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Sample records for forks north dakota

  1. Environmental Assessment: Construct Mass/Mobility Parking Lot at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-13

    land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes...Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory for domestic...flow periods, the rivers are generally too saline for domestic use. Grand Forks AFB receives water from Grand Forks and Lake Agassiz Water. The city

  2. Environmental Assessment: Extend Parking Lot Building 807 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-17

    com, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand Forks...crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park, developed as a recreation area in Grand Forks County...surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and

  3. Environmental Assessment, Demolition of Alpha Ramp Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    January 2004). 3.10 Land Use Land use in Grand Forks County consists primarily of cultivated crops, including spring wheat , barley , sunflowers...surveyed acres fully support swimming. Conversely, groundwater quality surrounding GFAFB is variable. Due to generally high salinity , groundwater from the...Dakota Aquifer is unusable for domestic or industrial purposes. Portions of the Dakota and Pierre aquifers with lower salinity are used for

  4. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, (Grand Forks, North Dakota 1985). Volume 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Desmond C., Ed.

    Preliminary versions of the papers from the 1985 Summer Institute of Linguistics presented at the University of North Dakota session include: "Referential Distance and Discourse Structure in Yagua" (Thomas E. Payne); "A Note on Ergativity, S', and S'' in Karitiana" (Daniel Everett); "Some Aspects of Zapotecan Clausal…

  5. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Grand Forks quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Grand Forks 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Seventy-eight (78) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  6. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Environmental Assessment: Construct New Pavilion Playground at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-12

    pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar...more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory for domestic and most industrial uses...too saline for domestic use. Grand Forks AFB receives water from Grand Forks and Lake Agassiz Water. The city recovers its water from the Red River

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    goose (Branta canadensis), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), redhead duck (Aythya...decline of 0.9 percent for the state of North Dakota overall (USBC 2008). Additional information regarding demographic characteristics of the population...impacts of the Proposed Action, demographic and economics characteristics at GFAFB, and the City and County of Grand Forks were analyzed, as presented

  9. 78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Schrader, Environment and Right... Research, Planning, and Construction. The regulations implementing Executive Order 12372 regarding...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment Demolition of Alpha Ramp, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    including spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Uncultivated lands are generally used for pasture and hay, urban...Due to generally high salinity , groundwater from the Dakota Aquifer is unusable for domestic or industrial purposes. Portions of the Dakota and...Pierre aquifers with lower salinity are used for agriculture. Water quality of the bedrock aquifers is considered poor, exceeding EPA limits of 500

  11. Seasonal Alterations in Park Visitation, Amenity Use, and Physical Activity — Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, LuAnn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Park amenities promote visitation and physical activity during summer. Physical activity declines during winter. Identifying park amenities that promote visitation during winter would increase year-round activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how park visitation, amenity choice, and physical activity intensity change across seasons. Methods Physical activity intensity of children and adults was assessed at 16 parks in Grand Forks, North Dakota, during summer and fall of 2012, and winter and spring of 2013. Results Park visitation was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Amenity use varied by season. Parks with water splash pads were visited more during summer, and playgrounds and open spaces were visited more during spring. Ice rinks were visited most in winter. Physical activity intensity was lowest in summer and highest in winter for each age group. The activity intensity observed for all young age groups ranged from 2.7 to 2.9 metabolic equivalents in summer and greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in all other seasons. Adults’ mean activity intensity was greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in winter. Conclusion Information on park visitation, amenity use, and activity intensity across seasons is valuable; it can be used when designing or redesigning parks in order to promote year-round physical activity. Redesigning parks in cold climates to include ice rinks, sledding hills, cross-country skiing, and indoor areas for physical activity would increase winter visitation and allow the park to serve as a year-round resource for physical activity. PMID:25211503

  12. Seasonal alterations in park visitation, amenity use, and physical activity--Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Johnson, LuAnn

    2014-09-11

    Park amenities promote visitation and physical activity during summer. Physical activity declines during winter. Identifying park amenities that promote visitation during winter would increase year-round activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how park visitation, amenity choice, and physical activity intensity change across seasons. Physical activity intensity of children and adults was assessed at 16 parks in Grand Forks, North Dakota, during summer and fall of 2012, and winter and spring of 2013. Park visitation was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Amenity use varied by season. Parks with water splash pads were visited more during summer, and playgrounds and open spaces were visited more during spring. Ice rinks were visited most in winter. Physical activity intensity was lowest in summer and highest in winter for each age group. The activity intensity observed for all young age groups ranged from 2.7 to 2.9 metabolic equivalents in summer and greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in all other seasons. Adults' mean activity intensity was greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in winter. Information on park visitation, amenity use, and activity intensity across seasons is valuable; it can be used when designing or redesigning parks in order to promote year-round physical activity. Redesigning parks in cold climates to include ice rinks, sledding hills, cross-country skiing, and indoor areas for physical activity would increase winter visitation and allow the park to serve as a year-round resource for physical activity.

  13. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  14. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  15. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  16. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  17. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  18. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  19. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  20. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  1. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  2. Environmental Info for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in North Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  3. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ...-FXRS1265066CCP0S2-123] Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota AGENCY....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, the 554th unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Dakota Grassland...

  4. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, Fargo, Milbank, Watertown, New Ulm and St. Cloud quadrangles of North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    During the months of August and September 1979, geoMetrics, Inc., collected 12,415 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in adjoining portions of South Dakota and Minnesota over seven 1 by 2 degree NTMS quadrangles (Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, Fargo, Milbank, Watertown, New Ulm, and St. Cloud) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully corrected and interpreted by geoMetrics and are presented as eight volumes (one Volume I and seven Volume II's). Regional geology for these seven quadrangles can be divided into two logical sections. The first comprises the surficial glacial deposits, which mantle most of the area and can be up to hundreds of feet thick. The second section consists of the underlying bedrock which is exposed in small scattered outcrops, generally along major drainages. No sedimentary structures exist within the quadrangles. As of this writing, no known uranium deposits exist within the seven quadrangles

  5. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  6. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  7. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  8. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  9. North Dakota Dance Content Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sue; Farrell, Renee; Robbins, Susan; Simonson, Paula; Stanley, Melissa

    Dance should be seen as an authentic avenue for allowing students to learn kinesthetically by using movement that is essential to brain development. Ideally students would be exposed to dance forms and patterns in other art forms like music and drama as well as units within physical education classes. These North Dakota standards may be taught…

  10. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  11. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  12. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  13. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  14. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Mixed-Use Business Park on an Enchanced Use Lease at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    or uses that emit smoke , light, or glare or attract birds. Planning efforts off installation are undertaken by Grand Forks County, the township of...China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia , Pakistan, or the Philippine Islands;  Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders – A person having origins in... smoke number take off 1.50 50.27 1.00 1.00 climb out 0.40 42.20 0.85 0.00 approach 2.60 15.48 0.30 0.00 taxi/idle 19.20 6.61 0.07 0.00 Emissions

  16. Water and Proppant Requirements and Water Production Associated with Undiscovered Petroleum in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, North Dakota and Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. S.; Varela, B. A.; Thamke, J.; Hawkins, S. J.; Gianoutsos, N. J.; Tennyson, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water is used for several stages of oil and gas production, in particular for hydraulic fracturing that is typically used during production of petroleum from low-permeability shales and other rock types (referred to as "continuous" petroleum accumulations). Proppant, often sand, is also consumed during hydraulic fracturing. Water is then produced from the reservoir along with the oil and gas, representing either a disposal consideration or a possible source of water for further petroleum development or other purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an approach for regional-scale estimation of these water and proppant quantities in order to provide an improved understanding of possible impacts and to help with planning and decision-making. Using the new methodology, the USGS has conducted a quantitative assessment of water and proppant requirements, and water production volumes, associated with associated with possible future production of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin, USA. This water and proppant assessment builds directly from the 2013 USGS petroleum assessment for the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. USGS petroleum assessments incorporate all available geologic and petroleum production information, and include the definition of assessment units (AUs) that specify the geographic regions and geologic formations for the assessment. The 2013 petroleum assessment included 5 continuous AUs for the Bakken Formation and one continuous AU for the Three Forks Formation. The assessment inputs are defined probabilistically, and a Monte Carlo approach provides outputs that include uncertainty bounds. We can summarize the assessment outputs with the mean values of the associated distributions. The mean estimated total volume of water for well drilling and cement for all six continuous AUs is 5.9 billion gallons, and the mean estimated volume of water for hydraulic fracturing for all AUs is 164

  17. Development of Smoking Behavior in Adolescence: the Case of North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes a modeling project, performed by Oleksandr Ivanov, a student enrolled in European Master Program in System Dynamics, in cooperation with assistant professor Arielle Selya (University of North Dakota) and under the supervision of associate professor I. David Wheat (University of Bergen). The fieldwork was conducted in Grand Fork, North Dakota, the USA in April-June 2015. The main problem is devoted to the prevalence in smoking cigarettes a...

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.335 Section 81.335... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.335 North Dakota. North Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  20. 40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  1. 78 FR 35781 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... support of mining. This document gives the times and locations that the North Dakota program and proposed... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 934... SS08011000 SX066A00 33F 13XS501520] North Dakota Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining...

  2. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  3. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  4. Economic Impact of Higher Education in North Dakota. North Dakota Economic Studies, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.

    Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…

  5. Stratabound geothermal resources in North Dakota and South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Analysis of all geothermal aquifers in North Dakota and South Dakota indicates an accessible resource base of approximately 21.25 exajoules (10{sup 18} J = 1 exajoule, 10{sup 18} J{approximately}10{sup 15} Btu=1 quad) in North Dakota and approximately 12.25 exajoules in South Dakota. Resource temperatures range from 40{degree}C at depths of about 700 m to 150{degree}C at 4500 m. This resource assessment increases the identified accessible resource base by 31% over the previous assessments. These results imply that the total stratabound geothermal resource in conduction-dominated systems in the United States is two-to-three times greater than some current estimates. The large increase in the identified accessible resource base is primarily due to inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the resource assessment and secondarily due to the expanded data base compiled in this study. These factors were interdependent in that the extensive data base provided the means for inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the analysis. Previous assessments included only well-known aquifer systems and were limited by the amount of available data. 40 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas... to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: In June of 2003, the Dakota... Dakota Prairie Grasslands Land and Resource Management Plan, based on the 2001 Northern Great Plains...

  7. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2008-09 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  8. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2007-08 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  9. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2010-11 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota Wheat Commission and t...

  10. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2009-10 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Wheat Commission a...

  11. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  12. 75 FR 75721 - Environmental Impact Statement: Billings County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...: Billings County, North Dakota AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Revised Notice of...- of-Way Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 1471 Interstate Loop, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, Telephone: (701) 250-4343 Extension 111. Bryon Fuchs, Local Government Division, North Dakota Department of...

  13. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  14. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... FEMA-1981-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10, 2011...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting...

  15. 78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4154-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October 31, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota...

  16. 78 FR 45547 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    .... FEMA-4128-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4128-DR), dated July 12, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from severe storms and...

  17. 78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    .... FEMA-4118-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4118-DR), dated May 29, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding during the...

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  20. BRIDGES for Young Adolescents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary McDonnell

    The BRIDGES Project was initiated to explore ways for North Dakota to provide young people with stronger bridges from childhood to adulthood. This report summarizes recommendations of the 1990-91 Governor's Task Force on Early Adolescence. The recommendations concern practical actions for the building of bridges by the following groups: (1)…

  1. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A..., Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  2. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A..., Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  3. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Kartch, Fred X.; Stroud, Richard K.; Smith, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  4. Sexually transmitted Human Papillomavirus type variations resulting in high grade cervical dysplasia in North-East North Dakota and North-West Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Lata; Clauson, Ryan; Weiland, Timothy; Bianco, Michelle; Milavetz, Barry

    2006-06-15

    A review of Pap smear diagnoses from a reference laboratory in Grand Forks, North Dakota over a 3-year period (07/00 to 10/03) revealed a two-fold higher rate of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in a community in northwest Minnesota (Roseau, 0.486%) than in northeast North Dakota (Grand Forks, 0.249%), in spite of both having similar rates of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (1.33% vs.1.30% respectively) To identify the different types of HPV present in patient populations showing high-grade dysplasia in Grand Forks, ND and Roseau, MN. Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of HPV type 16, 18 and 31. Our studies showed that 41% of samples from Roseau were triply infected with HPV serotypes 16, 18 and 31 in comparison to 12 % from Grand Forks. Due to the small sample size we were unable to prove the study to be statistically significant. However, our results suggest that the presence of HPV 16, 18 and 31 in triply infected samples may be the cause of the higher percentage of high-grade dysplasia in Roseau, MN when compared to Grand Forks, ND.

  5. Sexually transmitted Human Papillomavirus type variations resulting in high grade cervical dysplasia in North-East North Dakota and North-West Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Michelle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of Pap smear diagnoses from a reference laboratory in Grand Forks, North Dakota over a 3-year period (07/00 to 10/03 revealed a two-fold higher rate of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in a community in northwest Minnesota (Roseau, 0.486% than in northeast North Dakota (Grand Forks, 0.249%, in spite of both having similar rates of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (1.33% vs.1.30% respectively Objectives To identify the different types of HPV present in patient populations showing high-grade dysplasia in Grand Forks, ND and Roseau, MN. Study design Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect the presence of HPV type 16, 18 and 31. Results Our studies showed that 41 % of samples from Roseau were triply infected with HPV serotypes 16, 18 and 31 in comparison to 12 % from Grand Forks. Conclusion Due to the small sample size we were unable to prove the study to be statistically significant. However, our results suggest that the presence of HPV 16, 18 and 31 in triply infected samples may be the cause of the higher percentage of high-grade dysplasia in Roseau, MN when compared to Grand Forks, ND.

  6. Unstable ground in western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Unstable ground in western North Dakota is mainly the result of mass-wasting processes. The units most affected are mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Fort Union Formation. Ground instability generally is indicated by landslides, soil slides, or subsidence. Landslides are mostly of the slump-earthflow type and are localized along the flanks of the high buttes in southwestern North Dakota, including HT (Black) Butte, Chalky Buttes, Sentinel Butte, and East and West Rainy Buttes, and along parts of the valleys of the Des Lacs, Missouri, Little Missouri, and Heart Rivers. Landslides are sparse elsewhere. Soil slides are common in the areas south and southwest of the maximum position of the Pleistocene glacial ice margin on slopes of 15 degrees or more, and have taken place on some slopes as gentle as five degrees. The weathered, exposed surface of the Fort Union Formation seems to be especially susceptible to soil slides. Soil slides constitute the major type of ground instability in southwestern North Dakota. Subsidence is of two types: (1) subsidence over old underground mine workings, and (2) subsidence over naturally ignited and burned underground coal beds. Major subsidence has taken place over old, underground workings near Beulah, Wilton, Lehigh, Haynes, and Belfield, and lesser subsidence near Scranton, and west and north of Bowman. Thickness of overburden above the coal in all these areas is believed to be less than 30 m (100 ft). Subsidence has not taken place over old underground workings along the Des Lacs and-Souris valleys northwest of Minot, where the thickness of overburden is more than 60 m (200 ft). Spectacular subsidence has occurred over a burning underground coal bed at Burning Coal Vein Park near the Little Missouri River, northwest of Amidon.

  7. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California AGENCY... trust for gaming purposes for the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California on November 26... land in trust for the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California under the authority of the...

  8. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary to address the inadequacies identified by the court...

  9. North Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David E. Haugen; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of North Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 7,622 plots were selected and 164 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the North Dakota...

  10. 2009 Legislative Session Resource Guide. Investing in North Dakota's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Dakota University System (NDUS) is composed of two doctoral universities, two master's degree-granting universities, two universities that offer bachelor's degrees and five community colleges that offer associate and trade/technical degrees. Each institution is unique in its mission to serve the people of North Dakota. The "2009…

  11. North Dakota Early Childhood Tracking System - Background Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Legislative Council, Bismarck.

    This report responds to a North Dakota legislative mandate to study the state's early childhood tracking system for children who are at risk for developmental delays. Introductory sections summarize critical definitions and relevant federal legislation (specifically Part H of Public Law 99-457). The North Dakota program is then reviewed. Nineteen…

  12. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  13. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY... personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota... public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These final supplementary rules will...

  14. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  15. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from sampling events conducted in Killdeer, North Dakota as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, retrospective case study

  16. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  17. FEASIBILITY OF OPERATING A LAMB SLAUGHTER PLANT IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Nudell, Daniel J.; Petry, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    A group of North Dakota lamb producers who are members of Valley Wool Growers Association identified several niche markets for high quality North Dakota lambs. The potential availability of a closed, but formerly federally inspected, livestock slaughter and meat processing facility in Steele County heightened their interest in determining the feasibility of a cooperatively owned lamb slaughter and processing facility. The cooperative would be patterned after existing and proposed slaughter co...

  18. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming compose the 392,764-square-mile area of Segment 8, which is in the north-central part of the continental United States. The area varies topographically from the high rugged mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and Wyoming to the gently undulating surface of the Central Lowland in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota (fig. 1). The Black Hills in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming interrupt the uniformity of the intervening Great Plains. Segment 8 spans the Continental Divide, which is the drainage divide that separates streams that generally flow westward from those that generally flow eastward. The area of Segment 8 is drained by the following major rivers or river systems: the Green River drains southward to join the Colorado River, which ultimately discharges to the Gulf of California; the Clark Fork and the Kootenai Rivers drain generally westward by way of the Columbia River to discharge to the Pacific Ocean; the Missouri River system and the North Platte River drain eastward and southeastward to the Mississippi River, which discharges to the Gulf of Mexico; and the Red River of the North and the Souris River drain northward through Lake Winnipeg to ultimately discharge to Hudson Bay in Canada. These rivers and their tributaries are an important source of water for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. Much of the surface water has long been appropriated for agricultural use, primarily irrigation, and for compliance with downstream water pacts. Reservoirs store some of the surface water for flood control, irrigation, power generation, and recreational purposes. Surface water is not always available when and where it is needed, and ground water is the only other source of supply. Ground water is obtained primarily from wells completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist mostly of sand and gravel, and from wells

  19. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  20. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  1. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of.... The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota T. 152 N., R. 100 W. The plat, in... lottings, Township 152 North, Range 100 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota, was accepted November...

  2. 78 FR 23952 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... determine Federal Leasable Mineral Lands. The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota... dividing Lot 1 of section 29, Township 148 North, Range 95 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota...

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  4. Environmental Assessment Tent City at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-15

    Herbicides, such as picloram, nonselective glyphosate and 2,4-D are used to maintain areas on base. Military Public Health and Bioenvironmental...State, and has bee duri’Y. the time hereinafter mentioned, and that the advertisement of _____ _ e /. h a printed copy of which is hereto nexed, was

  5. 78 FR 48639 - North Dakota Underground Injection Control Program Revision Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2013-0280; FRL-9845-3] 40 CFR Part 147 North Dakota... notice that the EPA has received a complete program revision package from the State of North Dakota... the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to issue UIC permits for carbon geo-sequestration...

  6. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  7. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications

  8. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of North Dakota. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  9. Letter from North Dakota: Inviting the People to See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Eve

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive account of the diverse experiences and reactions, both positive and negative, of a resource teacher for a Follow Through Program at an Indian elementary school in Fort Yates, North Dakota, and her attempts to promote teacher cooperation and engender local involvement in the school. (EH)

  10. Legal Liability of Children and Parents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall K.

    Three legal issues are examined: (1) the responsibility of children for breached contracts and the commission of torts; (2) parental liability; and (3) relevant law in North Dakota and other states. The people most affected by the actions of children are parents, merchants, and victims of vandalism. People who enter into contracts with children…

  11. Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of North Dakota's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper captures the progress made by North Dakota in adopting both the common core state standards, subsequent work in ensuring those standards are accompanied by college- and career-ready assessments, and the potential benefits of preparing all students for success in college and a career. (Contains 11 endnotes.)

  12. North Dakota Leadership Training Boosts Confidence and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flage, Lynette; Hvidsten, Marie; Vettern, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for communities as they work to maintain their vitality and sustainability for years to come. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess confidence levels and community engagement of community leadership program participants in North Dakota State University Extension programs. Through a survey…

  13. A second look a North Dakota's timber lands, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    The second inventory of North Dakota forest resources shows a decline in commercial forest area between 1954 and 1980. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber forest resources. A forest type map is included.

  14. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  15. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), United States... technical documents to conduct wetland determinations on agriculture land as part of the National Food...

  16. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major

  17. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...) facility on Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The Communication Squadron is preparing to install new GATR communication antennas and systems, for tactical aircraft control and commercial air traffic control...

  18. Critical systems for public health management of floods, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedrich, Tim W; Sickler, Juli L; Vossler, Brenda L; Pickard, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Availability of emergency preparedness funding between 2002 and 2009 allowed the North Dakota Department of Health to build public health response capabilities. Five of the 15 public health preparedness capability areas identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 have been thoroughly tested by responses to flooding in North Dakota in 2009, 2010, and 2011; those capability areas are information sharing, emergency operations coordination, medical surge, material management and distribution, and volunteer management. Increasing response effectiveness has depended on planning, implementation of new information technology, changes to command and control procedures, containerized response materials, and rapid contract procedures. Continued improvement in response and maintenance of response capabilities is dependent on ongoing funding.

  19. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  20. From dry to wet, 1988-97, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    1999-01-01

    Unusual climatic and hydrologic conditions continue to affect the people and resources of North Dakota. Above-average precipitation during 1993-97 caused flooding in parts of North Dakota, and damage to crops, roads, and homes led to tremendous economic losses and increased personal stress for the people of the State. However, the above-average precipitation also replenished diminished water supplies, produced bumper crops in some parts of the State, enhanced wildlife and fishery resources, and improved recreational activities such as fishing, camping, and boating. Thus, prolonged periods of above-average precipitation (wet periods) and the resulting hydrologic conditions can be beneficial and prosperous but also can be as disastrous and economically damaging as periods of drought (dry periods).

  1. 76 FR 58533 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine... Dakota T. 152 N., R. 65 W. The plat, in two sheets, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of...

  2. 76 FR 44946 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine... Dakota T. 152 N., R. 64 W. The plat, in one sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of...

  3. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  4. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  5. Tobacco Control Policy Making in North Dakota: A Tradition of Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, Jennifer R MPH; Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY North Dakota has a long history of tobacco-related legislation dating back to the late 1800's, well before the formal organization of health advocates for tobacco control. Citizens of North Dakota recognized the negative health effects of tobacco smoke before most of the nation and made attempts to regulate the sale and use of tobacco products throughout the early 1900's. In 1913, the North Dakota legislature went as far as prohibiting the use of tobacco products in...

  6. Water-quality characteristics in runoff for three discovery farms in North Dakota, 2008-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Rowland, Kathleen M.; Wiederholt, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with North Dakota State University Agriculture Research Extension and in collaboration with North Dakota State Department of Health, North Dakota State Water Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and several agricultural producers, helped organize a Discovery Farms program in North Dakota in 2007. Discharge measurements and water-quality samples collected at the three Farms (Underwood, Dazey, and Embden) were used to describe water-quality characteristics in runoff, and compute estimates of annual loads and yields for selected constituents from spring 2008 through fall 2012.

  7. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  8. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  10. 76 FR 53820 - Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Montana and North Dakota border to the confluence with the Mississippi River, extending the entire... to August 30, 2011, will continue in effect through October 31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Documents indicated...

  11. 75 FR 56928 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; State of North Dakota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... state to EPA. The North Dakota Department of Health (NDDH) held a public hearing on October 7, 2008 for... typical movement of weather systems. Thus, geography, topography and meteorology of the region that... geography (nearly 1,200 miles distance), topography (high mountain ranges between North Dakota and...

  12. Small Numbers and Big Spaces Call for a Team Approach in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pam; Lambert, Bambi

    2016-01-01

    Preparing deaf and hard of hearing students for transition is a unique challenge in North Dakota, a rural state in which the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction has identified only 32 transition-age students as "deaf" or "hearing impaired." Additional students who are deaf or hard of hearing may be being served via…

  13. Community Living for Adults in North Dakota: A Case Study of an Apartment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racino, Julie Ann

    This report describes a 1988 site visit to Pride Industries, a private, nonprofit agency which operates an apartment program for individuals with developmental disabilities in Bismarck, North Dakota, through a contract with a regional office of North Dakota's Department of Developmental Disabilities. Pride Industries supports 34 people living in…

  14. Perceived sustainability of community telepharmacy in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Friesner, Daniel L; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Sem, Kelli; Peterson, Charles D

    To assess the sustainability of the business model underlying the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project (NDTP). Of the 38 community pharmacy organizations (14 central, 24 remote), 27 organizations (11 central and 16 remote sites) in North Dakota provided a useable set of responses (71.1% response rate). A twelfth organization (a community pharmacy) ceased operations over the study's time frame and was not included in the data analysis. Emphasis is placed on NDTP community telepharmacies, because the community telepharmacy business model is more established than hospital telepharmacies. Yet little is known about the long-run financial viability of telepharmacies. Originally funded by a series of federal grants, the goal of the NDTP was to create the infrastructure necessary to support the development of telepharmacy sites. A 48-item questionnaire assessed the self-reported operational, financial, and community impacts of a community telepharmacy. The questionnaire was administered from December 2015 to February 2016 to all NDTP community telepharmacy owners-managers. Thus, 1 participant (owner-manager) addressed both central and remote-site locations served by a pharmacy. Most respondents reported that their telepharmacy sites (especially remote sites) generate small positive financial returns for the organization. Respondents also reported that the closure of their remote sites would significantly harm the communities they serve. NDTP aims of restoration and retention have been achieved via the investment and shared decision making with pharmacy owners in North Dakota. The telepharmacy model is sustainable, even if it does not generate significant economic profit. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  16. Hydraulic Fracking Water Treatment in Texas and North Dakota.

    OpenAIRE

    Abordo , Genel; Patel , Cameron; Duncan , Cody; McAlpine , Caitlin; Thomas, Trevor; Libby, James; Ryan , Kerrick

    2013-01-01

    Project Definition: Flo-tech Engineering is developing a mobile treatment system for flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations.  The water will be treated for fracking reuse.  The system will be implemented in Bakken Shale in North Dakota and/or Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas.  Design Constraints and Parameters:  Extensive research was required to determine which site areas to develop and the current technologies used to treat the water involved in hydraulic fractur...

  17. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  18. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... before the wells began pumping in 1988. When groundwater is pumped from the North Fork wells, it causes a temporary decline in groundwater which lowers the water table and creates an expanding cone of depression around the wells. If the cone of depression continues to expand, it can impact water dependent resources...

  19. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Thomas A. Moe; Melanie D. Hetland; Margaret L. Laumb

    2001-06-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will further affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. This project, a cooperative effort between the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Grand Forks Water Treatment Plant, and the University of North Dakota Department of Civil Engineering, consists of several interrelated tasks. The objective of the research was to evaluate a cost-effective PAC produced from North Dakota lignite for removing NOM from water and reducing trihalomethane formation potential. The research approach was to develop a statistically valid testing protocol that can be used to compare dose-response relationships between North Dakota lignite-derived PAC and commercially available PAC products. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether significant correlations exist between operating conditions, water properties, PAC properties, and dose-response behavior. Pertinent physical and chemical properties were also measured for each of the waters and each of the PACs.

  20. Monitoring limber pine health in the Rocky Mountains and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Marcus Jackson; Brian Howell; William Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; Anne Marie Casper; Jennifer Klutsch

    2012-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) is an ecologically and culturally important, yet little studied, tree species within the Western United States. Its distribution extends from Alberta and southeastern British Colombia to New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California with isolated populations in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, eastern Oregon...

  1. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  2. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  3. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  4. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  5. Hospital Medicine and Fellowship Program in Rural North Dakota - A Multifaceted Success Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S S; Amundson, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Recruitment of hospitalists and primary care physicians for Critical Access Hospitals and tertiary care hospitals in North Dakota is difficult. To address this challenge, 2 programs were implemented in Bismarck, North Dakota. St. Alexius Medical Center created a hospitalist fellowship training program in collaboration with the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences and physicians willing to work in Critical Access Hospitals were offered a joint appointment to teach hospitalist fellows and obtain a clinical academic appointment at the university. Since it was created in 2012, 84 physicians have applied for 13 fellowships. Of the 11 fellows who have completed the program, 64% (7/11) remained in North Dakota to practice. Physicians are more likely to work in a rural Critical Access Hospital if they spend time working at a tertiary care center and have clinical academic appointments. Where recruitment is challenging, hospitalist fellowship programs are helpful in meeting the health care workforce demand.

  6. The Spirit of North Dakota: Alive in Weatherization; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    North Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: New Rockford quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Volume II contains the flight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the New Rockford Quadrangle in North Dakota

  8. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  9. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  10. Comparative Analysis of TIAA/CREF and North Dakota Public Employee Retirement System Pension Fund. North Dakota Economic Studies Number 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong W.

    Quantitative financial measures were applied to evaluate the performance of the North Dakota Public Employee Retirement System (NDPERS) pension fund portfolios and the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA)/College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) portfolios, thus providing a relative performance assessment. Ten years of data were…

  11. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  12. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  13. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on North Dakota: Agriculture and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lim, Yeo Howe; Teng, William L.

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed; one of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for multiple locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing.

  15. Tundra swan habitat preferences during migration in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    I studied tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) habitat preference in North Dakota during autumn migration, 1988-89. Many thousand tundra swans stop in the Prairie Pothole region during autumn migration, but swan resource use has not been quantified. I examined habitat preference in relation to an index of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) presence, extent of open water, and wetland size. I compared habitat preference derived from counts of all swans to those derived from foraging swans only and cygnets only. Foraging swans preferred wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.03); the number of foraging swans per wetland was >4 times higher on wetlands with sago pondweed than on wetlands without sago. In contrast, nonforaging swans did not prefer wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.85) but preferred large wetlands (P = 0.02) and those with a high proportion of contiguous open water (P feeding than adults (P = 0.03) and occurred proportionately more often in smaller flocks (P = 0.04), but cygnets and adults had similar habitat preferences.

  16. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Darling Flood Control Project, Souris River, North Dakota and Final Feature Environmental Impact Statement, Velva Flood Control, Velva, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Devils Lake, ND 58301 President North Dakota Wildlife Fed. Watford City, ND 58854 Chairman, Dakota Group Sierra Club PO Box 1624 Rapid City, SD 57701 4-3 I...58792 Norwin L. Py ling fr. George Gorda No. Diane Halverson 4 21 East 5th St. Poxholu, ND 58738 Route 1 Bott neau, ND 58318 Northfield, HN 55057 Dr. and...Peralta Upham, ND 58789 Santa Fe, NM 87501 Sierra Club - 210 Ramar Bldg. 111 E. Franklin, MN Minneapolis, MN 55404 Coordinator Souris River Basin

  17. Introducing astronomy into high school physics curriculum through the use of the University of North Dakota Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolby, Caitlin Marie

    Astronomy education is currently lacking in the secondary level classroom. Many programs have been created to remedy this, including research opportunities for students and training workshops for educators. These reach only a small fraction of the population however, while remaining students still lack the opportunity to learn astronomy at the secondary level. This research addresses the creation of a program that will make astronomy education a recurring option for students across North Dakota through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS) in a class of 19 physics students. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and in-class activities. Original lesson plans also included a group research project on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public "star party" where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and research equipment. Students also took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND on April 25, 2012. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two weeks. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the course. The research also identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners and the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy. This analysis has been used to make improvements in future installments of the course and it is now available online to educators for use in the classroom.

  18. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  19. A People Extra: North Dakota and United States Situational Issues Related to and Influences upon--Families (Single Persons, Single Parents, Parent-Child, Married).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Univ., Fargo. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Science.

    Situational issues related to families and influences upon families in North Dakota and the United States are briefly outlined in these fact sheets. Contents specifically concern (1) outbound migration from North Dakota and transition of rural families from farming; (2) suicide in North Dakota and the nation; (3) child care issues, such as child…

  20. Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Air Laws in North Dakota on Restaurants and Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul R; Loomis, Brett R

    2016-08-01

    In late 2012, North Dakota expanded its statewide smoke-free air law to cover all restaurants and bars in the state. Several North Dakota communities also had local ordinances that prohibited smoking in restaurants and bars prior to the statewide law. Previous work found no effect of the initial statewide law or several local laws on restaurant and bar sales. Using quarterly county-level employment data from 1990 to 2014, we examined whether the expanded statewide law or pre-existing local laws were associated with significant changes in employment in restaurants and bars in North Dakota. Separate models were estimated for restaurant and bar employment using two methods of controlling for smoke-free air law coverage. We found no evidence of a significant association between employment in restaurants and bars in North Dakota and the expanded statewide law or pre-existing local laws. Prior employment levels in restaurants and bars and prevailing economic conditions were the main drivers of restaurant and bar employment, not smoke-free air laws. This study examines the economic impact of smoke-free air laws in North Dakota on restaurant and bar employment following the expansion of the statewide law in late 2012 to cover all restaurants and bars. We find no significant adverse effect of smoke-free air laws on restaurants and bars, consistent with results from previous studies conducted in North Dakota and throughout the United States. This study is the first to analyze the economic impact of smoke-free air laws in North Dakota on restaurant and bar employment following the 2012 expansion of the statewide law to cover all restaurants and bars. We find no evidence of a significant adverse effect of smoke-free air laws on restaurants and bars, consistent with results from previous studies conducted in North Dakota and throughout the United States. Prior employment levels and prevailing economic conditions proved to be the main drivers of restaurant and bar employment

  1. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  2. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  3. Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Adams, David T.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Nutt, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite, occurs in pediment gravel deposits near Killdeer Mountain, North Dakota. Material from these pediment deposits has been excavated for use as roadbed throughout Dunn County, North Dakota. Erionite also occurs in the Cappadocian region of Turkey, where a link between malignant mesothelioma and inhalation of this mineral has been established. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compare the chemistry and morphology of erionite collected from the Killdeer Mountains to those collected from villages in Turkey and from Rome, Oregon, which has also been linked to disease in animal studies.

  4. A Feasibility Study for Mobile Marketing and Distribution Occupational Laboratories in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Donald P.

    A study determined the feasibility of a mobile laboratory for marketing and distribution in North Dakota. It attempted to answer four questions: (1) What types of staffing, equipment, curriculum, and delivery systems are presently being utilized in mobile laboratories throughout the nation? (2) What significant information obtained from mobile…

  5. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Program of Studies--Level II. Research Series No. 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck. Research Coordinating Unit.

    This industrial arts program of a studies guide is the product of a research project designed to (1) ascertain programs and curricula trends of senior high school industrial arts in the fifty states, (2) develop a philosophical rationale for senior high schools in North Dakota secondary schools, and (3) develop a master plan and program of study…

  6. A Study of the Library Services Provided by the State Institutions of North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Barnard, Sister

    Collected here are library profiles from seven North Dakota institutions including the State Penitentiary and Farm; the State Industrial School; the State Hospital; state schools for the blind, deaf, and mentally retarded; and the Soldiers' Home. General information about the institutions includes the authority and responsibility of the…

  7. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, Volume 30, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Desmond C., Ed.

    Working papers resulting from the 1986 University of North Dakota Summer Institute of Linguistics include: "Orthographic Reform in Kope" (John M. Clifton); "Ternarity and Obligatory Branching in Piraha" (Daniel Everett); "Reduplication in Majang" (Pete Unseth); "Indirect Objects and Incorporation in Mazatec"…

  8. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  9. Soil physiochemical controls on trace gas emissions for a North Dakota mollisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of trace gas emissions and an increased understanding of soil controls on emissions during freeze-thaw cycles are essential to refine climate change models. Six similar, intact soil cores were collected to a depth of 80 cm from an undisturbed prairie in central North Dakota. Trace g...

  10. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  11. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  12. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  13. North Dakota's Experience with the Academy Model: A Successful Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tom; Clapper, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In this article, professors share how the district/university partnership model thriving at Kansas State University was successfully replicated in North Dakota, and was adapted to match their own department goals. While teacher leadership has become a theme among Kansas State academies, their model was created out of principal preparation efforts.…

  14. Annual Report of the North Dakota State Advisory Council for Vocational Education (Third), December 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Advisory Council for Vocational Education, Fargo.

    The third annual evaluation report of the North Dakota Advisory Council for Vocational Education is developed in four phases: (1) recommendations incorporating the rationale for resulting recommendations to the State Board for Vocational Education, (2) evaluation of the State goals and priorities (Goal I), (3) serving people and their needs (Goal…

  15. North Dakota University System Five-Year Plan. Daring to Be Great: The NDUS Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the 2017-19 edition of the State Board of Higher Education's strategic narrative. Contents include: (1) North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and locations; (2) Board Chair Neset's report; (3) Five-year goals; (4) Deliver degrees that are the best value in the nation; (5) Provide programs people want; (6) Equip…

  16. North Dakota 1991 Close Up--A Legislative Insight. Participant Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    This guide is designed for those who participate in North Dakota's Close Up program, a program that provides the state's young people with the opportunity to experience government firsthand in an innovative and participatory setting. The state's 1991 legislative program offers a broad range of activities for student participants, including:…

  17. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  18. A Survey of the Music Integration Practices of North Dakota Elementary Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, KariJo; Dearden, Katherine Norman; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the nature of North Dakota elementary classroom teachers' (NDECT) music integration in the general classroom. The majority of NDECTs integrated music with: the subjects of Language Arts (62.01%), Mathematics (55.00%), and Physical Education (50.89%); the settings of Group Work Time (64.29%),…

  19. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River...

  20. Time-Varying Estimation of Crop Insurance Program in Altering North Dakota Farm Economic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jane A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how federal farm policies, specifically crop insurance, have affected the farm economic structure of North Dakota’s agriculture sector. The system of derived input demand equations is estimated to quantify the changes in North Dakota farmers’ input use when they purchase crop insurance. Further, the cumulative rolling regression technique is applied to capture the varying effects of the farm policies over time. Empirical results from the system of input demand functions in...

  1. Flood-inundation maps for North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2017-11-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.2-mile reach of North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding that correspond to selected water levels (stages) at the North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03371650). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also shows observed USGS stages at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NFSI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2015) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03371650, North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals, except for the highest profile of 22.9 ft, referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 12.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 22.9 ft, which is the highest stage of the current (2015) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 1.9 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with information regarding current stage from the USGS

  2. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  3. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  4. Summary of Surface-Water Quality, Ground-Water Quality, and Water Withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinning, Kevin C; Cates, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    .... The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies...

  5. Simulation of constituent transport in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota and Minnesota, during unsteady-flow conditions, 1977 and 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2006-01-01

    calibration periods. The average absolute differences generally were less than 25 percent. Total phosphorus was simulated as a nonconservative constituent by assuming that concentrations change according to a first-order decay rate. The average difference between the measured and simulated total phosphorus concentrations was 6.2 percent for the 2003 calibration period and -24 percent for the 2004 calibration period. The Red River model demonstrates sensitivity to changes in boundary conditions so a reasonable assumption is that the model can be used to compare relative effects of the various water-supply alternatives. The calibrated Red River model was used to simulate the effects of the six water-supply alternatives by using measured streamflows for September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977, when streamflows throughout the Red River Basin were relatively low. Streamflows for the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, were less than 17.9 cubic feet per second on 159 days of that 12-month period, and monthly average streamflows for the Red River at Grand Forks, North Dakota, and the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, were less than 30 percent of the respective long-term average monthly streamflows for 11 of the 12 months during September 1976 through August 1977. Water-quality boundary conditions were generated using a stochastic approach in which probability distributions derived from all available historical data on instream concentrations were used to produce daily concentrations at model boundaries. Return flow concentrations were estimated from source concentrations and current (2006) wastewater-treatment technology. Because no historical information on ungaged local inflow constituent concentrations is available to estimate those boundary conditions, time-invariant concentrations for the low-flow 2003 calibration period were used as the ungaged local inflow boundary conditions. The effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and

  6. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Wartman, B.L.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

    1981-06-01

    This evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota is based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the Phase II study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples is being done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those hole-of-convenience cased.

  7. Graphical user interface for accessing water-quality data for the Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Damschen, William C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota is important for protecting the agricultural resources, fisheries, waterfowl and wildlife habitat, and recreational value of the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies, has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from streams and lakes in the basin since 1957, and the North Dakota Department of Health has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from lakes in the basin since 2001. Because water-quality data for the basin are important for numerous reasons, a graphical user interface was developed to access, view, and download the historical data for the basin. The interface is a web-based application that is available to the public and includes data through water year 2003. The interface will be updated periodically to include data for subsequent years.

  8. Proceedings of the third workshop on the energy development board of Mercer County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    Two earlier workshops concerned with managing growth in Mercer County, North Dakota focused on the activities of the Energy Development Board (EDB) and were held in 1977 and 1978, respectively. This third workshop, Energy Development in Rural Areas - Local Implementation of National Priorities addresses the transferability of the EDB as an organization approach for managing energy-related rapid growth; the potential for developing integrated energy resource conservation/economic plans in rural energy development areas; and Federal policy and initiatives regarding energy-impact assistance. Panel discussions on these subjects were conducted and the comments are presented. The introductory address by Wayne Sanstead, Lt. Gov. of North Dakota and the keynote address by Edward Helminski, White House Management Task Force on Energy Shortages, are included.

  9. An exploratory study of the relation of population density and agricultural activity to hematologic malignancies in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Patricia L; Watkins, John M

    2013-02-01

    Established risk factors for hematologic cancers include exposure to ionizing radiation, organic solvents, and genetic mutation; however, the potential roles of environmental and sociological factors are not well explored. As North Dakota engages in significant agricultural activity, the present investigation seeks to determine whether an association exists between the incidence of hematologic cancers and either population density or agricultural occupation for residents of south central North Dakota. The present study is a retrospective analysis. Cases of hematologic malignancies and associated pre-malignant conditions were collected from the regional Central North Dakota Cancer Registry, and analysis of study-specific demographic factors was performed. Significantly higher incidence of hematologic cancers and pre-malignant disorders was associated with residence in an "urban" county and rural city/town. Within the latter designation, there was a higher rate of self-reported agricultural occupation (40% vs 10%, P Dakota supports the need for more detailed prospective research centered on agricultural exposures.

  10. Managing the Economics of Soil Salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrich, Joleen

    2012-01-01

    Saline soils result in decreased crop growth and yield with the potential for losing productive farm land. Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota for corn, soybeans, wheat, sugar beets, and barley. Installing tile drainage decreased per acre crop profitability from 19 to 49 percent. Lost revenues were estimated to be $150 million due to 1.2 million acres of slightly saline s...

  11. Archeological Testing of Sites 32CS42 and 32CS44, Cass County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Clovis people subsisted main- ly on the flesh of large, terminal Pleistocene fauna, most notably mammouths but also bison, horses, and camels (Gregg...Bone fragments were categorized as either burned or unburned and examined for evidence of cultural modification or possible taxonomi - cal identification...Resources of Lake Sakakawea in Williams and McKenzie Count-ies, North Dakota: A Study in Culture and Taxonomy . I 1983. Principal Investigator

  12. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1994. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1995, and completed and planned report products.

  13. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  14. Pathogenic and genetic diversity of Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Tika B; Gurung, Suraj; Hansen, Jana M; Bonman, J Michael

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, has become more prevalent recently in North Dakota and neighboring states. From five locations in North Dakota, 226 strains of X. translucens pv. undulosa were collected and evaluated for pathogenicity and then selected strains were inoculated on a set of 12 wheat cultivars and other cereal hosts. The genetic diversity of all strains was determined using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and insertion sequence-based (IS)-PCR. Bacterial strains were pathogenic on wheat and barley but symptom severity was greatest on wheat. Strains varied greatly in aggressiveness, and wheat cultivars also showed differential responses to several strains. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the strains were identical, and distinct from those of the other Xanthomonas pathovars. Combined rep-PCR and IS-PCR data produced 213 haplotypes. Similar haplotypes were detected in more than one location. Although diversity was greatest (≈92%) among individuals within a location, statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001 or 0.05) genetic differentiation among locations was estimated, indicating geographic differentiation between pathogen populations. The results of this study provide information on the pathogen diversity in North Dakota, which will be useful to better identify and characterize resistant germplasm.

  15. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Riparian Restoration and Stabilization at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    would include scotch pine ( Pinus sylvestris), blue spruce (Picea pungens), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), and rocky mountain juniper...reduces the germination of weed seeds, maintains soil moisture, and minimizes erosion. Wildlife. The project area provides diversity in habitat to...with native species. Soil should be covered to reduce the germination of weed seeds, maintain soil moisture, and minimize erosion.  4. Project

  16. Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    pes Redhead · A. Eastern tiger Woodhouse’s toad, swallowtail. P vulpes americana .glaucus B. woodhouset Coyote, Canis Blue-winged teal, • Checkered...with no specific linkage as to how those activities would affect the demographics of (unspecified) bird objectives. Further, much of the text has...platyrhynchos), TWENTY-FIVE (25) BLUE WINGED TEALS (Anas discors), TWENTY-FIVE (25) REDHEAD DUCKS {Aythya americana), TWENTY-FIVE (25) RUDDY DUCKS

  17. Final Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Level at 50 feet (dBA) Clearing and Grading Bulldozer 80 Grader 80–93 Truck 83–94 Roller 73–75 Excavation Backhoe 72–93 Jackhammer 81–98...are hairyfruit sedge (Carex trichocarpa), needle spike-rush (Eleocharis acicularis), flat-stem spike-rush (E. compressa), pale spike-rush (E...Fair treatment means that no groups of people, including racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups, should bear a disproportionate share of the negative

  18. Environmental Assessment: Replace Sanitary Sewer from Building 801 to Lagoons at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    characterized by submergent and emergent aquatic plants, green algae, diatoms, diverse invertebrate animals such as sponges , flatworms, nematode worms...fecal material. Domestic wastes include food wastes and wash water. The composition of microorganisms varies according to the source of waste water

  19. Environmental Assessment: Armory Addition to CATM with Parking at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    meal will be vegetarian or meat lasagna, salad and fresh rolls. Cost is $8 for club members . and $10 for-non-members. e your seat by May 13 by... nutrient upsurges, plant dislocation, and any physical, chemical, or biological disruption. The use of pesticides or herbicides in or near these

  20. Environmental Assessment Addressing Privatization of Military Family Housing at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    rush (Eleocharis acicularis), flat-stem spike-rush (E. compressa), pale spike-rush (E. palustris), Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), grass- leaf rush (J...evaluating a species: (1) occurrence, (2) vulnerability, (3) type(s) of threat, (4) degree of protection, and (5) taxonomy . A species is considered...unwanted vegetation, mosquitoes, crawling insects (e.g., ants, crickets, cockroaches), spiders, birds, mice, squirrels, and other vertebrate pests

  1. Stormwater Characterization and Lagoon Sediment Analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Preservation Methods Where Who Parameter Preservation EPA Method Analyzed Analyzed Total Alkalinity H2S04 310.2 Brooks AFB AFOEHL Boron H2SO 212.3...Nitrogen H2S04 351.2 Brooks AFB AFOEHL Oils and Grease H2 S04 413.1 Brooks AFB AFOEHL Pesticides H2S04 608 & 608.2 Brooks AFB AFOEHL pH none 150.1 On...4. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Sampling. Take screening samples of lagoon sediment for analysis under the new Toxicity

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GRAND FORKS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  3. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  4. The Economic Base of North Dakota: A Measure of the State’s Economy in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    The growth and composition of the North Dakota economy can be measured using economic base analysis. Economic base is defined as the value of goods and services exported from an economic unit. Economic base also can be called a region’s export base because industries (or ‘basic’ sectors) earn income from outside the area. North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities that produce a product or a service purchased by individuals, governments, and businesses located outside of th...

  5. Ethnic food perspective of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat and relevance for health benefits targeting type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ancient grains with ethnic food origins are gaining renewed interest in contemporary food design due to its balanced nutritional profiles and health benefits. The “North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat” (Triticum dicoccum, a tetraploid species, had ethnic origins with German immigrants from Russia migrating to North Dakota in late 19th century. Targeting such grains with ethnic origins that are rich in fibers, amino acids, minerals, and other bioactive compounds has significant merit for advancing health benefits against emerging diet-linked chronic diseases. Based on this rationale, phenolic-linked antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat was compared with those of other commercial wheat cultivars in order to integrate it into a health-targeted food design based on past ethnic food insights. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat (with and without hull and two other commercial wheat varieties, Barlow and Coteau, were analyzed before and after milling. The total soluble phenolic content, phenolic acid profile, protein content, antioxidant activity, type 2 diabetes relevant α-amylase, and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities were determined using in vitro assay models. Results: North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull had highest total soluble phenolic content and associated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties (before and after milling when compared to the other commercial wheat cultivars. Conclusion: Results indicated that North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull can be integrated into a health-targeted contemporary food design as a part of dietary support against chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress associated with early stages type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Antioxidant, Enzyme inhibitors, Ethnic wheat, North Dakota Common Emmer, Phenolics, Type 2 diabetes

  6. Hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow and availability in the North Fork Red River aquifer, southwest Oklahoma, 1980–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Ellis, John H.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2017-09-28

    On September 8, 1981, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board established regulatory limits on the maximum annual yield of groundwater (343,042 acre-feet per year) and equal-proportionate-share (EPS) pumping rate (1.0 acre-foot per acre per year) for the North Fork Red River aquifer. The maximum annual yield and EPS were based on a hydrologic investigation that used a numerical groundwater-flow model to evaluate the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals on groundwater availability in the North Fork Red River aquifer. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is statutorily required (every 20 years) to update the hydrologic investigation on which the maximum annual yield and EPS were based. Because 20 years have elapsed since the final order was issued, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an updated hydrologic investigation and evaluated the effects of potential groundwater withdrawals on groundwater flow and availability in the North Fork Red River aquifer in Oklahoma. This report describes a hydrologic investigation of the North Fork Red River aquifer that includes an updated summary of the aquifer hydrogeology. As part of this investigation, groundwater flow and availability were simulated by using a numerical groundwater-flow model.The North Fork Red River aquifer in Beckham, Greer, Jackson, Kiowa, and Roger Mills Counties in Oklahoma is composed of about 777 square miles (497,582 acres) of alluvium and terrace deposits along the North Fork Red River and tributaries, including Sweetwater Creek, Elk Creek, Otter Creek, and Elm Fork Red River. The North Fork Red River is the primary source of surface-water inflow to Lake Altus, which overlies the North Fork Red River aquifer. Lake Altus is a U.S. Bureau of Reclamation reservoir with the primary purpose of supplying irrigation water to the Lugert-Altus Irrigation District.A hydrogeologic framework was developed for the North Fork Red River aquifer and included a

  7. Review of mechanisms, methods, and theory for determining recharge to shallow aquifers in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Effective management of ground-water resources requires knowledge of all components of the water budget for the aquifer of interest. Efforts to simulate ground-water flow prior to development and the effects of proposed pumping in several of North Dakota's shallow glacial aquifers have been hindered by the lack of reliable estimates of ground-water recharge. This study was done to (1) review the methods that have been used to measure recharge, (2) review the theory of unsaturated flow and the methods for characterizing the physical properties of unsaturated media, (3) consider the relative merits of a rigorous data-intensive approach versus an estimation approach to the study of recharge, and (4) review past and current agronomic research in North Dakota for applicability of the research and the data generated to the study of recharge.Direct, quantitative techniques for evaluating recharge are rarely applied. The theory for computing fluxes in unsaturated media is well established and numerous physics-based models that effectively implement the theory are available, but the data required for the models generally are lacking. Many parametric approaches have been developed to avoid the large data requirements of the physics-based approaches for analyzing flow in the unsaturated zone. However, the parametric approaches normally include fitting coefficients that must be calibrated for every study site, thereby detracting from the general utility of the parametric approach. The functional relation of matric potential to moisture content is required for physics-based soil-water models, whether analytic or numeric. Laboratory methods to determine these relations are tedious, costly, and may not give results representative of the soils as they occur in the field. Many models have been proposed to estimate the moisture-characteristic curve and hydraulic-conductivity function from basic soil properties, but none yield results that are universally satisfactory. In situ

  8. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  9. Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munski, Laura

    Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the

  10. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  11. Hydrology of the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah, before, during, and after underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, C.B.; Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    From 1988-92 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, studied the effects of underground coal mining and the resulting subsidence on the hydrologic system near the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah. The subsidence caused open fractures at land surface, debris slides, and rockfalls in the canyon above the mined area. Land surface subsided and moved several feet horizontally. The perennial stream and a tributary upstream from the mined area were diverted below the ground by surface fractures where the overburden thickness above the Wattis coal seam is 300 to 500 feet. The reach downstream was dry but flow resumed where the channel traversed the Star Point Sandstone, which forms the aquifer below the coal seams where ground-water discharge provides new base flow. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in the stream water sampled just downstream from the mined area increased from about 300 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to more than 1,500 mg/L, and the water changed from primarily a magnesium calcium bicarbonate to primarily a magnesium sulfate type. Monitored water levels in two wells completed in the perched aquifer(s) above the mine indicate that fractures from subsidence- related deformation drained the perched aquifer in the Blackhawk Formation. The deformation also could have contributed to the decrease in discharge of three springs above the mined area, but discharge from other springs in the area did not change ubstantially; thus, the relation between subsidence and spring discharge, if any, is not clear. No significant changes in the chemical character of water discharging from springs were detected, but the dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from a perched sandstone aquifer overlying the mined coal seams increased during mining activity.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  13. Importance of prairie wetlands and avian prey to breeding Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Northwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard K. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Prey use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) is documented widely in North America, but not in the vast northern Great Plains. During spring through early summer 1986-1987, I recorded 2,900 prey items at 22 Great Horned Owl nesting areas in the prairie pothole farm- and rangelands of northwestern North Dakota. The owls relied heavily on wetland-...

  14. Using the North Dakota Immunization Information System to determine adolescent vaccination rates and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMurray, Keith; Sander, Molly

    2011-01-01

    We described the uptake and coverage rates of meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4); tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in North Dakota using the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). We analyzed all available MCV4, Tdap, and HPV4 doses given after vaccine licensure and through December 31, 2009, obtained from the NDIIS to identify trends and patterns in vaccine administration. We analyzed all data by administration date, age group, and health-care provider type. We also calculated missed opportunities to complete all recommended vaccines among vaccinated adolescents. For adolescents aged 13-17 years, 69.2% had > or = 1 dose of Tdap and 62.8% had > or = 1 dose of MCV4. Of females aged 13-17 years, 42.8% initiated the HPV4 vaccination series and 24.9% received > or = 3 HPV4 doses. Only 48.7% of males aged 13-17 years received both Tdap and MCV4 at the same visit, and only 11.5% of females aged 13-17 years received Tdap, MCV4, and HPV4 doses at the first visit. The NDIIS is useful in tracking adolescent vaccine uptake. The immunization rates for all three routinely recommended adolescent vaccines are rising in North Dakota, although at different paces. Providers should be educated about the importance of not missing opportunities to vaccinate, and school-based vaccination clinics should be used to reach adolescents who are less likely to have preventive care visits.

  15. Telemedicine Use Decreases Rural Emergency Department Length of Stay for Transferred North Dakota Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Vakkalanka, J Priyanka; Harland, Karisa K; Bell, Amanda; Skow, Brian; Shane, Dan M; Ward, Marcia M

    2018-03-01

    Telemedicine has been proposed as one strategy to improve local trauma care and decrease disparities between rural and urban trauma outcomes. This study was conducted to describe the effect of telemedicine on management and clinical outcomes for trauma patients in North Dakota. Cohort study of adult (age ≥18 years) trauma patients treated in North Dakota Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Emergency Departments (EDs) from 2008 to 2014. Records were linked to a telemedicine network's call records, indicating whether telemedicine was available and/or used at the institution at the time of the care. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were developed to identify associations between telemedicine consultation and availability and outcomes such as transfer, timeliness of care, trauma imaging, and mortality. Of the 7,500 North Dakota trauma patients seen in CAH, telemedicine was consulted for 11% of patients in telemedicine-capable EDs and 4% of total trauma patients. Telemedicine utilization was independently associated with decreased initial ED length of stay (LOS) (30 min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-45 min) for transferred patients. Telemedicine availability was associated with an increase in the probability of interhospital transfer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4). Telemedicine availability was associated with increased total ED LOS (15 min, 95% CI 10-21 min), and computed tomography scans (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9). ED-based telemedicine consultation is requested for the most severely injured rural trauma patients. Telemedicine consultation was associated with more rapid interhospital transfer, and telemedicine availability is associated with increased radiography use and transfer. Future work should evaluate how telemedicine could target patients likely to benefit from telemedicine consultation.

  16. Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This remedial action plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman (at the former Griffin town site), North Dakota. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the sites. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of North Dakota and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of North Dakota and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  17. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  18. Contaminant levels in eggs of American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, from Chase Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial nesters, making them susceptible to site-specific mortality factors. One of the largest known breeding colonies is at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota. In 2004, this colony suffered total reproductive failure. In 2005, we collected abandoned eggs from this colony to test for environmental contaminants. Nine eggs were analyzed for 28 organochlorine pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and 26 inorganic elements. Based on concentrations in this sample of eggs and levels linked to reproductive problems in birds, adult pelicans in the Chase Lake breeding colony are not at known risk from any of the environmental contaminants we measured.

  19. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. North Dakota. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the state of North Dakota

  20. Composition and stability of coyote families and territories in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.; Kohn, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coyote (Canis latrans) families studied in North Dakota during 1976 to 1978 contained three or more adults during the spring-summer season, and they occupied large contiguous, non-overlapping territories. Coyote territories averaged 61 km2 during the spring-summer season and 30 km2 during fall-winter season. Three of four families occupied territories that were similar in size for two consecutive years; however, boundaries changed within individual families when one or both alpha adults were killed. All coyotes replacing dead alpha adults were 1 year old.

  1. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J; Rieke, Judith L

    2009-07-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project.

  2. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Judith L; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J

    2009-04-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I, which appears in this issue, describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, details how records were created, including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project.

  3. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Water Use and Management in the Bakken Shale Oil Play in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, R M; Harto, C B; Jackson, R B; Lowry, E R; Brandt, A R; Yeskoo, T W; Murphy, D J; Clark, C E

    2016-03-15

    Oil and natural gas development in the Bakken shale play of North Dakota has grown substantially since 2008. This study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of water quantity and management impacts from this development by (1) estimating water demand for hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken from 2008 to 2012; (2) compiling volume estimates for maintenance water, or brine dilution water; (3) calculating water intensities normalized by the amount of oil produced, or estimated ultimate recovery (EUR); (4) estimating domestic water demand associated with the large oil services population; (5) analyzing the change in wastewater volumes from 2005 to 2012; and (6) examining existing water sources used to meet demand. Water use for hydraulic fracturing in the North Dakota Bakken grew 5-fold from 770 million gallons in 2008 to 4.3 billion gallons in 2012. First-year wastewater volumes grew in parallel, from an annual average of 1,135,000 gallons per well in 2008 to 2,905,000 gallons in 2012, exceeding the mean volume of water used in hydraulic fracturing and surpassing typical 4-year wastewater totals for the Barnett, Denver, and Marcellus basins. Surprisingly, domestic water demand from the temporary oilfield services population in the region may be comparable to the regional water demand from hydraulic fracturing activities. Existing groundwater resources are inadequate to meet the demand for hydraulic fracturing, but there appear to be adequate surface water resources, provided that access is available.

  5. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  6. Potential for enhancing nongame bird habitat values on abandoned mine lands of western North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, J.B.; Hopkins, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Throughout western North Dakota the number of unreclaimed surface coal and coal-uranium mines might total over 1100. We examined the potential for enhancing the nongame bird habitat values of unreclaimed mine lands in the arid, western region of North Dakota. Generally, the greatest variety of birds occurred in natural and planted woodlands, while fewer birds occurred in unreclaimed mine lands, grasslands, shrublands and croplands. Deciduous woodland types supported more species of birds than coniferous types. Planted woodlands supported about the same number of bird species as some natural deciduous woodland types and more species than coniferous woods. Unreclaimed mine lands supported more species than grasslands and croplands, and about the same number of species as native shrublands. The highest bird densities were in planted woodlands. Bird diversity varied positively with habitat diversity. The bird fauna of unreclaimed mine lands can be enhanced by creating more diverse habitats. Seventeen guidelines to enhance unreclaimed mine lands for nongame birds are presented. These guidelines can be used in preserving habitats threatened by surface mining and reclaiming previously mined lands

  7. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  8. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of floodplain restoration on the North Fork John Day River, Northeast Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, C. F.; Blanton, P.; Long, W.; Walterman, M. T.; McDowell, P. F.; Maus, P.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade hundreds of river restoration projects intended to maintain, protect, and restore watersheds, rivers, and habitat for native species in the Pacific Northwest have been implemented. By some counts, investment in watershed restoration exceeds hundreds of millions of dollars annually yet the effectiveness of these efforts remains an elusive question (Roni, 2005). Remote sensing and GIS technologies show great promise for large-scale river monitoring, however most natural resource organizations who implement these projects have limited budget and staff and would benefit from simple, low cost monitoring techniques that use readily available imagery. We used 1:24000 digitized orthorectified resource imagery from 1995, and National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) digital orthophotography from 2005 to assess the effectiveness of floodplain restoration on a 16 km reach of the North Fork John Day River. Between 1993 and 1997 this section was restored by mechanically removing, reshaping, and revegetating cobble-boulder tailings piles left from dredge mining. The project was intended to directly improve floodplain function (i.e. inundation, riparian habitat) and indirectly improve instream habitat (pools, spawning) by reconnecting the active river channel with a reconstructed floodplain surface. Project effectiveness was not well documented initially in terms of quantifying floodplain functional area improvement or channel condition and response at the river-reach scale. Our objectives were to field-verify remote sensing measurements of response variables to test the applicability of available remote sensing imagery for project effectiveness monitoring, and to quantify adjustment in river response variables, using a "before-after" case study approach. Bracketing restoration activities with 1995 and 2000 imagery, we developed and tested methods for acquisition and processing of digital imagery and identified a core set of response variables to sample

  10. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  11. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings directly

  12. Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota, Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the retrospective case study conducted near Killdeer, Dunn County, North Dakota. The Killdeer study area is the location of historical oil and gas production, with current unconventional oil and gas production occurring in the late Devonian/early Mississipp...

  13. No More "Magic Aprons": Longitudinal Assessment and Continuous Improvement of Customer Service at the University of North Dakota Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karlene T.; Walker, Stephanie R.

    2017-01-01

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Libraries have developed a multi-award winning Customer Service Program (CSP) involving longitudinal assessment and continuous improvement. The CSP consists of iterative training modules; constant reinforcement of Customer Service Principles with multiple communication strategies and tools, and incentives that…

  14. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-51-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 267--Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America, LLC, (Construction and Agricultural Equipment..., submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of...

  15. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  16. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  17. Using Genre to Bridge Research, Professional Writing, and Public Writing at University of North Dakota: A Program Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basgier, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate how genre pedagogy and public writing pedagogy can inform one another, this program profile describes the second-semester composition course at University of North Dakota, ENGL 130: College Composition II: Writing for Public Audiences. In this course, genre works as a rhetorical bridge across an interlinked sequence of research,…

  18. Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  19. 78 FR 33052 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...%) for the foreign status inputs noted below and in the existing scope of authority. Customs duties also... Agricultural Equipment Production); Fargo, North Dakota The Fargo Municipal Airport Authority, grantee of FTZ... within Site 2 of FTZ 267. The facilities currently have FTZ authority to produce tractors, wheel loaders...

  20. Results of a modeling workshop concerning preservation and protection of wetlands in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In a recently signed letter, the Governor of North Dakota and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife and Parks charged a joint state-federal study group with examination of two separate questions: 1) mitigation for the Garrison Diversion Project; and 2) planning for long-range protection and preservation of fish and wildlife habitat in North Dakota. The cochair for this study group (the Secretary of the Interior's Field Representative, Denver, Colorado, and the Natural Resources Coordinator for North Dakota) further articulated the charge concerning the second of these two questions to include three steps: 1) development of a general plan for preservation and protection of migratory waterfowl and their associated wetland habitat; 2) a comprehensive analysis of alternative strategies, including opportunities and constraints, for achieving the goals articulated in Step 1; and 3) design of a coordinated state-federal public information program to assist in plan implementation. In order to obtain input from a variety of interests, the joint study group initiated step 2 activities with a five-day workshop in Bismarck, N. D.; December 8-12, 1980. The objectives of the workshop were: 1) to identify alternative strategies for preserving and enhancing waterfowl production habitat in North Dakota; 2) to identify opportunities and constraints associated with those alternatives; and 3) to promote communication and understanding of the implications of those alternatives for all affected parties. To achieve these objectives, the workshop utilized a group of concepts and techniques collectively known as Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA). Developed by Dr. C. S. Holling and his co-workers at the University of British Columbia, the AEA process involves planners, managers, scientists, and other interested parties in a structures atmosphere whose focus is the construction and examination of a computerized simulation model of the resource system under

  1. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  2. Hydrology and model of North Fork Solomon River Valley, Kirwin Dam to Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1981-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the North Fork Solomon River is an important agricultural area. Reservoir releases diverted below Kirwin Dam are the principal source of irrigation water. During the 1970'S, severe water shortages occurred in Kirwin Reservoir and other nearby reservoirs as a result of an extended drought. Some evidence indicates that surface-water shortages may have been the result of a change in the rainfall-runoff relationship. Examination of the rainfall-runoff relationship shows no apparent trend from 1951 to 1968, but annual records from 1969 to 1976 indicate that deficient rainfall occurred during 6 of the 8 years. Ground water from the alluvial aquifer underlying the river valley also is used extensively for irrigation. Utilization of ground water for irrigation greatly increased from about 200 acre-feet in 1955 to about 12,300 acre-feet in 1976. Part of the surface water diverted for irrigation has percolated downward into the aquifer raising the ground-water level. Ground-water storage in the aquifer increased from 230,000 acre-feet in 1946 to 275,000 acre-feet in 1976-77. A digital model was used to simulate the steady-state conditions in the aquifer prior to closure of Kirwin Dam. Model results indicated that precipitation was the major source of recharge to the aquifer. The effective recharge, or gain from precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was about 11,700 acre-feet per year. The major element of discharge from the aquifer was leakage to the river. The simulated net leakage (leakage to the river minus leakage from the river) was about 11,500 acre-feet per year. The simulated value is consistent with the estimated gain in base flow of the river within the area modeled. Measurements of seepage used to determine gain and loss to the stream were made twice during 1976. Based on these measurements and on base-flow periods identified from hydrographs, it was estimated that the ground-water discharge to the stream has increased about 4,000 acre

  3. Impact of the Red River catastrophic flood on women giving birth in North Dakota, 1994-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Zotti, Marianne E; Hsia, Jason

    2011-04-01

    To document changes in birth rates, birth outcomes, and pregnancy risk factors among women giving birth after the 1997 Red River flood in North Dakota. We analyzed detailed county-level birth files pre-disaster (1994-1996) and post-disaster (1997-2000) in North Dakota. Crude birth rates and adjusted fertility rates were calculated. The demographic and pregnancy risk factors were described among women delivering singleton births. Logistic regression was conducted to examine associations between the disaster and low birth weight (Dakota. The proportion of women giving birth who were older, non-white, unmarried, and had a higher education increased. Compared to pre-disaster, there were significant increases in the following maternal measures after the disaster: any medical risks (5.1-7.1%), anemia (0.7-1.1%), acute or chronic lung disease (0.4-0.5%), eclampsia (0.3-2.1%), and uterine bleeding (0.3-0.4%). In addition, there was a significant increase in births that were low birth weight (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.21) and preterm (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16) after adjusting for maternal characteristics and smoking. Following the flood, there was an increase in medical risks, low birth weight, and preterm delivery among women giving birth in North Dakota. Further research that examines birth outcomes of women following a catastrophic disaster is warranted.

  4. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume VII: A Dakota-English dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Stephen Return; Dorsey, James Owen; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    This volume consists of a Dakota-English dictionary. The Dakota, commonly known as the Sioux, forms the leading and best known division of the Siouan linguistic family. The Dakota language now consists of three well defined dialects, the Santee, Yankton and Teton.

  5. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A breeding bird census and plant survey was conducted on 180 samples of lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed and hayed native grasslands in North Dakota in 1974. The ten most important cover plants on each of eight major physiographic landforms in three of the four regions (the Agassiz Lake Plain excluded) overlapped so extensively that only 19 species were involved: 13 grasses or sedges, four forbs, one shrub, and one clubmoss. Bird densities were generally highest in (i) regions and landforms containing numerous natural basin wetlands, (ii) flatter, glaciated landforms containing more fertile soils, and (iii) landforms of greater relief and high habitat heterogeneity. Avian species richness tended to decrease with increased grazing intensity, but total bird density increased due to higher populations of a few species, and hayland that had been mowed and raked during the previous growing season was highly attractive to some species.

  6. Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  7. JV Task 99-Integrated Risk Analysis and Contaminant Reduction, Watford City, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry W. Botnen

    2007-05-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a limited site investigation and risk analyses for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a Construction Services, Inc., site in Watford City, North Dakota. Site investigation confirmed the presence of free product and high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants in several wells, the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane, and extremely high levels of electrical conductivity indicative of brine residuals in the tank area south of the facility. The risk analysis was based on compilation of information from the site-specific geotechnical investigation, including multiphase extraction pilot test, laser induced fluorescence probing, evaluation of contaminant properties, receptor survey, capture zone analysis and evaluation of well head protection area for municipal well field. The project results indicate that the risks associated with contaminant occurrence at the Construction Services, Inc. site are low and, under current conditions, there is no direct or indirect exposure pathway between the contaminated groundwater and soils and potential receptors.

  8. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  9. Aging and Mobility in Rural and Small Urban Areas: A Survey of North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeremy W

    2011-12-01

    To investigate issues of aging and mobility in rural and small urban areas, this study analyzes the results from a survey AARP conducted of its North Dakota members. Specific objectives are to estimate the impact of age and other demographic and geographic characteristics on various measures of mobility, including ability to drive, use of public transportation, trip frequency for both discretionary and nondiscretionary travel, unmet travel demand, barriers to using public transportation, and satisfaction with available transportation options. Although most surveyed still drive, results show decreased mobility with increases in age and for people with disabilities due to decreases in driving and an increased likelihood of lack of transportation limiting the number of trips taken. People with disabilities were also significantly more likely to experience problems with public transportation. Women were found to be less likely to drive and more likely to use public transportation.

  10. Impact of Camping on Soil Properties at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Tibor, Matthew A.

    2014-05-01

    Recreational activity at campsites can cause compaction and metal contamination of soils. This study compared the bulk densities, penetration resistance values, organic matter contents, and Zn, Mn, and Cu contents of soils sampled from zones of varying recreational activity within the campsites at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant increases in the soil bulk densities and soil penetration resistance values compared to the controls. However, the low recreational intensity has not compacted the surface soils beyond an average of 1.36 g cm-3, which is not dense enough to hinder the root growth of the surrounding vegetation. There were no statistically significant differences between the soil organic matter content of the different activity zones at the 95% confidence interval. Zinc values were four orders of magnitude and Cu values three to four orders of magnitude below US EPA guideline limits. The EPA does not have guidelines for Mn, but Mn levels were lower than reported typical natural values for a nearby area. Therefore, metal contents were not high enough to be of concern. Taken together, these results were interpreted to indicate that the low-intensity camping activities that occur at Strawberry Lake campground have not had a significant negative impact on the soils found there. Additional information on this study can be found in Tibor and Brevik (2013). Reference Tibor, M.A., and E.C. Brevik. 2013. Anthropogenic Impacts on Campsite Soils at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota. Soil Horizons 54: doi:10.2136/sh13-06-0016.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle pen surfaces in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Swanson, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    There is a global interest to quantify and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) (e.g. methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O and carbon dioxide-CO2) emissions in animal feeding operations. The goal of this study was to quantify GHG emissions from the feedlot pen surface under North Dakota climatic conditions. In this study gaseous flux from the pen surfaces was generated using a custom-made wind tunnel at different times of the year (summer, fall, winter and spring). Gaseous fluxes (air samples) were drawn in the Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber and gas concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph within 24 h of sampling. The CH4 concentrations and flux rates (FRs) or flux among the months were not significantly different. Overall CH4, CO2 and N2O concentrations over a 7-month period were 2.66, 452 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Estimated overall CH4, CO and N2O FRs were 1.32, 602 and 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Estimated emission rates using the wind tunnel were 38 g hd(-1) d(-1), 17 kg hd(-1) d(-1) and 26 g hd(-1) d(-1) for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The emission factors for GHG estimated in the research for North Dakota climate were the first of its kind, and these emission estimates can be used as a basis for planning and implementing management practices to minimize GHG emissions.

  12. Evaluating Soil Health Using Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration on the Benchmark Barnes Soils of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Meyer; Hopkins, David; Steele, Dean; Tuscherer, Sheldon

    2017-04-01

    The benchmark Barnes soil series is an extensive upland Hapludoll of the northern Great Plains that is both economically and ecologically vital to the region. Effects of tillage erosion coupled with wind and water erosion have degraded Barnes soil quality, but with unknown extent, distribution, or severity. Evidence of soil degradation documented for a half century warrants that the assumption of productivity be tested. Soil resilience is linked to several dynamic soil properties and National Cooperative Soil Survey initiatives are now focused on identifying those properties for benchmark soils. Quantification of soil degradation is dependent on a reliable method for broad-scale evaluation. The soil survey community is currently developing rapid and widespread soil property assessment technologies. Improvements in satellite based remote-sensing and image analysis software have stimulated the application of broad-scale resource assessment. Furthermore, these technologies have fostered refinement of land-based surface energy balance algorithms, i.e. Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) algorithm for evapotranspiration (ET) mapping. The hypothesis of this study is that ET mapping technology can differentiate soil function on extensive landscapes and identify degraded areas. A recent soil change study in eastern North Dakota resampled legacy Barnes pedons sampled prior to 1960 and found significant decreases in organic carbon. An ancillary study showed that evapotranspiration (ET) estimates from METRIC decreased with Barnes erosion class severity. An ET raster map has been developed for three eastern North Dakota counties using METRIC and Landsat 5 imagery. ET pixel candidates on major Barnes soil map units were stratified into tertiles and classified as ranked ET subdivisions. A sampling population of randomly selected points stratified by ET class and county proportion was established. Morphologic and chemical data will

  13. Radon contamination problems in North Dakota. Hearing before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, August 20, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    From tests of 200 homes in North Dakota in over 25 cities and towns, the Department of Health estimates that as many as 50% of all homes in the state may have radon levels above the EPA-recommended safety level, at this hearing in Fargo, ten witnesses included university professors, state and local health authorities, and the North Dakota Association of Realtors. US Sen. Quentin N. Burdick of North Dakota, who chaired the hearing, pointed out that the recently passed Radon Program Development Act (1) provide seed money to help states get radon programs up and running; (2) requires EPA to conduct surveys in Federal buildings; and (3) requires EPA to determine the extent of radon contamination in the Nation's schools. He recommends that North Dakota take advantage of this Federal assistance

  14. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in North Dakota, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, to analyze historical water-quality trends in selected dissolved major ions, nutrients, and dissolved trace metals for 10 streams in southwestern and eastern North Dakota and to develop an efficient sampling design to monitor future water-quality trends. A time-series model for daily streamflow and constituent concentration was used to identify significant concentration trends, separate natural hydroclimatic variability in concentration from variability that could have resulted from anthropogenic causes, and evaluate various sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. The interannual variability in concentration as a result of variability in streamflow, referred to as the annual concentration anomaly, generally was high for all constituents and streams used in the trend analysis and was particularly sensitive to the severe drought that occurred in the late 1980's and the very wet period that began in 1993 and has persisted to the present (2002). Although climatic conditions were similar across North Dakota during the trend-analysis period (1971-2000), significant differences occurred in the annual concentration anomalies from constituent to constituent and location to location, especially during the drought and the wet period. Numerous trends were detected in the historical constituent concentrations after the annual concentration anomalies were removed. The trends within each of the constituent groups (major ions, nutrients, and trace metals) showed general agreement among the streams. For most locations, the largest dissolved major-ion concentrations occurred during the late 1970's and concentrations in the mid- to late 1990's were smaller than concentrations during the late 1970's. However, the largest concentrations for three of the Missouri River tributaries and one of the Red River of the North

  15. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  16. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  17. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  18. Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (log drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p=0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community. Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the cluster groups. There were significant differences (p=0.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different (p=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

  19. A Cultural Resource Inventory of the Left Bank of Lake Oahe: Burleigh and Emmons Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Mound group (Snortland-Coles:1983), the Magpie Road site (Campbell et al. 1983), and data from the Cross Ranch inventory (Ahler, Lee and Falk 1981...soldier was accused of killing a woman in the town and was held on a charge of murder . He was later acquitted. On two occasions the bodies of...Investigations rt thjj Magpie Road Site (32BI286); An Occurrence of Blackduck Ceramics in the North Dakota Badlands" Report prepared for Tenneco Oil

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Lack of significant changes in the herpetofauna of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, since the 1920s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake R. Hossack; Paul Stephen Corn; David S. Pilliod

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed 88 upland wetlands and 12 1-km river sections for amphibians in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, during 2001–2002 to gather baseline data for future monitoring efforts and to evaluate changes in the distribution of species. We compared our results to collections of herpetofauna made during 1920–1922, 1954 and 1978–1979. The boreal chorus frog...

  2. Studying the effects of land use on sediment loads, Little Missouri National Grasslands, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    The Little Missouri National Grasslands in North Dakota were established in 1960 and are publicly owned lands administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. The grasslands are not solid blocks of National Forest Systems lands but are lands intermingled with other Federal, State, and privately-owned lands. The mixed-ownership pattern creates a unique environmental management arrangement within each grasslands area.The USDA Forest Service needs to determine how changes in land use affect loss of sediment from the grasslands, especially during periods of high runoff or after a grassland fire. Excessive sediment loss has the potential to destabilize hillslopes and channels by increasing runoff potential, by prohibiting natural revegetation, by changing animal habitation patterns, and by impacting areas farther downslope and downstream of affected areas.On October 31, 1999, two major grass-land fires occurred in the Little Missouri National Grasslands area. The Squaw Gap Fire affected 51,627 acres and the Rough Creek Fire affected 7,979 acres. Runoff caused substantial erosion when many road ditches and culverts were filled with sediment and some roads were washed out. In order to implement the best management practices within the Little Missouri National Grasslands, the USDA Forest Service will need sediment information related to land-use changes such as burned and unburned areas and grazed and ungrazed areas.The Little Missouri National Grasslands are located along the Little Missouri River in western North Dakota. The Grasslands are comprised of 1,028,000 acres predominantly in an area of rolling hills, sparsely covered buttes, coulees, woody draws, and badlands. Most of the area is used as rangeland; but, some of the area is cultivated or used for oil and gas development. The Grasslands have semiarid climate with short, warm summers and long, cold winters. The Grasslands receive an average annual precipitation of about 13 to 15 inches

  3. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  4. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  5. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of North Dakota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  8. Preliminary analysis of University of North Dakota aircraft data from the FIRE Cirrus IFO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    The stated goals of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are 'to promote the development of improved cloud and radiation parameterization for use in climate models, and to provide for assessment and improvement of ISCCP projects'. FIRE Phase 2 has focused on the formation, maintenance and dissipation of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems. These objectives have been approached through a combination of modeling, extended-time observations and intensive field observation (IFO) periods. The work under this grant was associated with the FIRE Cirrus IFO 2. This field measurement program was conducted to obtain observations of cirrus cloud systems on a range of scales from the synoptic to the microscale, utilizing simultaneous measurements from a variety of ground-based, satellite and airborne platforms. By combining these remote and in situ measurements a more complete picture of cirrus systems can be obtained. The role of the University of North Dakota in Phase 2 was three-fold: to collect in situ microphysical data during the Cirrus IFO 2; to process and archive these data; and to collaborate in analyses of IFO data. This report will summarize the activities and findings of the work performed under this grant; detailed description of the data sets available and of the analyses are contained in the Semi-annual Status Reports submitted to NASA.

  9. Runoff and water-quality characteristics of three Discovery Farms in North Dakota, 2008–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2017-12-21

    Agricultural producers in North Dakota are aware of concerns about degrading water quality, and many of the producers are interested in implementing conservation practices to reduce the export of nutrients from their farms. Producers often implement conservation practices without knowledge of the water quality of the runoff from their farm or if conservation practices they may implement have any effect on water quality. In response to this lack of information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with North Dakota State University Extension Service and in coordination with an advisory group consisting of State agencies, agricultural producers, and commodity groups, implemented a monitoring study as part of a Discovery Farms program in North Dakota in 2007. Three data-collection sites were established at each of three farms near Underwood, Embden, and Dazey, North Dakota. The purpose of this report is to describe runoff and water-quality characteristics using data collected at the three Discovery Farms during 2008–16. Runoff and water-quality data were used to help describe the implications of agricultural conservation practices on runoff and water-quality patterns.Runoff characteristics of monitoring sites at the three farms were determined by measuring flow volume and precipitation. Runoff at the Underwood farm monitoring sites generally was controlled by precipitation in the area, antecedent soil moisture conditions, and, after 2012, possibly by the diversion ditch constructed by the producer. Most of the annual runoff was in March and April each year during spring snowmelt. Runoff characteristics at the Embden farm are complex because of the mix of surface runoff and flow through two separate drainage tile systems. Annual flow volumes for the drainage tiles sites (sites E2 and E3) were several orders of magnitude greater than measured at the surface water site E1. Site E1 generally only had runoff briefly in March and April during spring snowmelt and

  10. Diet and gut morphology of male mallards during winter in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R.E.; Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Ankney, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    A free-ranging Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was investigated during winter (December-January 1996-1999) below the Garrison Dam, North Dakota, USA, to relate diet to gut morphology variation in males. Four explanatory variables (fish consumption, male age, winter, and body size) were evaluated as to whether they influenced five response variables associated with gut characteristics of Mallards. Response variables were lower gastro-intestinal tract mass (LGIT), dry liver mass, dry gizzard mass, small intestine length, and ceca length. Diets of Mallards were comprised primarily of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) and concomitantly variation in gizzard mass was small. LGIT mass of juveniles was larger than that of adults, greater for those that consumed fish, and greater during the coldest and snowiest winter. Liver mass and small intestine length of Mallards that consumed fish were greater than those that did not. Mallards may maintain lengthy intestines to increase digestive efficiency. Gut size variation was not entirely attributable to dietary composition but also influenced by body size and environmental conditions such that over-winter survival is maximized.

  11. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-07-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The decision to receive influenza vaccination among nurses in North and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Laurie Jo; Stenvig, Thomas; Wey, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships between factors (intention, habit, facilitating conditions, and social, cognitive, and affective factors) and nurses' decisions about influenza vaccinations to understand why some get vaccinated while others do not. In a descriptive correlational design, the Triandis model of interpersonal behavior was used to examine the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. Participants were a random sample (N=193) of registered nurses in North and South Dakota drawn from the respective state nursing licensing board lists. Instrument construction and mail survey procedures followed Dillman's tailored design method. The response rate exceeded 80%. The findings revealed significant, positive correlations among all model variables. Item analysis showed that false beliefs about influenza disease and vaccinations were prevalent and that there was a wide variation in employer support for nurses getting vaccinated. Educational and social marketing strategies may improve nurse's knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine and increase vaccine uptake. Employers should be encouraged to promote and improve influenza vaccine accessibility in the workplace. Additional study is needed to understand how best to strengthen the influence of intention and habit on the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of wind speed distribution models: A case study for North Dakota sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junyi; Erdem, Ergin; Li Gong; Shi Jing

    2010-01-01

    Accurate analysis of long term wind data is critical to the estimation of wind energy potential for a candidate location and its nearby area. Investigating the wind speed distribution is one critical task for this purpose. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation on probability density functions for the wind speed data from five representative sites in North Dakota. Besides the popular Weibull and Rayleigh distributions, we also include other distributions such as gamma, lognormal, inverse Gaussian, and maximum entropy principle (MEP) derived probability density functions (PDFs). Six goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics are used to determine the appropriate distributions for the wind speed data for each site. It is found that no particular distribution outperforms others for all five sites, while Rayleigh distribution performs poorly for most of the sites. Similar to other models, the performances of MEP-derived PDFs in fitting wind speed data varies from site to site. Also, the results demonstrate that MEP-derived PDFs are flexible and have the potential to capture other possible distribution patterns of wind speed data. Meanwhile, different GOF statistics may generate inconsistent ranking orders of fit performance among the candidate PDFs. In addition, one comprehensive metric that combines all individual statistics is proposed to rank the overall performance for the chosen statistical distributions.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dickinson NTMS Quadrangle, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dickinson Quadrangle, North Dakota are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 544 groundwater and 554 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Interpretation of the groundwater data indicates that scattered localities in the central portion of the quadrangle appear most promising for uranium mineralization. High values of uranium in this area are usually found in waters of the Sentinel Butte and Tongue River Formations. Uranium is believed to be concentrated in the lignite beds of the Fort Union Group, with concentrations increasing with proximity to the pre-Oligocene unconformity. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium values distributed over the central area of the quadrangle. Uranium in stream sediments does not appear to be associated with any particular geologic unit and is perhaps following a structural trend

  15. Evaluation of Rare Earth Element Extraction from North Dakota Coal-Related Feed Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudal, Daniel A.

    The rare earth elements consist of the lanthanide series of elements with atomic numbers from 57-71 and also include yttrium and scandium. Due to their unique properties, rare earth elements are crucial materials in an incredible array of consumer goods, energy system components and military defense applications. However, the global production and entire value chain for rare earth elements is dominated by China, with the U.S. currently 100% import reliant for these critical materials. Traditional mineral ores including previously mined deposits in the U.S., however, have several challenges. Chief among these is that the content of the most critical and valuable of the rare earths are deficient, making mining uneconomical. Further, the supply of these most critical rare earths is nearly 100% produced in China from a single resource that is only projected to last another 10 to 20 years. The U.S. currently considers the rare earths market an issue of national security. It is imperative that alternative domestic sources of rare earths be identified and methods developed to produce them. Recently, coal and coal byproducts have been identified as one of these promising alternative resources. This dissertation details a study on evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of rare earth element recovery from North Dakota lignite coal and lignite-related feedstocks. There were four major goals of this study: i) identify lignite or lignite-related feedstocks with total rare earth element content above 300 parts per million, a threshold dictated by the agency who funded this research as the minimum for economic viability, ii) determine the geochemistry of the feedstocks and understand the forms and modes of occurrence of the rare earth elements, information necessary to inform the development of extraction and concentration methods, iii) identify processing methods to concentrate the rare earth elements from the feedstocks to a target of two weight percent, a value

  16. Concentrated nesting of mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Sharp, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Island-nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) were studied on a 4.5-ha island in 385-ha Miller Lake in northwestern North Dakota during 1976-80. During the 5-year study, 2,561 duck nests of 9 species were found on Island A located 180 m offshore; 59% were mallard and 34% were gadwall. In patches of shrub cover, which contained the greatest concentrations of nests, densities ranged from 241 to 389 mallard nests/ha and from 139 to 237 gadwall nests/ha. Over 97% of the nests were placed in 4 patches of shrubs totaling about 1 ha of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)--Woods rose (Rosa woodsii) cover, which composed about 30% of the island's vegetation. Average hatching success was 85% for clutches of all species. Abandonment averaged 14% (348 of 2,426 nests) and was the major cause of egg failure. Only 15 nests (eggs in successful nests averaged 83% for mallards and 87% for gadwalls. Despite the close spacing of nests, most individual hens maintained normal nesting regimes. Eighty-one percent of the mallard clutches contained 7-13 eggs and 81% of the gadwall clutches contained 8-14 eggs. Island A in Miller Lake provides an outstanding example of the potential for high reproduction levels of mallards and gadwalls nesting in small areas of predator-free habitats.

  17. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium-mill tailings, Bowman Site, Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive residues from the burning of uranium-bearing lignite at Bowman, North Dakota. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 97,000 tons of ash and contaminated materials at the Bowman site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although windblown ash and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the contaminated materials to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the ashing site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,740,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $3,060,000 for disposal at a distance of about 4 mi. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  18. Methane, Black Carbon, and Ethane Emissions from Natural Gas Flares in the Bakken Shale, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvakharia, Alexander; Kort, Eric A; Brandt, Adam; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Thomas B; Schwarz, Joshua P; Smith, Mackenzie L; Sweeney, Colm

    2017-05-02

    Incomplete combustion during flaring can lead to production of black carbon (BC) and loss of methane and other pollutants to the atmosphere, impacting climate and air quality. However, few studies have measured flare efficiency in a real-world setting. We use airborne data of plume samples from 37 unique flares in the Bakken region of North Dakota in May 2014 to calculate emission factors for BC, methane, ethane, and combustion efficiency for methane and ethane. We find no clear relationship between emission factors and aircraft-level wind speed or between methane and BC emission factors. Observed median combustion efficiencies for methane and ethane are close to expected values for typical flares according to the US EPA (98%). However, we find that the efficiency distribution is skewed, exhibiting log-normal behavior. This suggests incomplete combustion from flares contributes almost 1/5 of the total field emissions of methane and ethane measured in the Bakken shale, more than double the expected value if 98% efficiency was representative. BC emission factors also have a skewed distribution, but we find lower emission values than previous studies. The direct observation for the first time of a heavy-tail emissions distribution from flares suggests the need to consider skewed distributions when assessing flare impacts globally.

  19. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  20. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated

  1. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  2. 77 FR 51560 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to...: 43 U.S.C. Chap. 3. Josh Alexander, Acting Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of Resources. [FR Doc...

  3. Design criteria applied for the Lower Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydroelectric Project in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, A.

    1988-07-01

    The application of various criteria and certain new approaches to design is illustrated by the example of the Lower Collierville Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydropower Project in California. With a maximum internal water pressure of 72 bar, Lower Collierville Tunnel will be, when commissioned in 1989, the highest stressed pressure tunnel in the world not situated in granitic rocks. The geological conditions and the results of the geotechnical investigations are described briefly. For the steel-lined portion of the tunnel, the approach for determining the bearing capacity of the rock mass and the load sharing between steel and rock is discussed. The required length of steel liner was determined on the basis of rock mechanical (hydraulic jacking) and rock hydraulic (seepage losses and extension of saturated zone due to seepage) criteria. The use of a new theory allows the effects of mechanical-hydraulic interaction to be taken into account. Finally the methods of estimating the expected water losses and the sealing effect of the consolidation grouting are described.

  4. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir... the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage in...

  5. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir... Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage in the...

  6. Evaluation of water-quality characteristics and sampling design for streams in North Dakota, 1970–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Vining, Kevin C.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the need to examine the large amount of historic water-quality data comprehensively across North Dakota and evaluate the efficiency of the State-wide sampling programs, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission and the North Dakota Department of Health to describe the water-quality data collected for the various programs and determine an efficient State-wide sampling design for monitoring future water-quality conditions. Although data collected for the North Dakota State Water Commission High-Low Sampling Program, the North Dakota Department of Health Ambient Water-Quality Network, and other projects and programs provide valuable information on the quality of water in streams in North Dakota, the objectives vary among the programs, some of the programs overlap spatially and temporally, and the various sampling designs may not be the most efficient or relevant to the objectives of the individual programs as they have changed through time. One objective of a State-wide sampling program was to evaluate ways to describe the spatial variability of water-quality conditions across the State in the most efficient manner. Weighted least-squares regression analysis was used to relate the average absolute difference between paired downstream and upstream concentrations, expressed as a percent of the average downstream concentration, to the average absolute difference in daily flow between the downstream and upstream pairs, expressed as a percent of the average downstream flow. The analysis showed that a reasonable spatial network would consist of including the most downstream sites in large basins first, followed by the next upstream site(s) that roughly bisect the downstream flows at the first sites, followed by the next upstream site(s) that roughly bisect flows for the second sites. Sampling sites to be included in a potential State-wide network were prioritized into 3 design levels: level 1

  7. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek, North Dakota: an isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Mushet, D. M.; Alexander, L. C.; Christensen, J.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Neff, B. P.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Rugh, W.; Vanderhoof, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, which is dominated by prairie potholes. During a wetter-than-normal decade, Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated water signal that had approximately half the isotopic enrichment signal found in most evaporatively-enriched pothole wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from upstream towards downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha of open water contributing to streamflow over time, and varied primarily with the amount of discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This indicated that prairie pothole wetlands were important sources of stream flow in Pipestem Creek throughout the summer, as well as during snowmelt. This also demonstrated that at the lowest flows, the stream itself became disconnected from headwater stream reaches. We believe that this dynamic connectivity between pothole wetlands and Pipestem Creek occurred primarily when evaporatively-enriched water stored in pothole wetlands spilled to the stream during precipitation events.

  8. A small Internet controllable observatory for research and education at the University of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardersen, P. S.; de Silva, S.; Reddy, V.; Cui, P.; Kumar, S.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    One of the challenges in astronomy education today is to introduce college students to the real-world practice and science of observational astronomy. Along with a good theoretical background, college students can gain an earlier, deeper understanding of the astronomy profession through direct observational and data reduction experience. However, building and managing a modest observatory is still too costly for many colleges and universities. Fortunately, advances in commercial astronomical hardware and software now allow universities to build and operate small Internet controllable observatories for a modest investment. The advantages of an Internet observatory include: 1) remote operation from a comfortable location, 2) immediate data access, 3) telescope control via a web browser, and 4) allowing both on-campus and distance education students the ability to conduct a variety of observing projects. Internet capabilities vastly expand the number of students who will be able to use the observatory, thus exposing them to astronomy as a science and as a potential career. In September 2005, the University of North Dakota (UND) Department of Space Studies began operating a small, recently renovated Internet controllable observatory. Housed within a roll-off roof 10 miles west of UND, the observatory includes a Meade 16-inch, f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, an SBIG STL-6303e CCD with broadband filters, ACP observatory control software, focuser, and associated equipment. The observatory cost \\25,000 to build in 1996; 2005 renovation costs total \\28,000. An observatory operator prepares the telescope for use each night. Through remote operation, the roof is opened and the telescope/CCD power is turned on. The telescope is then aligned and focused before allowing students to access the observatory. Students communicate with the observatory operator via an online chat room and via telephone, if necessary, to answer questions and resolve any problems. Additional

  9. Molecular Identification of Vertebrate and Hemoparasite DNA Within Mosquito Blood Meals From Eastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of

  10. Molecular identification of vertebrate and hemoparasite DNA within mosquito blood meals from eastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Joseph O; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-11-01

    To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of vector

  11. Prevention of ground-water quality degradation during reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.; Burgess, J.L.; Wald, J.D.; Patrick, D.P.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    About 590,000 pounds of uranium oxide were recovered from 85,000 tons of lignite in at least 16 North Dakota pits between 1955 and 1967. Because uranium salts in the overburden generally were not recovered, spoil piles at abandoned mine sites contain elevated uranium contents. Reclamation of these mines is required to eliminate public hazards due to elevated radiation and toxic-element levels. A pilot reclamation project was implemented at one abandoned mine pit in northwestern Stark County. Basically, the reclamation involved the replacement of spoil material into the pits from which it was removed. Based on analyses of drill-hole cutting samples obtained from 2-foot depth increments on a 50-foot grid over the 7.25-acre spoil pile, spoil material with radium-226 concentrations exceeding 5 picocuries per gram above background or with uranium concentrations exceeding 5 times background was identified and mapped in three dimensions. This ''most-contaminated'' spoil material was selectively replaced in the mine pits above the water table to prevent dissolution of uranium salts and under a minimum of 5 feed of cover to minimize postreclamation surface-radiation levels. Similarly, areas of spoils with specific conductance greater than 5,000 microsiemens per centimeter were replaced at least 6 feet below the postreclamation ground surface to promote revegetation and above the water table to prevent enrichment of dissolved-solids concentrations in the aquifer. Finally, replaced zones of high radioactivity and soluble salts were capped with clay from the base of an adjacent pit; and the surface topography was mounded to minimize infiltration that might introduce radioactive and other soluble salts into the aquifer

  12. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  13. Hydrographic surveys of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers at selected bridges and through Bismarck, North Dakota, during the 2011 flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Transportation and the North Dakota State Water Commission, completed hydrographic surveys at six Missouri River bridges and one Yellowstone River bridge during the 2011 flood of the Missouri River system. Bridges surveyed are located near the cities of Cartwright, Buford, Williston, Washburn, and Bismarck, N. Dak. The river in the vicinity of the bridges and the channel through the city of Bismarck, N. Dak., were surveyed. The hydrographic surveys were conducted using a high-resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES), the RESON SeaBatTM 7125, during June 6–9 and June 28–July 9, 2011. The surveyed area at each bridge site extended 820 feet upstream from the bridge to 820 feet downstream from the bridge. The surveyed reach through Bismarck consisted of 18 miles of the main channel wherever depth was sufficient. Results from these emergency surveys aided the North Dakota Department of Transportation in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during high-flow conditions. In addition, the sustained high flows made feasible the surveying of a large section of the normally shallow channel with the MBES. In general, results from sequential bridge surveys showed that as discharge increased between the first and second surveys at a given site, there was a general trend of channel scour. Locally, complex responses of scour in some areas and deposition in other areas of the channel were identified. Similarly, scour around bridge piers also showed complex responses to the increase in flow between the two surveys. Results for the survey area of the river channel through Bismarck show that, in general, scour occurred around river structures or where the river has tight bends and channel narrowing. The data collected during the surveys are provided electronically in two different file formats: comma delimited text and CARIS Spatial ArchiveTM (CSARTM) format.

  14. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Burr

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.

  15. Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    1 5.2 4. ¢t.V I 1.1 2.2 .8 .1 8.1 8.8 I 1.1 2.8 1.8l .8 O6.0 5.1 bV I .3 .7 3.1 .6 5.8 7.5 0 .6 8.2 3.1 2.1 .3 .1 11.6 1.. ISO 1 j.1 2.? .7 .3 .3 5.3...TOTA~lL biVWI Of OSUVIM4O9 ISO K.*ShL CLINAIOLSGV gaftCW KCENIAS FIRL0UECV OF OCCUIRECE OF SUIFACE WIUD OlfCTCIOW VERSUS WING S1[O 4 US FET C FRON...67.N 67.N 67.N 67.8 67.6 67.8 67.8 GE SDOo 60.1 66.5 66.6 68.0 68.4 69.5 70.0 6970.6970 71.1 79. 1 71.1 71.5 71.5 70.s 70.5GE 50001 60.5 65.5 66.6

  16. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Integrated Control of Nuisance Species at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    EPA Reg No. 524-343 Packed For: MONSANTO COMPANY 800 N. LINDBERGH BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 63167 U.S.A. ©2009 061709 MONSANTO ~- ATENCION ...importante sabre el producto. ATENCION EVITE EL CONTACTO DEL HERBICIDA CON EL FOLLAJE, TALLOS, RAICES NO LENOSAS EXPUESTAS 0 FRUTOS EXPUESTOS DE LAS

  17. Final Environmental Assessment: Installation of Digital Airport Surveillance Radar at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    environments. During normal operation ofthe ASR-11 , the radar will generate radio frequency radiation ( RFR ); however, the RFR generated will be safe to...Distance RAPCON Radar Approach Control RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RI/FS Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study RFR Radiofrequency...protocols and all applicable state and federal regulations. Due to the potential for RFR hazards during operation and maintenance, warning signs

  18. Archeological and Historic Cultural Resources Inventory for a Proposed Flood Control Project at Grafton, Walsh County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    2- I e , • el I.CONTOUR INTERVAL r Ep I - 0/ CH~k4N~ STRU:CT~URE.. - I. -& -W,/ 0-- and , F C " 2 I- of base map: U.S.G.S. Grafton, North Dakota...rubble of cobble-size concrete chinks to a depth of about 25.0 cm (9.8 in.). These concreto chunk- we’e mixed with an organic eolian silt. The very...Arvilla Complex. Minnesota Prehistoric Archaeology Series, 9. Joyes, Dennis. 1970. The Culture Sequence at the Avery Site at Rock Lake. In: Hlady, W. ( eL

  19. A Class III Cultural Resource Inventory of a Portion of the Upper Souris River Valley, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    the Sour is F: yenrVa 1 Iy n FenyPv ie Courty,, North Dakota. Cartoqr, rhic deic’ticn of the nr i<t cdr. e depicted in Figures I, el , 3 and 4. "n-to...upland terraces 11I immediately west of the survey area and nmy repr-Ssent the Paleo-Indian tradition (Ehm- el 1988). Middle Prehistoric Period (5500 B.C...may be the most inmortant prehistoric locations in the Upper Souris River valley. Both sites are probably base camps which were continuously or

  20. Geomorphic response of the North Fork Stillaguamish River to the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott W.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mastin, Mark C.; Foreman, James R.

    2017-08-03

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington mobilized 8 million cubic meters of unconsolidated Pleistocene material, creating a valley‑spanning deposit that fully impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River. The river overtopped the 8-meter high debris impoundment within 25 hours and began steadily incising a new channel through the center of the deposit. Repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport measurements, bedload transport models, and observations of downstream channel change were used to document the establishment of that new channel through the landslide and assess the potential for downstream aggradation or channel change that might increase downstream flood hazards.Efficient erosion of the landslide deposit, associated with the steep knickzone formed by the downstream edge of the deposit, resulted in the re-establishment of a 20–40 meters wide, deeply inset channel through the entire deposit by May 2014, 2 months after the landslide. The mean water-surface elevation of the channel through the landslide decreased 7 meters during that 2-month period, and was about 1 meter above the pre-landslide profile in July 2014. The 2014–15 flood season, which included flows near the 0.5 annual exceedance probability discharge (2-year flood), widened the channel tens of meters, and further lowered the water-surface profile 0.5 meter. The planform position evolved slowly as a result of 5–20-meter high banks predominantly composed of clay-rich, cohesive lacustrine material. Erosion of the landslide deposit delivered a total of 820 thousand metric tons of sediment to the North Fork Stillaguamish River over the 18 months following the landslide. The sediment delivery from the deposit was predominantly fine grained: 77 percent (by mass) of the eroded material was silt or clay (less than 0.063 millimeter [mm]), 19 percent sand (0.063–2 mm), and 4 percent pebbles and cobbles (greater than 2 mm).Over the 18 months following the

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [121,100 cubic meters (m 3 )] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat

  2. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Assessment of pharmacists' delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists' delivery of public health services. To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists' practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking.

  4. Assessment of pharmacists’ delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M.; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Results: Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking. PMID:28042356

  5. Do remote community telepharmacies have higher medication error rates than traditional community pharmacies? Evidence from the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesner, Daniel L; Scott, David M; Rathke, Ann M; Peterson, Charles D; Anderson, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in medication dispensing errors between remote telepharmacy sites (pharmacist not physically present) and standard community pharmacy sites (pharmacist physically present and no telepharmacy technology; comparison group). Pilot, cross-sectional, comparison study. North Dakota from January 2005 to September 2008. Pharmacy staff at 14 remote telepharmacy sites and 8 comparison community pharmacies. The Pharmacy Quality Commitment (PQC) reporting system was incorporated into the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project. A session was conducted to train pharmacists and technicians on use of the PQC system. A quality-related event (QRE) was defined as either a near miss (i.e., mistake caught before reaching patient; pharmacy discovery), or an error (i.e., mistake discovered after patient received medication; patient discovery). QREs for prescriptions. During a 45-month period, the remote telepharmacy group reported 47,078 prescriptions and 631 QREs compared with 123,346 prescriptions and 1,002 QREs in the standard pharmacy group. Results for near misses (pharmacy discovery) and errors (patient discovery) for the remote and comparison sites were 553 and 887 and 78 and 125, respectively. Percentage of "where the mistake was caught" (i.e., pharmacist check) for the remote and comparison sites were 58% and 69%, respectively. This study reported a lower overall rate (1.0%) and a slight difference in medication dispensing error rates between remote telepharmacy sites (1.3%) and comparison sites (0.8%). Both rates are comparable with nationally reported levels (1.7% error rate for 50 pharmacies).

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  7. Preliminary report on the geology of the Red River Valley drilling project, eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-two wells, 26 of which penetrated the Precambrian, were drilled along the eastern edge of the Williston Basin in the eastern tier of counties in North Dakota and in nearby counties in northwestern Minnesota. These tests, along the Red River Valley of the North, were drilled to study the stratigraphy and uranium potential of this area. The drilling program was unsuccessful in finding either significant amounts of uranium or apparently important shows of uranium. It did, however, demonstrate the occurrence of thick elastic sections in the Ordovician, Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems, within the Red River Valley, along the eastern margins of the Williston Basin which could serve as host rocks for uranium ore bodies.

  8. Use of a watershed-modeling approach to assess hydrologic effects of urbanization, North Fork Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.; Hunt, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The North Fork Pheasant Branch Basin in Dane County, Wisconsin is expected to undergo development. There are concerns that development will adversely affect water resources with increased flood peaks, increased runoff volumes, and increased pollutant loads. To provide a scientific basis for evaluating the hydrologic system response to development the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to model the upper Pheasant Branch Creek watershed with an emphasis on the North Fork Basin. The upper Pheasant Branch Creek (18.3 mi2; 11,700 acres) Basin was represented with 21 Hydrologic Response Units (daily time step) and 50 flow planes (5-minute time steps). Precipitation data from the basin outlet streamflow-gaging station located at Highway 12 and temperature data from a nearby airport were used to drive the model. Continuous discharge records at three gaging stations were used for model calibration. To qualitatively assess model representation of small subbasins, periodic reconnaissance, often including a depth measurement, was made after precipitation to determine the occurrence of flow in ditches and channels from small subbasins. As a further effort to verify the model on a small subbasin scale, continuous-stage sensors (15-minute intervals) measured depth at the outlets of three small subbasins (500 to 1,200 acres). Average annual precipitation for the simulation period from 1993 to 1998 was 35.2 inches. The model simulations showed that, on average, 23.9 inches were intercepted by vegetation, or lost to evapotranspiration, 6.0 inches were infiltrated and moved to the regional ground-water system, and 4.8 inches contributed to the upper Pheasant Branch streamflow. The largest runoff event during the calibration interval was in July 1993 (746 ft3/sec; with a recurrence interval of approximately 25 years). Resulting recharge rates from the calibrated model were subsequently used as input into a ground-water-flow model. Average annual recharge varied

  9. Physical habitat classification and instream flow modeling to determine habitat availability during low-flow periods, North Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.; Ruhl, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing development and increasing water withdrawals for public, industrial, and agricultural water supply threaten to reduce streamflows in the Shenandoah River basin in Virginia. Water managers need more information to balance human water-supply needs with the daily streamflows necessary for maintaining the aquatic ecosystems. To meet the need for comprehensive information on hydrology, water supply, and instream-flow requirements of the Shenandoah River basin, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission conducted a cooperative investigation of habitat availability during low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Historic streamflow data and empirical data on physical habitat, river hydraulics, fish community structure, and recreation were used to develop a physical habitat simulation model. Hydraulic measurements were made during low, medium, and high flows in six reaches at a total of 36 transects that included riffles, runs, and pools, and that had a variety of substrates and cover types. Habitat suitability criteria for fish were developed from detailed fish-community sampling and microhabitat observations. Fish were grouped into four guilds of species and life stages with similar habitat requirements. Simulated habitat was considered in the context of seasonal flow regimes to show the availability of flows that sustain suitable habitat during months when precipitation and streamflow are scarce. The North Fork Shenandoah River basin was divided into three management sections for analysis purposes: the upper section, middle section, and lower section. The months of July, August, and September were chosen to represent a low-flow period in the basin with low mean monthly flows, low precipitation, high temperatures, and high water withdrawals. Exceedance flows calculated from the combined data from these three months describe low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Long-term records from three

  10. Full chain life cycle assessment of greenhouse gases and energy demand for canola-derived jet fuel in North Dakota, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of long-term sustainable biofuel production on agricultural lands is still questionable. To this end, we investigated the effects of crop prices on the changes of agricultural land use for biofuel canola production in three wheat crop management zones in North Dakota. The effects of cano...

  11. Simulation of wastewater effects on dissolved oxygen during low streamflow in the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1996-01-01

    Pursuant to Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, both North Dakota and Minnesota identified part of the Red River of the North (Red River) as water-quality limited. The states are required to determine the total maximum daily load (TMDL) that can be discharged to a water-quality limited reach from various pollution sources without contravening water-quality standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). A work group consisting of local, State, and Federal agency representatives that was organized in June 1994 decided that a TMDL should be developed in phases for a subreach of the Red River at Fargo, N. Dak., and Moorhead, Minn. (fig. 1). In the first phase, which is the basis for this report, the focus is on attainment of the instream dissolved-oxygen (DO) standard during low streamflows, and only Fargo and Moorhead wastewater-treatment-plant discharges and Sheyenne River inflow are considered. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile (mi) downstream (north) of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo and extends 30.8 mi downstream to a site 0.8 mi upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo and Red Rivers (fig. 1). Nitrification of total ammonia (ammonia) from Fargo and Moorhead wastewater consumes most of the DO in the study reach (Wesolowski, 1994). Because the new (1995) Fargo plant already is nitrifying its wastewater, the work group needed to determine the maximum ammonia concentration for wastewater from the nonnitrifying Moorhead plant. To accomplish this task, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) model (Wesolowski, 1994, 1996b) was used to simulate the effects of various wastewater-management alternatives during low streamflow. This report presents the results of those simulations to determine the usefulness of the model for management decisions. The simulations and report were completed in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health.

  12. Forest River Basin, North Dakota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control and Related Purposes. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    to estimate the cost of this alternative. The salt brine from the desalting process could be disposed of by expand- ing the current sewage lagoon...CITY OF GRAFTON 54 ALTERNATIVE 5: DESALINATION OF GROUND WATER 55 ALTERNATIVE 6: UPSTREAM RESERVOIR 55 . SUMMARY OF WATER SUPPLY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE...5: Desalination of Ground Water The Dakota Formation which underlies the Minto area is a possible water supply source

  13. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for the Souris River, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2000-01-01

    The Souris River Basin is a 24,600-square-mile basin located in southeast Saskatchewan, north-central North Dakota, and southwest Manitoba.  The Souris River Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group, formed in 1989 by the governments of Canada and the United States, is responsible for documenting trends in water quality in the Souris River and making recommendations for monitoring future water-quality conditions.  This report presents results of a study conducted for the Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, to analyze historic trends in water quality in the Souris River and to determine efficient sampling designs for monitoring future trends.  U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada water-quality data collected during 1977-96 from four sites near the boundary crossings between Canada and the United States were included in the trend analysis. A parametric time-series model was developed for detecting trends in historic constituent concentration data.  The model can be applied to constituents that have at least 90 percent of observations above detection limits of the analyses, which, for the Souris River, includes most major ions and nutrients and many trace elements.  The model can detect complex nonmonotonic trends in concentration in the presence of complex interannual and seasonal variability in daily discharge.  A key feature of the model is its ability to handle highly irregular sampling intervals.  For example, the intervals between concentration measurements may be be as short as 10 days to as long as several months, and the number of samples in any given year can range from zero to 36. Results from the trend analysis for the Souris River indicated numerous trends in constituent concentration.  The most significant trends at the two sites located near the upstream boundary crossing between Saskatchewan and North Dakota consisted of increases in

  14. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  15. Hydrology of the Wibaux-Beach lignite deposit area, eastern Montana and western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleocene Harmon lignite, the principal commercial bed of the Wihaux-Beach deposit, underlies at least 150 square miles along the Montana-North Dakota border. An estimated 1 billion tons of strippable reserves underlies about 50 square miles. The Harmon lignite bed also is the most consistently occurring shallow aquifer in the area. This study was conducted to determine possible impacts of surface mining on the area's water resources.Two aquifer systems, the lower Tongue River and the upper Ludlow, were identified within about 300 feet below the Harmon lignite aquifer, but none were identified within the overlying 350 feet. The aquifers (systems) are separated by varying thicknesses of interbedded clay and silt. The Harmon lignite aquifer extends uninterrupted for several miles eastward (down dip) from the outcrop. It is from 3 to 34 feet thick and from zero to 350 feet deep. The top of the lower Tongue River aquifer system is from 0 to 115 feet below the Harmon lignite and the system is 13 to 98 feet thick. The upper Ludlow aquifer system is 128 to 214 feet below the Harmon lignite and is 5 to 84 feet thick.Both the lower Tongue River and upper Ludlow aquifer systems consist of discontinuous, vertically stacked, sinuous sand bodies deposited as channel fill in meandering and braided streams. The probability of encountering a sand bed within the aquifer systems at any one location in the study area is about 60 percent for the lower Tongue River aquifer system and 80 percent for the upper Ludlow aquifer system.Water in each aquifer flows toward the northeast and occurs under confined conditions, except in the Harmon lignite aquifer near its outcrop. Recharge occurs directly by precipitation at the outcrops and by downward leakage elsewhere. The major discharge from each aquifer is by downward leakage, although the Harmon lignite aquifer discharges less than 0.20 cubic foot per second to surface drainages within the study area.Differences in chemical quality of

  16. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  17. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Spatial assessment of water quality in the vicinity of Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.

  19. Merging Land Use Change Trends and Insecticide Application to Understand Multiple Threats to Honey Bees in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D.; Zheng, H.; Otto, C.

    2017-12-01

    US beekeepers have historically relied on North Dakota for its rich floral grasslands and mild climate to harvest honey and maintain colony growth from May to September. Over 40% of registered apiaries used for crop pollination across the United States pass through the Northern Great Plains region for this reason. However, increased land use change from grassland to row crops has decreased available forage for honey bees and shrunken the already finite landscape suitable for apiary sites. Alongside the introduction of cropland followed the application of insecticides known to impact colony health. While landscape composition is one of the driving factors influencing honey bee productivity and overall health, the further application of insecticides adds an additional threat layer to the changing landscape. USGS E-pest estimates suggest an increasing application per cropland area over the past 10 years for harmful insecticidees including neonicotinoids, organophosphates and pyrethroids. This research aims to capture these trends by utilizing a spatially explicit habitat quality model from InVEST to integrate the following annual data in North Dakota from 2006-2014: (1) habitat suitability basemaps derived from the Cropland Data Layer (CDL); and (2) assign stacked layers of weighted values to those land covers based on estimated insecticide applications on individual crop types within each county year combination. We aim to utilize model outputs to learn where in time and space registered apiaries have experienced this double sided threat of decreased foraged and increased exposure to insecticides, but also ask further questions about how to improve the landscape with different scenarios.

  20. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  1. Pitch Fork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic...

  2. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  3. Hydrologic investigations of prairie potholes in North Dakota, 1959-68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    A prairie pothole is a depression in the prau1e, capable of storing water, that is the result of glacial processes. Years ago, there were many hundreds of thousands of prairie potholes in the North-Central United States, but large numbers of them have been drained for agricultural use. This report is limited to studies of prairie potholes in the eastern part of the glaciated northern Great Plains region in North Dakota-a rolling upland area covered with glacial drift, called the Coteau du Missouri. Potholes are wetlands that are the primary breeding area of migratory waterfowl in the United States. If production of waterfowl is to continue, suitable wetlands must be maintained, and even new wetlands created to offset those destroyed for agricultural use. The initial stage of the Garrison Diversion Unit calls for a normal annual diversion from Garrison Reservoir of 60,000 acre-feet of water for this purpose. Many prairie potholes contain large amounts of emergent aquatic vegetatjon known as hydrophytes. Determining the loss of water by transpiration from emergent hydrophytes was one of the major objectives of the present study of the hydrology of prairie potholes. Other hydrologic factors were studied later, but the first part of the study was devoted almost exclusively to the determination of evaporation and transpiration losses at groups of potholes in Ward, Stutsman, and Dickey Counties. The mass-transfer method was used, and by determining the variation in the mass-transfer coefficient throughout a season, the losses by evaporation and transpiration were determined separately. Separate determinations were accomplished by relating the emergent height and the moisture content of the hydrophytes to the rate of transpiration, as determined by the mass-transfer coefficient. Seasonal evaporation from the study potholes clear of vegetation was found to very nearly equal the generalized evaporation values published by the U.S. Weather Bureau. The effect of hydrophytes

  4. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  5. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  6. Geology of the Fox Hills Formation (late Cretaceous) in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, with reference to uranium potential. Report of investigation No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvancara, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Fox Hills Formation is a marine and brackish sequence of primarily medium and fine clastics within the Late Cretaceous Montana Group. In the Williston basin of North Dakota, four members (in ascending order) are recognized: Trail City, Timber Lake, Iron Lightning (with Bullhead and Colgate lithofacies), and Linton. The Fox Hills conformably overlies the Pierre Shale and conformably and disconformably underlies and interfingers with the Hell Creek Formation; it occurs in about the western two-thirds of the state. The geology of the Fox Hills Formation in North Dakota, and the stratigraphy of which is based on previous surface information and recent subsurface data, are summarized, and its potential for uranium is evaluated

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish near the floating surface collector in the North Fork Reservoir, Oregon, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin D.

    2017-06-26

    Acoustic cameras were used to assess the behavior and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish at the entrance to the North Fork Reservoir juvenile fish floating surface collector (FSC). The purpose of the FSC is to collect downriver migrating juvenile salmonids at the North Fork Dam, and safely route them around the hydroelectric projects. The objective of the acoustic camera component of this study was to assess the behaviors of bull trout-size fish observed near the FSC, and to determine if the presence of bull trout-size fish influenced the collection or abundance of juvenile salmonids. Acoustic cameras were deployed near the surface and floor of the entrance to the FSC. The acoustic camera technology was an informative tool for assessing abundance and spatial and temporal behaviors of bull trout-size fish near the entrance of the FSC. Bull trout-size fish were regularly observed near the entrance, with greater abundances on the deep camera than on the shallow camera. Additionally, greater abundances were observed during the hours of sunlight than were observed during the night. Behavioral differences also were observed at the two depths, with surface fish traveling faster and straighter with more directed movement, and fish observed on the deep camera generally showing more milling behavior. Modeling potential predator-prey interactions and influences using collected passive integrated transponder (PIT) -tagged juvenile salmonids proved largely unpredictable, although these fish provided relevant timing and collection information. Overall, the results indicate that bull trout-size fish are present near the entrance of the FSC, concomitant with juvenile salmonids, and their abundances and behaviors indicate that they may be drawn to the entrance of the FSC because of the abundance of prey-sized fish.

  8. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  9. Calibration of a water-quality model for low-flow conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2008-01-01

    A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  11. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  12. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  16. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Oil Extraction Infrastructure Development and Resulting Land-Cover Changein McKenzie County, North Dakota, 2009 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Eric F.

    Improved techniques and methods in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have allowed once inaccessible resources to become profitably accessible in the Bakken Region of North Dakota (Fershee 2011). This recent development has been rapid, and associated land-cover change can be described as spatially extensive (Baker et al. 2012). After an extensive literature review and to the best of my knowledge, little research has been conducted in the Bakken Region regarding land-cover change associated with oil development. Using high-spatial-resolution, four-band imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) in conjunction with Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques, it is possible to identify narrow-linear and small-area features on the landscape associated with oil development. The overall accuracy for McKenzie County was 41.2 percent, significantly lower than overall accuracies seen in similar studies. These results suggest this method is not entirely suitable for land-cover change analysis in the grassland biome without additional data analysis and/or editing. Further analysis of a selected smaller portion of the county displaying land-cover characteristics amenable for accurate classification found oil extraction infrastructure contributed to an expected but minimal decrease in grassland and agricultural land-cover.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  19. An Evaluation of Transportation Needs of the Disadvantaged in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Hegland, Gary; Hough, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The disadvantaged population have barriers to a normal lifestyle. Mobility is one of these barriers. Approximately 15.4 percent of North Dakota’s population is disadvantaged. These individuals live in the metropolitan areas and in the rural, low-population-density counties, which have limited transportation. The Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute (UGPTI) developed a survey to identify the transportation needs of the disadvantaged population and measure how those needs are being met. ...

  20. Physical habitat, water quality, and riverine biological assemblages of selected reaches of the Sheyenne River, North Dakota, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Rowland, Kathleen M.; Lindsay, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, data on physical habitat, water quality, and riverine biological assemblages were collected at selected reaches in four locations (Kleven, Sheyenne, Cooperstown, and West Fargo) on the Sheyenne River in east-central North Dakota. Three of the locations (Kleven, Sheyenne, and Cooperstown) are above Baldhill Dam and one location (West Fargo) is below Baldhill Dam on the Sheyenne River. The 2010 data provide information to establish a better understanding of the water-quality and ecological conditions of the Sheyenne River. Concerns were raised about the water-quality and ecological conditions of the Sheyenne River because of the interbasin transfer of water from nearby Devils Lake. The transfer of water from Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River occurs through the Devils Lake State Outlet near Peterson Coulee or, if lake elevations exceed 1,459 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29), through a natural outlet, Tolna Coulee. The field measurements of water-quality characteristics and results of chemical analyses generally are comparable to summary statistics calculated for Sheyenne River for 1980 through 2006. Overall, water-quality results show differences between the Kleven, Sheyenne, Cooperstown, and West Fargo reaches. Sulfate concentrations were less than the State of North Dakota criterion of 750 milligrams per liter for the upper Sheyenne River above Baldhill Dam and less than the criterion of 450 milligrams per liter for the lower Sheyenne River below Baldhill Dam. Arsenic concentrations at most reaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 micrograms per liter. Nutrient concentrations (nitrogen, phosphorus) were higher in the upper Sheyenne River above Baldhill Dam than below Baldhill Dam where concentrations decreased by about half. In 2010, 35 families and 44 genera of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and identified. On the basis of the index of biotic intergrity scores for

  1. Element concentrations in bed sediment of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.A.; Zelt, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical data for bed sediment were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The primary data set consisted of about 13,000 samples collected during 1974-79 for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data were available for 50 elements, although not all samples were analyzed for all elements. Element concentrations varied spatially and were associated with geologic settings or ecoregions. Factor analysis indicated three groups of associated elements: factor 1 elements were strongly correlated with basaltic rocks, factor 2 elements were strongly correlated with granitic rocks, and factor 3 elements were strongly correlated with carbonate rocks. Scores for factor 1 were highest for bed-sediment samples associated with volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age in the Absaroka volcanic field and crystalline rocks of Precambrian age in the Beartooth Mountains. Scores for factor 2 were highest for samples associated with volcanic rocks of Quaternary age on the Yellowstone Plateau, crystalline rocks of Precambrian age, and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age in the Wyoming Basin ecoregion. Scores for factor 3 were highest in samples associated with sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and volcanic rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Descriptive statistics are presented to serve as a baseline for element concentrations in bed sediment associated with eight geologic settings or ecoregions in the study unit. Some of the concentrations of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in bed-sediment samples from areas of crystalline rocks in the Beartooth Mountains and other formations in the western part of the study unit exceeded sediment-quality assessment values associated with toxic effects to aquatic life.

  2. An Agent-based Model for Groundwater Allocation and Management at the Bakken Shale in Western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Lin, Z.; Lim, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present an integrated modeling framework to simulate groundwater level change under the dramatic increase of hydraulic fracturing water use in the Bakken Shale oil production area. The framework combines the agent-based model (ABM) with the Fox Hills-Hell Creek (FH-HC) groundwater model. In development of the ABM, institution theory is used to model the regulation policies from the North Dakota State Water Commission, while evolutionary programming and cognitive maps are used to model the social structure that emerges from the behavior of competing individual water businesses. Evolutionary programming allows individuals to select an appropriate strategy when annually applying for potential water use permits; whereas cognitive maps endow agent's ability and willingness to compete for more water sales. All agents have their own influence boundaries that inhibit their competitive behavior toward their neighbors but not to non-neighbors. The decision-making process is constructed and parameterized with both quantitative and qualitative information, i.e., empirical water use data and knowledge gained from surveys with stakeholders. By linking institution theory, evolutionary programming, and cognitive maps, our approach addresses a higher complexity of the real decision making process. Furthermore, this approach is a new exploration for modeling the dynamics of Coupled Human and Natural System. After integrating ABM with the FH-HC model, drought and limited water accessibility scenarios are simulated to predict FH-HC ground water level changes in the future. The integrated modeling framework of ABM and FH-HC model can be used to support making scientifically sound policies in water allocation and management.

  3. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with ...

  4. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Rieke, Judith L.; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with ...

  5. Cultural Resources Investigation of a Proposed Flood Control Project along the Sheyenne River, at West Fargo, Cass County, North Dakota. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-15

    00 N% M lit -;1t!6 Powers Elevation, Inc. OIL WELL ELEVATONS.OCArC% SENVIRONMENTALARCHAEOLOGICAL SERVICE PO Box 262 Denver Colorado 80201 26𔃼 Priore...Powers Elevation, Inc. OIL ENVIRONMENTAL.ARCHAEOLGICAL SEPvlCES PO Box 26𔃼 De’ver Colorado 8020’ 26𔃼 P one 303 32󈧚’" oi Xree ’-800-824 2550...Project Archaeologist on the archaeological testing program at site 32MZ721, Silurian Unit 40-1 well location, McKenzie County, North Dakota, by

  6. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  7. Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.; Holland, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Holistic Assessment of Energy Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in Williams County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdeo, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Grubert, E.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional oil and natural gas production in the U.S. has increased tenfold between 2005 and 2014 due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology. Prior studies of hydraulic fracturing activity have mainly focused on two themes: the environmental impacts related to air and water pollution or the direct and spillover economic benefits resulting from oil booms at the state and local level. However, the impacts of hydraulic fracturing extend beyond these effects. Oil-boom counties have experienced environmental changes in land-use and water supply and witnessed social changes in demographics, crime, and health, factors that are not typically evaluated in regard to hydraulic fracturing. Hence, there is a need to consider the holistic effects of oil production on communities. This study examines the environmental, economic, and social impacts of oil and gas activity in Williams County, North Dakota by comparing its pre-boom ( 2005) and post-boom ( 2014) conditions. Annual oil production in Williams County increased from 3.4 million barrels in 2005 to 56 million barrels in 2014, providing an ideal test-case to study the impact of energy development on surrounding communities. We compared changes in multiple impact categories, attributed directly or indirectly to hydraulic fracturing activity, to trends at the national level. For example, between 2005 and 2014, CO2 and CH4 emissions primarily from oil and gas activity increased by 360 thousand metric tons CO2e, corresponding to a 20-fold increase. Concurrently, national emissions decreased by 10.5%. Over twenty indicators were analyzed across environmental, social and economic impact categories, including land-use change, median household income, and crime rates. The datasets were normalized using federal regulations for upper and lower bounds, or calibrated against national averages. Normalized indicators are then aggregated to provide a single-value `impact-factor'. Such `impact-factor' maps will provide a

  10. Comparing CMIP-3 and CMIP-5 climate projections on flooding estimation of Devils Lake of North Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehendra Kharel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Water level fluctuations in endorheic lakes are highly susceptible to even slight changes in climate and land use. Devils Lake (DL in North Dakota, USA is an endorheic system that has undergone multi-decade flooding driven by changes in regional climate. Flooding mitigation strategies have centered on the release of lake water to a nearby river system through artificial outlets, resulting in legal challenges and environmental concerns related to water quality, downstream flooding, species migration, stakeholder opposition, and transboundary water conflicts between the US and Canada. Despite these drawbacks, running outlets would result in low overspill risks in the next 30 years. Methods In this study we evaluated the efficacy of this outlet-based mitigation strategy under scenarios based on the latest IPCC future climate projections. We used the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CMIP-5 weather patterns from 17 general circulation models (GCMs obtained under four representative concentration pathways (RCP scenarios and downscaled to the DL region. Then, we simulated the changes in lake water levels using the soil and water assessment tool based hydrological model of the watershed. We estimated the probability of future flood risks under those scenarios and compared those with previously estimated overspill risks under the CMIP-3 climate. Results The CMIP-5 ensemble projected a mean annual temperature of 5.78 °C and mean daily precipitation of 1.42 mm/day; both are higher than the existing CMIP-3 future estimates of 4.98 °C and 1.40 mm/day, respectively. The increased precipitation and higher temperature resulted in a significant increase of DL’s overspill risks: 24.4–47.1% without release from outlets and 3.5–14.4% even if the outlets are operated at their combined full 17 m3/s capacity. Discussion The modeled increases in overspill risks indicate a greater frequency of water releases through the artificial outlets. Future

  11. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction

  12. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North, Fargo, North Dakota, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, to estimate water-quality constituent concentrations in the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota. Regression analysis of water-quality data collected in 2003-05 was used to estimate concentrations and loads for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables examined for regression relation were continuously monitored physical properties of water-streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. For the conditions observed in 2003-05, streamflow was a significant explanatory variable for all estimated constituents except dissolved solids. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were not statistically significant explanatory variables for any of the constituents in this study. Specific conductance was a significant explanatory variable for alkalinity, dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride. Turbidity was a significant explanatory variable for total phosphorus and suspended sediment. For the nutrients, total nitrite plus nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, cosine and sine functions of time also were used to explain the seasonality in constituent concentrations. The regression equations were evaluated using common measures of variability, including R2, or the proportion of variability in the estimated constituent explained by the regression equation. R2 values ranged from 0.703 for total nitrogen concentration to 0.990 for dissolved-solids concentration. The regression equations also were evaluated by calculating the median relative percentage difference (RPD) between measured constituent concentration and the constituent concentration estimated by the regression equations. Median RPDs ranged from 1.1 for dissolved solids to 35.2 for

  13. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles-Torrez, Veronica; Knodel, Janet J; Boetel, Mark A; Doetkott, Curt D; Podliska, Kellie K; Ransom, Joel K; Beauzay, Patrick; French, B Wade; Fuller, Billy W

    2018-02-09

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5-7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  16. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  17. Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point 1° × 2° quadrangle, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.

    2016-09-08

    The Wolf Point quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S.-Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes the Peerless Plateau and Flaxville Plain. The primary river is the Missouri River.The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (for example, ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, and stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 23 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in pedology or agronomy.  Rather, it is a generalized map of soils recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed.  Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. The surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, colluvial, and mass-movement deposits.Till of late Wisconsin age is represented by three map units. Till of Illinoian age also is mapped.  Till deposited during pre-Illinoian glaciations is not mapped, but is widespread in the subsurface.  Linear ice-molded landforms (primarily drumlins), shown by symbol, indicate directions of ice flow during late Wisconsin and Illinoian glaciations. The Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point quadrangle, northeastern Montana and North Dakota, was prepared to provide a database for compilation of a Quaternary geologic map of the Regina 4° × 6° quadrangle, United States and Canada, at scale 1:1,000,000, for the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series

  18. Spatial and seasonal variability in water quality of Devils Lake, North Dakota, September 1988 through October 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Lent, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    Devils Lake, in northeastern North Dakota, is a closed-basin lake characterized by large fluctuations in water level and in concentrations of dissolved chemical constituents. A study was conducted to assess spatial and seasonal variability in water-quality conditions in Devils Lake during September 1988 through October 1990.Specific conductance, which generally increased from west to east in Devils Lake and East Devils Lake, ranged from 3,580 to 20,100 microsiemens per centimeter. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen generally were similar among sites. Devils Lake generally does not undergo thermal stratification during open-water periods but does undergo inverse thermal stratification in the winter. Vertical variability of water-column properties during open-water periods generally was small, but near-bottom dissolved oxygen was less than near-surface dissolved oxygen during summer sampling periods. The potential exists for establishment of near-bottom anoxia during the summer and during the winter. Concentrations of all major ions generally increased eastward through Devils Lake and East Devils Lake, but sodium, sulfate, and chloride were enriched relative to the other major ions.Dissolved-solids concentrations varied both spatially and seasonally. Median dissolvedsolids concentrations generally increased from west to east. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally were largest in the winter when ions were concentrated because of ice formation and smallest in the spring when water was diluted because of icemelt, surface-water inflow, and seasonal precipitation. Dissolved-solids concentrations generally increased in the summer and fall when evaporation exceeded surface-water inflow and precipitation. Although the dissolvedsolids concentration of Devils Lake generally fluctuates inversely with water level, the dissolvedsolids mass generally fluctuates directly with water level. During periods of extremely low water levels, dissolved solids may be lost from

  19. History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

    Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

  20. Uncertainty analysis of the simulations of effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two separate studies to simulate the effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, have been completed. In the first study, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. In the second study, the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model was verified for ice-cover conditions. To better understand and apply the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model, the uncertainty associated with simulated constituent concentrations and property values was analyzed and quantified using the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model-Uncertainty Analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation and first-order error analysis methods were used to analyze the uncertainty in simulated values for six constituents and properties at sites 5, 10, and 14 (upstream to downstream order). The constituents and properties analyzed for uncertainty are specific conductance, total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-cover conditions and ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-free conditions, and dissolved oxygen. Results are given in detail for both the ice-cover and ice-free conditions for specific conductance, total ammonia, and dissolved oxygen. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the simulated constituent concentrations and property values to input variables differ substantially between ice-cover and ice-free conditions. During ice-cover conditions, simulated specific-conductance values are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values upstream of site 10 and the point-source specific-conductance values downstream of site 10. These headwater-source and point-source specific-conductance values also are the key sources of uncertainty. Simulated total

  1. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Marty; Frank, Loreeta Leer; Tipton, Stacia; Tinker, Tim L; Vaughan, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    In the event that terrorists use air, water, or food to deliver destructive agents to civilian populations, some groups and populations may be disproportionately at risk and have unique communications needs. Bioterrorism represents an even greater national public health threat if the nation's preparedness and readiness plans do not address the needs and perspectives of, for example, low-income residents, racially and ethnically diverse communities, and other "special populations". The objective of this study was to develop communications strategies to reach special populations in North Dakota before, during, and after a bioterrorism attack or other crisis. To achieve the study objectives, the investigators used telephone interviews and telephone focus groups with organizations that represented special populations. Areas of inquiry included attitudes and concerns about crises, sources of information used and those identified as most credible, methods to reach people during a crisis event, and awareness of and attitudes about the agencies and organizations that affect risk communications.

  2. Environmental Assessment: Demolish CASS Switch Stations Buildings 644, 645, 646 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand Forks...remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers...though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory

  3. Freshwater mussel shells as environmental chronicles: Geochemical and taphonomic signatures of mercury-related extirpations in the North Fork Holston River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.E.; Kowalewski, M.; Neves, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Schreiber, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized freshwater mussel shells to assess mercury (Hg) contamination in the North Fork Holston River that extirpated (caused local extinctions of) a diverse mussel fauna. Shells (n = 366) were collected from five sites situated upstream (two sites), just below (one site), and downstream (two sites) of the town of Saltville, Virginia, where Hg was used to produce chlorine and caustic soda from 1950 to 1972. Shell samples were used to test the (1) utility of geochemical signatures of shells for assessing the spatial variation in Hg levels in the river relative to the contamination source and (2) value of taphonomy (postmortem shell alteration) for distinguishing sites that differ in extirpation histories. Geochemical signatures of 40 shells, analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, indicated a strong longitudinal pattern. All shells from the two upstream sites had low Hg concentrations (<5-31 ??g/kg), shells directly below Saltville had variable, but dramatically higher concentrations (23-4637 ??g/kg), and shells from the two downstream sites displayed intermediate Hg levels (<5-115 ??g/kg) that declined with distance from Saltville. Two pre-industrial shells, collected at Saltville in 1917, yielded very low Hg estimates (5-6 ??g/kg). Hg signatures were consistent among mussel species, suggesting that Hg concentrations were invariant to species type; most likely, highly variable Hg levels, both across sites and through time, overwhelmed any interspecific differences in Hg acquisition. Also, a notable postmortem incorporation of Hg in mussel shells seemed unlikely, as the Hg content was not correlated with shell taphonomy (r = 0.18; p = 0.28). The taphonomic analysis (n = 366) showed that the degree of shell alteration reliably distinguished sites with different extirpation histories. At Saltville, where live mussels have been absent for at least 30 years, shells were most heavily altered and fragmented. Conversely, fresh-looking shells abounded

  4. Evaluation of the behavior and movement patterns of adult coho salmon and steelhead in the North Fork Toutle River, Washington, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens severely affected the North Fork Toutle River (hereafter Toutle River), Washington, and threatened anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations in the basin. The Toutle River was further affected in 1989 when a sediment retention structure (SRS) was constructed to trap sediments in the upper basin. The SRS completely blocked upstream volitional passage, so a fish collection facility (FCF) was constructed to trap adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead (O. mykiss) so they could be transported upstream of the SRS. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has operated a trap-and-haul program since 1989 to transport coho salmon and steelhead into tributaries of the Toutle River, upstream of the SRS. Although this program has allowed wild coho salmon and steelhead populations to persist in the Toutle River basin, the trap-andhaul program has faced many challenges that may be limiting the effectiveness of the program. We conducted a multi-year evaluation during 2005–2009 to monitor tagged fish in the upper Toutle River to provide information on the movements and behavior of adult coho salmon and steelhead, and to evaluate the efficacy of the FCF. Radio-tagged coho salmon and steelhead were released: (1) in Toutle River tributaries to evaluate the behavior and movements of fish released as part of the trap-and-haul program; (2) between the FCF and SRS to determine if volitional upstream passage through the SRS spillway was possible; (3) in the sediment plain upstream of the SRS to determine if volitional passage through the sediment plain was possible; and (4) downstream of the FCF to evaluate the efficacy of the structure. We also deployed an acoustic camera in the FCF to monitor fish movements near the entrance to the FCF, and in the fish holding vault where coho salmon and steelhead are trapped. A total of 20 radio-tagged coho salmon and 10 radio-tagged steelhead were released into Alder and Hoffstadt

  5. Front versus rear seat placement of children aged 12 or younger within vehicles: a rural/urban comparison in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth-Zosel, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that rear-seated children are 36 to 40 percent safer than front-seated children. Because of the substantial differences in traffic safety culture that appear to exist in rural areas and the limited research regarding seat placement and rurality, this study seeks to contribute to the safety literature by determining at what rate children are riding in the front seat and whether differences exist between rural and urban areas in regards to child front seat placement. Current child placement frequencies within vehicles were ascertained through direct observations of morning child drop-offs at randomly selected urban and rural elementary schools in eastern North Dakota during November and December of 2009, with a focus on children aged 12 or younger. Two observers wearing orange safety vests and carrying observation sheets were stationed at each elementary school a minimum of 45 min prior to each school's designated start time. Based on the vehicles that entered the school's parking lot/drop-off circle and from which a minimum of one child exited, observers were instructed to record vehicle type, presence of children in the front seat appearing to be younger than 13 years old, availability of room in the back seat, and placement of other children in the vehicle. During November and December of 2009 a total of 537 vehicles were observed at urban schools and 150 vehicles were observed at rural schools. Of the 537 vehicles observed at urban schools, 28.7 percent had children seated in the front seat, whereas 41.3 percent of the 150 vehicles observed at rural schools had front-seated children. Significant urban/rural differences exist in child seat placement, with vehicles in rural areas much more likely to be carrying front-seated children than vehicles in urban areas. Based on a sample of vehicles observed at urban and rural elementary schools in North Dakota, the results of this study indicate that there are significant rural/urban differences in

  6. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-11-02

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms.

  7. Late Quaternary paleoenvironments of an ephemeral wetland in North Dakota, USA: Relative interactions of ground-water hydrology and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yansa, C.H.; Dean, W.E.; Murphy, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of fossils (pollen, plant macrofossils, stomata and fish) and sediments (lithostratigraphy and geochemistry) from the Wendel site in North Dakota, USA, emphasizes the importance of considering ground-water hydrology when deciphering paleoclimate signals from lakes in postglacial landscapes. The Wendel site was a paleolake from about 11,500 14C yr BP to 11,100 14C yr BP. Afterwards, the lake-level lowered until it became a prairie marsh by 9,300 14C yr BP and finally, at 8,500 14C yr BP, an ephemeral wetland as it is today. Meanwhile, the vegetation changed from a white spruce parkland (11,500 to 10,500 14C yr BP) to deciduous parkland, followed by grassland at 9,300 14C yr BP. The pattern and timing of these aquatic and terrestrial changes are similar to coeval kettle lake records from adjacent uplands, providing a regional aridity signal. However, two local sources of ground water were identified from the fossil and geochemical data, which mediated atmospheric inputs to the Wendel basin. First, the paleolake received water from the melting of stagnant ice buried under local till for about 900 years after glacier recession. Later, Holocene droughts probably caused the lower-elevation Wendel site to capture the ground water of up-gradient lakes. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  8. Petrology and diagenetic history of the upper shale member of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil S. Fishman,; Sven O. Egenhoff,; Boehlke, Adam; Lowers, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The organic-rich upper shale member of the upper Devonian–lower Mississippian Bakken Formation (Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA) has undergone significant diagenetic alteration, irrespective of catagenesis related to hydrocarbon generation. Alteration includes precipitation of numerous cements, replacement of both detrital and authigenic minerals, multiple episodes of fracturing, and compaction. Quartz authigenesis occurred throughout much of the member, and is represented by multiple generations of microcrystalline quartz. Chalcedonic quartz fills radiolarian microfossils and is present in the matrix. Sulfide minerals include pyrite and sphalerite. Carbonate diagenesis is volumetrically minor and includes thin dolomite overgrowths and calcite cement. At least two generations of fractures are observed. Based on the authigenic minerals and their relative timing of formation, the evolution of pore waters can be postulated. Dolomite and calcite resulted from early postdepositional aerobic oxidation of some of the abundant organic material in the formation. Following aerobic oxidation, conditions became anoxic and sulfide minerals precipitated. Transformation of the originally opaline tests of radiolaria resulted in precipitation of quartz, and quartz authigenesis is most common in more distal parts of the depositional basin where radiolaria were abundant. Because quartz authigenesis is related to the distribution of radiolaria, there is a link between diagenesis and depositional environment. Furthermore, much of the diagenesis in the upper shale member preceded hydrocarbon generation, so early postdepositional processes were responsible for occlusion of significant original porosity in the member. Thus, diagenetic mineral precipitation was at least partly responsible for the limited ability of these mudstones to provide porosity for storage of hydrocarbons.

  9. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  10. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami

    2015-01-01

    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.

  11. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  12. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-06

    crops include sugar beets, beans, corn, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat ...crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park, developed as a recreation area in Grand Forks County...below the surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and

  13. Archeological and Historic Cultural Resources Inventory for a Proposed Flood Control Project at Grafton, Walsh County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    10,000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.) subsistence was based primarily on exploitation of herds of big game animals, popularly referred to as megafauna . Much of this... megafauna consisted of presently extinct forms of bisoa, as well as mammoths and animals which now are extinct in North America (e.g., various... megafauna was a communal effort, involving large numbers of people. Most Paleo-Indian sites recorded to date have been large kill sites; however, a few

  14. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  15. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  16. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and methicillin-resistant (MRSA Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2% MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2% isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S; Stepan, Ryan M; Koslofsky, Ryan J; Logue, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2%) MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2%) isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  18. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Haakon School District, South Dakota. Final report, January 1977-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengel, R.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report is a summary of a project which demonstrates the successful use of geothermal energy for service water and space heating of school, business and commercial buildings in the city of Philip, South Dakota. The project included a new well into the Madison limestone formation, a pipe line to the school and through the central business district to a treatment plant, the treatment plant and settling ponds, conversion of the existing space heating systems of the buildings to equipment suitable for heating with the geothermal energy and monitoring the system to determine operating characteristics and efficiency. The treated water is discharged into the north fork of the Bad River for use by down stream irrigators. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. The Dakota or Sioux. Gopher Historian Leaflet Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

    The Dakota or Sioux people may well be the best known of all the nations which first lived in North America. Tribal members gave themselves the name Dakota, meaning friends. Their Minnesota neighbors called them by a long name meaning enemy. French traders in the 1600s took the last part of the name and wrote it down as Sioux. Since then, they…

  20. A watershed's response to logging and roads: South Fork of Caspar Creek, California, 1967-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond M. Rice; Forest B. Tilley; Patricia A. Datzman

    1979-01-01

    The effect of logging and roadbuilding on erosion and sedimentation are analyzed by comparing the North Fork and South Fork of Caspar Creek, in northern California. Increased sediment production during the 4 years after road construction, was 326 cu yd/sq mi/yr—80 percent greater than that predicted by the predisturbance regression analysis. The average...

  1. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  4. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Kipp, Gregory G.; Mott, Henry V.; Stone, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (As pw ) 5× and increasing U pw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  5. Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Found in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptea: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic lady beetles established in North America, is reported for the first time from the state of South Dakota, U.S.A. Implications for biological control and future research are discussed....

  6. Zinc Fertilization Effects on Seed Cadmium Accumulation in Oilseed and Grain Crops Grown on North Dakota Soils Efecto de la Fertilización con Zinc en la Acumulación de Cadmio en Semillas Oleaginosas y Cereales producidos en Suelos de Dakota del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A Rojas-Cifuentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cd concentration in the seed of crops depends on various soil factors including parent material, texture, pH, soil redox, and salinity. Cadmium accumulation also varies among crop species and cultivars within a species. Cadmium and Zn may have either an antagonistic or a synergistic effect on plant uptake that can be influenced by the soil Cd and Zn concentrations. The objective was to determine the effect of Zn fertilizer additions on the seed Cd of nine crops commonly grown in North Dakota, USA. Studies were conducted at five North Dakota locations representing different soil series during 1994 and 1995. In Experiment 1, nine crops common in North Dakota were grown with and without the addition of 25 kg ha-1 Zn fertilizer. Among crops evaluated, the greatest seed Cd accumulation occurred in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. followed by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum. In Experiment 2, two durum wheats and one flax cultivar were grown under three Zn treatments of 0, 5, and 25 kg ha-1. In Experiment again flax had the higher seed Cd level compared with the two durum varieties. Based on the results from both studies, addition of Zn fertilizer did not consistently reduce seed Cd content, and even when statistically significant, the level of reduction was small and not likely to impact marketability of Cd accumulating crops such as flax, sunflower, soybean, and durum.La concentración de Cd en semillas depende de varios factores, tanto del suelo como de la planta. Cadmio y Zn pueden tener efectos antagónicos o sinérgicos en la absorción de la planta dependiendo de las concentraciones de Cd y Zn existentes en el suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la fertilización con Zn en la acumulación de Cd en la semilla de diversos cultivos comúnmente producidos en Dakota del Norte, EE.UU. Dos estudios fueron realizados en cinco localidades en

  7. Reconnaissance of mercury in lakes, wetlands, and rivers in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, March through August 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Wiche, G.J.; Lundgren, R.F.; Sether, Bradley A.

    2003-01-01

    Devils Lake rose dramatically during the 1990's, causing extensive flood damages. Because of the potential for continued flooding, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been conducting studies to evaluate the feasibility of constructing and operating an outlet from Devils Lake. The occurrence of mercury in lakes, wetlands, and rivers and the potential for increased loading of mercury into the Sheyenne River as a result of a Devils Lake outlet needed to be evaluated as part of the studies.Sixteen lake, wetland, and river sites in the Devils Lake, Sheyenne River, Red River of the North, and Red Lake River Basins were sampled and analyzed for mercury constituents and other selected properties and constituents relevant to mercury aquatic chemistry. For the lake and wetland sites, whole-water methylmercury concentrations ranged from less than 0.04 to 3.53 nanograms per liter and whole-water total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 7.02 nanograms per liter. Conditions favorable for methylation of mercury generally exist at the lake and wetland sites, as indicated by larger dissolved methylmercury concentrations in near-bottom samples than in near-surface samples and by relatively large ratios of methylmercury to total mercury (generally greater than 10 percent for the summer sampling period). Total mercury concentrations were larger for the summer sampling period than for the winter sampling period for all lake and wetland sites. A wetland site in the upper Devils Lake Basin had the largest mercury concentrations for the lake and wetland sites.For the river sites, whole-water methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 1.13 nanograms per liter and whole-water total mercury concentrations ranged from 2.00 to 26.90 nanograms per liter. Most of the mercury for the river sites occurred in particulate inorganic phase. Summer ratios of whole-water methylmercury to whole-water total mercury were 35 percent for Starkweather Coulee (a wetland-dominated site), near or

  8. Environmental Assessment: Demolish Buildings 212, 218, 819, 820 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-31

    land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes...though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory for...can contribute to violations of water quality standards. During low flow periods, the rivers are generally too saline for domestic use. Grand

  9. Environmental Assessment: Construct a CDC Main Entry Addition at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    beans, corn, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat ...recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park...though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally

  10. Environmental Assessment: Construct Airfield Lighting Vault and Demolish Building 531 at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    beans, corn, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand...with remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley ...surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally

  11. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  12. The Accountability Illusion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  13. Streamflow and Suspended-Sediment Loads Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, North Halawa, Haiku, South Fork Kapunahala, and Kamooalii Drainage Basins, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael F.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    before construction increased by 58 percent only at Luluku Stream. All increases in observed high flows are attributed to increased runoff from land-use changes caused by the highway construction. Instantaneous peak flows increased significantly at Luluku Stream. Luluku Stream had significant increases in low and high flows both during and after construction. Suspended-sediment loads changed significantly at six out of seven sediment-gaging stations during highway construction. Construction activities increased observed suspended-sediment yields by 222, 426, 60, and 148 percent at North Halawa Stream near Kaneohe, North Halawa Stream near Honolulu, Right Branch Kamooalii Stream, and Haiku Stream, respectively. At Luluku Stream, observed suspended-sediment yields were lower during construction than before construction by 62 percent. After construction, suspended-sediment loads also changed significantly at six out of seven stream-gaging stations. Observed after-construction yields increased at North Halawa Stream near Kaneohe, North Halawa Stream near Honolulu, and Right Branch Kamooalii Stream by 49, 205, and 36 percent, respectively, and decreased at Kamooalii Stream and South Fork Kapunahala Stream by 62 and 71 percent. The observed increases in yields are smaller after construction than during construction indicating that suspended-sediment loads are likely returning to before-construction levels. The effects of H-3 Highway construction on suspended-sediment loads were generally similar to studies of the effects of highway construction in other areas of the United States where 50 to 85 percent of the sediment loads were attributed to construction activities. The percentages of the observed yields attributable to H-3 Highway construction are similar to the above percentages, ranging from 37 to 81 percent. Decreases in suspended-sediment loads due to highway construction are unique and have not been widely reported in the literature. Where decrease in s

  14. Continuous real-time water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to compute constituent concentrations and loads in the North Fork Ninnescah River upstream from Cheney Reservoir, south-central Kansas, 1999–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Gatotho, Jackline W.

    2013-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita. The U.S. Geological Survey has operated a continuous real-time water-quality monitoring station since 1998 on the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main source of inflow to Cheney Reservoir. Continuously measured water-quality physical properties include streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during 1999 through 2009 and analyzed for sediment, nutrients, bacteria, and other water-quality constituents. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physical properties to compute concentrations of those constituents of interest that are not easily measured in real time because of limitations in sensor technology and fiscal constraints. Regression models were published in 2006 that were based on data collected during 1997 through 2003. This report updates those models using discrete and continuous data collected during January 1999 through December 2009. Models also were developed for four new constituents, including additional nutrient species and indicator bacteria. In addition, a conversion factor of 0.68 was established to convert the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) model 6026 turbidity sensor measurements to the newer YSI model 6136 sensor at the North Ninnescah River upstream from Cheney Reservoir site. Newly developed models and 14 years of hourly continuously measured data were used to calculate selected constituent concentrations and loads during January 1999 through December 2012. The water-quality information in this report is important to the city of Wichita because it allows the concentrations of many potential pollutants of interest to Cheney Reservoir, including nutrients and sediment, to be estimated in real time and characterized over conditions and time scales that

  15. North Fork Snoqualmie River Basin Wildlife Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    some small mammals, such as squirrels, play an important role in dispersing seeds of trees to potential germination sites. Other small mammals, like...companies. Seeds would’be spread aerially over selected drawdown locations. Optimal timing for germination and wildlife use would be determined...Finch Carpodacus purpureus Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator Pine Siskin Spinus pinus American Goldfinch Spinus tristis Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo

  16. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  17. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA) Demolition of 35 Buildings With the Munitions Storage Area, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    mowed one to two times a year. Grasses are generally a mixture of Kentucky Bluegrasses and Smooth Brome . Although no formal vegetative species survey...ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica). This area consists primarily of smooth brome grassland. Pockets of wetlands are found scattered throughout this

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA): Construct of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    such as picloram, nonselective glyphosate and 2, 4-D are used to maintain areas on base. Pesticides Trumpet and Altosid are used for aerial...chippewacouncil.com>, <dglatt@nd.gov>, <tdwelle@nd.gov>, <ckramer@nd.gov>, cc bee Subject Proposed Construction of Fire Station and Demolition of 530 and 606 at

  19. Construction of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Finding of No Significant Impact (FOSNI). Finding of No Practical Alternative(FONPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-23

    presents a comparative summary matrix of the alternatives (the heart of the analysis), providing the decision maker and the public with a clear basis...Dominant trees in the Lowland Community include elm, cottonwood and green ash. Dutch elm disease has killed many of the elms. European buckthorn (a...X X X X Marsh Wren X Mourning Warbler X Nelson’s Sharp-tailed Sparrow X X X X Northern Harrier X X X Northern Pintail X X X Northern

  20. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  1. Variations in land use and nonpoint-source contamination on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, west-central North Dakota, 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen; Lent, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of land-use activities on the water quality of five streams on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were evaluated. The five basinsevaluated were East Fork Shell Creek, Deepwater Creek, Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek. East Fork Shell Creek and DeepwaterCreek Basins are located east of Lake Sakakawea and Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek Basins are located west of the lake. Land-use data for the five selected basins on and adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were obtained for 1990-92. Discharge measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected at stations and sites on each of the five streams during October 1991 through September 1993. Analysis of land-use data indicated that prairie was the largest land-use category in the study area. More prairie acreage was found in the basins located west of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located east of the lake. Wheat was the predominant crop in the study area. More wheat acreage was found in the basins located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located west of the lake. Discharge data for the five selected streams indicated that all of thestreams were ephemeral and had many days of no flow during the study period. High flows were usually the result of spring runoff or intense storms over the basins. East Fork Shell Creek and Deepwater Creek with larger basins and flatter stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and gradually receding flows. In contrast, Bear DenCreek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek with smaller basins and steeper stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and receding flows of shorter duration. Analysis of water-quality samples indicated concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon varied throughout the study area. Nitrogen concentrations were larger in the streams located east of LakeSakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The largest nitrogen

  2. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  3. Did mosasaurs have forked tongues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Mulder, E. W. A.; Schwenk, K.

    Ever since the first mosasaur restorations were published, these extinct marine reptiles have been pictured with either notched, forked or undivided tongues. Here, we present an overview of existing iconography, a review of the previous literature, and we discuss how best to reconstruct tongue form

  4. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  5. Function of a deltaic silt deposit as a repository and long-term source of sulfate and related weathering products in a glaciofluvial aquifer derived from organic-rich shale (North Dakota, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, W. M.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    A shallow unconfined glaciofluvial aquifer in North Dakota (USA) has largest groundwater sulfate concentrations near the bottom boundary. A deltaic silt layer underlying the aquifer, at >16 m, is the modern proximate sulfate source for the aquifer. The original sulfate source was pyrite in the organic-rich shale component of the aquifer and silt grain matrix. An oxidizing event occurred during which grain-matrix pyrite sulfur was oxidized to sulfate. Thereafter the silt served as a "conserving" layer, slowly feeding sulfate into the lower part of the aquifer and the underlying till. A method was developed for estimating the approximate initial sulfate concentration in the source layer and the redistribution time since the oxidizing event, using a semi-generic convection-dispersion model. The convection-dispersion model and a model for the evolution of modern sulfate δ 34S in silt-layer pore water from the initial grain-matrix pyrite δ 34S, both estimated that the oxidizing event occurred several thousand years ago, and was likely related to the dry conditions of the Hypsithermal Interval. The silt layer also serves as an arsenic source. Results indicate that deltaic silts derived from organic-rich shale parent materials in a glacial environment can provide long-term sources for sulfate and arsenic and possibly other related oxidative weathering products.

  6. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  7. Rinne revisited: steel versus aluminum tuning forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKechnie, Cheryl A; Greenberg, Jesse J; Gerkin, Richard C; McCall, Andrew A; Hirsch, Barry E; Durrant, John D; Raz, Yael

    2013-12-01

    (1) Determine whether tuning fork material (aluminum vs stainless steel) affects Rinne testing in the clinical assessment of conductive hearing loss (CHL). (2) Determine the relative acoustic and mechanical outputs of 512-Hz tuning forks made of aluminum and stainless steel. Prospective, observational. Outpatient otology clinic. Fifty subjects presenting May 2011 to May 2012 with negative or equivocal Rinne in at least 1 ear and same-day audiometry. Rinne test results using aluminum and steel forks were compared and correlated with the audiometric air-bone gap. Bench top measurements using sound-level meter, microphone, and artificial mastoid. Patients with CHL were more likely to produce a negative Rinne test with a steel fork than with an aluminum fork. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of a negative Rinne reached 50% at a 19 dB air-bone gap for stainless steel versus 27 dB with aluminum. Bench top testing revealed that steel forks demonstrate, in effect, more comparable air and bone conduction efficiencies while aluminum forks have relatively lower bone conduction efficiency. We have found that steel tuning forks can detect a lesser air-bone gap compared to aluminum tuning forks. This is substantiated by observations of clear differences in the relative acoustic versus mechanical outputs of steel and aluminum forks, reflecting underlying inevitable differences in acoustic versus mechanical impedances of these devices, and thus efficiency of coupling sound/vibratory energy to the auditory system. These findings have clinical implications for using tuning forks to determine candidacy for stapes surgery.

  8. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance and Literature Search of Cultural Resources within the Pembina River Project, Pembina and Cavalier Counties, North Dakota. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hair, Fur 31 Other Rock Features 32 Human Remains CULTURA /TEMPORAL 33 Pit 34 _ Projectile Point AFFILIATION 35 * Quarry/Mine 36 _ Shell (w~rkad) 37...29 , ound 3o Hide, Hair, Fur ’ 31 Other Rock Features 32 __ Human Remains CULTURA /TEMPORAL 33 Pit 34 _Projectile Point AFFILIATION - 35 Quarry/,Iine...PROPERTY 0-4.25 Ana*S UTM REFERENCES *ZONE EASTING NORTHING .. ZONE EATNNORTING VERBAL BOUNDARY DESCR-IPTION r 4-" LIST ALL STATES AND COUNTIES FOR

  9. Modifications of imaging spectroscopy methods for increases spatial and temporal consistency: A case study of change in leafy spurge distribution between 1999 and 2001 in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Kathleen Burke

    The noxious weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has spread throughout the northern Great Plains of North America since it was introduced in the early 1800s, and it is currently a significant management concern. Accurate, rapid location and repeatable measurements are critical for successful temporal monitoring of infestations. Imaging spectroscopy is well suited for identification of spurge; however, the development and dissemination of standardized hyperspectral mapping procedures that produce consistent multi-temporal maps has been absent. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, collected in 1999 and 2001 over Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, were used to locate leafy spurge. Published image-processing methods were tested to determine the most successful for consistent maps. Best results were obtained using: (1) NDVI masking; (2) cross-track illumination correction; (3) image-derived spectral libraries; and (4) mixture-tuned matched filtering algorithm. Application of the algorithm was modified to standardize processing and eliminate threshold decisions; the image-derived library was refined to eliminate additional variability. Primary (spurge dominant), secondary (spurge non-dominant), abundance, and area-wide vegetation maps were produced. Map accuracies were analyzed with point, polygon, and grid reference sets, using confusion matrices and regression between field-measured and image-derived abundances. Accuracies were recalculated after applying a majority filter, and buffers ranging from 1-5 pixels wide around classified pixels, to accommodate poor reference-image alignment. Overall accuracy varied from 39% to 82%, however, regression analyses yielded r2 = 0.725, indicating a strong relationship between field and image-derived densities. Accuracy was sensitive to: (1) registration offsets between field and image locations; (2) modification of analytical methods; and (3) reference data quality. Sensor viewing angle

  10. Validation of the DNDC model in order to simulate future greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon changes from the Prairie-Pothole region of North Dakota following prairie conversion to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, E.; Phillips, R. L.; Waldron, S. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) in North America is home to a diverse range of habitats that support large populations of water fowl and other bird species. Some of the habitats such as the native prairie grasslands of the PPR are under threat due to conversion to cropland. Despite the importance of the PPR, little research has been conducted in this region to understand the impact land-use changes will have on greenhouse gas emissions and soil organic carbon storage (SOC). Therefore, process based biogeochemical models such as the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model can be used to simulate the potential effects that future land-use change will have upon the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in both agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems. The objective of this study was to validate the DNDC model for two different ecosystems within the PPR region. We aimed to test the ability of the model to predict the flux of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and SOC changes in both an agricultural cropping system and a natural prairie in order to understand future land use change scenarios and forecast the change in N2O and SOC following prairie conversion to agriculture. Using a baseline climate scenario from observed daily measurements at each site, the DNDC model was tested against observed static chamber field measurements of N2O measured from April 2009 to December 2011, as well as being tested against other ancillary soil measurements (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) from an alfalfa cropping system and a native prairie grassland in the PPR of North Dakota, USA. Soils from the native prairie were classified as a non hydric clay loam with a SOC content of 0.033 kg C kg-1, where the alfalfa cropping system was a non hydric silt loam with a SOC content of 0.019 kg C kg-1. Initial results indicate that simulated N2O emissions at both sites and the change in SOC with conversion of prairie to cropland were generally in agreement with observed field

  11. Forests of South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  12. Forests of South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  13. Forests of South Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data collected...

  14. Piping Plover Habitat Loss at the Nature Conservancy's John E. Williams Preserve, Central North Dakota: an Interdisciplinary Study of Alkaline Prairie Pothole Glacial Lakes, Groundwater, Gravel Beaches and Vegetation Encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamanda, M.; Kellner, J. R.; Lamb, M. A.; Clotts, R.; Pastika, D. W.; Welter, D. J.; Brown, J. M.; Schuweiler, T. K.; Mohanty, R. B.; Vang, K. M.; Nichols, K. S.; Lorah, P. A.; Robinson, D. O.

    2016-12-01

    The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a threatened migratory bird that nests along shores of alkaline lakes, the Great Lakes, and the Atlantic Ocean. John Williams Preserve, in central North Dakota, houses one of the largest breeding populations in the world. Over the past eighty years, vegetation has encroached and caused variable habitat loss from lake to lake (Root and Ryan, 2004). Processes operating on different time scales affect lake, beach and vegetation changes: long-term global climate changes, decadal drought cycles, and seasonal and local weather. To determine how these processes interact to affect vegetation growth, soil salinity and habitat loss, we began a multidisciplinary field study. Sampled lake cores provide a chemical record of historical events and possible habitat changes. Water chemistry samples taken in different months inform groundwater flow patterns and core interpretation. Spatial analyses of local and regional groundwater systems informed placement of piezometers to determine groundwater flow. Aerial drone imagery builds on previous ground studies and allows for a quantitative spatial analysis of vegetation encroachment and geomorphic analyses. The three main lakes in our study show a general increase in concentration of major ions from east to west —from Pelican to Peterson to Williams—that mirrors westerly groundwater flow. Geochemical data from sediment cores, including LOI, XRD and XRF data, show that Williams is the most variable chemically, Pelican the least. Williams contains the most evaporate minerals, including thernardite and burkeite. Land use changes in the last 120 years may have changed lake chemistry: at 60 cm depth in cores, there are changes in the organic matter concentration and major ion chemistry, suggesting an increase in runoff and sediment input. Historical research points to changing agricultural practices as a possible cause of these changes. Initial ArcGIS analyses of detailed drone topographic data

  15. Conservation assessment for groundcedar and stiff clubmoss in the Black Hills National Forest South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Hope Hornbeck; Deanna J. Reyher; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Reed W. Crook

    2002-01-01

    Stiff clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum L.) and groundcedar (Lycopodium complanatum L.; synonym = Diphasiastrum complanatum [L.] Holub.) (Lycopodiaceae) are circumboreal clubmoss species that are widely distributed in North American boreal habitats. In the northern Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming,...

  16. Henrys Fork near Ashton, ID (YHEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Henrys Fork near Ashton, Idaho (YHEN) Sample Collection: Samples were collected near the USGS stream gage 13046000 (Latitude 44°04'11", Longitude 111°30'38" NAD83)....

  17. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applies. D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Lostwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting... each day (see §§ 27.93 and 27.94 of this chapter). 6. Condition B4 applies. D. Sport Fishing. We allow... chapter) and camping on the refuge. Arrowwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting...

  18. Level IV Ecoregions of North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  19. 2015 State Geodatabase for North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  20. Level III Ecoregions of North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  1. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  2. 77 FR 24661 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601... of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, PO Box 11018, 150 East B...

  3. 78 FR 6062 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... permit once lands in that permit are no longer being mined or used in the support of mining. This... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 934... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment period and...

  4. Environmental Info for South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in South Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  5. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Background Information Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Kp PIERRE SHALE Kc COLORADO GROUP Kd DAKOTA GR--UP Ku DAKOTA GROUP 0 CRDOVICIArN. UNOiFF ERENTIA7ED PC PRECAMBRIAN Kd <p Kc FIGURE 8 GEOLOGIC...greatest numbers along gullies and creek banks in the study area. The primary foods of the wood- chuck are wild lettuce , white clover, red clover, and

  6. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  7. Fork2Farmer: Enabling Success of Small Farms through Partnerships with Well-Known Chefs and the Tourism Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Duarte; Jakes, Susan; Bowen, Becky; Lelekacs, Joanna Massey

    2017-01-01

    A team of economic development, local foods, and tourism specialists from North Carolina Cooperative Extension is pursuing an initiative titled Fork2Farmer. The goal is to increase visits to local farms and diversify farm income by leveraging the high visibility of well-known farm-to-table chefs who support local small farms. To do this, those…

  8. Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod

  9. Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

  10. South Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  11. South Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  12. South Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  13. South Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Ronald J. Piva

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  14. South Dakota's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Andrew J. Lister; Douglas Haugan

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  15. South Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  16. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Arkansas University Campus at 100 E. University, Magnolia, 09001240, LISTED, 1/20/10 (New Deal Recovery... County Taylor Field, 1201 E. 16th St., Pine Bluff, 09001250, LISTED, 1/21/ 10 (New Deal Recovery Efforts... Forks County University of North Dakota Historic District, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks...

  17. Code Forking, Governance, and Sustainability in Open Source Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Lindman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to fork open source code is at the core of open source licensing. All open source licenses grant the right to fork their code, that is to start a new development effort using an existing code as its base. Thus, code forking represents the single greatest tool available for guaranteeing sustainability in open source software. In addition to bolstering program sustainability, code forking directly affects the governance of open source initiatives. Forking, and even the mere possibility of forking code, affects the governance and sustainability of open source initiatives on three distinct levels: software, community, and ecosystem. On the software level, the right to fork makes planned obsolescence, versioning, vendor lock-in, end-of-support issues, and similar initiatives all but impossible to implement. On the community level, forking impacts both sustainability and governance through the power it grants the community to safeguard against unfavourable actions by corporations or project leaders. On the business-ecosystem level forking can serve as a catalyst for innovation while simultaneously promoting better quality software through natural selection. Thus, forking helps keep open source initiatives relevant and presents opportunities for the development and commercialization of current and abandoned programs.

  18. Conservation assessment for bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae), is a common spring flowering herb in the deciduous forests of eastern North America. It is disjunctly distributed in the northeastern Black Hills of South Dakota. There are 22 known occurrences of bloodroot on Black Hills National Forest in hardwood forests, shrub thickets, and floodplain habitats of limited...

  19. The forked flap repair for hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The "Forked-Flap" repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip-flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit′s prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

  20. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Aberdeen quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Aberdeen, South Dakota map area. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  1. Regulation of replication fork progression through histone supply and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Corpet, Armelle; Cook, Adam J L

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes requires nucleosome disruption ahead of the replication fork and reassembly behind. An unresolved issue concerns how histone dynamics are coordinated with fork progression to maintain chromosomal stability. Here, we characterize a complex in which the human histone c...... progression and histone supply and demand.......1 chaperone function, histone supply, and replicative unwinding of DNA in chromatin. We propose that Asf1, as a histone acceptor and donor, handles parental and new histones at the replication fork via an Asf1-(H3-H4)-MCM2-7 intermediate and thus provides a means to fine-tune replication fork...

  2. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Mistrik, Martin; Neelsen, Kai J

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression......, is required for early phosphorylation of ATM substrates such as CHK2 and CtIP as well as hyperphosphorylation of RPA. These phosphorylations occur prior to apparent DNA double-strand break formation. Furthermore, FBH1-dependent signaling promotes checkpoint control and preserves genome integrity. We propose...

  3. Boundaries - 1997 Red River of the North Flood

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital outline of the 1997 flood event. 1997 flooded outline extends from Emerson, Manitoba to Wahpeton, North Dakota. Delineations exist for the entire main stem...

  4. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  5. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  6. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  7. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.342 Section 81.342... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota. South Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  8. South Dakota Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Matt; Outka, Janeen; McCorkle, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Student growth is one of two essential components of South Dakota's Teacher and Principal Effectiveness Systems. In the state systems, student growth is defined as a positive change in student achievement between two or more points in time. "The South Dakota SLO Handbook" provides support and guidance to public schools and school…

  9. A farm to fork approach to nutritious school meals: Tackling ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... In St Kitts-Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago, partnerships between the agriculture, health, and education sectors have united in a "Farm to Fork" effort to tackle childhood obesity. The Farm to Fork model is built on three pillars: increased fruit and vegetables in school lunches; procurement from local farmers; ...

  10. Maple River Subbasin, Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    buildings , etc.), and transportation facilities. Rural damages account for 88 percent of total average annual damages in the subbasin, and urban...39 Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 18 42 Motor Freight Transportation/Warehousing 18 51 Wholesale Trade-Nondurable Goods 85 52 Building ...34%: of North Dakota by studying plant collections of the North Dakota State .: .. :¢University Herbarium . To be included in this listing, a plant

  11. PTEN Regulates DNA Replication Progression and Stalled Fork Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxue; Kang, Xi; Yin, Yuxin; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Shen, Wen H.

    2015-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication is a cornerstone of genomic integrity. PTEN plays multiple roles in genome protection and tumor suppression. Here we report on the importance of PTEN in DNA replication. PTEN depletion leads to impairment of replication progression and stalled fork recovery, indicating an elevation of endogenous replication stress. Exogenous replication inhibition aggravates replication-originated DNA lesions without inducing S-phase arrest in cells lacking PTEN, representing replication stress tolerance. Our analysis reveals the physical association of PTEN with DNA replication forks and PTEN-dependent recruitment of Rad51. PTEN deletion results in Rad51 dissociation from replication forks. Stalled replication forks in Pten null cells can be reactivated by ectopic Rad51 or PTEN, the latter facilitating chromatin loading of Rad51. These data highlight the interplay of PTEN with Rad51 in promoting stalled fork restart. We propose that loss of PTEN may initiate a replication stress cascade that progressively deteriorates through the cell cycle. PMID:26158445

  12. Studies on Factors affecting the Evolution of Agroecosystems in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav

    This dissertation combines remote sensing and applied economics tools to study land use conversions in North Dakota and South Dakota that are tied to this region's overall socio-economic welfare. Specifically, the region's corn and soybeans cultivation expanded significantly over the past decade replacing the region's grasslands and grain crops. In paper I, we estimate the localized impacts of the advent of corn-based ethanol plants on the Dakotas' corn acreage. We implement a Difference-in-Difference framework through more flexible assumptions as the Parallel Paths assumption of the standard model fails to hold. We find strong trends in the Dakotas' corn acreage over the past decade, but surprisingly some ethanol plants were found to have a negative impact on local corn acreage. In paper II, we evaluate crop competitiveness due to heterogeneous weather impacts on crop yields, and then test whether annual weather fluctuations explain land allocations among the Dakotas' major land uses. Our integrated framework suggests that annual weather variability is an important determinant of regional land use decisions. Under the A1B emissions scenario of climate change, we find that the yields of all of the Dakotas' major crops will decline by 2031-2060 relative to 1981-2010, leading to lower (higher) spring wheat (alfalfa) acres in Eastern (Western) Dakotas. In paper III, we develop and implement a satellite image-processing algorithm to estimate historical land use acres using raw Landsat sensor data, thereby extending the existing Cropland Data Layers back to 1984 in eastern Dakotas. We demonstrate that the availability of a longer time-series is useful as the rate of land use change may differ among different time-spans. In paper IV, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of grassland conservation easements when spatial spillovers are present among private landowners. We first develop a conceptual model to incorporate social spillovers in evaluating the role of easements in

  13. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  14. PTEN regulates RPA1 and protects DNA replication forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangxi; Li, Yang; Wang, Pan; Liang, Hui; Cui, Ming; Zhu, Minglu; Guo, Limei; Su, Qian; Sun, Yujie; McNutt, Michael A; Yin, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor PTEN regulates cellular activities and controls genome stability through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we report that PTEN is necessary for the protection of DNA replication forks against replication stress. We show that deletion of PTEN leads to replication fork collapse and chromosomal instability upon fork stalling following nucleotide depletion induced by hydroxyurea. PTEN is physically associated with replication protein A 1 (RPA1) via the RPA1 C-terminal domain. STORM and iPOND reveal that PTEN is localized at replication sites and promotes RPA1 accumulation on replication forks. PTEN recruits the deubiquitinase OTUB1 to mediate RPA1 deubiquitination. RPA1 deletion confers a phenotype like that observed in PTEN knockout cells with stalling of replication forks. Expression of PTEN and RPA1 shows strong correlation in colorectal cancer. Heterozygous disruption of RPA1 promotes tumorigenesis in mice. These results demonstrate that PTEN is essential for DNA replication fork protection. We propose that RPA1 is a target of PTEN function in fork protection and that PTEN maintains genome stability through regulation of DNA replication. PMID:26403191

  15. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  16. Fork gratings based on ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Wei, B Y; Shi, L Y; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H-S; Hu, W; Lu, Y Q

    2016-03-21

    In this article, we disclose a fork grating (FG) based on the photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). The Digital Micro-mirror Device based system is used as a dynamic photomask to generated different holograms. Because of controlled anchoring energy, the photo alignment process offers optimal conditions for the multi-domain FLC alignment. Two different electro-optical modes namely DIFF/TRANS and DIFF/OFF switchable modes have been proposed where the diffraction can be switched either to no diffraction or to a completely black state, respectively. The FLC FG shows high diffraction efficiency and fast response time of 50µs that is relatively faster than existing technologies. Thus, the FLC FG may pave a good foundation toward optical vertices generation and manipulation that could find applications in a variety of devices.

  17. Integration of Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on integrating Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench. The NEAMS Workbench, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new software framework that provides a graphical user interface, input file creation, parsing, validation, job execution, workflow management, and output processing for a variety of nuclear codes. Dakota is a tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories that provides a suite of uncertainty quantification and optimization algorithms. Providing Dakota within the NEAMS Workbench allows users of nuclear simulation codes to perform uncertainty and optimization studies on their nuclear codes from within a common, integrated environment. Details of the integration and parsing are provided, along with an example of Dakota running a sampling study on the fuels performance code, BISON, from within the NEAMS Workbench.

  18. Ground-water resources of the lower Niobrara River and Ponca Creek basins, Nebraska and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Thomas G.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    This report describes the area in north-central Nebraska and south-central South Dakota drained by Ponca Creek and by the Niobrara River below Valentine, Nebr. The Niobrara River and Ponca Creek are neighboring eastward flowing tributaries of the Missouri River. The Dakota sandstone of Cretaceous age is the oldest formation tapped by wells; the water it yields to wells in small to moderate quantities is rather highly mineralized and very hard; it is unsuitable for irrigation and most domestic uses. Overlying the Dakota, in ascending order, are the following formations of Cretaceous age: the Graneros shale, Greenhorn limestone, Carlile shale, Niobrara formation, and Pierre shale. None of these is a source of water supply. The Niobrara is the oldest formation exposed, cropping out in only the deeper valleys at the eastern end of the area. The Pierre shale, which is exposed much more extensively, crops out in the deeper valleys throughout nearly all the area.

  19. 75 FR 62135 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    .... FEMA-1938-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1938-DR), dated September 23... South Dakota resulting from severe storms and flooding during the period of July 21-30, 2010, is of...

  20. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    .... FEMA-4115-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4115-DR), dated May 10, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  1. 78 FR 51200 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... FEMA-4137-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4137-DR), dated August 2, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  2. 75 FR 30418 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1914-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1914-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm on April 2, 2010...

  3. 75 FR 30420 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1915-DR;Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on March 10, 2010...

  4. 75 FR 47612 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    .... FEMA-1929-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1929-DR), dated July 29, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from...

  5. 78 FR 45548 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    .... FEMA-4125-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4125-DR), dated June 28, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from severe storms...

  6. 75 FR 71453 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FEMA-1947-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1947-DR), dated November 2, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  7. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    .... FEMA-1984-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on...

  8. 78 FR 72093 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    .... FEMA-4155-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4155-DR), dated November 8, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  9. Climate and streamflow characteristics for selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota, water years 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Stamm, John F.

    2015-11-02

    Upward trends in precipitation and streamflow have been observed in the northeastern Missouri River Basin during the past century, including the area of eastern South Dakota. Some of the identified upward trends were anomalously large relative to surrounding parts of the northern Great Plains. Forcing factors for streamflow trends in eastern South Dakota are not well understood, and it is not known whether streamflow trends are driven primarily by climatic changes or various land-use changes. Understanding the effects that climate (specifically precipitation and temperature) has on streamflow characteristics within a region will help to better understand additional factors such as land-use alterations that may affect the hydrology of the region. To aid in this understanding, a study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Dakota Water Development District and James River Water Development District, to assess trends in climate and streamflow characteristics at 10 selected streamgages in eastern South Dakota for water years (WYs) 1945–2013 (69 years) and WYs 1980–2013 (34 years). A WY is the 12-month period, October 1 through September 30, and is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. One streamgage is on the Whetstone River, a tributary to the Minnesota River, and the other streamgages are in the James, Big Sioux, and Vermillion River Basins. The watersheds for two of the James River streamgages extend into North Dakota, and parts of the watersheds for two of the Big Sioux River streamgages extend into Minnesota and Iowa. The objectives of this study were to document trends in streamflow and precipitation in these watersheds, and characterize the residual streamflow variability that might be attributed to factors other than precipitation. Residuals were computed as the departure from a locally-weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) model. Significance of trends was based on the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test at a 0

  10. Separase prevents genomic instability by controlling replication fork speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Francesco; Palumbo, Elisa; Camerini, Serena; D’Alessio, Barbara; Quarantotti, Valentina; Casella, Maria Luisa; Rizzo, Ilaria Maria; Cukrov, Dubravka; Delia, Domenico; Russo, Antonella; Crescenzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Proper chromosome segregation is crucial for preserving genomic integrity, and errors in this process cause chromosome mis-segregation, which may contribute to cancer development. Sister chromatid separation is triggered by Separase, an evolutionary conserved protease that cleaves the cohesin complex, allowing the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion. Here we provide evidence that Separase participates in genomic stability maintenance by controlling replication fork speed. We found that Separase interacted with the replication licensing factors MCM2–7, and genome-wide data showed that Separase co-localized with MCM complex and cohesin. Unexpectedly, the depletion of Separase increased the fork velocity about 1.5-fold and caused a strong acetylation of cohesin's SMC3 subunit and altered checkpoint response. Notably, Separase silencing triggered genomic instability in both HeLa and human primary fibroblast cells. Our results show a novel mechanism for fork progression mediated by Separase and thus the basis for genomic instability associated with tumorigenesis. PMID:29165708

  11. New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show...... that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation...... of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA...

  12. A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s. PMID:24048339

  13. Forked and Integrated Variants In An Open-Source Firmware Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciulescu, Stefan; Schulze, Sandro; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    and interactive source management platforms such as Github. We study advantages and disadvantages of forking using the case of Marlin, an open source firmware for 3D printers. We find that many problems and advantages of cloning do translate to forking. Interestingly, the Marlin community uses both forking...

  14. National uranium resource evaluation: Lemmon quadrangle, South Dakota and North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, J.M.; Pickering, L.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Lemmon Quadrangle was evaluated to identify and delineate geologic environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface studies included investigation of uranium occurrences, general surface reconnaissance, and detailed rock sampling in selected areas. In addition, followup studies were conducted on carborne spectrometric, aerial radiometric, and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. Subsurface investigations included examination of geophysical well logs and ground-water geochemical data. These investigations indicate environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Upper Cretaceous strata and lignite-type deposits in the Paleocene strata. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary sandstones and Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, exclusive of the Upper Cretaceous sandstones

  15. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    warblers (Dendroica and Geothlypis spp.), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.). Native prairies along Lake Oahe are home...as a dye and fiber plant, and in sewage treatment cells. Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) Class 4 Flowering rush was introduced through the...elderberry, and false indigo , and anchoring logs and snags. Other Actions . Several other actions are proposed, including improvement of

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Dakota and Ojibwe People in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Frances

    1977-01-01

    A biographical sketch of Frances Densmore, ethnologist of Native American music, and seven articles describing the lives of the Dakota and Ojibwe people as Densmore saw them are presented. The biographical sketch recounts Ms. Densmore's study of Ojibwe music and her ability to copy songs from memory when listening to them at fairs or attending…

  18. A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschee, Bonni F.; Boschee, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents' decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling…

  19. Environmental Inventory: Little South Fork Cumberland River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Harelip Sucker Kirsch (1893) collected this species from the mouth of Canada Creek in 1891, but the species has not been seen in North America since 1895...and the popeye shiner as undeter- mined. Some biologists are hopeful that the harelip sucker, a species which many biologists believe is extinct, may

  20. Epidemiology of diphtheria in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, A; Lance-Parker, S; Welty, T; Schaefer, L; Volmer, L; LaFromboise, C; Dixon, J; Haase, T; Kim, C; Popovic, T; Bisgard, K; Strebel, P; Wharton, M

    2000-07-01

    Respiratory diphtheria was one of the most common causes of death among children in the pre-vaccine era. Since the introduction of diphtheria toxoid vaccine in 1920s, and its widespread use by the late 1940s, diphtheria became increasingly rare in the United States. However, through the 1970s diphtheria remained endemic in some states, with reported incidence rates > 1.0 per million population in six states (Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Washington). Starting in 1980, less than five cases have been reported each year in the United States. The majority of culture-confirmed cases have been associated with importation from other countries. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the organism causing diphtheria, was thought to have become rare or even have disappeared from previously endemic areas such as South Dakota. However, during four months in 1996, 11 persons (one index case, six patients and four household contacts) in an American Indian community in South Dakota were found to be infected by C. diphtheriae; six of these isolates were toxigenic. The findings in this report indicate that despite 20 years without reported respiratory diphtheria cases, toxigenic C. diphtheriae is still present in South Dakota. The continuous circulation of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need for health care providers throughout South Dakota to promote timely vaccination against diphtheria among persons of all ages and ethnic groups, to be aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of diphtheria so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease.

  1. Resonance Experiments Using AFO Instead of Tuning Fork

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. Resonance Experiments Using AFO Instead of Tuning Fork. Deepak H Gadani. Classroom Volume 16 Issue 11 November 2011 pp 1053-1060. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Shrub-steppe vegetation trend, Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Peek

    2000-01-01

    The Middle Fork Salmon River drainage of the Frank Church River-Of-No-Return Wilderness has a history of livetock grazing from 1890 to 1950, and changes in grazing pressure from native ungulates. High mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations occurred between 1940 and 1960, and high elk (Cervus elaphus) populations occurred in...

  3. Comparative Study of Transcriptome Profiles of Mouse Livers and Skins Infected by Fork-Tailed or Non-Fork-Tailed Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum is a worldwide spread pathogen which penetrates host skin and then induces several diseases in infected host, such as fibrosis, formation of granulomas, hepatocirrhosis, and hepatomegaly. In present study, for the first time, transcriptomic profiles of mouse livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were analyzed by using RNA-seq. The present findings demonstrated that transcriptomic landscapes of livers and skins infected by fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria or non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria were different. S. japonicum has great influence on hepatic metabolic processes. Fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria upregulated hepatic metabolic processes, while non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria downregulated hepatic metabolic processes. For the metabolism process or the metabolism enzyme expressional change, the pharmacokinetics of host could be changed during S. japonicum infection, regardless the biotypes of S. japonicum cercariae. The changes of infected skins focused on upregulation of immune response. During the S. japonicum skin infection period, fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection induced stronger immune response comparing with that immune response triggered by non-fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria. The transcription factor enrichment analysis showed that Irf7, Stat1 and Stat2 could play important roles in gene regulation during fork-tailed S. japonicum cercaria infection.

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BENSON COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  5. Social behavior of breeding gadwalls in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.

    1974-01-01

    Responses of duck pairs encountering other ducks were categorized by McKinney (1965a) as displays, attack, escape and avoidance, sexual pursuit, and sociability. Gadwalls (Anas strepera) show all these responses on the breeding grounds, and characteristic behavior patterns occur depending on the reproductive state of the birds involved. The responses of paired ducks to unpaired males on the breeding grounds have not been described for the Gadwall or any other species. The function of aerial flights (McKinney 1965a) is also confused in the literature. The objectives of this paper are to describe the responses of paired breeding Gadwalls to other Gadwall pairs and unmated drakes and to dis- cuss the possible reasons for the type of spacing behavior Gadwall pairs exhibit.

  6. Elevation - LiDAR Survey - Sheyenne River, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Airborne laser terrain mapping utilizing dual-frequency airborne GPS control and conventional control is conducted along the Sheyenne River, from the area where the...

  7. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  8. DETAILED FLOOD ZONE REDELINEATION, WALSH COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. 2013 North Dakota Transgenic Barley Research and FHB Nursery Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research continues to develop and test new transgenic plants using genes provided by collaborators. As lines are developed in Golden Promise, they are crossed to Conlon for field testing. Transgenic lines developed in Conlon are being crossed to resistant lines developed by the breeding programs. ...

  10. 75 FR 26296 - North Dakota Disaster #ND-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-Profit organizations that provide essential services of governmental nature may file disaster loan..., Steele, Stutsman, Traill, Walsh, Wells. And the portions of the Spirit Lake Reservation that lie within these counties. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Non-Profit Organizations With...

  11. Evaluative Archeological Investigations at Four Sites Along the Right Bank of Lake Francis Case, Lyman County, South Dakota. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Bouteloua spp., currant (Ribes aureum), buffalo berry (Shepherdia argentea), wild grape (Vitis vulpina), and wild rose (Rosa woodsii) are also present...construction, some of the more important plants used may have included: berries of Shepherdia, Prunus, Ribes, Amelanchier, Vitis; seeds of Rumex; roots, tubers...Large Dogs in North America. Tebiwa 11(2) :43-49. Lees, William B. 1985 Dakota Acculturation during the Early Reservation Period: Evidence from the

  12. The Impact of Employment Nondiscrimination Legislation in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Naomi G; Badgett, M V Lee; Ramos, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the issue of employment discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) citizens of South Dakota. We used the best available data from government sources and from recent research to examine the impact of employment discrimination on LGBT people and on South Dakota businesses. Specifically this report concludes that as many as 12,400 gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals live in South Dakota, and estimates suggest that 2,000 transgender individuals l...

  13. A Python Interface for the Dakota Iterative Systems Analysis Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, M.; Hutton, E.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Uncertainty quantification is required to improve the accuracy, reliability, and accountability of Earth science models. Dakota is a software toolkit, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, that provides an interface between models and a library of analysis methods, including support for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, optimization, and calibration techniques. Dakota is a powerful tool, but its learning curve is steep: the user not only must understand the structure and syntax of the Dakota input file, but also must develop intermediate code, called an analysis driver, that allows Dakota to run a model. The CSDMS Dakota interface (CDI) is a Python package that wraps and extends Dakota's user interface. It simplifies the process of configuring and running a Dakota experiment. A user can program to the CDI, allowing a Dakota experiment to be scripted. The CDI creates Dakota input files and provides a generic analysis driver. Any model written in Python that exposes a Basic Model Interface (BMI), as well as any model componentized in the CSDMS modeling framework, automatically works with the CDI. The CDI has a plugin architecture, so models written in other languages, or those that don't expose a BMI, can be accessed by the CDI by programmatically extending a template; an example is provided in the CDI distribution. Currently, six Dakota analysis methods have been implemented for examples from the much larger Dakota library. To demonstrate the CDI, we performed an uncertainty quantification experiment with the HydroTrend hydrological water balance and transport model. In the experiment, we evaluated the response of long-term suspended sediment load at the river mouth (Qs) to uncertainty in two input parameters, annual mean temperature (T) and precipitation (P), over a series of 100-year runs, using the polynomial chaos method. Through Dakota, we calculated moments, local and global (Sobol') sensitivity indices, and probability density and

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Huron quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Huron map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1459 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Huron quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Huron map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1459 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Mitchell Quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Mitchell map area. The purpose of this program is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1479 line miles are in this quadrangle

  17. Healthy people, malaria and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2020 goals call for a reduction in the number of cases of malaria in the United States. Historically, South Dakota has had a low incidence of this infection, but a demographic shift has poised the state for a potential increase in the number of cases. The reasons for this are reviewed, and proactive steps that can be taken to avoid this rise are presented.

  18. Facts on Kids in South Dakota, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Pat, Ed.; Blad, Amy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Kids Count report consists of four issues in a series of fact sheets that examine specific indicators of the well-being of children in South Dakota. Issue one focuses on teens and motor vehicle crashes. The fact sheet notes that teen death rates from car crashes have been higher than the national rate for 4 of the 5 years between 1992-1996.…

  19. State of South Dakota's child: 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A L

    2000-01-01

    The Surgeon General's Year 2000 health goals for the nation are presented and data from South Dakota and the United States that measure progress toward achieving them are discussed. The percentage of low-birth weight babies (LBW) in South Dakota is lower than observed nationally, but, similar to the national trend, has increased in the past few years. Between 1996-1998, 1.1% of all newborns in the state weighed less than 1500 grams, and 5.7% weighed less than 2500 grams. There has been continuing progress observed in the survival rate of the very low birth weight infant. In 1996 the state experienced a precipitous drop in its infant mortality rate (IMR) that has not been sustained in the past two years. The state's 1998 IMR of 9.0 per 1000 live births, however, is less than the mean rate of 10 that persisted over the previous decade. The IMR for white babies (5.7) has achieved the Year 2000 Goal. The rate of Sudden Infant Death in South Dakota is significantly higher (p feeding. The benefits of breast-feeding to babies and mothers are described, as well as the need for it to be advocated by the health care community. This advocacy must emphasize breast-feeding's importance, how women can be assisted as they begin to nurse, and how community efforts can be taken to enable breast-feeding continuation when women return to work following delivery.

  20. Chronology of Deformation Near the Iditarod-Nixon Fork Fault, West-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, B. K.; Wallace, W. K.; Newberry, R. J.; Layer, P. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Nixon Fork Mine is a Cu-Au deposit located 7 km south of the Iditarod-Nixon Fork (I-NF) fault. This fault strikes at ~060°, and can be traced for ~400 km, with a minimum dextral displacement of ~90 km. Proximity to the I-NF fault suggests it would be a dominant influence on deformation of the deposit, but the extent and timing of disruption are unknown. In order to reconstruct strain history and eventually understand structural evolution, we analyzed the orientations of geologic structures and dated representative K-bearing minerals and rocks. Felsic dikes, with 40Ar/39Ar ages of 69.6 ± 0.5 Ma and arc-type signatures, are cut by faults apparently related to the I-NF fault, but do not obviously cut such faults. Since no dikes are seen to cut faults, we know of no local fault motion prior to their intrusion. The northeast strike of the felsic dikes (n = 102; mean = 034° ± 10° ) requires σ3 oriented ~124°, at odds with the ~0° orientation inferred from the strike of the I-NF fault (~60°). The Nixon Fork pluton has approximately the same age and an overall elongation compatible with the felsic dikes. Mafic dikes, with 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.8 ± 0.6 Ma, have within-plate signatures (average TiO2 = 2.48 wt%, Zr = 172 ppm, Nb = 58 ppm, Y = 25 ppm) and require a change in overall tectonic regime. Additionally, their north strike (n = 44; mean = 013° ± 10°) requires σ3 oriented ~103°, which is not compatible with σ3 (~0°) inferred from the right-lateral I-NF fault, and requires a different extension direction from the felsic dikes. We observed mafic dikes cut by faults with orientations compatible with right-lateral motion on the I-NF fault, and we propose that right-lateral motion on the I-NF fault began after mafic dike emplacement. Outcrop-scale fold axes trend north (n = 136; mean = 355° ± 10°). They are preferentially aligned perpendicular to the σ1 inferred for right-lateral motion on the I-NF fault and so are plausibly related to the I-NF fault

  1. Geology and ground-water resources of the Lake Dakota Plain area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William B.; Petri, Lester R.

    1963-01-01

    The Lake Dakota plain area is a nearly flat surface that includes parts of Spink, Brown, Marshall, and Day Counties in northeastern South Dakota. Agriculture is the principal occupation. Because precipitation often is insufficient for maximum crop production, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has developed a plan for irrigation of the area. Most of the irrigation water would be conveyed by canal from a reservoir on the Missouri River, about 100 miles to the west, but some would be obtained locally from the James River.

  2. Capitalizing on disaster: Establishing chromatin specificity behind the replication fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Ahmad, Kami; Henikoff, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packaged into nucleosomal chromatin, and genomic activity requires the precise localization of transcription factors, histone modifications and nucleosomes. Classic work described the progressive reassembly and maturation of bulk chromatin behind replication forks. More recent proteomics has detailed the molecular machines that accompany the replicative polymerase to promote rapid histone deposition onto the newly replicated DNA. However, localized chromatin features are transiently obliterated by DNA replication every S phase of the cell cycle. Genomic strategies now observe the rebuilding of locus-specific chromatin features, and reveal surprising delays in transcription factor binding behind replication forks. This implies that transient chromatin disorganization during replication is a central juncture for targeted transcription factor binding within genomes. We propose that transient occlusion of regulatory elements by disorganized nucleosomes during chromatin maturation enforces specificity of factor binding. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Replication fork stability confers chemoresistance in BRCA-deficient cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Arnab Ray; Callen, Elsa; Ding, Xia

    2016-01-01

    /4 complex protein, PTIP, protects Brca1/2-deficient cells from DNA damage and rescues the lethality of Brca2-deficient embryonic stem cells. However, PTIP deficiency does not restore homologous recombination activity at double-strand breaks. Instead, its absence inhibits the recruitment of the MRE11......Cells deficient in the Brca1 and Brca2 genes have reduced capacity to repair DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and consequently are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, including cisplatin and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Here we show that loss of the MLL3...... nuclease to stalled replication forks, which in turn protects nascent DNA strands from extensive degradation. More generally, acquisition of PARP inhibitors and cisplatin resistance is associated with replication fork protection in Brca2-deficient tumour cells that do not develop Brca2 reversion mutations...

  4. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  5. A vibrating quartz fork - a tool for cryogenic helium research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, Michaela; Člověčko, M.; Eltsov, V. B.; Gažo, E.; de Graaf, R.; Hosio, J.J.; Krusius, M.; Schmoranzer, D.; Schoepe, W.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Skyba, P.; Solntsev, R.E.; Vinen, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 150, - (2008), s. 525-535 ISSN 0022-2291 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0218 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 7953/2007; Transnational Access Programme(XE) RITA-CT-2003-505313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : normal 3He * superfluid 3He * superfluid 4He * turbulence, * cavitation * quartz tuning fork Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2008

  6. Separase prevents genomic instability by controlling replication fork speed

    OpenAIRE

    Cucco, Francesco; Palumbo, Elisa; Camerini, Serena; D’Alessio, Barbara; Quarantotti, Valentina; Casella, Maria Luisa; Rizzo, Ilaria Maria; Cukrov, Dubravka; Delia, Domenico; Russo, Antonella; Crescenzi, Marco; Musio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Proper chromosome segregation is crucial for preserving genomic integrity, and errors in this process cause chromosome mis-segregation, which may contribute to cancer development. Sister chromatid separation is triggered by Separase, an evolutionary conserved protease that cleaves the cohesin complex, allowing the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion. Here we provide evidence that Separase participates in genomic stability maintenance by controlling replication fork speed. We fou...

  7. Pitch Fork: A Novel tactile Digital Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Peter; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using material computation to control aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output sig...

  8. Separase prevents genomic instability by controlling replication fork speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Francesco; Palumbo, Elisa; Camerini, Serena; D'Alessio, Barbara; Quarantotti, Valentina; Casella, Maria Luisa; Rizzo, Ilaria Maria; Cukrov, Dubravka; Delia, Domenico; Russo, Antonella; Crescenzi, Marco; Musio, Antonio

    2018-01-09

    Proper chromosome segregation is crucial for preserving genomic integrity, and errors in this process cause chromosome mis-segregation, which may contribute to cancer development. Sister chromatid separation is triggered by Separase, an evolutionary conserved protease that cleaves the cohesin complex, allowing the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion. Here we provide evidence that Separase participates in genomic stability maintenance by controlling replication fork speed. We found that Separase interacted with the replication licensing factors MCM2-7, and genome-wide data showed that Separase co-localized with MCM complex and cohesin. Unexpectedly, the depletion of Separase increased the fork velocity about 1.5-fold and caused a strong acetylation of cohesin's SMC3 subunit and altered checkpoint response. Notably, Separase silencing triggered genomic instability in both HeLa and human primary fibroblast cells. Our results show a novel mechanism for fork progression mediated by Separase and thus the basis for genomic instability associated with tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. East Fork Watershed Cooperative: Toward better system-scale ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East Fork Watershed Cooperative is a group intent on understanding how to best manage water quality in a large mixed-use Midwestern watershed system. The system contains a reservoir that serves as a source of drinking water and is popular for water recreation. The reservoir is experience harmful algal blooms. The system including the reservoir has become a significant case study for EPA ORD research and development. The Cooperative includes affiliates from the USACE, the OHIO EPA, the USGS, the USDA, and local Soil and Water Conservation districts as well as utility operators and water quality protection offices. The presentation includes a description of the water quality monitoring and modeling program in the watershed, followed by the results of using the watershed model to estimate the costs associated with nutrient reduction to Harsha Lake, and then ends with an explanation of temporal changes observed for important factors controlling harmful algae in Harsha Lake and how this lake relates to other reservoirs in the Ohio River Basin. This presentation is an invited contribution to the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Workshop sponsored by the US ACE and the US EPA. The presentation describes the activities of the East Fork Watershed Cooperative and the knowledge it has gained to help better manage a case study watershed system over the last few years. The East Fork of the Little Miami River is the focal watershed. It is a significant tributary to the Lit

  10. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir

    2010-04-09

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-19

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  12. South Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Ronald J. Piva; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of South Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,302 plots were selected and 325 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the South Dakota...

  13. A Critical Look At South Dakota Cable TV Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rick P.

    An examination of the present status and future potential of cable television (CATV) in South Dakota is conducted. Chapter 1 offers a brief introduction to cable in the State and Chapter 2 discusses the value of CATV to South Dakota. The next Chapter presents a State plan for communications and the fourth deals with the subject of franchising. The…

  14. Oriented Onion Sowing by a Forked-Roller Sowing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The existing sowing machines do not provide a single feeding of the bulbs with a planting (sowing unit that leads to a violation of the agrotechnical requirements of planting bulbs. It is necessary to search new solutions to preserve the position of the bulbs in the furrow with the bottom down and their regularly spaced distribution. Materials and Methods: The article presents the design for a prototype for a planting machine equipped with a forked-roller sowing unit for orienting the onion-sowing into a furrow. Testing the forked-roller sowing unit were carried out on a flat area where the physical and mechanical properties of the soil were determined on the days of sowing, and the indices of the quality of the onion-sowing were determined. The study of the effect of the sowing machine speed on the quality of the onion-seed bulb landing was determined by the change in the translational speed of the sowing unit in the range of 0.8 m/s to 1.2 m/s with a variation interval of 0.1 m/s. The indicators of the quality of the planting of the bulbs were determined by the opening of the closed furrow. The results of laboratory-field studies of the planting machine prototype are presented. Results: The results of laboratory-field studies of a planting machine equipped with a forked-roller sowing unit for planting onion bulbs are presented. The optimal technological parameters are determined experimentally. It was determined the number of bulbs that are for up is 51 % and the regularity of planting by the forked-roller sowing unit – 79 %. These figures are provided at the forward speed of the planting machine VM = 0.9–1.0 m/s, the height of the fall of the bulb HA = 0.12 m, and the rotation frequency of the landing drum nБ = 0.47 c-1. Discussion and Conclusions: The use of a forked-roller sowing unit makes it possible to increase the proportion of onions planted by bottom down by 200 %, and the uniformity of planting bulbs by 19 %, in

  15. Take It Slow: can feedback from a smart fork reduce eating speed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Hermsen

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a smart fork that helps people to eat more slowly. This adapted fork records eating speed and delivers vibrotactile feedback if users eat too quickly. In two studies, we tested the acceptability and user experience of the fork (Study 1, and its effect on eating rate and satiety levels in a controlled lab-setting (Study 2. Method: In study 1, 11 participants (all self-reported fast eaters ate a meal using the fork in our laboratory and used the fork for three consecutive days in their home setting. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews after the first meal and upon returning the fork, covering perceived effect on eating rate, comfort of use, accuracy, and motivational and social aspects of fork use. Interviews were coded and a thematic classification analysis was performed. In study 2, 128 participants (all self-reported fast eaters ate a standardized meal using the fork in our laboratory. We used a between-participants design with 2 conditions; participants ate their meal either with vibrotactile feedback from the fork (experimental condition or ate their meal without vibrotactile feedback (control condition. Eating rate, meal duration, error rate (number of bites taken faster than 10 seconds after previous bite, total food intake, and satiety were recorded for every participant. Results: Study 1: All participants felt that the feedback was generally accurate and consistent. Fork size, weight, and intensity of the feedback were seen as comfortable and acceptable. All participants reported a heightened awareness of eating rate and all but one participant reported eating more slowly with the fork. Study 2: Participants in the experimental condition ate significantly slower, and with a lower error rate than those in the control condition. Feedback did not significantly affect the amount of food eaten. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that this smart fork is an acceptable and effective tool to disrupt and

  16. Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad: 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Reed; Carol J. Cumber

    1998-01-01

    Approximately twenty-five years ago, a majority of the railroads in the industry were either in or near bankruptcy. As a partial cure, a series of federal and state legislation was enacted which freed the industry from archaic laws passed in the days railroads enjoyed a virtual monopoly in U.S. transportation. One of the outcomes of this new legislation was the freedom granted major railroads to abandon or sell off excess trackage to entrepreneurs. The Dakota Minnesota & Eastern (DM&E) is a r...

  17. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  18. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  19. Tick Talk: Tick-borne Diseases of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay

    2017-09-01

    In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  20. Design of a Tuning Fork type UWB Patch Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. M. Zahirul Alam; Rafiqul Islam; Sheroz Khan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a tuning fork type structure of Ultra Wideband (UWB) antenna is proposed. The antenna offers excellent performance for UWB system, ranging from 3.7 GHz to 13.8 GHz. The antenna exhibits a 10 dB return loss bandwidth over the entire frequency band. The rectangular patch antenna is designed on FR4 substrate and fed with 50 ohms microstrip line by optimizing the width of partial ground, the width and position of the feedline to operate in UWB. The rectangular p...