design requirements of a new market when expanding into it. Requirements from external sources are particularly challenging....... The applicability of these methods and their adaption for emerging market is discussed....

  9. A simulation based engineering method to support HAZOP studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Cameron, David; Angelo, Per Bagge

    2012-01-01

    HAZOP is the most commonly used process hazard analysis tool in industry, a systematic yet tedious and time consuming method. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of process dynamic simulations to facilitate the HAZOP studies. We propose a simulation-based methodology to complement...... the conventional HAZOP procedure. The method systematically generates failure scenarios by considering process equipment deviations with pre-defined failure modes. The effect of failure scenarios is then evaluated using dynamic simulations -in this study the K-Spice® software used. The consequences of each failure...... model as case study....

  10. Formal Method for UML Statechart Based on Dynamic Description Logics%基于动态描述逻辑的UML状态图形式化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振庆; 罗兰花

    2011-01-01

    统一建模语言(UML)状态图包括静态语义和动态语义.针对该特点,提出基于动态描述逻辑的UML状态图形式化方法,介绍动态描述逻辑DDL_SHOIN(D)的语法和语义,设计UML状态图的DDL_SHOIN(D)形式化方法,研究状态图动作推理问题.给出状态图状态可达性和动作包含关系的定义,并证明其正确性.%The dynamic dimension is introduced by Dynamic Description Logics(DDL) on the basis of traditional description logics. It possesses powerful expression ability of static structure and dynamic behavior. According to the characteristics that Unified Modeling Language(UML)statechart includes static semantics and dynamic semantics, a formal methodology for UML statechart based on dynamic description logics is proposed, and the syntax and the semantics of DDL DDL_SHOIN(D) is presented. A formal methodology that using DDL_SHOIN(D) to formalize UML statechart is given out, and the action reasoning problems of the statechart are studied. The state accessibility and the subsumption definitions of the statechart behavior are put forward. The validity of the definitions is proved.

  11. State of the Art in the Research of Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna-M. Edgar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years research in formal verification of hardware and software has reached important progresses in the development of methodologies and tools to meet the increasing complexity of systems. The explicit role of Formal Verification is to find errors and to improve the reliability on the accuracy of system design, which implies a challenge for software engineering of this century. The purpose of this research is to perform a systematic review of the literature to establish the state of the art of research in formal verification during the last 10 years and to identify the approaches, methods, techniques and methodologies used, as well as the intensity of those research activities. During the process it was found that research in this field has doubled since 2005, and that the mean value of researches conducted year after year remains the same and that prevail the application in control and interaction systems. Additionally it was found that, the case study is the most used method and that empirical research is the most applied type.

  12. Impact design methods for ceramic components in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1991-01-01

    Methods currently under development to design ceramic turbine components with improved impact resistance are presented. Two different modes of impact damage are identified and characterized, i.e., structural damage and local damage. The entire computation is incorporated into the EPIC computer code. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating instrumented plate impact and particle impact tests.

  13. A simulation based engineering method to support HAZOP studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Cameron, David; Angelo, Per Bagge

    2012-01-01

    HAZOP is the most commonly used process hazard analysis tool in industry, a systematic yet tedious and time consuming method. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of process dynamic simulations to facilitate the HAZOP studies. We propose a simulation-based methodology to complement...

  14. A discussion of molecular biology methods for protein engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zawaira, A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of molecular biology techniques are available to generate variants from a particular start gene for eventual protein expression. The authors discuss the basic principles of these methods in a repertoire that may be used to achieve...

  15. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  16. Formality in Brackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Nyqvist, Anette

    suits’ (Nyqvist 2013), and of doing ‘ethnography by failure’ (Garsten 2013). In this paper, we explore the layers of informality and formality in our fieldwork experiences among financial investors and policy experts, and discuss how to ethnographically represent embodied fieldwork practices. How do we...

  17. Formal synthesis of (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Charles; Chen, Weichun; Kinder, Frederick R

    2003-04-17

    [structure: see text] Herein we report the formal total synthesis of (+)-discodermolide in 21 steps (longest linear sequence) from commercially available Roche ester. This synthesis features the assembly of C(9-18) and C(19-24) fragments via a metal-chelated aldol coupling reaction.

  18. The Benefits of Formalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    factors and observable time-variant factors that may simultaneously influence the decision to formalize and subsequent firm performance, we find evidence that becoming officially registered leads to an increase in profits and investments, and a decrease in the use of casual labor (improved contract...

  19. An Ontology for a TripTych Formal Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2003-01-01

    An ontology, ie., a formalised set of strongly interrelated definitions, is given for an approach to software development that spans domain engineering, requirements engineering and software design - and which is otherwise based on a judicious use of both informal and formal, mathematics-based te......An ontology, ie., a formalised set of strongly interrelated definitions, is given for an approach to software development that spans domain engineering, requirements engineering and software design - and which is otherwise based on a judicious use of both informal and formal, mathematics...

  20. Tools and Methods for Risk Management in Multi-Site Engineering Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingwei; Nemes, Laszlo; Reidsema, Carl; Ahmed, Ammar; Kayis, Berman

    In today's highly global business environment, engineering and manufacturing projects often involve two or more geographically dispersed units or departments, research centers or companies. This paper attempts to identify the requirements for risk management in a multi-site engineering project environment, and presents a review of the state-of-the-art tools and methods that can be used to manage risks in multi-site engineering projects. This leads to the development of a risk management roadmap, which will underpin the design and implementation of an intelligent risk mapping system.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  2. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazinšek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Kačič, Zdravko

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROL CARDS AND SUPPORTING METHOD IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen method associated with statistical control of production processes. Mainly focused on control cards and Pareto‐Lorenz analysis. Showed method were implemented to analysis production process stability of hearing aids in X company (the brand name don’t give because date of production is secret. Researches were made few months after new assembly lines starts‐up. Main aim of researches was defects types identification occurred in production process and determine the scale of effect. Finally received results were satisfactory, i.e. despite of occurred errors, control cards analysis showed that production process of BTE‐type (Behind‐The‐Ear hearing aids was stable.

  4. Gap engineering using Hellmann-Feynmann forces: method and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Kiran; Biawas, Parthapratim; Drabold, D. A.

    Materials with optimized band gap are needed in many specialized applications. In this talk, we demonstrate that Hellmann-Feynman forces associated with the gap states can be used to find atomic coordinates that yield desired electronic density of states. Using tight-binding models, we show that this approach may be used to arrive at electronically designed models of amorphous silicon and carbon. We provide a simple recipe to include a priori electronic information in the formation of computer models of materials, and prove that this information may have profound structural consequences. We'll briefly discuss implementation of the method in ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and highlight the latest feats of the method ranging from modeling amorphous semi-conducting materials to understanding the structure and properties of memory materials. K. Prasai, P. Biswas, and D. A. Drabold, Scientific reports, 5 (2015).

  5. Engineering and Design: Geotechnical Analysis by the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    used it to determine stresses and movements in embank- ments, and Reyes and Deer described its application to analysis of underground openings in rock...3-D steady-state seepage analysis of permeability of the cutoff walls was varied from 10 to Cerrillos Dam near Ponce , Puerto Rico, for the U.S.-6 10...36 Hughes, T. J. R. (1987). The Finite Element Reyes , S. F., and Deene, D. K. (1966). “Elastic Method, Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element

  6. Integrated technologies instructional method to enhance bilingual undergraduate engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Abdul Majid

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Mathematics permeates almost every aspect of human life and it is a skill much needed by the increasingly complex technological world. It is necessary that this essential skill must be properly developed among students to prepare them for future academic and professional careers. An assessment of the research-based instructional strategies blending with old traditional methods with t...

  7. Dynamic Evaluation Model and Application Methods for Engineering Machine Maintenance Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Yan-feng; DAI Ling; WANG Xi

    2012-01-01

    It is an important content of equipment management to keep the engineering machine well. Based on the theory of component technology and grey related algorithm arithmetic, the requirements and procedures of engineering machine maintenance predicting process are analyzed, and a support object evaluation system is provided. The qualitative and quantitative indexes of evaluating process are fully taken into consideration to provide scientific methods and ways for proper evaluation and decision.

  8. Mechanical behavior of materials engineering methods for deformation, fracture, and fatigue

    CERN Document Server

    Dowling, Norman E

    2012-01-01

    For upper-level undergraduate engineering courses in Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 4/e introduces the spectrum of mechanical behavior of materials, emphasizing practical engineering methods for testing structural materials to obtain their properties, and predicting their strength and life when used for machines, vehicles, and structures. With its logical treatment and ready-to-use format, it is ideal for upper-level undergraduate students who have completed elementary mechanics of materials courses.

  9. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jinglong Chen; Yu Wang; Zhengjia He; Xiaodong Wang

    2015-01-01

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. Fir...

  10. Methods of calculating engineering parameters for gas separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A group additivity method has been generated which makes it possible to estimate, from the structural formulas alone, the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. From these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relationships it is then possible to predict the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids. The data are then used to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  11. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  12. An Adaptive Instability Suppression Controls Method for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive controls method for instability suppression in gas turbine engine combustors has been developed and successfully tested with a realistic aircraft engine combustor rig. This testing was part of a program that demonstrated, for the first time, successful active combustor instability control in an aircraft gas turbine engine-like environment. The controls method is called Adaptive Sliding Phasor Averaged Control. Testing of the control method has been conducted in an experimental rig with different configurations designed to simulate combustors with instabilities of about 530 and 315 Hz. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in suppressing combustor instabilities. In addition, a dramatic improvement in suppression of the instability was achieved by focusing control on the second harmonic of the instability. This is believed to be due to a phenomena discovered and reported earlier, the so called Intra-Harmonic Coupling. These results may have implications for future research in combustor instability control.

  13. [Research progress in peri-implant soft tissue engineering augmentation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Tingting; Yu, Hongqiang; Wen, Chaoju; Guo, Tianqi; Zhou, Yanmin; Peng, Huimin

    2016-05-01

    The sufficiency of hard and soft tissue at the implant site is the guarantee of long-term function, health and the appearance of implant denture. Problem of soft tissue recession at the implant site has always been bothering dentists. Traditional methods for augmentation of soft tissue such as gingival transplantation have disadvantages of instability of the increased soft-tissue and more trauma. Lately the methods that base on tissue engineering to increase the soft tissue of peri-implant sites have drawn great attention. This review focuses on the current methods of peri-implant restoration through tissue engineering, seed cells, biological scaffolds and cytokines.

  14. An Optimized Constraint Decomposition Method in Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to facilitate solution, a complex problem is normally decomposed into many small sub-problems during product development process. Teams are formed to resolve each sub-problem. The original problem is resolved from solutions of sub-problems. Ideally, sub-problems are not only mutually independent but also inherent parameters of original problem. Solution of original problem can be directly derived from the collection of solutions from simplified sub-problems. In practice, the degree of interdependency is indeed reduced, sub-problems are neither totally independent nor all inherent parameters of original problem. This paper discusses team coordination under this condition and design solution from each team, which not only satisfies total requirements but also is an optimal one. The suggested optimized constraint decomposition method will insure workable Pareto solution.

  15. The research of Kansei Engineering adaptability method for car styling design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓; 范仲伟

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptability method for car styling design based on the Kansei Engineering. By collecting and comparing the data, the paper introduces the content and procedure of the method, it establishes the physical model and then deduces the physical parameter.

  16. 23rd International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David; Kim, Hyea; Klawonn, Axel; Park, Eun-Jae; Widlund, Olof

    2017-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at the 23rd International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, held on Jeju Island, Korea on July 6-10, 2015. Domain decomposition methods solve boundary value problems by splitting them into smaller boundary value problems on subdomains and iterating to coordinate the solution between adjacent subdomains. Domain decomposition methods have considerable potential for a parallelization of the finite element methods, and serve a basis for distributed, parallel computations.

  17. Toward a formal ontology for narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciotti, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the rationale and the first draft of a formal ontology for modeling narrative texts are presented. Building on the semiotic and structuralist narratology, and on the work carried out in the late 1980s by Giuseppe Gigliozzi in Italy, the focus of my research are the concepts of character and of narrative world/space. This formal model is expressed in the OWL 2 ontology language. The main reason to adopt a formal modeling approach is that I consider the purely probabilistic-quantitative methods (now widespread in digital literary studies inadequate. An ontology, on one hand provides a tool for the analysis of strictly literary texts. On the other hand (though beyond the scope of the present work, its formalization can also represent a significant contribution towards grounding the application of storytelling methods outside of scholarly contexts.

  18. Formal groups and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of the theory of formal groups and its numerous applications in several areas of mathematics. The seven chapters of the book present basics and main results of the theory, as well as very important applications in algebraic topology, number theory, and algebraic geometry. Each chapter ends with several pages of historical and bibliographic summary. One prerequisite for reading the book is an introductory graduate algebra course, including certain familiarity with category theory.

  19. [Research progress of cells and cell-transplantation methods for periodontal tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Meng, Xuemei

    2010-10-01

    To introduce the cells and cell-transplantation methods for periodontal tissue engineering. Recent literature about application of cell-based therapy in periodontal tissue engineering was extensively reviewed, the cells and cell-transplantation methods were investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells were important cell resources for periodontal tissue engineering, among which periodontal ligament stem cells were preferred. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells had several disadvantages in clinical application, and adipose-derived stem cells might be a promising alternative; different transplantation methods could all promote periodontal regeneration to some extent. Single-cell suspension injection could only promote a little gingival regeneration, and tissue engineered scaffolds still needed some improvement to be used in periodontal regeneration, while cell sheet technique, with great cell loading ability and no need of scaffolds, could promote regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone under different conditions. Multipotent stem cells are fit to be used in periodontal tissue engineering; improvement of cell-transplantation methods will further promote periodontal regeneration.

  20. Enhancing the Ostrom social-ecological system framework through formalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hinkel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Frameworks play an important role in analyzing social-ecological systems (SESs because they provide shared concepts and variables that enable comparison between and accumulation of knowledge across multiple cases. One prominent SES framework focusing on local resource use has been developed by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues. This framework is an extensive multi-tier collection of concepts and variables that have demonstrated relevance for explaining outcomes in a large number of case studies in the context of fishery, water, and forestry common-pool resources. The further development of this framework has raised a number of issues related to the formal relationships between the large number of concepts and variables involved. In particular, issues related to criteria for ordering the concepts into tiers, adding new concepts, defining outcomes metrics, and representing dynamics in the framework have been identified. We address these issues by applying methods from research fields that study formal relationships between concepts such as domain-specific languages, knowledge representation, and software engineering. We find that SES frameworks could include the following seven formal components: variables, concepts, attribution relationships, subsumption relationships, process relationships, aggregation relationships, and evaluation metrics. Applying these components to the Ostrom framework and a case study of recreational fishery, we find that they provide clear criteria for structuring concepts into tiers, defining outcome metrics, and representing dynamics. The components identified are generic, and the insights gained from this exercise may also be beneficial for the development of other SES frameworks.

  1. Implementation method of Oil and Gas Geologic Information System with ArcGIS Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ComGIS is the mainstream of developing GIS currently. Developing Geographic Information System with the technology of components can reduce the difficulties of developing, improving the developing efficiency and enhancing the flexibility and opening of system. AxcObjects(AO) is based on the technology of COM, and ArcGIS Engine(AE) is a set of embedded AO which can extend to various platforms. Compared with AO, ArcGIS Engine can shorten the period of developing and improve the efficiency greatly. Having introduced the techniques of ArcObjects and ArcGIS Engine, we offer the method of developing GIS with Visual Basic and ArcGIS Engine with Oil and Gas Geologic Information System.

  2. Optimization of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Using Grey-Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Pohit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performances and emission characteristics of Karanja oil methyl ester blended with diesel were carried out on a variable compression diesel engine. In order to search for the optimal process response through a limited number of experiment runs, application of Taguchi method in combination with grey relational analysis had been applied for solving a multiple response optimization problem. Using grey relational grade and signal-to-noise ratio as a performance index, a particular combination of input parameters was predicted so as to achieve optimum response characteristics. It was observed that a blend of fifty percent was most suitable for use in a diesel engine without significantly affecting the engine performance and emissions characteristics.

  3. Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...... and capabilities. The calculus is a step in the direction of making formal methods applicable in the area of pervasive computing....

  4. Young People, Entrepreneurship And Non Formal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen; Diroescu, Raluca; Podlasek-Ziegler, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The book was published by SALTO-Youth Participation, a Resource Centre of the European Commission. It looks into the relationship between youth work (non-formal learning) and entrepreneurship. The book explores the theoretical developments in the field, the ethical dilemmas and tensions, and proposes practice-oriented information: illustrative examples, strategies for action and methods of non-formal education. Structured in 24 chapters, the book is an opportunity to open up debates and quest...

  5. Social engineering attack framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available link. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by; using various manipulation techniques in order to elicit sensitive; information. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy; stages with regards to formal definitions and attack...

  6. RESEARCH ON IP FLOW FORMAT AND SEMANTIC FORMALIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun; Gao Lei; Zhang Deyun; Wang Lei; Hu Guodong

    2006-01-01

    Malformed packets and overlapping fragments are harmful to Intranet end hosts. A formalization engine was introduced to formalize transit packets and reassemble fragments to eliminate the fragment semantic ambiguity. In the formalization engine, malformed packets are formalized by a packet verification engine layer according to protocol standards. In order to eliminate the fragment semantic ambiguity, OS classes of end hosts were collected by an OS detector, each fragment was reassembled according to its OS class. According to the reassembly algorithm of different OS, the pre-forward fields of the cached data were counted with the application of the pre-forward poiicies and were transmitted to save system resource. Applying the BSD-Linux pre-forward policy, the BSD- right pre-forward policy and the First pre-forward policy, the packet loss rate is dropped and system performance improved. The experiments show that the identification precision can be maintained about 90% in heavy processing load.

  7. Optimization of a 5 kW solar powered alpha stirling engine using Powell's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamekhi, A. [Numeric Method Development Co., Shemiranat, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliabadi, A. [MAPNA Group, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-08-13

    Many types of Stirling engines have been built in a variety of forms and sizes since its invention in 1816. The Stirling engine offers maximum efficiency; maximum power; and minimum costs. In this study, a solar powered alpha Stirling engine was simulated using a second order method. The paper presented the governing equations, including conservation of mass; pressure losses inside the heat exchangers; pressure losses inside the regenerator; and heat transfer in the heat exchangers. Methods to optimize the parameters in order to improve engine efficiency were also discussed. The study showed that the geometric parameter of the engine influences engine performance considerably. After 20 iterations of Powell's method for engine optimization, the engine performance was optimized to the value of 25.4 percent. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. A Modular Formal Semantics for Ptolemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    computation, both untimed and timed, to be composed hierarchically in an arbitrary fashion . This paper proposes a formal semantics for Ptolemy which is...0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET) and #0931843 (ActionWebs), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-11-2-0038), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Multiscale...Finally, a number of component-oriented frameworks come from the fields of traditional pro- gramming and software engineering, e.g., object-oriented

  9. Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Formal Assurance Certifiable Tooling Strategy Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Eric; Oglesby, David; Bhatt, Devesh; Murugesan, Anitha; Engstrom, Eric; Mueller, Joe; Pelican, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This is the Final Report of a research project to investigate issues and provide guidance for the qualification of formal methods tools under the DO-330 qualification process. It consisted of three major subtasks spread over two years: 1) an assessment of theoretical soundness issues that may affect qualification for three categories of formal methods tools, 2) a case study simulating the DO-330 qualification of two actual tool sets, and 3) an investigation of risk mitigation strategies that might be applied to chains of such formal methods tools in order to increase confidence in their certification of airborne software.

  10. Numerical simulation methods of incompressible flows and an application to the Space Shuttle main engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.; Rogers, S. E.; Yang, R.-J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods with an emphasis on the pseudocompressibility method. A steady-state flow solver based on the pseudocompressibility approach is then described. This flow solver code has been used to analyze the internal flow in the Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold. Salient features associated with this three-dimensional realistic flow simulation are discussed. Numerical solutions relevant to the current engine analysis and the redesign effort are discussed along with experimental results. This example demonstrates the potential of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for aerospace applications.

  11. An Enhanced Data Visualization Method for Diesel Engine Malfunction Classification Using Multi-Sensor Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The various multi-sensor signal features from a diesel engine constitute a complex high-dimensional dataset. The non-linear dimensionality reduction method, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE, provides an effective way to implement data visualization for complex high-dimensional data. However, irrelevant features can deteriorate the performance of data visualization, and thus, should be eliminated a priori. This paper proposes a feature subset score based t-SNE (FSS-t-SNE data visualization method to deal with the high-dimensional data that are collected from multi-sensor signals. In this method, the optimal feature subset is constructed by a feature subset score criterion. Then the high-dimensional data are visualized in 2-dimension space. According to the UCI dataset test, FSS-t-SNE can effectively improve the classification accuracy. An experiment was performed with a large power marine diesel engine to validate the proposed method for diesel engine malfunction classification. Multi-sensor signals were collected by a cylinder vibration sensor and a cylinder pressure sensor. Compared with other conventional data visualization methods, the proposed method shows good visualization performance and high classification accuracy in multi-malfunction classification of a diesel engine.

  12. Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements......Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...

  13. C-L METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION TO ENGINEERING NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈予恕; 丁千

    2001-01-01

    The C-L method was generalized from Liapunov-Schmidt reduction method,combined with theory of singularities, for study of non-autonomous dynamical systems to obtain the typical bifurcating response curves in the system parameter spaces. This method has been used , as an example, to analyze the engineering nonlinear dynamical problems by obtaining the bifurcation programs and response curves which are useful in developing tech niques of control to subharmonic instability of large rotating machinery.

  14. Geophysical research methods for hydrogeology and engineering geology. Geofizicheskie metody issledovaniy v gidrogeologii i inzhenernoy geologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribanov, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    This collection, prepared and published by GIDROINGED (Institute of and Engineering (Tashkent)), contains new methodologies developed by the Institute's hydrogeological service. These methods are geared toward increasing the geological and economic effectiveness of geophysical methods used during complex hydrogeological research. These articles examine ways to increase the volume of beneficial information obtained while providing monetary savings in the areas of surface and bore hole geophysics. Examples are given of the practical use of such methods.

  15. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  16. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: http://cern.ch/project-plc-formalmethods [2]: http://cern.ch/plcverif

  17. Project-Driven Learning-by-Doing Method for Teaching Software Engineering using Virtualization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many universities are now offering software engineering an undergraduate level emphasizing knowledge point. However, some enterprise managers reflected that education ignore hands-on ability training, and claimed that there is the isolation between teaching and practice. This paper presents the design of a Software Engineering course (sixth semester in network engineering at University of Jinan for undergraduate Software Engineering students that uses virtualization technology to teach them project-driven learning-by-doing software development process. We present our motivation, challenges encountered, pedagogical goals and approaches, findings (both positive experiences and negative lessons. Our motivation was to teach project-driven Software Engineering using virtualization technology. The course also aims to develop entrepreneurial skills needed for software engineering graduates to better prepare them for the software industry. Billing models of virtualization help pupils and instructors find the cost of the experiment. In pay-as-you-go manner, two labs and three step-by-step projects (single project, pair project, and team project are designed to help the students to complete the assignment excitedly. We conduct some detailed surveys and present the results of student responses. The assessment process designed for this course is illustrated. The paper also shows that learning-by-doing method correlates with the characteristics of different projects, which has resulted in a successful experience as reported by students in an end of a semester survey.

  18. Flow cytometric methods to investigate culture heterogeneities for plant metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Vishal; Kolewe, Martin E; Roberts, Susan C

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell cultures provide an important method for production and supply of a variety of natural products, where conditions can be easily controlled, manipulated, and optimized. Development and optimization of plant cell culture processes require both bioprocess engineering and metabolic engineering approaches. Cultures are generally highly heterogeneous, with significant variability amongst cells in terms of growth, metabolism, and productivity of key metabolites. Taxus cultures produce the important anti-cancer agent Taxol((R)) (i.e., paclitaxel) and have demonstrated significant variability amongst cell populations in culture with regard to paclitaxel accumulation, cell cycle participation, and protein synthesis. To fully understand the link between cellular metabolism and culture behavior and to enable targeted metabolic engineering approaches, cultures need to be studied at a single cell level. This chapter describes the application of plant cell flow cytometric techniques to investigate culture heterogeneity at the single cell level, in order to optimize culture performance through targeted metabolic engineering. Flow cytometric analytical methods are described to study Taxus single cells, protoplasts, and nuclei suspensions with respect to secondary metabolite accumulation, DNA content, cell size, and complexity. Reproducible methods to isolate these single particle suspensions from aggregated Taxus cultures are discussed. Methods to stain both fixed and live cells for a variety of biological markers are provided to enable characterization of cell phenotypes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) methods are also presented to facilitate isolation of certain plant cell culture populations for both analysis and propagation of superior cell lines for use in bioprocesses.

  19. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  20. General algebraic method applied to control analysis of complex engine types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard

    1950-01-01

    A general algebraic method of attack on the problem of controlling gas-turbine engines having any number of independent variables was utilized employing operational functions to describe the assumed linear characteristics for the engine, the control, and the other units in the system. Matrices were used to describe the various units of the system, to form a combined system showing all effects, and to form a single condensed matrix showing the principal effects. This method directly led to the conditions on the control system for noninteraction so that any setting disturbance would affect only its corresponding controlled variable. The response-action characteristics were expressed in terms of the control system and the engine characteristics. The ideal control-system characteristics were explicitly determined in terms of any desired response action.

  1. 13th International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains a collection of articles on state-of-the-art developments on the construction of theoretical integral techniques and their application to specific problems in science and engineering.  Written by internationally recognized researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the Thirteenth International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, held July 21–25, 2014, in Karlsruhe, Germany.   A broad range of topics is addressed, from problems of existence and uniqueness for singular integral equations on domain boundaries to numerical integration via finite and boundary elements, conservation laws, hybrid methods, and other quadrature-related approaches.   This collection will be of interest to researchers in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students in these disciplines and other professionals for whom integration is an essential tool.

  2. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode decomposition method and Naıve Bayes algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KIRAN VERNEKAR; HEMANTHA KUMAR; K V GANGADHARAN

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents engine gearbox fault diagnosis based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Naı¨ve Bayes algorithm. In this study, vibration signals from a gear box are acquired with healthy and different simulated faulty conditions of gear and bearing. The vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions using the EMD method. Decision tree technique (J48 algorithm) is used for important feature selection out of extracted features. Naı¨ve Bayes algorithm is applied as a fault classifier to know the status of an engine. The experimental result (classification accuracy 98.88%) demonstrates that the proposed approach is an effective method for engine fault diagnosis.

  3. TEACHING METHODS OF ONTOLOGICAL ENGINEERING FOR STUDENTS OF "BUSINESS" AND "MANAGEMENT" DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena G. Lytvak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of the material presented in the paper is conditioned by existence of problem of the repeated use of information at enterprises. It is necessary for the successful decision of this problem, that the specialists of different directions (often unconnected with information technologies straightly should know bases of ontological engineering of knowledge. Disciplines, containing the bases ontological engineering of knowledge and other information technologies, are difficult for the students of nontechnical directions. In the article on the basis of the experiment conducted in the Donetsk State University it is presented a teaching method of ontological engineering of knowledge for the students of «Economic» and «Management» disciplines. It is well-proven that the method considerably promotes the level of perception of material by students, promotes the development of analytical and creative thought.

  4. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  5. Scenario testing using formal ontologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harmse, HF

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available . Recent research concerned with the formal validation of such UML class diagrams has focused on transforming UML class diagrams to various formalisms such as description logics. Description logics are desirable since they have reasoning support which can...

  6. Formalizing the concept of sound.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-08-03

    The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.

  7. What does it mean to use a method? Towards a practice theory for software engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    AbstractContext Methods and processes, along with the tools to support them, are at the heart of software engineering as a discipline. However, as we all know, that often the use of the same method neither impacts software projects in a comparable manner nor the software they result in. What...... for research, industrial software development and teaching are indicated. Conclusion The theoretical/philosophical concepts allow the explaining of heterogeneity in application of software engineering methods in line with empirical research results....... is lacking is an understanding of how methods affect software development. Objective The article develops a set of concepts based on the practice-concept in philosophy of sociology as a base to describe software development as social practice, and develop an understanding of methods and their application...

  8. How to Compare the Security Quality Requirements Engineering (SQUARE) Method with Other Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    model intrusions , they can also be used to help identify re- quirements for intrusion detection systems, as described by Ellison and Moore. Alternatively...harm • UML -based use case diagrams • Typically described using natural language. A tree/DAG diagram may also be used. • Potentially one family member...ENGINEERING INSTITUTE | i ii | CMU/SEI-2007-TN-021 List of Figures Figure 1: Attack Tree Example 10 Figure 2: Abuse Case Diagram for an Internet

  9. Diffusion formalism and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2013-01-01

    Within a unifying framework, Diffusion: Formalism and Applications covers both classical and quantum domains, along with numerous applications. The author explores the more than two centuries-old history of diffusion, expertly weaving together a variety of topics from physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The book examines the two distinct paradigms of diffusion-physical and stochastic-introduced by Fourier and Laplace and later unified by Einstein in his groundbreaking work on Brownian motion. The author describes the role of diffusion in probability theory and stochastic calculus and

  10. Formalized informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers and ...... in society, educational sector and technology....... and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning...

  11. Intelligence in formal machines

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Paulo Alexandre Andrade

    2016-01-01

    [ES]El objetivo de este trabajo es encontrar una forma de definir y medir la inteligencia en los sistemas formales computacionales. Para hacer esto yo hice varios tipos de consideraciones: en primer lugar, el concepto de ¿ ser inteligente ¿ asume nociones claras y se mide de manera aceptable sólo en el ser humano; segundo, hay una creciendo y salvaje uso del concepto ¿ ser inteligente¿ para el comportamiento de otros seres biológicos; tercero, hoy en día la palabra ¿inteligencia¿ a menudo se ...

  12. An adaptive turbo-shaft engine modeling method based on PS and MRR-LSSVR algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiankang; Zhang Haibo; Yan Changkai; Duan Shujing; Huang Xianghua

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish an adaptive turbo-shaft engine model with high accuracy,a new modeling method based on parameter selection (PS) algorithm and multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least square support vector regression (MRR-LSSVR) machine is proposed.Firstly,the PS algorithm is designed to choose the most reasonable inputs of the adaptive module.During this process,a wrapper criterion based on least square support vector regression (LSSVR) machine is adopted,which can not only reduce computational complexity but also enhance generalization performance.Secondly,with the input variables determined by the PS algorithm,a mapping model of engine parameter estimation is trained off-line using MRR-LSSVR,which has a satisfying accuracy within 5‰.Finally,based on a numerical simulation platform of an integrated helicopter/turbo-shaft engine system,an adaptive turbo-shaft engine model is developed and tested in a certain flight envelope.Under the condition of single or multiple engine components being degraded,many simulation experiments are carried out,and the simulation results show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed adaptive modeling method.

  13. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the verification procedures should be algorithmically synthesizable. Autonomous control plays an important role in many safety-critical systems. This implies that a malfunction in the control system can have catastrophic consequences, e.g., in space applications where a design flaw can result in large economic...... losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due......The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for verifying timed temporal properties of continuous dynamical systems, and to develop a method for verifying the safety of an interconnection of continuous systems. The methods must be scalable in the number of continuous variables...

  14. Ecotoxicity test methods for engineered nanomaterials: practical experiences and recommendations from the bench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handy, R.; Cornelis, G.; Fernandes, T.; Tsyusko, O.; Decho, A.; Sabo-Attwood, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Steevens, J.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Koelmans, A.A.; Horne, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective experience from researchers has not been documented. This paper reports the practical issues for working with ENMs and suggests nano-specific modifications to protocols. The review considers generic

  15. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  16. A Simplified Method for Tissue Engineering Skeletal Muscle Organoids in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph; Vandenburgh, Herman

    1996-01-01

    Tissue-engineered three dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures have been formed in vitro from primary myoblasts by several different techniques. This report describes a simplified method for generating large numbers of muscle organoids from either primary embryonic avian or neonatal rodent myoblasts, which avoids the requirements for stretching and other mechanical stimulation.

  17. Smoke simulation for fire engineering using a multigrid method on graphics hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan; Erleben, Kenny; Bennetsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We present a GPU-based Computational Fluid Dynamics solver for the purpose of fire engineering. We apply a multigrid method to the Jacobi solver when solving the Poisson pressure equation, supporting internal boundaries. Boundaries are handled on the coarse levels, ensuring that boundaries will n...

  18. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  19. Application of a Novel Collaboration Engineering Method for Learning Design: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xusen; Li, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jianshan; Huang, Jianqing

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative case studies and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) play an important role in the modern education environment. A number of researchers have given significant attention to learning design in order to improve the satisfaction of collaborative learning. Although collaboration engineering (CE) is a mature method widely…

  20. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... show that corporate knowledge about HIV/AIDS is inconsistent .... Gilbert, Cattell, Edwards & Bowen • A sequential mixed methods ... 29 substantial ..... formal sector. However ..... Construction Engineering and Management.